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A Series of Lessons Covering All

Branches of the Art of Caricaturing








In the writing and illustrating of this book my aim has been to

produceacomprehensiveand concise treatise ontheart ofcaricaturing.

It hasbeen made as brief as is consistent with clearness and complete'

ness. Although the text is brief, no illustrations Ttfere spared. The

many famous plates men included. illustrate all points necessary, and each of the points

illustrated are explained in the text with reference to that particular

illustration. In addition to the plates there are many caricatures of

Acting upon the assumption that it is easier to work if ones

assignments are already made, Chapter XII has been made up of

assignmentsand suggestions, which makes this book a complete course

in caricaturing.

If you obtain half as much pleasure and profit from the use of

this book as I derived from writing, and especially illustrating it, I

shall consider mytime well spent.

Wishing youmuch success.


Mitchell Smith.




List of Illustrations

Chapter Chapter III I Chapter VI

Chapter Chapter V IV


The Face and Head



Comic Figures

Action Assignments and Suggestions

This and That





Chapter VII" ShadingandShadows

Chapter VIII Technique

Chapter IX

Chapter Chapter X XII





15 7













List of Illustrations

George Arliss

Plate 1

Nicola, The Magician

Gladstone Robert Herrick

Frederick, The Great

Plate Plate 3 2 Plate 4



Plate Plate 6 5

Marshal Foch


Plate 7 Plate Plate 9 8 Plate 11

Benjamin Disraeli

Plate 10

RobertTristram Coffin, Poet









19 18



26 30








42 44


49 48


List ofIllustrations

Hate 12

Lorado Taft

Marshal Joffre

Plate Plate 13 14

.WoodrowWilson Jack Dempsey

Charles G. Dawes Charles Darwin

Plate 19

Caret Garrett

Josef Lhevinne

Joe BoothTarkington Byrns

Giovanni Martmelli

Plate 15

Plate Plate 16 17

Plate 18





54 52




64 62



72 70


76 74 87 84 80








P5 "i ,^^-"* ^' x V











Chapter I

Pen Lines and Materials

The necessary material used in drawing caricatures are few and widely used of all pens by cartoonists and pen apdtjnk artists in

pens in various sizes. Gillotts drawing pens are perhaps the most

The student of caricaturing should procure anumber of drawing

such as surgery, etc.

inexpensiveifwecomparethem to the toolsofsomeoftheprofessions,

generaL For drawing cartoons and caricatures siw^70J^opand^^

are the ones moat uattk-Qtber si?es and styles oipBSsmay be very

useful; especiaU^^owlpoin^ens for drawing heavy lines forthe out-

lines of cartoons. mttrtTBook are reproduced anumber of caricatures

that were outlined with a lettering pen which enabled the artist to

get an-effect markedly original These lettering pens may be had m

many sizes, and shaped with round, square or oblong nibs. The

student, or, prospective student is advised to obtain some of these, Higgins is very good and pencils for sketching arid drawing. All

drawings should be completely drawn with pencil before drawing in

ink. Art gum erasers, thumb tacks for fastening the drawing paper

or board to the drawing board will also be needed. The most satis-

because every artist should learn to manipulate the lettering pen and

lettering. brush in lettering. Nearly -all art work requires more or less hand

Other materials needed are, black waterproof drawing ink

factory material to make the drawings on is a good grade of Bristoli

Board. But if the drawings are not intended for publication, a good

quality of heavy, hard surface bond paper gives satisfactory results,

and is also verygood for sketching. Caricaturing requires a great deal

of sketching, and one should keep a supply of good paper for this




to record ideas and impressions before they escape from the



never to return from that oblivion where all things mental and

material eventually go.


After which sudden outburst of scholarship and philosophy, let

us consider the manipulation of the pen, for the benefit of beginners

who are not familiar with this medium of drawing.

writing; The that drawing is, with pen the is held thumb the and same first as in and the second proper fingers position of the for

right hand.

A variety of pen lines are used in cartooning and caricaturing.

Fine lines, heavy lines, slow lines, fast lines, irregular lines^ and shaky


lines are most frequently

kinds of lines, dots,

used. On Plate 1 are illustrations of various

shading and etc. E, Fand G are called Crosshatch

lines and they are used for shading. There are some examples of



Graded decreasing lines the as pressure in Q, on R, the S, T pen; and they U are are best drawn drawn by rapidly. increasing Ends or

of lines dhat do not have their termination in other lines are usually

drawn thusly. Anexampleof this is Fig. 3, Plate 9.


K on Plate 1 was made with a small camels hair brush, which

every cartoonist should have. L is also drawn with the same brush.

Lines such as these are sometimes used to stripe

Plate 10. N is dots drawn with the brush, and

which will beexplained later.

trousers. See Fig. 4,

M is termed Spatter,

Pen Lines and Materials


V and W are stamped with pads of denim drawing and knit goods,


respectively. caricature. The Onecanoftencreatesomethingoriginalbyexperimenting* same pad used in

and trying many ways and techniques

an object* or

stamping W was used in drawing

the caricature of Robert Herrick.


the processes of reproduction for that particular form or any of other art work. com'

In the drawing of caricatures and cartoons

mercial art, for that matter the artist should know something about

For pen and ink work the engraving is made on a sine printing plate.

It is not necessary, however, to know all about these processes of

reproduction. The artist should know that all work intended for line



rqproducttons should be made on white paper or Bristol Board with

black drawing ink. The drawing to be reproduced is photographed on

a chemically treated sine plate, which is then treated with acid. This dimensions in reproduction, which makes them really one'fourth the

Drawings are usually reduced about one-half the original

not photograph well; neither does black ink on colored paper.

which are left in relief, somewhat like printing type. Colored inks do

acid eats away the surface of the sine, except the photographed' lines,

proportion original sise. in Sincethedimensions breadth, or thickness. are, Therefore, ofcourse, reducedinproportion, in drawing for repro-

it naturally follows that the pen lines are also reduced in the same

duction oneshould use heavier lines than appear in aprinted drawing.

Studythemany drawings in this book to see howthey havebeen

drawn. Notice that the outlines are invariably the heaviest, while the same pressure, making the entire line the same thickness.

appearance that results from bringing the pen to an abrupt stop at the

gradually at the end of lines to taper them, and avoid that cut off

been drawn, and how the pressure on the pen has been decreased

lines for shading and such, are finer. Notice also how the lines have

Studyan accomplished artist's work and take advantage of what

heknows, andputyourown original ideas in the drawing. This is the

road that leads to success in art.




Chapter II

The Face andHead

Thehead is notso difficult tokarn to draw, but to learn to draw

it well requires diligent study and practice. It maynotseem reasonable

to the Although beginner the when features told that of the it is head much and easier face to are karn exaggerated to draw the in

head well, than it is to drawhands well.

cartoons, in life theyfollow closely definite proportions. These proper-

tionsareasfollows: The eyesareaboutmidwaybetweenthetop ofthe

head and the bottom of the chin; the nose is as long as the distance

from thenose tothebottomofthe chin, andthemouth is erne third of

the distance from the end of the nose to the bottom of the chin; the

top oftheearsare about on a line withthe eyebrows, and thebottoms Nextdraw line EE forthebrowsandthetop

on a line with the end of the nose.

To draw a front view cartoon of the head, draw a perpendicular

line for the center of the face, as B, Kg. 1, Plate 2. This line will be

equidistant from the eyes and split the nose and mouth in two equal .

parts. Nearthe center of thisline draw ahorizontal line, as FF, Fig. 1. Thenextstep is to place thefeatureswith a pencil, beginningwith the

bottom of chm in theproportions outlined in the preceding paragraph.

definite face it is betterto makeguide lines for the top of the head and

lines necessary in drawing a cartoon, but in drawing a caricature of a

are drawn equidistant from, and parallel to, line B. These are all the

eyes; brows, second; nose, third; mouth, fourth; ears, fifth; and finish

by drawing hair, chin, etc.


ofthe ears, andGG asa

ofnose. LinesAand C, Fig. 1

There are manywaysof drawingthefeaturesin a cartoon, which

vary with the different expressions. Since the subject of this book is









TheFace andHead


caricaturing, only this will be dealt with here. The features are drawn

lifelike in caricatures, except in ones where extreme exaggeration iff

used. beginners, because there are a great many little tricks for doing this,

To make

a drawing appear lifelike is ratter difficult fof

which they do not understand. Some of these methods are illustrated

in a great the caricatures deal. Note ofVonHindenburgonMate in Fig. 2 the outlines for the 7. black Figure shadows 1 wasdrawn under

fromaphotographwith little exaggeration, whileKg, 2 is exaggerated

eyebrows, blacked in corners onthe large of eyes, drawing wrinkles, giving under it life nose, and under sparkle. mustache, Attention and is

under difrt on the white collar. These outlined shadows have been

called to the highlights on the eyes, also. This is vary useful, and is

invariably used to make the eyes lifelike. TheMackbow tie and other

shading give the drawing tone, or color, which heightens the effect.

Do not forget shadows under ears in profiles, and faces other than

direcdy front views.

Caricatures are either drawn from life, or from photographs or

portraits. Forthestudentwhohasnotstudieddrawingfrom life it will,

perhaps, be easier to get agood likenessbydrawing fromphotographs. times as high as the head in the photograph, he can determine the

the drawing. For example, if one is going to make the drawing five

can be measured on the photograph and enlarged proportionately in

more easily proportioned correctly. This is becausethevarious features

Another advantage of drawing from photographs is that the head is

and hair are more easily seen and placed correctly on the drawing.

get agood likeness ofthesubject being caricatured. Highlightsoneyes

are more easily seen which helps one to knowwhat to exaggerate to

In good photographs the wrinkles, shadowy and conspicuous features

correct proportionsbecause he canmeasure the width of the head on However, one disadvantage of drawing from photographs is thai

the photo and get the width of the head in die drawing accordingly.

The nose, mouth and other features may likewise be measured and

placed in different correctly. positions of the same subject. With two positions it jp

you can onlygetoneviewtoworkfrom,unless youhavephotographs

sometimes possible to construct a third view. How this is done is

illustrated onPlate3 withthe<^catures ofEx-KaiserWilliam.



I onthisplatewasdrawnfromanoldphoto takenwhilehewasCrown

Prince. Fig. 2 wasmade from a late photograph. By using these two

drawingsa third (Fig. 4) was constructed showing the old man with


thesameview as the one as Grown Prince. Figures 3 and 5 are simply

caricatures of the same subject in different techniques and degrees of

exaggeration. Theshape of the nose, forehead, hair, andotherfeatures

m Figures4and 5 are such that it was possible to draw a profile also.

Although drawing from photographs has some advantages,

TheFace andHead


drawingfrom life also hasitsadvantages.In life drawingmanysketches

of different viewsand positionscan bemadetodeterminethe best, and

this should alwaysbedonewhen possible. Caricatures of somesubjects

are better drawn in profile, while others are improved by using other

positions. There is only one sure way to determine which is best, and

that is by experiment.


There is also awayto measurefrom life to aid the artist in getting

thetrueproportions in mating a drawing. Todo this, hold a pencil in

a vertical position at arms length and sight over the top of pencil,

puttingthetop of pencil in line with thetop ofthehead, or whatever

object you are measuring. Next place the thumb on the pencil in line

withthebottom of chin* The length of pencil fromyourthumb to the




noee, top, will chin, be etc., used can for be the properly height of proportioned the head in by your using drawing, this method. placing

guide lines that far apart. The pencil is thenheld horizontally to deter'

This mine method the width is not of the only drawing. useful in The drawing height from of life, forehead, but is length good for of

4jwing from still life, also.

The features and proportions characteristic of the difference in

the various ages should also be considered here.

The peculiarities of infancy and early youth are as follows: The

cranium and forehead are much larger in proportion to the rest of the

head; the eyesaresomewhatbelowthe center ofthehead; the features

and head as a whole are more gracefully rounded; the neck is much

smaller than in an adult, in proportion to the si2 of the head; and the

legs are much shorter in proportion to the length of the torso. With

agetheheadbecomesmorediminutive, andthebonystructurebecomes

moreprominent at theforehead, bridgeofthenose, andthejawbones.

With old age the flesh becomes flabby and falls away from the

more bones, in causing evidence; the and bones, furrowing muscles, the tendons, face with and wrinkles blood vessels in the to face be

and forehead. The dome of the skull appears broader, and the face

shorter, caused by the loss of teeth and straightening of the lower jaw

boxes. The nose is more powerful if not larger and the features in

general are more prominent, adding to the character and dignity of

years. The eyes also appear deeper in their sockets, which illusion is

likeness caused by of, the because aforementioned of these characteristics relaxation mentioned and drooping in the of preceding the flesh

aboveandbelow the eyes.

Models of advanced age are easier to draw, and to get a good

paragrapLyTbe smooth rounded features of youth are difficult to

draw and obtain a good likeness for the reason that therois nothing,

brvery little atmost, in o^p fn rtkhV^">fcj^^

is the

reason that women and children are sd3o)h4 g6od-^3^ects for















Chapter HI


Expression is very important m cartooning and caricaturing. Just

asacartoon is anexaggerated drawing, so is the expression in a cartoon

On Plate4are illustrationsoftwelve ofthemostused expressions.

They are labeled underneath each drawing: fright, surprise, anger,

attention, smile, sneer, pain, laughter, stupidity, weeprrig, anticipatioti,

and contentment. Study these drawings carefully and analyze each

expression. To help you do this, each expression .shall be considered

separately and their mam characteristics noted.

on end, In fright the eyebrows ire lifted and the forehead wrinkled. The

eyes are opened very wide, and so is the mouth; and the hair stands

Surprise is similar to fright except that the mouth is not opened

as wideand the eyebrows are not lifted as much.

In Anger the brows are drawn down in die center and are

knotted, or knit, and irregular, with the forehead wrinkled vertically.

The eyes are pardy covered by the brows. The corners of the mouth

are drawn downward, and very often the teeth are visible as in the

illustration. different expressions Also the illustrated. hair stands onend or is disorderly.

Note in Attention the shape of eyes, eyebrows, nose and mouth.

Study the wrinkles around the eyes, mouth, and forehead in all the

In Smiling the brows are lifted in an arched position. The eyes

are pardy dosed at the corners. The corners of the mouth are drawn

upward and may. be opened slighdy, or closed depending on the

particular expression desired,






The expression. Sneer, is drawn with one eyebrow drawn down

overthe eye, which is partly closed. Thenose is turned up slightly and

wrinkled. One corner of the mouth is up and the other down. The

proper relation should be kept between the features. That is, the


corner of the mouth should be elevated on the side on which the

eyebrow is down.

The eyebrows in Pain are knotted somewfeat as in anger. The

nose is wrinHed and the mouth is-opened. Note particularly the eyes

and mouth. Such mouths as are used in the illustrations of fright and

surprise would not be suitable here.

34 _


Laughter is very similar to smiling. The only difference being,

the brows are higher, the eyes more closed, and the mouth opened

wider. In Uproarious Laughter the nosemovesupward to makeroom

for the mouth to stretch big and wide, showing teeth, tongue, tonsils,

or what you will.

Stupidity is expressed by drawing the eyes about half dosed as in

the illustration, and the mouth drawn down on one side. Drunkenness

is expressed much the same. Especially the eyes. Although these expressions are suitable for cartoons, expressions

in omcatures are seldom exaggerated as much as the illustrations on

Ptfte 4. They were drawn this way so that youmight more easily see

JKJW to represent these many expressions.

A very good thing for beginners is to study the expressions used

in some of the better comic strips. Popeye, and Moon Mullins are

especially good in this respect. Expression should be suited to action

and vice versa. For example, a head and face with an expression of

fright should haveabody withthe characteristic action of fright; that

is, fingers far apart, feet off the ground, etc. themouth, or really themustache, in a straight line. In Figures 2 and 3

Admiral Coontz;. Figure 1 has a stern look obtained by representing

expressions and poses of s<5me rather famous men: Adolph Hitler and

On Pkte 5 are some reproductions of caricatures in various

note that the same general principles were used as in the expressions, drawn with almost any expression. However, expression is more

difficult with some animals than with others.

he is rather calm. Figures 8 and 9 are to illustrate that animals can be

a rather stiff brush perhaps. In Fig. 6 he has a grouch, while in Fig. 7

nosetrouble (mustache) takesonanew aspect in this drawing; that of

caricature of Hitler, smiling. Figure 5 is a profile of Hitler, angry. His

"Smile" and "Anger" on Pkte 4. Figure 4 is a two thirds front view

how the brows, eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn.

Study the illustrations of Anticipation and Contentment. Note

Inthe illustration of Weepingnote howthe eyebrows are drawn.

Theeyes are partly, or entirely dosed, and tears are drawn to hdp the





Chapter IV


Exaggeration is the life of a cartoon or caricature. Really that is

what they are exaggerations. The three forms of exaggeration in a

humorous However, drawing exaggeration are, exaggeration of the face and of form, head expression, in caricaturing and action. is the

purpose of this chapter, and exaggeration of action will be treated in

a separate chapter on action,

A caricature is an exaggerated drawing, having a likeness of one

particular the subject person. being caricatured. This statement The raises most the noticeable, question or of prominent what to

exaggerate. What to exaggerate depends entirely upon the features of

features of the model are usually, if not always, accentuated. For are large exaggerate these as in the caricature on the jacket of this

See the caricature ofAndrew Carnegie on Plate 14. If the nose or ears

example, if the model has a round face andlarge eyesexaggerate these.

book. Or a prominentjawmaybe accentuated asthe artist hasdone in

the drawing of Bismarck, Page 39, and Ex'KaiserWilhelm II, Plate 3.

The chin, beard, hair, etc., may also be exaggerated.

Since the caricature is supposed to have a likeness of the carica'

tured, degree it of naturally exaggeration, follows there that is if only the one most way noticeable to determine features what are

exaggerated, it will be easier to get a likeness of the model. As to the

degreewillgivethe best results and resemblanceto themodel, and that

is byexperiment. It is alwayswise to make anumber of pencil sketches

trying variousdegrees of exaggeration, and different techniques, before

making a finished drawing with pen and ink.

On the Exaggeration Plate 6, note the various degrees of

exaggeration, used in the drawings of Lafayette, Figures 1, 2, and 3.







There is little accentuation in Figure 1, while Figure 2 is exaggerated

more, especially the eyes, chin, jaw, and ear. The saye features are

enlarged in Figure 3, only more so. Figures*1 and 3 are only sketches,

and as Figure 2 seemed best, it was made the large finished drawing.

Practicallythesamethingwasdoneinthetwodrawings oftheEnglish


Poet, John Masefield. Attention is called to the difference in exagger- In drawing caricatures a good rule to follow is this: first, make a

drawing as true to life as possible using little exaggeration; second,

study this and make several sketches to determine which features to

caricature of William Makepeace Thackeray.

ation of the hair, nose, mustache, and chin. Figure 4 on this plate is a







exaggerate; third, experiment to see which technique is most appny

n life, make

priate for the exaggeration used. If you are drawing Plate 8. Extreme exaggeration wasemployed in the large head on this

plate which givesa