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Gas Phase

f,g

Interface Area, Ai

Solid Phase
s

f,s

Figure 1: Diagram of Interface Cell

Governing Equations

The governing equations for the gas and solid portion of a given cell are derived in the following section.
Figure 1 shows a representative cell within the domain that contains a volume fraction of solid and gas
denoted by s and g respectively. Each cell face is also assigned a solid and gas face fraction (f ) based
on the amount of face area that is covered by the solid and gas. Finally, the interface area (Ai ) represents
the boundary between the solid and gas domains within the cell. The decomposition of each cell and
determination of the volume fractions, face fractions, and interface area will be covered in Section ??.

1.1

Solid Phase

The mass continuity equation for the shaded solid control volume is
Z
Z

s (
urel n
)dAs = 0.
s dVs +
t Vs
As
Discretizing the solid continuity equation using a first-order approximation in time and a second-order
approximation for the surface integral, the equation is written as
s Vs 0s Vs0 X
+
s (
urel Af,s ) = 0.
t
f,s

Assuming that the solid is incompressible, the surface is regressing at a constant rate (r),
and the solid phase
is stationary, the continuity equation becomes
Vs Vs0
m
00 Ai
=
,
t
s
where m
00 = s r.
Furthermore, transferring the equation from the solid control volume to the cell control
volume using the volume and area fractions, the final form of the solid continuity equation is
s s0
m
00 Ai
=
.
t
s V c
1

(1)

Similarly, the energy equation for the shaded solid control volume is
Z
Z
Z
Z

s cs Ts dVs +
cs Ts (s u
rel n
)dAs
s cs (Ts n
)dAs =
STs dVs ,
t Vs
As
As
Vs
where STs is any volumetric source within the solid domain. Discretizing the solid energy equation and
assuming constant thermophysical properties within the solid yields
s cs

Ts Vs Ts0 Vs0 X

s cs (Ts Af,s ) = STs Vs m


00 cs (Ti Tref )Ai ,
t
f

where Ti is the temperature of the solid at the interface and Tref is a combustion reference temperature.
Finally, transferring the equation from the solid volume to the entire cell volume shows that
s cs

Ts s Ts0 s0
1 X
m
00 cs (Ti Tref )Ai

s cs (Ts Af f,s ) = STs s


.
t
Vc
Vc
f,s

Using (1) in conjunction with


Ts s Ts0 s0
Ts Ts0
s s0
= s
+ Ts0
,
t
t
t
the final form of the solid energy equation is obtained as
s cs s

1 X
Ts Ts0
m
00 cs (Ti Ts0 )Ai

s cs (Ts Af f,s ) = STs s


.
t
Vc
Vc

(2)

f,s

1.2

Gas Continuity Equation

Mass continuity on gray (gas) control volume (Vg) surround by boundary Ag


Z
Z

dVg +
(
un
)dAg = 0
t Vg
Ag
Using second-order approximations of the integrals and a first-order time derivative
Vg 0 Vg0 X
+
(
u Af,g ) = 0
t
f,g

Translate this to the full cell


Vc

g 0 g0 X
+
(
u Af )f = m
00 Ai
t
f

Divide by cell volume, Vc , to give the equation in OpenFOAM form that we want to solve
g 0 g0
1 X
m
00 Ai
+
(
u Af )f =
t
Vc
Vc
f

1.3

Gas Momentum Equation

Conservation of momentum on gray (gas) control volume (Vg) surround by boundary Ag


Z
Z
Z

udVg +
u
(
un
)dAg + Fp =
Su dVg
t Vg
Ag
Vg

(3)

Using second-order approximations of the integrals and a first-order time derivative

uVg 0 u
0 Vg0 X
+
u
(
u Af,g ) + Fp = Su Vg
t
f,g

Translate this to the full cell


Vc

ug 0 u
0 g0 X
+
u
(
u Af )f + Fp f = S(
u)g Vc + us m
00 Ai
t
f

It is important to note that the velocity of the solid is zero by definition and therefore does not add any
additional momentum to the system. Divide by cell volume, Vc , to give the equation in OpenFOAM form
that we want to solve

ug 0 u
0 g0
1 X
Fp f
+
u
(
u Af )f +
= Su g
t
Vc
Vc
f

1.4

Gas Energy Equation

Conservation of energy on the gray (gas) control volume surrounded by boundary Ag


Z
Z
Z

p
EdVg +
(E + )(
un
)dAg =
SE dVg
t Vg

Ag
Vg
The total energy of the fluid can be rewritten in terms of the specific enthalpy (hs ) such that
u2 + v 2 + w 2
2
p
i =hs

E =i + K
p
E =hs + K

K=

Substituting into the energy equation then yields


Z
Z
Z
p

(hs + K )dVg +
(hs + K)(
un
)dAg =
SE dVg
t Vg

Ag
Vg
Using second-order approximations of the integrals and a first-order time derivative
hs Vg 0 h0s Vg0 X
+
hs (
u Af,g )
t
f,g

KVg 0 K 0 Vg0 X
+
+
K(
u Af,g )
t
f,g

pVg p
t
=SE Vg

Vg0

(4)

Translate equation to full cell


Vc

hs g 0 h0s g0 X
+
hs (
u Af )f
t
f

+Vc

Kg
t

K 0 g0

K(
u Af )f

pg p0 g0
+Vc
t
=SE g Vc
Similar to the momentum equation, the solid does not contribute any kinetic energy to the flow due to it
having zero velocity. Divide by cell volume, Vc , to give the equation in OpenFOAM form that we want to
solve
hs g 0 h0s g0
1 X
+
hs (
u Af )f
t
Vc
f

Kg 0 K 0 g0
1 X
+
K(
u Af )f
+
t
Vc

(5)

pg p0 g0
t
=SE g
+

1.5

Gas Species Equation

Conservation of a given species mass fraction (Yi ) on gray (gas) control volume (Vg) surround by boundary
Ag
Z
Z
Z
Z

Yi dVg +
Yi (
un
)dAg +
(Gi n
)dAg =
SYi dVg
t Vg
Ag
Ag
Vg
Using second-order approximations of the integrals and a first-order time derivative
X
Yi Vg 0 Yi0 Vg0 X
i Af,g ) = SY Vg
+
Yi (
u Af,g ) +
(G
i
t
f,g

f,g

Translate this to the full cell


Vc

X
Yi g 0 Yi0 g0 X
i Af )f = SY g Vc + Yi,b m
+
Yi (
u Af )f +
(G
00 Ai
i
t
f

f,g

Divide by cell volume, Vc , to give the equation in OpenFOAM form that we want to solve
Yi g 0 Yi0 g0
1 X
+
Yi (
u Af )f
t
Vc

(6)

1 X
Yi,b m
00 Ai
(Gi Af )f = SYi g +
Vc
Vc
f,g

Interface Temperature and Phase Linking

The governing equations derived in Section 1 account for the transfer of mass, momentum, and species
between the solid and gas phase; however, these governing equations only account for the energy transfer

Figure 2: Interface Transfer Diagram


between the domains due to the mass transfer and do not account for the energy conduction across the
boundary or any surface fluxes that may be present such as the pyrolysis energy release.
Completing an energy balance across the infinitesimal solid gas interface leads to the equation
m
00 hs,s [Ti ] ks

Ts
Tg
00
+ qext
m
00 hs,g [Ti ] + kg
= 0.
x
x

Applying a first order discretization to the derivatives and collecting similar terms, the equation is then
rewritten as
Tg Ti
Ti Ts
00
+ kg
+ qext
m
00 (hs,s [Ti ] hs,g [Ti ]) ks
= 0.
Ls
Lg
The first term in this equation contains the condensed phase heat release value, Qc = hs,s [T ] hs,g [T ].
Substituting this value into the equation and solving for the interface temperature yields
Ti =

00
m
00 Qc + ks Ts /Ls + kg Tg /Lg + qext
ks /Ls + kg /Lg

(7)

Using this interface temperature, source terms for the solid and gas phase energy equation are determined.
One method of applying consistent boundary conditions across the phase linking is to allow one boundary to
have a constant temperature condition while the other boundary has a constant flux condition. The present
code implements this method by setting a constant temperature boundary on the solid and a constant flux
boundary on the gas. The additional solid source terms are
k s Ai
Ls Vc
ks Ti Ai
=
Ls Vc

Spt,s =
Sut,s
and the additional gas source terms are
Sut,g =

kg (Ti Tg )Ai
.
Lg Vc

The addition of the above source terms lead to the following modified versions of the solid and gas governing
equations respectively:
s cs s

1 X
Ts Ts0
m
00 cs (Ti Ts0 )Ai

+ Sut,s Spt,s Ts
s cs (Ts Af f,s ) = STs s
t
Vc
Vc

(8)

f,s

hs g 0 h0s g0
1 X
+
hs (
u Af )f
t
Vc
f

Kg 0 K 0 g0
1 X
+
+
K(
u Af )f
t
Vc
f

pg p0 g0
t
qb Ab
=SE g +
+ Sut,g .
Vc
+

(9)

Small Cell Handling

A common problem in immersed boundary methods is that small cells within the domain cause numeric
instability. Typically these small cells are solved using an approximation in order to limit the effect of the
aforementioned instability. The approximation chosen in the current code is to determine the small cell
values based on a steady state solution between the small cell and its neighboring cells. The following
section details the derivation of the small cell approximation for each governing equation.

3.1

Solid Energy Equation

Starting with the previously derived solid energy equation, 8, and removing the time varying terms, we end
with the equation

m
00 cs (Ti Ts0 )Ai
ks Ai (Ti Ts )
1 X
s cs (Ts Af f,s ) = STs s
+
.
Vc
Vc
Ls Vc
f,s

3.2

Gas Continuity Equation

Starting with the immersed boundary form of the gas continuity equation, (3), and splitting the time
derivative terms yields
g g0
0
1 X
m
00 Ai
g0
+
+
(
u Af )f =
.
t
t
Vc
Vc
f

Setting the density time derivative to zero and substituting (1) for the volume fraction time derivative
transforms the equation to
m
00 Ai
m
00 Ai
1 X
(
u Af )f =
+
.
V c s
Vc
Vc
f

Rearranging this equation and defining the implicit and explicit source terms as Sp = m
00 Ai/s Vc and
00
Su = m
Ai/Vc respectively further yields
1 X
(
u Af )f = Su Sp .
Vc

(10)

3.3

Gas Momentum Equation

Starting with the immersed boundary form of the gas momentum equation, (4), and splitting the time
derivative yields
u

g 0 g0
u
u
0
1 X
Fp f
+ 0 g0
+
u
(
u Af )f +
= Su g .
t
t
Vc
Vc

(11)

Setting the velocity time derivative to zero and further splitting the density, volume fraction time derivative
yields
!
0
g g0
1 X
Fp f
0
u
g
+
+
u
(
u Af )f +
= Su g .
(12)
t
t
Vc
Vc
f

Again, assuming the density time derivative is zero and substituting (1) for the volume fraction derivative
u

m
00 Ai
1 X
Fp f
+
u
(
u Af )f +
= Su g .
s V c
Vc
Vc
f

(13)

Defining the implicit source term Suu = m


00 Ai/rhos Vc and rearranging the equation leaves a final form of
the momentum equation as
Fp f
1 X
u
(
u Af )f +
= Su g Suu u
.
Vc
Vc

(14)

3.4

Gas Energy Equation

Starting with the immersed boundary form of the gas energy equation and splitting the time derivative yields
hs

g g0
hs 0 h0s
1 X
+ g0
+
hs (
u Af )f
t
t
Vc
f

Kg 0 K 0 g0
1 X
+
+
K(
u Af )f
t
Vc
f

p0 g0

pg
t
=SE g + Sut,g .

Setting the density and sensible enthalpy time derivatives to zero and substituting (1) for the volume fraction
time derivative leaves
hs

m
00 Ai
1 X
hs (
u Af )f
+
s Vc
Vc
f

Kg
t

K 0 g0

1 X
K(
u Af )f
Vc
f

pg p0 g0
+
t
=SE g + Sut,g .
Defining the implicit source term as Sphs = m
00 Ai/rhos Vc yields the final form of the equation
1 X
hs (
u Af )f
Vc
f

Kg 0 K 0 g0
1 X
+
K(
u Af )f
t
Vc

(15)

pg p0 g0
t
=SE g + Sut,g Sphs hs .
+

3.5

Gas Species Equation

Starting with the immersed boundary form of the gas species equation and splitting the time derivative
yields
Yi

g g0
Yi 0 Yi0
1 X
+ g0
+
Yi (
u Af )f
t
t
Vc
f

1 X
Yi,b m
00 Ai
+
(Gi Af )f = SYi g +
Vc
Vc
f,g

Setting the density and mass fraction time derivatives to zero and substituting (1) for the volume fraction
time derivative leaves
Yi

m
00 Ai
1 X
+
Yi (
u Af )f
s V c
Vc
f

1 X
Yi,b m
00 Ai
+
(Gi Af )f = SYi g +
Vc
Vc
f,g

Defining the implicit and explicit source terms as SpY i = m


00 Ai/rhos Vc and SuY i = Yi,b m
00 Ai/Vc respectively yields the final form of the equation
1 X
1 X
Yi (
u Af )f +
(Gi Af )f = SYi g + SuY i SpY i Yi
Vc
Vc
f

(16)

f,g

Nomenclature
Symbols
Ai
As
c
D
E
Es
g
hs
K
k
L
M
m
00
p
Q 00
Qg
Qs
R

R
r
S
Sp
Su
T

t
u

V
Y
Yb

interface area
solid phase frequency factor
specific heat capacity
species diffusivity
total energy
solid phase activation energy
gravity vector
sensible enthalpy
kinetic energy
thermal conductivity
conduction length
molecular weight
mass flux
pressure
heat flux
gas heat generation rate
solid phase heat release
heat transfer resistance
universal gas constant
surface regression rate
volumetric source term
implicit source term
explicit source term
temperature

time
velocity vector
volume
specie mass fraction
specie mass fraction from solid combustion

Greek Symbols

volume fraction
species generation rate
density

Subscripts
c
f
g
i
j
s
t

cell
face
gas
interface
specie
solid
transferred

Superscripts
0

initial time value