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Use and application of

engineering components
A rotary lip seal fits between a rotating shaft and some sort of housing that surrounds it.
The seal is there to ensure a tight fit between the two. The seal contains lubricant within
a reservoir surrounding the shaft which allows lubrication as it rotates. The seal is usually
made from hard rubber and features a flexible lip which further prevents ingress of dirt
and escape of lubrication. A support band is used to keep the seal in place with a tight fit.
A common example for the use of rotary lip seals is in power steering systems. The seals
with these systems are quite often used to separate the fluid and air sections of this

Metal gaskets are a simple type of mechanical seal which fill spaces between two or
more surfaces, usually to prevent leakage or ingress. While gaskets are not always made
out of metal, metal can be a popular material for gaskets that need to be strong, stiff and
hard wearing. The most common gasket shape is a simple ring shape like a washer
however complex shapes are used for more complex tasks. Gaskets work by compressing
them between the surfaces. This causes them to fill the space and any irregularities as
A perfect example of a metal gasket is a head gasket in a car, a part notorious for being
expensive to replace. The purpose of the head gasket is to seal the cylinders to maintain
compression and to avoid leakage of coolant or engine oil into the cylinders. It sits
between the engine block and the cylinder heads and is the most critical seal within the
entire engine.


A plain journal bearing is quite literally just a shaft rotating in a hole. It comprises of only
a bearing surface and has no rolling elements at all. Plain journal bearings are the least
expensive types of bearings due to their simplicity and generally have a very high load
capacity. Plain journal bearings can be made from many different materials including
iron, steel, copper, bronze, graphite, plastic and even ceramics. Plain journal bearings
require a lot of lubrication to function correctly. This means they can be lubricated via an
external system with oil or grease etc, or can be made from a self-lubricating material
such as graphite. Even these self-lubricating materials require some sort of external
lubrication to reach maximum efficiency however.
Plain journal bearings are not used quite as much as other types of bearings anymore,
however when a cheap, quick solution is desired, a bearing such as this can be useful.
The most common application for a plain journal bearing used to be on the ends of axles
of train wheels.


Taper roller bearings are bearings that are specially designed to take large axial forces
(IE, they are good thrust bearings and radial bearings). A roller bearing consists of an
inner ring and an outer ring, both of which have raceways filled with small rollers. These
rings are essentially segments of a cone and the rollers are made with a taper so that the
surfaces of the raceways and rollers were projected outwards, they would eventually
meet. These rollers are used to give the bearing more contact space, allowing it to
support more load in comparison to a ball bearing based bearing. When a roller bearing
is used a thrust bearing, the bearing can begin to wear more swiftly than it would
compared to if it was rolling. This wear can cause other problems within the bearing. All
of the rollers within the bearing are guided by a flange within the inner ring. They are
also used moderate speed, large load applications. Pairs of taper roller bearings are used
in car wheel bearings where they need to cope with large radial and axial forces.

A metric sized 10mm bolt with a 1.5mm pitch. The nylock nut contains an insert that
deforms with the thread. The bolt is fitted through two or more holes drilled suitably to
10mm. These could also be threaded in which case the holes would be drilled slightly
smaller. The nut is then screwed onto the end of the bolt and it is tightened until it is
reasonably secured. The nylon insert within the nut gives it more sturdiness which means
the nut will stay secured for longer, even through heavy vibrations. This means that this
particular bolt could be used in a lightweight application that needs a strong securing
mechanism, for example, in aeronautics.


Self-tapping screws are useful for thin materials. Materials that cannot be tapped due to
their thickness will need to have self-tapping screws fitted. Self-tapping screws are also
used for securing objects to soft materials like wood and plaster etc. The countersunk
head on the screw allows the screw to be tightened in so it remains flush with the
material. A screw of this size would probably be used in some sort of application such as
hanging a picture or securing together two pieces of thin wood due to the short length of
the screw.


Snap head rivets are one of the most common types of rivets. They are useful for
securing together two pieces of metal, usually quite thick. Rivets are quite often the
same material as they are joining together which facilitates the aesthetics of the piece
and the overall secureness of the piece. Very large rivets are a common site among
building sites and are used to hold together and reinforce girders. Copper, however, is a
relatively soft material and is more suited to holding together smaller pieces of material.
Due to the softness of copper, a rivet made out of it may be hammered down into place
and then filed down to make the pieces more secure and to give the surface a flush


Duralumin is an aluminium alloy which contains copper, manganese and magnesium.
Duralumin is stronger than standard aluminium but slightly heavier, however not as
heavy as anything matching its strength. A pop rivet is used to secure two or more
pieces of thin material. The rivet is inserted into a hole that cuts through the pieces,
usually in a specifically designed piece of equipment like a rivet gun. The rivet gun then
forces the rivet into the hole in a certain way, causing the rivet to expand on the other
side of the material. This completely secures the pieces of material. Duralumin is
commonly used in the aviation industry due to its light weight. A Duralumin pop rivet
could easily be used to secure a panel of some sort onto the body of a plane.