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US 20060073976A1

(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2006/0073976 A1

(43) Pub. Date:



Apr. 6, 2006

US. Cl. ....................... .. 505/166; 505/180; 434/300;


73/382 G; 505/164

(76) Inventor: Marlin B. Pohlman, Tulsa, OK (US)

Correspondence Address:




Amethod for employing sinusoidal oscillations of electrical


Appl_ No_.




Oct 1, 2004

close proximity to a second Kerr type singularity in such a
method to take advantage of the Lense-Thirring effect, to
simulate the effect of tWo point masses on nearly radial

Publication Classi?cation

(51) Int. Cl.
F16C 39/06
G01 V 7/00



bombardment on the surface of one Kerr type singularity in

orbits in a 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter space resulting in
creation of circular timelike geodesics conforming to the van
Stockum under the Van Den Broeck modi?cation of the

Alcubierre geometry (Van Den Broeck 1999) permitting
topology change from one spacelike boundary to the other in
accordance With Geroch’s theorem (Geroch 1967) Which
results in a method for the formation of Godel-type geode

F413 6/00


sically complete spacetime envelopes complete With closed



timelike curves.


Patent Application Publication Apr. 6, 2006 Sheet 1 0f 2

US 2006/0073976 A1

Patent Application Publication Apr. 6, 2006 Sheet 2 0f 2







This area

not to scale


Figure 2

US 2006/0073976 A1

h. h. of necessity. the conglomeration of these quintessences also accounts for the formation of the elementary particles and the forces acting betWeen them. Thus as nq=m/mq. matter and the forces of nature from the radius. matter and the forces of Nature. can be technically [0010] Using standard equations for special relativity. and in particular gravity. from the number of constituent quintes sences. the results of Which have been recently veri?ed by a paper in Which the orbitals of electrons Were experi mentally directly visualised2. Where nq is the number of quintessences. multiplied by the number of these energy units (nq). [0003] Thus ifthe number of quintessences in a system is. imply superluminal velocities. termed quintes Furthermore. the presence of a space-time lattice results in an understand ing of quantum EPR effects. m=nqmq. a fundamental trons can be modulated. in accordance With general relativity. Where [3 is the relative directional velocity. Thus the energy of a system is equivalent . These drive systems do not [0006] From here it is possible to proceed in a number of Ways. such that the Universal time displacement devices. Will cause a change in the curvature of space-time. such a minimal mass (mq) Would be required to have the value equivalent to. the energy equivalence formula has the more logical formula tion. a modi ?ed Dirac Wave equation may be derived. it is possible to shoW that the formation of all matter. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 METHOD OF GRAVITY DISTORTION AND TIME DISPLACEMENT equation for general relativity can be formulated. By alloWing a theoretical How of energy through the space-time lattice it can be shoWn that: [0007] Energy is not bound by space-time [0008] Thus logically accounting for phenomena such as entanglement and quantum tunnelling. mq=h/c2 (1). thus and in turn the Warping of space-time. the number of gravitons emitted from these elec gravitational ?eld in the form of a space-time lattice. it is possible to demonstrate that the modi?cation of gravitational ?elds. the energy of a single quintessence (h). Taking this minimal mass. Hence. This concept explains the formation of matter and the forces of nature on a quantum mechanical basis and directly explains the existence of Wave particle duality. mq=h/c2 (l). The fundamental minimal quantum of energy in quantum physics is Planck’s constant. including space-time. By multiplying this effect using an sion can be manifestly ampli?ed. [0011] This effective Warping of space-time does not. derived from (1). including the top and bottom. This leads automatically to the fundamental equa tion. logically. space-time itself derive from this single quintessential quan my [0009] With this understanding of space-time. h. Thence. Part liFundamental LaWs of Physics [0012] Quintessential Mass [0013] The quantum physical. nq=m/mq: then the total Energy of the system is more readily achieved. the fundamental minimum quantity of mass (mq) can there fore be derived. then this equation also gives the standard de-Broglie Wave equation. Thus in accordance With the energy equivalence formula E=mc2. the geometric structure of the electron and the forces of Nature may be derived from ?rst principles and in turn the depend on the emission of matter to create thrust to take advantage of time dilation. To de?ne the minimal com ponent of mass. as in superstring theory. it is noW possible to understand the Universe. the continuing expan sion of the Universe. Where (nq) is the number of these minimal units. their mass can be increased in a speci?c sence. the forces of nature and indeed structure of the quarks. 7t=h/p in agreement With current theory and experimentsl. can form the basis of the existence of a quantum Way. This in turn. directly. Moreover. from knoWn constants by. In turn by increasing the mass of electrons. by general relativity. the inner physics of a black hole. p=[3><E/c. but does alloW the creation of Warp drive systems. logically given by. E1p=(-j[3-V+ [3m)1p (2a). E=mc2. 6. from Which quantum gravity may be derived from ?rst principles. v/c. Which leads directly to the frequency of both light and matter. directly multiplied by the number of quintessences (nq) in m'=mO/(l—[32)1/2. the missing mass of the Galaxy. This alloWs travel across topologies by Warping space time. then also E=mqnqc2 and substituting mq=h/c2. Thus as. Guth’s in?ationary theory and the Big Bang. This in turn leads directly to a Universal Wave equation for matter and light 7t=c/[3nq=hc/[3E (2). mass and vibration of a single quantity. Where G is the gravitational constant and rq is the given radius of FIELD OF THE INVENTION Wave equation is in direct agreement With general relativity3. The total mass of a system (m) Would then be. Moreover. As the momentum. f=nq=E/h. derives from ?rst principles. minimum component of energy is Planck’s constant. by applying a differential current. it can be demonstrated that by differen that system. ultracentrifugational device the differential graviton emis [0004] Furthermore. Also from these observations. m'=mO/(l—[32)1/2. to produce a topology change from one spacelike boundary to the other in accordance With Geroch’s theorem (Geroch 1967) THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0002] The concept of gravity should be examined in the light of quantum gravity and in turn as a component of quantum physics itself. but rather create a change in the curvature of space-time. this minimal mass. quintes sence. in accordance With general relativ ity. the frequency of light and matter (f) is deter mined. G=9(rq 2c‘l/KBE (3). Which do not depend on the creation of thrust by the ejection of material as used in current space technologies. Quintessence can also be used to explain. [0005] Using the Universal Wave equation. Which operate by the modi?ca can be uni?ed. E=mc2. the total energy of a system can be derived from the minimal energy. tially increasing the velocity of electrons. tion of gravitational ?elds. the standard equation for special relativity. using the standard energy equivalence formula.Apr. Thus special and general relativity and quantum mechanics [0001] The present invention relates to the use of technical quintessence. otherWise knoWn as truth and beauty can be seen. E=hnq(la).

[0014] Taking this minimal mass/energy. a priori. Thus the true values for the energy are given by the relativistic momentum (p). effectively its relativistic momentum (p). 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 to the minimal energy unit. this gives an accurate value for the Wave length of matterl. including space-time. [0026] Thus the Wavelength of matter folloWs directly from its constituents. giving a relativistic expression for the Wavelength of matter. [0015] Wave Particle Duality [0016] If the presence of quintessence accounts for the structure of matter and if matter itself forms from the number of quintessences. the forces of nature and space time can be constructed from this single quintessential quantity.Apr. The frequency Will then be related to the total number of quin tessences. from Which the relativistic equations may be directly derived [0027] Wave Equations [0028] The derivation of Wave particle duality from ?rst principles also noW alloWs the derivation of a modi?ed Wave equation for matter. quintessence. The amount of quintes sences contained Within a electron sphere Will depend on the number of quintessences constituting the electron and those passing through it as a result of its relative velocity [32 (Where [3=v/ c). Thus. then for matter: [0025] Provided that in the de Broglie equation. underpins a fundamental relationship betWeen Wavelength and energy. Furthermore. this is mathematically the same as the term 7»=hv/[32E. then the frequency of matter and thus Wave particle duality directly arises from ?rst prin ciples. all components of the physical universe. The frequency of matter is again equiva derives from the square of the above classical non relativ istic term for kinetic energy: lent to the number of quintessences it contains. using this quantity the laWs of physics can be derived from ?rst principles. as has the [0031] In turn the Shrodinger Wave equation directly frequency of light. as 7»=v/f.) and thus by the number of quintessences (nq) it contains. As matter is made of quintessence. Speci?cally the Wavelength of matter derives from the vibration of quintessence from Which it is constituted. h. multiplied by the number of those minimal energy units (nq). thus accounting for the total number of quintessences nq in an object. We have: [0032] HoWever. Moreover. 6. [0017] Thus for light conventionally: f=E/h and as conventionally [3E/c=p. the de Broglie equation can [0020] The Wavelength is thus also given by: 7»=c/f=mqJmY=h/p also be Written as: [0021] We can noW shoW that the frequency of matter also has the same derivation from quintessence. its frequency depends on the number of quintessences nq Within it. : imvl/2 and p =m0v Thus Thus f=nq (4) [0019] Thus the formula for the frequency of light E=hf is noW readily explained by the observation that the frequency is determined quite directly from the number of quintes sences nq Within the photon. traveling relative to the speed of light. it is possible to shoW that all matter. . the momentum of the object is calculated using the relativistic mass. Ek = P2/2m0 then P = V (Ek 'Zmo) [0030] and conventionally. similarly to light. }\. and its logical derivation may noW be developed through the concept of quintessence as a fundamental constituent of matter. We ?nd that the actual frequency of light can be directly derived from ?rst principles from the effective mass of the photon (m. For loWer energies the momentum of an electron is conven tionally derived from the kinetic energy of the electron and the mass of the electron m0. Thus the Wave particle duality of matter itself can be explained by its composition from quintessence. [0029] To derive his Wave equation Shrodinger com menced With the de Broglie equation using momentum (p). then l and E. [0033] A fundamental relativistic Wave equation for 11). and h=mqc2. termed quin tessence. Thus the frequency (f) and in turn the Wavelength of light and matter is directly equivalent to the number of quintes sences contained Within it. Thus.=hC/[3E. the Shrodinger equation. [0022] Thus it is possible to derive the conventional de Broglie Wave equation for matter from ?rst principles. Thus for matter. Thus conventionally: [0018] and if E=mc2. may be re?ned by taking into account relativity. Moreover. can be con structed from this minimal mass component.

[0039] Which in complex space generalises to [0049] Thus We ?nd that the modi?ed formulation of de Broglie Wave equation 7t=hc/[3E leads directly to a modi?ed Dirac relativistic Wave equation and is supported by recent experiments Which measure the Wavelength of matter and demonstrate the electron orbitals experimentally from these Wave equations for matter. a recent publication in Nature has sug gested that the direct visualisation of the orbitals of electrons shoWs that these are in very close agreement With theory. In particular We should noW be able to derive the term This is thus the standard relativistic equation that Dirac Was able to construct from the Shrodinger Wave equation. equation 2. HoWever. conceptually shoWs that the Wave particle duality of matter derives from the principle that the frequency of matter is directly equal to the number of quintessences it contains. Thus if the Wave energy of matter is de?ned as: inger equation Will give similar ansWers as that derived from equation. under most experimental conditions. Thus as matter is made of quintessence. Given this. also. Indeed the Shrod (2) [0038] Using these equations. provided We use the relativistic mass in the de Broglie equation.Apr. 6. We also ?nd that the equation }\. [0043] [0052] Thus if: Where importantly the term [3~m is the mass m. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 [0034] The amount of quintessences in the electron is determined by the number of quintessences forming the electron at rest. The Wavelength Will depend on its velocity travelling relative to the speed of light and thus multiplied by the relative velocity compared to c([3=v/c). }\. [0035] The frequency of matter can noW be readily cal culated from ?rst principles to give a more accurate result. and the term a is also essentially the relative velocity of the electron. the correct values until v approaches c. Furthermore. Which has the advantage that relativity can be treated in a quantum mechanical Way. [0050] Wave Particle Duality and Relativity [0051] From here it is possible to proceed in several Ways using the relativistic Wave equation. these equations yield accurate experimental results. This relativistic equation can be derived from the modi?ed Wave equation. in the interstitial molecular regions. The importance of these equations is that they shoW that the existence of quintessence alloWs the Waveparticle duality of matter to be explained and mathematically derived from ?rst principles. the modi?ed Dirac equation Will yield more accurate results. its frequency is equal to the number of quintessences nq Within it. suggesting that the higher velocities of the electrons obey the modi?ed Dirac equation. Importantly it also mathemati cally alloWs relativity and quantum mechanics to be united.=hC/[3E [0046] The Shrodinger Wave equation Will approximate to Hence for matter as previously shoWn: [5=v/|32nq=hc/[5E [0037] And conventionally E=(p2c2+mO2c4)l/2 Thus the frequency of matter or even light is simply deter mined by the number of quintessences it contains. equation 2 and its derivative may have advantages over standard Shrodinger theory With relativistic speeds. particularly compared With the Schro thus dinger equation. also Ew=(—j0t-V+[5m)w [0042] reintroduction of the term for relative velocity into the Wave equations Will enable the reintroduction of special relativity into quantum mechanics. [0048] With vac. We can noW. as a special case of quantum mechanics. Thus these orbitals Were in keeping With the modi?ed Dirac equation. plus the amount of quintessences passing through it due to its relativistic velocity. As E = \] p202 +m§c4 . [0041] Thus. Which itself may be derived from the Wave equa tion above. [0044] The Dirac equation Was an empirical formula Which Worked mathematically. similarly to light. there is a signi?cant departure from theory. squaring . [0036] [0045] Indeed. nevertheless even Dirac admitted it Was not logically understood. This takes into account the relative mass energy Which the quintessential Wave equation con tains. multiplied by the ratio of the relative velocity to light [3=v/c. It is apparent that the also represents the ground state ratio of the velocity of the electron to c. reformu late the Shrodinger Wave equation. 7t=h/p. [0047] HoWever. Which Will deter mine the relativistic momentum (p) of a particle.=hC/[3E is equivalent to the de Broglie Wave equation. Thus 0t=[3=v/c=l/l37.

Three of these quintessences Would naturally constitute three dimensional visible space-time. thus accounting for the Well knoWn constants of free space. and create oscillatory electromagnetic ?elds. it Would need to be three dimensional. the standard picture of light as simply a Wave can. the substance of Which. Let us suppose. travelling in the x vector. Would as With capacitance plates. [0055] then Moreover. directly. through Which the other tWo quintessences could travel. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 -continued 2V2 Conventionally p202 : c 2 of length and time but not apparently of mass. this Would have one directional vector With tWo vector dimensions of energy. Which Would represent oscillatory energy. Would be the direction of travel and those “quintessences” travelling in an outWardly direction Would account for none other than the expansion of the universe. and spinning around the x-axis. then: Hence. it is noW possible to derive the relativistic quintessential Wave equation. y and Z Would represent the photon. This in turn Would alloW it to act as a Wave. [0054] The original premises on Which special relativity [0061] The permittivity of free space. at the quantum level a further look at the nature light and the photon is necessary. in this case. [0060] It is important to re-examine space-time itself in this light.32 = —2 and mgc4 : Eg. v [0056] 0 equations for mass and in turn for space and time from the Thus as .B E2 Substituting h : mqc2 26 mqC l 2 24 . Would be travelling in the x direction and oscillating in the y and Z vectors. measured as 431x10‘7 N/A2. thus deriving special relativity as a universal case of quantum mechanics and thus uniting special relativity and quantum mechanics. Would result from the force all observers are equal. no longer be applied. be determined by the effective separation between quintes Was based Were: that the speed of light is a constant and that sences. 6. Conventionally this ringlet has a radius. denies a deeper '32 = 2—24 . one of capacitance and one of electrical permeability. as ordinary Waves do. With the addition of time. and thence not to question the nature of that existence. These con stituents of space-time Would interact With the generations of the other vector dimensions reciprocally. The vectors x. and vica versa. thus linking relativity and quantum mechanics by taking into account the existence of quintessence mass. As the speed of light has dimensions produced by the vibration of quintessence and Would be . Thus one quin tessence Would sWeep out one vector of permeability and one vector of permittivity.Apr. To simply assume that space-time exists.B m c A 2 2— . the permittivity of free space (so) and the permeability of free space ([10) respectively. r=7t/2J'c. that a photon is a three dimensional helical ringlet of light. This noW alloWs a further understanding of the nature of space-time.Bmoc understanding of the universe. (60) Which is equiva lent to capacitance. Since Einstein’s description of light as a particle (the photon) and the description of the photoelectric effect. it could not exist in one dimension. The vector dimension of direction x. The ringlet itself Would be vibrating in the y and Z vectors. If light Was to exist as a photon. relativity can be derived from the de Broglie equation. The permeability of free space ([10) is in fact a force. and visa versa. Using quintessence logically and directly accounts for the relativistic mass changes. [0057] The Space-Time Lattice [0058] The understanding of the true nature of space-time and hoW it is formulated in three dimensions of real space is crucial. [0059] In order to understand the nature of space-time itself. creating a three dimensional space-time lattice. [0053] Thus this derivation noW allows relativity as a universal case of the quintessential Wave nature of matter. the relativistic change in mass is not accounted for.

e. The other six dimensions produced by the vibrations of quintessence Would form complex space. [0074] The mathematics of complex space. be associated With complex vectors. and permittivity. Indeed it has been Well recognised for some time that each direction vector in electronic engineering can. A non-static ether is fully compatible With special and general relativity. It is further clear that if quin tessences underly the structure of the space-time lattice. [0076] As this complex space consists of the vectors of permittivity and permeability it Would only be “felt” by charged particles as in the electron. multiplied by the mass of quintessence. this passing through an energy vector of the space-time lattice Would appear as a vibrating string. In the density of quintessence. In a similar Way to string theory. particles are fundamentally composed of charged particles . HoW ever. hence again: none other than the speed of light. the conglomeration of these quintessences Would produce the constituents of ordinary matter. the existence of a non-static ether. Would thus be the minimal mass. the speed of light [0075] The mathematics of complex space is also an essential and integral part of the principles and application of modern electronic and control engineering. Thus. An editorial from a major journal states “combined With other observations such as those of distant Supernova. 6. Which Would form the existence of complex space. matter Which is intrinsically made of constituents of charge Would interact With this lattice to produce the effects of mass. as all is not in itself a fundamental quantity. indeed the presence of the space time lattice noW alloWs this to be altered by altering [0062] This space time lattice Would in effect be created by quintessences travelling in all directions With a speed of c Within the lattice.” [0064] Recent evidence from a number of sources noW strongly support the presence of this non-static ether. using imagi nary \/—l or (j) numbers. The result Would give space time 9 dimensions of space as in superstring theory. unlike superstring theory the six hidden dimensions Would not be “curled up so as to be so small as to be invisible” these six dimensions Would be present in complex space. Three quintessences each trav elling in their respective x vectors at 90° to each other Would create three dimensional real space-time. to the minimal mass of: [0067] The presence and magnitude of Planck’s constant (h) and especially the speed of light (c) is thus explained. The quintessences of the space time lattice Would in effect produce a non-static ether. Thus the general equa tion for the number of quintessences (nq) in an object of mass (m) Would be Einstein’s oWn Words. [0063] “According to the general theory of relativity space Without ether is unthinkable. the minimal mass of a single quintessence. this Would create the vector dimensions of permeability and permittivity. [0070] With regards a single quintessence. h/c2. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 dependent on the density of quintessence. Furthermore. or mqc2=h (1c) [0069] It is postulated by general relativity that the shape of space time itself can be altered. Mass Would be perceived as a result of matter (Whose constituent particles appear to contain charge) interacting With this lattice directly due to the inhibition of motion by the lattice’s electrical permeability and permittivity vectors. Hence these tWo parameters Would be reciprocal and thus the product of these tWo Would therefore be a constant. only three of these dimensions Would represent ordinary three dimensional particulate space time i. These quintes sences Would in the direction in their respective y and Z vectors produce small vibrations of the order of the Planck length (10-35 m). in the form of quintessence.Apr. Nevertheless. Was espoused by Einstein in his University of Leyden lecture on general relativity of May 5. [0072] Quintessence and Complex Space [0073] Quintessence is postulated to constitute the funda mental nature of space-time. the QMAP results corroborate the pre vailing theory of in?ation With the tWist that the Universe is only one third matter (both ordinary and dark) and tWo thirds quintessence. they may also underly the structure of matter itself. Which is recognised as [0068] As the energy equivalence formula is E=mc2. Indeed such an ether explains hoW space time can be curved as in general relativity. Thus the presence of complex space is an integral part of quantum mechanics. a form of energy possibly inherent in empty space”. three dimensional objects. Would be directly determined by the number of quintessences in the electron. Indeed. [0065] If We take into account the existence of quintes sence and as such a three dimensional space-time lattice. thus producing the effects of mass. Whilst passing through the vectors of permeability [0071] The mass of the electron (me) for example. [0066] The vibration Would endoW quintessence itself a (non rest) mass mq equivalent. 1920. is assumed in the standard formu lation of the Shrodinger Wave equation. These quintessences Would in the direction in the y and Z vectors produce small vibrations of the order of the Planck length (10 m).

Speci?cally pure energy containing no quintessences. Indeed. This ?nding Which has been supported using [0081] Energy and the Space-Time Lattice >t=hc/[5E [0089] Thus. across distances Which the speed of light could not apparently traverse. By including complex space We thereby create the nine dimensional spacial metrictensor and the metric energy tensor of matter necessary for computations for general relativity From here We can begin to understand the true structure of matter. virtually creating a one dimen sional passage through Which only a quasi electron appears to be able to pass. Thereby. As time is inextricably nary vectors. energy having no quintessence. energy is not observed When not bound to any form of mass or particle. 2006 US 2006/0073976 Al the effects of complex space Would be felt by endoWing these particles With mass and in turn kinetic energy. [0083] Using the quintessential modi?cation of the de Broglie Wave equation. teleportation across an addi tional dimension.Apr. A magnetic force is then applied in the remaining dimension. other experimental techniques. one real vector and tWo imagi dimensional space-time lattice. alloWing dispersion in space-time as a vortex. then three of . as With photons. this is a term to describe in partially familiar terms the dissociation of energy from the three three dimensional vectors. takes us to our original assertion [0086] Energy is Not Bound by the Space-Time Lattice [0087] [0090] In the case of light. returns us to EPR experiments. hoWever.J-Z) [0078] The Three Dimensional Argand Diagram [0079] The beauty of a three dimensional Argand diagram is that the complex conjugate (i. Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin for Which a Nobel prize has recently been aWarded. the results do con?rm that the effect of quantum tunnelling is indeed dependant on the Wavelength of matter and the siZe of that matter. is very important as it sug [0082] The presence of numerous experimental data for quantum tunnelling. As regards matter. due to the exceedingly small masses involved. unless it interacted With matter. (la) then #645”. Would have a lambda of in?nity. gives us an insight into these tele portation and EPR elfects. According to the above equations the teleportation Would vary in a predictable fashion. in the linked to each dimension of space. bound as a quasi particle in one dimension x. as indicated by equation (2b). Moreover. atomic spins and other data for quantum teleportation Which have recently been published Which support these ?ndings. very recently FurusaWa et at. and indeed the recent observations by Nicholas Gisin. 6. ?nd that experiment suggests the existence of free energy in a continuum separate from space time to produce the effects of quantum teleportation dimensional Argand diagram is essential. Without those photons traversing gests the existence of such a quantum continuum. These tWo sums When multiplied thus give a real number solution. quantum physics may have given us a WindoW into the hitherto hidden Workings of the Universe. such as the creation of virtual particles. each With a real vector in the x. in order to formulate the equations for particles a three instance beloW the real vector is the x vector and the tWo imaginary vectors are given by (J-y. They describe a quasi electron particle of charge 1/3e. Nevertheless. [0077] In conventional complex space. Three of these diagrams Will be required to fully describe the nature of particles. We see interacting Within space time. energy Would not be detectable in three dimensional space-time. The hidden nature of the electron may recently have been revealed through observations by Horst Stormer. This Will have [0088] This is not. This Would make the photon the ideal experimental tool to look for energy Which is not bound by matter and in turn energy Which is not bound in space-time. [0080] Furthermore it is clear that nine dimensions of space time are necessary in the general relativistic equations. Thus equation 9d. Nevertheless. on the entanglement of distant photons noW E=hnq It is unlikely that observers have any direct day to day experience to explain quantum events. have reported to have observed the transference of energy as photons from A to B. in line With the Wavelength of the light used. as the EPR experiments suggest the exist Part HiParticle Physics [0092] Electron Structure [0093] Understanding the electron is fundamental to the understanding of the elementary particles. [0091] We have already seen strong experimental data using photons. However. relative to the siZe of vibration of quintessence. Thus the complex conjugate of (CXl/2+ J-cy 1/2 + -c 1/2 ' ) 1s (cX 1/2 +J-cy 1/2 +J-cZ 1/2 ). there Would be relatively easy exchange of matter With free energy Within a photon. a 2 dimensional Cartesian Argand diagram is mathematically used. Would have a Wavelength of in?n ity. What is more intriguing are the experimental conditions in Which this occurs. the mirror image Which confers mathematical reality on the coordinates) is formed by the value of the minus coordinate in the other complex vector dimension. respectively. ence of energy separate from matter and thus separate from [0094] the three dimensional space-time lattice. Indeed. it is interesting to these quasi electrons could form an entire electron in three Given the presence of charge of 1/3e. space-time. First of all a tWo dimensional electron gas is created and held betWeen tWo capacitance plates. is readily explained by the fact that the free energy contained in the Universe is not bound by the space-time lattice. the mystery of the uniformity of the Universe. As energy itself has no electrical charge it Would not be impeded by the permit tivity and permeability of the three dimensional space-time lattice. the effects of energy Would be inextricably linked to the events. y and Z vectors.e. [0084] As (2) and (2b) [0085] lmportantly. as in the EPR experiments. According to quantum mechanics an in?nite Wavelength Would result in the prob ability of that energy being anyWhere. but not bound in the other tWo dimensions y and Z. This has been described on a quantum basis as a vortex of energy.

In a similar Way to string theory. composed of three have energy and hence a Wave function Which Would be spheres each With a radius of c. using the formula: me/mq=nq [0096] 1 .H01)“ a more exact value for the charge of the electron (to seven decimal places) can be deduced by taking into account the gravitational ?eld of the Earth (see Gravity and the Charge of the Electron). its siZe (see Appendix 1). is not immediately clear. each Would [0102] The signi?cance of the electron.X 10*15 C Then an electron Would be constituted from: in approx. 106 cycles/ sec. anti-particles and their spin up and spin doWn characteris tics. thus the electron can be mathematically represented by the equa tion: electron (e) is proportional to the permittivity of free space (so). Thus. then its spin Would need to be present in the other vectors. Thirdly it indicates that the square of the charge of an [0108] Thus if three of the x.602><l0_l9 C. Would be constituted from approximately l. eq.)“ . if re-examined. . ?rstly three of these quasi electron spheres appear to be required to constitute the charge of the electron.may)“ . 6. Indeed the equation for the electron may be neces sary for the full understanding of gravity 50 (6) [0105] Complex Space and Electron Structure [0106] The presence of complex space also noW further explains the conformation of the electron. equation (3) corroborates the evidence that the electron is indeed com posed of three quasi electrons in keeping With recent experi mental ?ndings.Apr. This electron could thus folloW the probability functions as described by the Shrodinger Wave equation for 1]) (otherwise termed as “essence” by Shrodinger) [0095] If the mass of the electron (me) is constituted from quintessence. for example. and the presence of particles.235 X1020 quintessences/sec. 80 (6a) [0107] Indeed the short form equation for the charge of the electron (—e) can noW be rewritten as a metric tensor With three dimensions in real space and six in complex space. Thus given a very high rotation rate an electron could have an e?‘ective radius of l/c and still W = 1.) + + 1/2. [0101] Equation (6) has a number of very special impli cations. - (10. and its formula tion at the quantum level. [0099] Interestingly substituting mq=h/3c2 in the above equation We have: [0104] The dimensions of the equation for the electron can be readily resolved by considering each of the three vector dimensions. Furthermore the charge of the electron (e) can noW be derived from ?rst principles. Indeed these observations might be used to estimate the rate of rotation of the quasi electron and Thus taking into account the mass-energy content of quintessence (mq) it is independently possible to derive the magnitude of the charge of an electron (e) using the folloWing equation. The charge given from equation (3) is in close agree ment With the measured charge of the electron. it indicates that the charge is related to the volume of a sphere With an apparent radius of c. 1c is the speed of light in the complex vector and _J-c is the complex conjugate of 1c. Nevertheless. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 dimensional visible space time. the conglomeration of these quintessences Would produce the constituents of ordinary matter. The electron. but can be understood if the frequency of rotation of the electron is taken into account. y and Z vectors are in real space and six vectors in complex space. Furthermore (0.) + 1/2 . Where c is the speed of light in the real space vector. this passing through an energy vector of the space-time lattice Would appear as a vibrating string.235>< l02O quintessences. X g. The exact dimensions of the equation need to be considered in the light of the nature of space-time itself. Thus if the diameter of the electron Was approximately 10'19 m. [0098] This is in close agreement With the experimentally observed charge on the electron of l. [0103] With regards a single quintessence. + _ —e-% 4 5” 1/2 _- -( 1c. (Cy) + + 1/2.sec [0097] occupy subatomic siZes. These dimensional equations help explain the nature of matter. More intriguingly.

to form the antiparticle The up spin electron is given by eq. [0121] The Fine Structure Constant [0122] lntruiginty from our knowledge of the electron We can further de?ne the term . the three dimensional Argand diagram has [0118] Furthermore. —y. Where the electrons are forced to pair by the presence of positive crystal charge in particular formation. Thus as the standard term 8 and hence the doWn spin electron (—el].. —y. result in the release of the full charge of both electrons. —y. It is this effective reduction in charge and in turn resistance. With a charge of 259x10“38 C. [0117] The square root sphere structure of electrons With up and doWn spins can noW superimpose to produce a complete sphere of varying extents. With the real vector x noW having a minus sign. y.e. This pairing thus accounts for the reactivity of the valence electrons and the electron probability densities.2><l0_l9 C. [0120] It additionally becomes clear that the charge of tWo separate electrons (2e) is 3. These have the primary coordinates x. These tWo “real” cubic sectors. Z. super conductivity can be explained by the formation of “Cooper” electron pairs. mathematically represent particles and their anti-par (6b) ticles. these are themselves the partial mirror images of the above coordinates (i.1) . This produces electron pairing as seen at the atomic and molecular levels. Z sector of the three dimensional Argand diagram. This extension of the maths into a three dimensional Argand diagram thus results in the automatic formulation of the maths of anti particles. In particular the y axis is of the opposite sign. TWo of these cubic sectors are diametric opposites and can represent “real” particulate objects. This electron pair thus appears to have 19 orders of magnitude less charge than the electron and in turn 19 orders of magnitude less resis tance. 6) and h : mqc2 (eq. to form doWn spin particles and in anti-particles in the up direction. the product of an up and doWn spin electron form a perfect superimposed sphere With radius c. there complex and real vectors of the electron combine com pletely. otherWise knoWn as j. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 [0109] Which noW elegantly gives the real number solu tion [0115] Electron Pairing and Superconductivity [0116] As the quintessences making up the electron are in a square root conformation. denoted by the formula: fore. so that the full electrical charge put in Will be equal to that coming out of the apparatus. at supercooled temperatures. —y. For if both the eight cubic sectors. —Z and —x. x.alpha. thus in particles the y axis is in the doWnWard direction. When [0113] The three dimensional Argand diagram also accounts for chirality and indeed the up and doWn spin of the electron. y. Z and —x. hoWever. y.Apr. In addition the electron pair noW forms a stable entity Whose angular momentum cancels. but the charge of the combined electrons (e2) is 259x10“38 C. —Z). It also [0110] Where e=eqe is given as the permittivity of free space for a single quasi electron Equation 4 represents a “complex” tensor accounts for the Pauli exclusion principle. [0112] The mathematical presence of the tWo primary diagonal mirror images (x. it is possible to account directly for superconductivity from ?rst principles. —Z. Thus the charge of the positron (*e) is formulated by the shortened form equation. observed directly any electrical interaction With the Cooper electron pair Will. 50 3(4/3)7rc3 (eq. and therefore exist in the —x. Z) noW alloW the introduction of the concept of antiparticles. 3 [0119] As With standard superconducting theory. Which may account for superconductivity. [0111] Whilst the tWo dimensional Argand diagram has four quadrants. each of these quasi electrons Would have a tendancy to pair to form an entire sphere. 2) is given by the equation 62 substituting the term 62 I [0114] Thus the three dimensional Argand diagram accounts directly for the presence of antiparticles and the spin up and spin doWn particles seen in nature. Which in turn accounts for the existence of chemistry. the ?ne structure con stant. It also accounts for the necessity of the electron to form a square root spherical object. as complex space depends on \/—l. and the —x. 6. There are tWo other “real” primary coordinates in the Argand diagram. as in the electron described above. from the structure of the electron. Where the real vectors noW each have the minus sign.

—Z/3 and +1/3 and +Z/3 in quarks and anti-quarks. Furthermore. thus: [0123] For brevity We may represent the quasi electron structure as (4/3)J'cc3=6.4462><l0_3 [0134] Thus the correlation factor betWeen theory and experiment has a maximum error <0. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 Would be associated With vibration. The particles that bind the quarks (gluons) are them selves required. there are three major forces. thus g — mq(30)2 (10) g: 502 [3 (4 / 37103)] (6) [0130] In addition the mass of the proton (mp) can be directly calculated from the ratio of the mass (me) of the electron. to signify its threefold symmetry. It is important that a comprehensive vieW of nature explains this threefold symmetry. for the particle to exist in three dimensional space-time. indicates that particles are constituted from the equivalent of three of these quasi particles to form an electron and quarks to form baryons. Each of these are composed of particles With multiples of charge of 1/3. strong. 5. and that this equation for the electron alloWs the determination of the charge of the electron from ?rst principles. 6. each mediated by three force particles the gluon. [0132] Which noW gives [0133] This is in very close agreement With the experi mentally derived ratio of the proton to electron masses Which is also. Again taking into account the effects of gravity the ?ne structure constant can be derived from ?rst principles to nine p c decimal places (see Gravity and the Charge of the Electron). [0127] Using the Standard Model of particles. because each particle is constituted of three quasi particles and in each quasi particle or quark one visible dimension Would be the direction vector. in?uence three types of particle.0000l. Which are them selves in three generations. an overvieW is required. there Which is much more elegant. [0135] If We combine equation 3: are three generations of quarks (and indeed leptons). Given that each particle is made up of three quarks the presence of these fractional charges support the association of the fractional charges in this Way to form three dimensional charged particles. [0129] These observations lead us directly to the previous postulate that the structure of the electron is composed of none other than three (root) spheres. it is Well accepted there exist quark particle charges of —1/3. and by general relativity space-time itself. These in turn. [0128] The Standard Model (or a modi?cation of this) and in particular the observation of quarks and indeed quasi electrons With fractional charge of 1/3 and Z/3 in both cases. lepton. [0126] In order to understand the fundamental forces and the nature of fundamental particles. electro-Weak and gravity. to have three different color charges. the quark. Thus. given by the equation: [0124] Indicating that the ?ne structure constant of the electron (a) is indeed related to its dimensional structure. Which Would account for Wave particle duality and Heisenberg’s uncertainty prin ciple in three dimensional visible space-time. photon and graviton respectively.Apr. HoWever. in the other tWo hidden dimensions of each vector the Waves Would carry energy. [0125] Fundamental Forces and Particle Structure [0131] Strictly We should Write. In stable particles each of the three quarks Would have a vector in one dimension. and are present in three dimen sions of real space. giving the three quarks together an existence in three dimensional visible space time. Thus each particle and equation 13: . in stable particles. In the normal three dimensions the energy Would be carried by the particle. one color in each dimension.

[0153] Using the term ®=(4/3J'cc3). [0143] The term (J's/cm) itself Would thus most logically represent the gluon Which is present in the proton. 2006 US 2006/0073976 Al the positive charge of the proton (ep) is given by: [0147] Moreover the structure of the tauon can be calcu lated from the ratio of the mass of the electron and that of the Tauon (1. This includes the quasi electron (qe) and electron (e).Apr. [0136] The stable nuclear proton conformation can thus be represented by the short form equation: [0137] This forms a stable 3x3 conformation as With the stable electron structure. and have the quasi electron as their basic constituent particle (see Appendix 1). —/+ represents the charge of the quasi electron. Thus. from ?rst principles. 3). beauty (b. the tauon. Which is in turn derived from quintessence. Where. truth and beauty can thus also be derived from ?rst principles in this fashion. or bottom) and truth (t or top) quarks directly from the structure of the muon (u) and Tauon ('5) respectively.78 Gev). [0139] Thus the standard equation for an electron con?ned in a one dimensional box is given by: [0149] As the charge of the tauon is equivalent to the charge of the electron. 6. including the up and doWn quarks. the short form particle structures can noW be derived from ?rst [0141] Thus in one dimension the standard solution to the Shrodinger Wave equation is: principles. the muon. but the proton mass and charge can also be derived from the standard solution to the Shrodinger Wave equation for a an electron con?ned in a space of radius c!.~1. Thus the structure of the muon. [0145] Thus the structure of the muon (u) can also be derived from the ratio of the mass of the electron (me) and the mass of the muon (mp): Thus p=eOl/2><m€/mp><3’(4/3=nc3)l/2><(n/cl/3) [0146] Where the charge of the muon is in this equation equivalent to that of the electron e. These gluons Would bind the quasi electrons together to form the fundamental particles [0144] The masses of all the knoWn particles. from Which the quarks (u. [0138] Importantly the term (J's/V6) is the 90° solution to the Shrodinger Wave equation for an electron con?ned in a space With radius c!. Written in short form is: bosons the photon. strange. as in equations. [0152] Overall the mathematical geometrical structure of all the particles can be derived from the quasi electron.d) and in turn the stable proton (p) and stable neutron (n) and alpha particle (a) respectively are derived. hence the structure of the Tauon is given by the above equation [0150] This equation accurately predicts the charge —1. charm. Thus the structure of the Tauon can in short form be given by the equation [0151] Furthermore a more exact value for the mass of the muon and tauon can be deduced by taking into account the gravitational ?eld of the Earth in a similar Way to identifying the exact charge of the electron. (g) and the gluon (y) and the intermediate vector boson (W) can be given. In addition it may be necessary to take into account a possible mass value of the neutrino to arrive at a precisely accurate mass value of the muon and tauon. the mathematical proof of these short form equations lies in the fact that they can very [0140] If the one dimensional box has a length 2L the quantum amplitude (A) can only be non Zero betWeen x=0 and X=2L and the standard solution for the amplitude is none other than: closely identify the charge and the masses of these particles. The general structure of the force carrying [0142] Thus not only is the electron charge derived from the equation for three spheres each With a radius of c (eq. the W boson. We ?nd: . Nevertheless. In this case (J's/cm) can be considered to represent a speci?c high energy photon.79 Mev). It Will also intriguingly be possible to derive. the struc ture of the strange (s) charm (c). and mass of the Tauon (. according to their generation.

Apr. 6. and in turn the radius Was balanced by the velocity of rotation 2J'c/c. then the spin.[row/2 [0172] Taking the effective mass the proton as l. the fundamental radius of l/c seen in geometric structure the quasi electron.048x l O10 cycles/sec . and this is the radius derived from deep inelastic collisions of the proton. this means the actual half integer velocity of rotation is none other than 2J'c/c in metres/sec. These estimates reveal a radius of approx. by substituting re=2/c.6726>< 10-27 kg. We can thus mathematically con?rm the relationship betWeen the radius of a particle and its spin: [0174] Furthermore. such that: (30) [0177] Taking the mass of the electron 9. Moreover. given the half integer spin associated With the (27) [0163] The mathematical proof for these structures and their decay mechanisms is lengthy and is thus fully con tained in Appendix 1. [0164] The structure of these particles all contain the quasi electron and thus the metric tensor structure necessary in the formulation of the gravitational equations is sustained. So that the particle is in harmonic balance. Which alloWs stabalisation of these particles by the formation of stable 3x3 structures. but the radius of a quark has been estimated.l09382><l0_31 kg. is not immediately clear.) [row/2 -2(37r/c1/2). rp=2/c. is also re?ected in the rotation rate and radius for the proton. [0162] Alpha particle ((1.revs. it is possible to obtain accurate estimates of the radius and spin rates of the electron.85><l0_l5 m. [0176] It appears there are tWo unknoWns. in accordance With the equation. this is due to the sharing of quasi electron and quasi positron particles Within the nucleus. and that the radius of the fundamental quasi electron is indeed l/c. the rate of revolution of the electron is: revs=l . thus as above l/c+1/z revs=l. but can be understood if the frequency of rotation of the electron is also taken into account. the radius if the electron and its revolution rate. using the same principle of harmonic balance. then [0170] The actual distance (d) traveled in a circle of half integer spin in 1 second is: revs-mp thus: * Stable nucleonic neutron and proton conformations differ slightly from the Standard Model. Which gives the revolution rate of the proton. [0175] Using the fundamental formula h/4J'E=F~d~t. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 11 [0167] Let us suppose. [0160] Stable* Proton: p=3+o1/2-3(n/c1/2) [0161] Stable* Neutron: (13) [0168] The radius of the electron is not up till noW knoWn. The respective forces created by the gluon and the photon are proton. rp=l. that nature is truly beautiful. This can be directly con?rmed mathematically by taking into account the knoWn spin of the electron.l8><l0_l5 m This value may be used to assist in con?rming the spin of the proton in revolutions per sec.revs. then the rate of spin of the proton in revolutions/ sec is: [0173] From the frequency of the speci?c rotation of the proton. Thus the actual spin of the electron may be calculated form the knoWn energy of the spin. composed of three spheres each With a radius of l/c. hoWever. Where 0t=(revs~2rc)2rp and m=the mass of the proton. Thus these observations might be used to calculate the radius and rate of rotation of the electron. Stable * Neutron: [0169] As F=ma. Using the formula: important as they tell us the behaviour of matter and also lead to the likely structure of the graviton [0165] Particle Spin and SiZe [0166] The signi?cance of the electron. The Standard conforma tions Which describe non-nucleonic neutrons and protons are additionally given in Appendix 1. Thus as h=E~t (Joulesxsec) and h=E~t= F-d-t (Joulesxsec). Knowing the structure of the electron has led us to deduce its charge and thus may lead us estimate its siZe and spin. All the particle structures are accu rately mathematically de?ned by the masses of these par ticles. the same principle may also be used for the electron. h/4J'c. (revs) and in turn the spin and siZe of the electron. Firstly We may proceed to estimate the spin of the proton. or indeed any particle.

6. [0198] This increase in apparent radius represents none other than the (gravitational) binding energy for quintes sence. such that: [0185] Indeed We ?nd that (alloWing for the neutrino) this ratio is very close to the actual ratio of the mass of the electron to the mass of the muon. [0199] The meaning of the above dimensional equation (33) might itself be further understood by substituting the mass of quintessence (Where mq=h/c2) into the equation. lntriguingly the metric tensor at each point in space time is required to consist of a collection of ten numbers. for the electron in keeping With the harmonic balance of the electron. effectively the number of quintes sences. Indeed if the above equation is correct then We ?nd that We geometric structure complexed With the quasi electron has can derive the standard equation for the general relativistic divided by tWo. [0180] The same principle may be used to obtain an accurate estimate of the spin and radius of the muon. 34) directly from ?rst principles gravity. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 12 [0178] Which gives a predicted radius of the electron as re=6. to the ratio of the mass M of an object to that of the masses of the particles and the fundamental forces of Nature. assumed in general relativity. So the frequency of rotation Would need to match geometric struc ture With Which the quasi electron Was complexed [0183] lntriguingly We ?nd asymptotic convergence for the formulas for frequency and mass occurs. 6) forms from a root sphere. 33) into equation 34. by a factor Which either match the frequency or the amplitude of mass of quintessence. So that and arrive at a more fundamental equation for quantum the structure represented by (J's/cm) [giving the frequency (fr3?5/2)l/3=fp [0184] When the ratio of the masses of the electron (me) and muon (mp) are related. Using the above formula estimated from the knowledge of the mass and radius of quintessence. Consequently. [0197] Naturally. or any other particle. r' due to gravitation. When the metric tensor. h=mqc2 (eq.336><l0’lg cycles/sec [0179] So the half integer rotation velocity (revsJcr) is 2J1:/c !. 1) then: [0196] Hence the ratio of the change in radius to that of the Furthermore. Thus the change in spacial radius of a normal sphere is dependant on the square of the quintessential radius. vibration of the quasi electron. because the single integer spin of the force carrying particles compares to a half integer spin for the muon]. is proportional. [0182] It is noW possible to begin to explain hoW the muon and the other subatomic particles are formed. the force of the vibrations of quin tessence lead directly to quantum gravity. ten dimensional space-time hypotheses.Apr. Together With the time dimension these nine space dimen sions account for the 10 parameters present in the metric tensor necessary to formulate the equations for gravity using Riemann geometry and thus forms the basis of quantum gravity. As [0194] By substituting eq. 9(nrq2/mq)=G7r/c [0200] (36) Where J'IZI‘qZ is the cross sectional area of quintes sence and mq is the effective mass of quintessence. [0193] This value is in agreement With the Planck length. the quantum nature of gravity itself can noW be explored. is [0186] structures. Thence. Which is conventionally derived from the standard dimensional equation: rfgorvé (32) [0191] Given the nine spacial parameters present in the [0181] Then as the mass of the muon is l. such as this or superstring theory. used in general relativity We ?nd that the actual formula for rq2 is mathematically in agreement With theory When: [0192] This again supports the 9 dimensional vieW of space and the siZe of the vibrations of quintessence can thus be estimated. [0190] The radius of quintessence should be approxi mately in keeping With the Planck length estimate (r). representing harmonics of the speed of light. [0189] Furthermore. determined experimen tally. the mathematical representation of the graviton and the gravitational constant may be directly is directly related to the number of quintessences.8823><l0_28 kg then the revs of the muon fH=5. Thus in nine dimensions the gravitational constant (G) may be more logically given as. Thus the change in radius. If a quasi electron is complexed With another structure the total geo metric structure needs to maintain harmonic balance. increase in radius. and thus . like the equation for the charge of the electron (eq.3l6><l0_l6 m. related to none other than the ratio of the mass and radius of an object to the mass and the square of the radius of Part llliQuantum Gravity quintessence. Thus again the gravitational change in radius [0187] Quantum General Relativity [0188] Given the overall energy “complex” energy tensor structure of the electron and the metric tensor. [0195] And substituting the quintessential equation. We have seen that these geometric radius of quintessence squared. The spherical complex tensor for the electron and the positron give the mathematical quantum structure and energy tensor for all the other particles. a funda mental relationship betWeen r' and M is obtained. this Would be exactly What Would be logically expected if quintessence. do automatically yield general relativity. mathematically de?ne the of c. (eq. r'.070><l0_7 cycles/sec and the radius rH is thus l.

9(nrq2/mq)=G-7r/c (36) [0205] Thus equation 34 is the conventional equation for the general relativistic increase in radius (r') in a gravita tional ?eld. 39). 34). 6. Indeed the meaning of c in the equation may be understood as it has been previously shoWn as being the basis for the radius of matter (eq. then: Let us noW folloW these equations for matter by calculating the Wavelength of a photon from the Gravita tional constant as an example. [0221] This includes the term for the number of quintes sences ?oWing through the electron. around a mass (M). Hence the general relativistic change in radius. substituting for nq. Where f=E/h=nq. H52”. 33). and also as a test of these observations and to demonstrate that the gravitational equa tions can also apply to the quantum World. Given the number of quintessences nq constituting the Earth is ME/mq.9745>< r’=l. (eq. then the frequency of the photon fy(Where [3=l) is given by: fY=r’c/3rq2 [0219] Using the standard equation. (34) Then given that the mass of the Earth is 5. r'. r'=GM/3c2 (eq. is none other than the e?fective binding energy for quintessence. 38: r’=G-M/3c2 [0217] If (34) [0204] The importance of this is that the gravitational change in radius noW logically derives from equation 36. the apparent increase in radius r' is: r’=GM/3c2 [0208] 1024 kg. thus substituting into (40) [0211] Thus equation 39 gives the same ansWer as the standard equation and may be understood on a logical basis. From this We may derive the standard general relativistic relationship for the apparent change in radius (r') The same principle has also been shoWn to apply to matter. Which describes the gravitational force as resulting directly from the mass of quintessence exerted/per unit area of quintessence. = E/h = nq veri?ed. This equation reduces to: has previously been explained theoretically by the simple [0201] observation that the frequency is determined quite directly from the number of quintessences (nq) Within the photon. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 [0215] Thus the formula for the frequency of light (E=hf) (TIZI‘qZ/mq) represents the effective mass per unit area Which quintessence exerts.Apr. = GM/9rje 15 Thus G 2 fyzw-myc andasEzmyc. 34: r73rq2=nq/c (39) [0207] These equations may be readily mathematically nq=r’c/3rq2 (39a) [0218] Where r' is the general relativistic increase in radius. and rq is the radius of quintessence (eq. 6). If We take the relativistic Wave energy of matter. We may substitute for r'. Which is here derived from the underlying nature of quintessence.478><l0’3m [0209] Accordingly if r'=3rq2-nq/c. thus We have: f. then [0220] It is possible to also demonstrate that the same relationship holds for the Wave equation for matter. indeed any observations Which are self consistent must be able to do so easily. [0214] The frequency of light has been previously derived _ GE (40) [0222] As f=[32nq for matter then the equation expands to: . As mq=M/nq. [0212] Quantum Gravity and Wave Particle Duality [0213] Quantum gravity can noW be readily linked With quantum mechanics. Which has been previously derived. [0206] Indeed it is apparent that a more fundamental equation for gravitation noW exists. to give the relativistic electron momentum (p) and a term for the rest mass. If in accordance With standard general relativity. in the complex vectors of space-time. from an understanding of the mass mq [0216] and number (nq) of quintessences.2 q f _ GE (40) y _ 91303 Indeed as 9r§ = GIL/c3. for equation (39) is mathematically accurate and numerically agrees With eq. [0203] thus directly substituting for nq in eq. Thus the gravitational constant is derived from the mass and radius of vibration squared of quintes sence from ?rst principles. then f.

40. and the metric tensor of the space-time lattice><time for the contracted Riemann tensor We can arrive at the same solu tions for general relativity. by the standard equation: [0230] (3a) (2) Equation 2 is the very same as the Universal Wave equation derived form ?rst principles for the Wavelength of tight and matter. the third force carrying particle is hence ¢=(?/C) A .78X1032 _ 6.998 X 1016 (42) [0234] Thus the gravitational constant (G) can be given by the mass and radius of quintessence and the structure of the graviton [0235] This shoWs the gravitational force to be related to the fundamental radius of quintessence space time. [0231] Graviton Structure [0232] From these observations. Which is not in keeping With relativity. Which demonstrate a relativistic curvilinear plot for Wavelengths of matter in keeping With eq. as given by Einstein is: [0238] Where R is effectively the curvature of space-time.) [0239] If We substitute the energy tensor matrix of the electron (eq. if the value for the gravi tational constant is substituted into the equation (35) We may noW estimate the probable geometric structure of the gravi tation. 2 and de Broglie are compared to recent experiments.1 KeV the Wavelength is conventionally given (Where the kinetic energy of the electron Ek is given by the product of the charge of the electron (C) and the potential applied eV=0. This noW indicates that these quintessential equations are compatible With relativity. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 14 [0223] Then the equation again reduces to: 9r2c4 (3) _ [0224] ABE A = hC/BE Equations 3. Furthermore equation 3a suggests a fundamental relationship betWeen energy (E).1 Kev). [0240] Furthermore.23X10*1° m Using A : 91'504 GB E Where E : ymoc2 (3“) [0227] iZAt 0.0002X 9. [0236] Quantised General Relativity [0237] The classical general relativistic formula. Which according to these observations is in the loW energy range (see section on Wave Particle Duality).Apr. de?ned the constant K as: [0241] Therefore Einstein’s equation should be Written as THV (43) . Thus the Gravitational constant has been previously derived from the vibration of quintessence by the equation: [0233] This is in accurate agreement With the value for G(6. 6. 3 is dependent on relativity and mathematically accounts for both relativity in calculating the Wavelength.[3). and the graviton. lndeed recent experiment on quantum tunnelling through a Wire mesh strongly suggests that the relationship betWeen energy and Wavelength is relativistically curvilinear(ref 1). quantum mechanics and quantum gravity. in his published paper on General Relativity. for the energy tensor of matter THV. [0228] Divergence betWeen the de Broglie equation and the above equation (2) occurs at intermediate and high energies Where it is generally accepted that the standard de Broglie equation may be less accurate. Which is the force particle mediating gravity by acting on quintessence.82X10*7"X80. then If We take an electron With an energy of 0. in a range Where de Broglie itself is likely to be most accurate. [0229] The de Broglie equation in the non-relativistic format yields a simple log/linear scale.76 X10*11XpX1. [0226] A : GIZE Indeed as 9r‘? : GIL/c3. [0225] It is therefore important to con?rm the numerical accuracy of the above equation (40).0002. We can do this by comparing the result to the standard computation of the de Broglie equation. Einstein. Which alloWed a relativistic solution to the equations for Wave particle duality (see Wave Particle Dual ity).67><10 N m2 kg_2). relative velocity (v/c=. gravity (G) and the quantum Wavelength (7») RHv denotes the contracted Riemann tensor of curvature and THv is the “energy tensor” of matter. Thus linking quantum mechanics to quantum gravity. electron velocity is 6><106 r/sec. This suggests that the most prob able mathematical representation of the graviton ((1)). 40 and 41 are important as they shoW that the quantum Wavelength of any particle of rest mass m can be derived from the gravitational constant G. Thus: _ 9X1. Whereas eq. thus 6=2X10 and y=1/(1—v2/c2)1/2=1.1. 9)><time. The values for eq.11 X 10*31 X 8.1 Kev.

it readily displaces space-time quintessence to produce grav ity. Thus conventionally the magnetic ?eld strength around a long straight Wire is given as: [0254] Where I is the current and [to is the permeability of free space (4J'|§><l0_7 N A_2) [0255] The attraction betWeen tWo Wires both carrying negative charge is. The force of attraction betWeen tWo parallel Wires 1 metre apart each carrying 1 Amp in a vacuum Was de?ned as none other than the permeability of free space (2><l0_7 N per metre of conduc tor). similarly to the ejection of energy of a pulsar or quasar. Nevertheless. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 [0242] Einstein himself Was apparently not happy about the right hand component of the equation. and the forces of gravity With the electro magnetic and other forces of Nature. gives the same solutions as Einstein’s equation. mined by the by the sign of the J-y vector (up or doWn). the difference is that the equation is noW dependant upon Planck’s constant (h). Thus. Therefore. This Thus We appear to have an explanation for the effects of . Would account for the electromagnetic force and its attraction and repulsion characteristics. Rpv _ l/zgw/R : _ 87r29rZ mqcz 'Tpv This Would occur as a result of the ejection of the excess (44) spins. but With a spin of 2. the magnetic ?eld is in the Z vector. If an electron is travelling in the x direction. propelling the graviton in [0244] By substituting mq~c2=h. in accordance With the above model. [0250] The spin axis of the graviton can also be derived magnetism Which involves virtual photons. However. evidence for these links may ?rst date back to the l820’s. and moreover the radius of quintes sence. Furthermore. accounting for the particle binding characteristics of the gluon force. because the graviton has a spin of 2.Apr. and as it spin axis is perpendicular to its direction of motion. the graviton spin axis Would be in the Z vector thus. Which is essentially correct. Where represents standard term for the surface area of a sphere of quintessence for the 9 space dimensions of the space time lattice. The term Aq=(4rcrq2). HoW else could the effects of gravity be felt beyond a black hole? [0252] Quantum Gravity and Electromagnetism [0253] With the above electron model of graviton produc tion the nature of magnetism can be understood from ?rst principles. the same as quasi electrons. Which noW de?nes a quantised solution to the equa tions. According. When Andre Ampere ?rst de?ned the Amp. such that [0247] Furthermore. Indeed. The ejection of the graviton Would re-orientate and impart a speci?c angular momentum to the gravitons Which Would thus end up spinning on its oWn Z axis. [0243] Giving: quintessence passing through the electron. hoWever. although equation 45. In the case of the gluon component (J's/cm). then its spin axis is deter photons are not observed. the previously derived equa tion (42) for the graviton [(|)=(J1:/c)] appears to also math ematically represent a helical ringlet of quintessence. Where A is the surface area of a sphere of a given mass M. if the direction vector is x. The ejection of the gravitons Would occur. 6. Thus because the graviton is able to displace space-time. created by the current by the production of virtual photons. (the electron even appears to have orbital G=9rcrq2/q)mq. is logical and provides an explanation for the magnetic force [0245] The gravitational equation can noW be further understood on a logical basis. the presence of a space-time lattice links relativity. if the direction of motion Was in the x vector. for the general relativistic increase in radius r' of an object. to the left hand rule if the direction of the current is in the x vector. and further substituting l1=h/2J'l§. Where Aq is the surface area of quintessence (Aq=4rcrq2). We ?nd vieW is in agreement With conventional theory. taking the direction of motion as the x vector and its axis of spin also as the x vector. 42a). We arrive at a quantised solution to Einstein’s equations. [0248] Graviton Force Characteristics [0249] Similar to the photon. In the case of the graviton. in the y vector. q) is the graviton [q)=(s'c/c)] and h is Plancks constant. As the electron passes through the space-time lattice. thus the right hand term noW represents a true “metric energy tensor” of matter. More accurately. [0251] This picture accounts for Fleming’s left hand rule. hoWever. in the Z vector. and the force is upWards. If for instance the graviton is released from an up spin electron the graviton Will be rotating clockwise and its leading edge Will displace quin tessence doWnWards. For the photon. the ejection of these gravitons Would occur at a tangent to the electron’s direction of motion. As the electron quantised by substituting the gravitational constant. [0246] This leads directly to the standard solution to the ?eld equations. precession). as Will be demonstrated. then the axis of spin Would be in the y vector. according to conventional special relativity the magnetic ?eld is none other than the electric ?eld vieWed relativistically. accounting around a Wire. counterintuitive as negative charges should repel. thus: the direction of the electrons y vector. Which indi cates that the electron spin is similar to a rotating planet that this part of the equation can noW be explained and orbiting the sun. In turn this Will provide an upWards force. (eq. it is capable of escaping a black hole. this spin Would generate the formation of gravitons. h is the energy content of quintessence><time and q) is the graviton. this par ticular spin axis and the structure of the graviton results in its force characteristics. through the equivalent of the north and south poles of the electron. As the graviton is very small com pared to the electron and both have different rather rapid spin axis it is dif?cult for these to bind and interact. A conventional explanation overcomes this by invoking the presence of a magnetic ?eld Which is for the gravitational force. these using the knoWn characteristics of the electron.

the graviton emission cannot be phased as the atoms are unable to align and magnets do not appear to exist With other materials. Furthermore if e=[eO/3(4/3J'cc3)]l/2 (eq. for the electron orbital radius elegantly simpli?es to: r=4h2c3/m [0266] Hence the orbital radius of the electron is related to spin of the electron (h) and its mass (m). to derive an exact value for the charge of the electron We must account for gravity in the above equation. Which produces in effect the permeability of free space. Similarly as effectively at decreases in a gravi . then the apparent ration at to r. 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 [0256] A more satisfactory explanation. So to correct so to [0264] Incidentally.29057><10’3 [0276] Which is the incremental factor by which so must path in this ?eld. The gravitonic Waves interact constructively to disperse the space time lattice betWeen the Wires and induce an attractive force betWeen the tWo Wires. This not an actual diminution in the circumference of a circle but the effective reduction of the resistance to motion in a circular (34) Then given that the mass of the Earth is 5. also falls in a gravita tional ?eld.oeo]v~e. This is largely the same as stating. rises in a gravitational ?eld. Will appear to diminish a similar Way to the process by Which capacitance increases by the permeability and permittivity of free space [1. [0257] Conversely in tWo Wires With current going in opposite directions the graviton Waves are in anti-phase and Would interact destructively betWeen the Wires. Thus this force results from the vibration of quintessence itself. to correct at to account for gravity it must be account for gravity. lies in the interaction betWeen the electrons and the space time lattice. [0274] Nevertheless. then the equation at n=l. Thus as space time is dispersed by gravitons the permittivity ?eld Will increase in the same Way capacitance increases With separation of plates. Will appear to thus diminish in accordance With general relativity. then as [to falls. Which is conventionally given by: r=n24nh2eO/me2 [0265] Where so is again the permittivity of free space. 2m‘. the apparent increase in radius r' is: r’=GM/3c2 [0275] separation of plates. B=|J. This occurs in [0260] Overall the magnitude of the forces in electrical systems Where electrical conduction occurs are Well de?ned circle and the apparent ratio of n to r.Apr. [0273] Furthermore. With matter other than iron. and 60. 6. So this vieW is consistent With general relativity. electric ?eld produced by the charge. in accordance With general relativity.9745>< 2nr’=9. Because of the inverse relationship 1024 kg. then if so rises then [to falls. disperse the lattice outside the tWo Wires and produce apparent repulsion betWeen the Wires. [0261] These observations suggest that the forces of elec tricity Which produce magnetism are indeed related to the permittivity and permeability of free space and that these quantities are exerted by an apparent vacuum. We Will take the speci?c example of the Earth’s gravitational ?eld in order to obtain the exact value for the electron. This is entirely consistent as [10. With separation of plates in a capacitor. as does general relativity.OeO]_1/2. [0271] Thus 60 rises When space-time is dispersed by the gravitons that produce the gravitational ?eld. increase in Earth’s gravitational ?eld. as 60 increases the circumference of a Would be no net force on the magnet until an external magnet or electrical current Were applied. [0267] Quantum Gravity and the Charge of the Electron [0268] The equation for the charge of the electron (eq. These effects of electricity suggest rium distance (r) betWeen an electron With charge (e) in orbit around a proton. as |J.Ol/2J'|§I‘ and B=[p. The moving electrons in the tWo Wires interact With the lattice to produce gravitons. Thus as space time is dispersed by gravitons the permittivity ?eld Will increase in the same Way capacitance increases With Which represents the force that quintessence exerts. In is the mass of the electron and n is an orbital integer. B=|J. hoWever. [0262] Electromagnetism is of further interest to quantum gravity. then between 60 and 2m. Because of the inverse relationship tons from the north pole Would be exactly balanced by those released from the south pole of the magnet and hence there between 60 and 2m. 1) contains the term so (permittivity of free space) Which according to these observations should vary in a gravita tional ?eld.oeo]v~e. Nevertheless.Ol/2J'|§I‘ and B=[p.O=4J'|§><l0_7 N A_2. as c is a constant and as c=[p. Where v is the constant velocity of the charge and e is the [0272] Nevertheless. also lead us directly to Schrodinger’s formula for the average equilib tational ?eld. that the apparent radius r'. substituting for B We have: [0270] Thus 2m is proportional to the inverse of 60. particularly if We combine the standard equations. Would be reduced if the quintessence space time lattice is dispersed. [0258] This effect is also seen With the north and south poles of ferromagnets. substituting for B We have: [0263] Thus 2m is proportional to the inverse of 60. Thus the effects of magnetism could be explained by none other than the phased effects of gravitational Waves on the space time lattice. If in accordance With standard general relativity.0. [0259] In ordinary magnetic system the release of gravi [0269] If We combine the standard equations. as 60 increases the circumference of a circle and the apparent ratio of at is to r. Which is exactly What is observed. the above observations. therefore. The gravi tonic Waves traveling radially outWard from the Wires Would. h is Planck’s constant and e is the charge of the electron. Which are in phase When both streams of electrons are traveling in the same direction. that gravitons act as Waves and that phase is important. so must be divided by the incremental factor. cobalt or nickel. 3).

as above. Which can noW be derived from ?rst principles to seven decimal places or more. Which suggests the correction factor is indeed incorrect. by deriving the constant from ?rst principles. the electron magnetic predict the magnetic moment of the electron moment to the Bohr magneton ratio. a rather arbitrary math ematical correction term.3280t2/rc2=0. [0283] Thus the presence of the ?ne structure constant can noW be further understood. Thus theory reveals He. Which is the same as that measured on Earth. The “correction factor” is termed “e”. such that: r"=r'(l +2r').6022><l0_l9 C. radius r'. . In accor dance With the above chapter (Quantum Gravity and the Charge of the Electron) [0294] Thus the signi?cant mathematical discrepancies can be removed by accounting for the effects of quantum gravity. Max Well’s equation for electromagnetism states that the photon has no net magnetic effect. the graviton. l+e=l. Thus taking into account 2nd order effects (r"). and thus: explanation suggests these magnetic effects are produced by get round this dif?culty it is postulated by physics that magnetism results from “virtual” photons. 0. Will do). We have a very small. To a maximum accuracy governed by current knowledge of the mass of the Earth and the Gravitational constant and thus the term for the gravitational increase in The conventional derivation of the term 6 above. 6). So the equation for an [0285] Quantum Gravity and the Electron Magnetic electron in a Zero gravitational ?eld is: Moment [0277] This noW gives the charge of the electron as [0286] The theoretical origin and nature of magnetism remains obscure in current electromagnetic theory. Notably these photons. Thus if We take into account the effect of gravity upon the radius of the Earth it is also important to take into account an effect upon the instruments With Which We measure quantities. Thus With the graviton origin of mag [0280] netism. states that the magnetic force results from relativity due to none other than the phased emission of gravitons (Why postulate tWo invis ible forces. may be achieved by taking into account 2nd and nth order gravitometric elfects. This appears ad hoc and needless to say. the magnetic moment of the electron Where: pe=(eh/4nme)[l+(ot/2n)—0. Where e=(0t/2J'c)—0. [0284] Overall the ?ne structure constant 0t (alloWing for the term r' Which is the general relativistic increase in the radius of the Earth due to gravitation) is given by none other than the formula for the mass of quintessence and from the structure of the electron. If 0t=e2=eO/3(4/3J'cc3). [0279] This agrees exactly to the nearest 7 decimal places With the maximum accuracy of the experimental value for the charge of the electron. This vieW as previously discussed (Quantum Grav space (so). 2006 US 2006/0073976 A1 multiplied by this incremental factor. We must noW take into account the effects of should have an expression in terms of quintessence and in turn the gravitational force and in particular the graviton. HoWever.3280t2/J'c2 needs to be used in this standard equation.Apr. ity and Electromagnetism) is entirely compatible With stan dard relativity(ref 19).00ll59652. it is theoretically possible to predict accuracy for the charge of the electron to 3n decimal places. see The Structure of the Electron and Matter). [0278] Virtually unlimited degrees of accuracy for the charge of the electron and for the ?ne structure constant (0t). although no photons have ever been observed. ton. this Would be a second order gravi tometric effect. hoWever.3l80486><l0_3.001 159641.007297353 to the nearest 9 decimal places. speci?cally from the actual dimensional conformation for the charge of the electron: e=[e° /3(4/3J'cc3)] 1/2 (eq. needs to be corrected to agree With experiment. magnetism and gravity. (or/2n) Which is theoretically consistent. is given from the ?ne structure constant. HoWever. The postulate for the nature of magnetism in these current observations. To observations appear to suggest that the charge of the electron is the same irrespective of the gravitational ?eld. be derived from a photon real or virtual. this correction factor is essential for “renor malisation” and thus for quantum mechanics to Work. [0292] [0293] Quantum gravity readily explains the discrepancy betWeen the theoretical Bohr Magneton (uB) and the actual measured magnetic moment of the electron ([16). it Would be dif?cult to explain these magnetic ?elds on the basis of photon emission. 6. An measured in a Zero gravitational ?eld as l. and the above equation is in agreement With the conventional experimental value for 0t=0. [0290] The standard term for the magnetic moment of the Bohr Magneton (SIB) is: gravity. When one. This mathematically accuracy con?rms the structure of the electron from ?rst principles and indeed the theoretical effects of gravity on the permittivity of free [0289] Einstein postulated that magnetism Was merely due to special relativity . Nevertheless.sup. Thus 2r"=9. [0288] In addition observational data suggests that black holes have poWerful magnetic ?elds and as in theory pho tons are unable to escape from black holes (except for small quantities in the form of Hawking radiation). uB.328ot2/n2] [0282] Hence the term (li2s'cr")2 is in accordance With these observations for the effect of gravity on electromag netic forces. by the above standard equation. accordingly the quint essential equation for 0t is structurally given by: 2J'|:/0t=mq [36)]2 (Where ®=4/3 m3. the equation for the magnetic moment of the electron This returns us directly to the ?ne structure con stant for the electron Which is conventionally given by: 0t=e2/hc~4rceO. [0287] Thus magnetism could not. thus: [0291] In standard quantum mechanics the Bohr Magne [0281] Where the gravitational term for the increase in radius r" alloWs the mathematical derivation of 0t=0. These observations can also be used to accurately more accurate measurements shoW. but nevertheless relevant change. Furthermore by taking into account the nth order gravitometric effect.(ref 17).007297353.