FE analysis of size effects in reinforced concrete beams withoutss

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FE analysis of size effects in reinforced concrete beams withoutss

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/finel

shear reinforcement based on stochastic elasto-plasticity

with non-local softening

E. Syroka-Korol a, J. Tejchman a,n, Z. Mrz b

a

b

Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 29 July 2013

Received in revised form

30 April 2014

Accepted 12 May 2014

The paper presents results of FE analysis of mechanical size effects in longitudinally reinforced concrete

slender beams without shear reinforcement failing in shear mode. The simulations were performed

under plane stress conditions for three beams of different sizes and a xed shape (height/length ratio).

The attention was focused on deterministic and statistical size effects related to the nominal beam shear

strength. Concrete was assumed as an isotropic elasto-plastic material exhibiting non-local softening.

The bond strength between concrete and reinforcement was assumed to depend on interface slip with

both stable and softening responses. Statistical simulations were performed for spatially correlated

Gaussian random elds of tensile strength using a stratied sampling reduction method. The FE

numerical results were compared with the respective own experimental test results.

& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Elasto-plasticity

Non-local softening

Random elds

Reinforced concrete beams

Size effect

Strain localization

1. Introduction

The size effect phenomenon in quasi-brittle structures is

related to a transition from a ductile behaviour of small specimens

to a totally brittle response of large ones. Thus, the nominal

strength sN decreases with increasing characteristic specimen

dimension D. The reasons for this behaviour are: (a) intense strain

localization regions with a certain volume (i.e. micro-cracked

damage regions called also fracture process zones, FPZ) which

precede discrete macro-cracks; their size related to D contributes

to a deterministic size effect and (b) a spatial variability/randomness of local material properties contributing to a statistical size

effect that becomes dominant with increasing D.

A strong size effect also occurs in reinforced concrete beams

without shear reinforcement wherein diagonal sheartensile fracture takes place in concrete. It was experimentally observed

among others by Leonhardt and Walther [1], Kani [2,3], Bhal [4],

Taylor [5], Walraven [6], Chana [7], Iguro et al. [8], Bazant and

Kazemi [9], Shioya et al. [10], Kim and Park [11], Grimm [12],

Ghannoum [13], Kawano and Watanabe [14], PodgorniakStanik [15], Yoshida [16], Angelakos et al. [17], Lubell et al. [18]

and Syroka-Korol [19]. The diagonal cracks at failure had in

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: esyroka@pg.gda.pl (E. Syroka-Korol),

tejchmk@pg.gda.pl (J. Tejchman), zmroz@ippt.gov.pl (Z. Mrz).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nel.2014.05.005

0168-874X/& 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

at the maximum load independently of the beam size. Therefore, this

size effect in such reinforced concrete beams could be described by

the analytical deterministic (energetic) size effect law (SEL) of Type II

according to Bazant [20], being valid for structures of a positive

similar geometry possessing large stress-free cracks that grow in a

stable manner up to the maximum load (Fig. 1)

o

N D p;

1

1 D=D0

Where N is the nominal strength, and o and D0 are the empirical

parameters depending on material properties, structure geometry

and structure shape [21]. They can be determined by tting Eq. (1) to

the experimental data. The parameter D0 separates the ductile failure

(D0D) from the brittle one (D0D). For very large structures (D-1),

the nominal strength approaches N-D 1/2. Assuming the residual

strength R for very large sizes (D-1) due to the strength of

reinforcement and compressed concrete, Eq. (1) becomes valid if N

is replaced by the expression N R [21]. For small structures (D-0),

the size effect disappears. Thus, the size effect is strong only in the

limited size range. The SEL curve (Fig. 1b) in a double-logarithmic

plot represents a smooth transition from a strength (plastic) limit for

small sizes to the solution given by the Linear Elastic Fracture

Mechanics (LEFM) for large and very large sizes.

In spite of the ample experimental evidence, the physically based

size effect is not taken into account in practical design rules of

engineering structures, assuring a specied safety factor with respect

26

Fig. 1. Size effect curve of type II with large cracks or notches by Bazant [20,22]

(N nominal strength, D characteristic specimen size, LEFM linear elastic

fracture mechanics); (a) linear scale and (b) loglog scale.

sometimes considered in building codes which is doomed to yield an

incorrect formula since physical foundations are lacking.

Our objective is to provide a quantitative assessment of a size

effect and a related description of a brittle failure mode in slender

reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement under

bending. The nite element method based on an isotropic elastoplastic model with non-local softening enhanced by a characteristic length parameter of micro-structure was used in numerical

studies. The plane stress 2D calculations were performed. Material

parameters were calibrated with conventional laboratory tests and

code recommendations. A characteristic length of microstructure

was estimated by means of displacement measurements on the

beam surface using the non-invasive Digital Image Correlation

(DIC) technique [24]. Deterministic calculations were performed assuming a constant value of the tensile strength. In turn,

statistical analyses were carried out with spatially correlated

random elds according to the Gauss distribution reecting the

random nature of a local tensile strength. In order to reduce the

number of FE statistical simulations, a stratied sampling scheme

was used belonging to a group of variance reduced Monte Carlo

methods. This approach enabled us a signicant reduction of the

sample number without affecting the accuracy of calculations. The

present analysis constitutes the continuation of our earlier successful simulations of a combined deterministic-statistical size

effect in notched [25] and unnotched concrete beams [26].

The numerical results were compared with our laboratory experiments [19,27]. The experiments were carried out on

xed height/length ratio: 3 small-size beams of the height of

200 mm and length 1500 mm, 3 medium-size beams of the height

of 400 mm and length 3000 mm and 3 large-size beams of the

height of 800 mm and length 6000 mm (the thickness

t200 mm). The beams were geometrically similar in 2 dimensions to avoid differences in the hydration heat effects which are

proportional to the thickness of the member [22]. They and made

from the same concrete mix with the mean aggregate diameter

equal to 9 mm. The simply supported beams were subjected to

4-point bending with the constant shear span-effective height

ratio equal to 3. To induce a sheartension failure mechanism in

concrete, the beams were over-reinforced without shear reinforcement (the reinforcement ratio was always 1%). The experimental results showed a signicant size effect on the nominal

shear strength versus the beam effective height. The mean

nominal shear strength of large-size beams was smaller by 40%

with respect to small-size beams. In all RC beams, a combined

diagonal sheartensile (signicantly more tensile) and bond failure mode dominated, characterized by the development of a

critical diagonal sheartensile crack connected with a horizontal

splitting crack along the top of the bottom longitudinal reinforcement toward the beam support (a shearcompression failure

mechanism did not occur in concrete). The failure mode proceeded

in a brittle manner in the post-critical stage.

Numerical FE analyses of slender beams without transverse

reinforcement were performed among others by Kotsovos and

Pavlovic [28,29], Vecchio and Swim [30], Sato et al. [31] and Slobbe

et al. [32]. They used a non-linear elastic-brittle model ([28,29]),

a smeared rotating crack approach [30], a smeared xed crack

approach with a sequentially linear (SL) analysis [32] and a

discrete rotating crack model [31]. In calculations, a diagonal

tensile brittle failure mode was usually obtained. A critical diagonal crack propagated towards the beam top, if the beam failure

was caused by concrete splitting in a compression zone [32].

It propagated towards the bottom, if the beam failure was caused

by bond splitting [31]. A deterministic size effect on the nominal

shear strength of beams failing by diagonal tension was studied

only by Sato et al. [31] for four virtual reinforced concrete beams

with the height ranging from 100 mm up to 1600 mm. The

numerical results were overestimated as compared to an analytical

size effect formula. According to 3D simulation results in [28,29],

the size effect in slender reinforced concrete beams without shear

reinforcement is mainly caused by non-symmetric cracking combined with the unintended out-of-plane action, the latter being

impossible to be avoided in experiments. They have also found out

that stirrups eliminate the size effect in reinforced concrete beams

(in contrast to recent outcomes by Yu and Bazant [33]).

Summarized, the novel elements in our calculations for reinforced concrete beams failing in shear are: (a) combined

deterministic-statistical FE calculations for 3 different beams by

taking strain localization and bond into account, (b) direct comparison between numerical and experimental results and (c)

application of a stratied sampling scheme to reduce the number

of statistical calculations. To our knowledge, such calculations have

so far not been performed.

2. Constitutive models

2.1. Concrete

The concrete deformational response was simulated by assuming an isotropic elasto-plastic constitutive model with a nonlocal softening which was used in our previous calculations

[19,26,3436]. This relatively simple isotropic model for concrete

versus non-local parameter st f(1) and (b) compressive stress versus non-local

parameter sc f(2).

tension (Eq. (A1)) and by DruckerPrager in compression (Eq.

(A2)). The softening under tension (Fig. 2a) was characterized by

the exponential curve by Hordijk [37] (Eqs. (A7) and (A8)). In

compression, linear hardening/softening was assumed (Fig. 2b).

The concrete model requires two elastic constants: modulus of

elasticity E and Poisson's ratio , two plastic constants: internal

friction angle and dilatancy angle , one tensile yield function st

f(1) and one compressive yield function sc f(2). The disadvantages

of the model are the following: the shape of the compressive failure

surface in a principal stress space is linear (not paraboloidal as in

reality). In deviatoric planes, the shape is circular (in compression

states) and triangular (in tension states); thus it does not gradually

change from a curvilinear triangle with smoothly rounded corners to

nearly circular with increasing pressure. The effect of third stress

deviator invariant is not taken into account. The strength is similar

for triaxial compression and extension, and the stiffness degradation

due to strain localization and non-linear volume changes during

loading are not taken into account.

A non-local theory was used as a regularization technique

[4042]. In this approach, the principle of a local action does not

take place any more. Polizzotto et al. [43] laid down a thermodynamically consistent formulation of non-local plasticity. In the

calculations, the softening parameters i (i 1, 2) were assumed to

be non-local (independently for both yield surfaces fi) [44]

R

x i d

with i 1; 2;

2

i x 1 mi x m VR

V x d

27

between concrete and reinforcement according to Do

rr [51] (a) and CEB-FIP Code

[39] (b).

Fig. 4. Bond relationship: radial normal stress sr,rs and bond slip versus radial

normal strain r,rs between concrete and reinforcement during splitting failure [51].

body volume, x is the coordinate vector of the considered point,

is the coordinate vector of the surrounding points, denotes the

weighting function and m is the additional non-local parameter

controlling the size of the localized plastic zone. As a weighting

28

2

1

r pe r=lc

lc

parameter r is the distance between material points. The averaging

in Eq. (3) was restricted to a small representative area around each

material point (the inuence of points at the distance of r 3lc

was only of 0.01%). The softening non-local parameters near

boundaries and at both sides of a localized zone were always

calculated on the basis of Eqs. (1) and (2) (which satisfy the

normalizing condition) [36]. Other approaches were proposed by

Polizzotto [45] and Jirsek et al. [46]. The reinforcement was not

taken into account when calculating a non-local parameter in

concrete [36]. To simplify the calculations, non-local rates were

replaced by their approximations calculated with known total

strain increments [42].

The non-local model was implemented in the commercial nite

element code ABAQUS [47] with the aid of subroutine UMAT (user

constitutive law denition) and UEL (user element denition) for

efcient computations [42]. The calculations were carried out

using a large-displacement analysis available in the ABAQUS

code [47]. According to this method, the current conguration of

the body was taken into account. The Jaumann rate of the Cauchy

stress was taken. The conjugate strain rate was the rate of

deformation. The rotation of the stress and strain tensor was

calculated with the HughesWinget method [48]. It is known that

the stress and strain rate are not work conjugate in this formulation and erroneous results occur, in particular for highly compressible materials [49]. Our calculations showed however that the

effect of large displacements on the failure force in reinforced

beams was negligible (less than 1%). Thus the effect of a work

conjugacy error was not important. The non-local averaging was

performed in a current conguration. This choice was governed by

the fact that element areas in this conguration were automatically calculated by ABAQUS [47]. The edge and vertex in the

Rankine yield function were taken into account by the interpolation of 23 plastic multipliers according to Koiter's rule [50]. The

same procedure was adopted in the case of combined tension

(Rankine criterion) and compression (DruckerPrager criterion).

2.2. Reinforcement

To simulate the reinforcement behaviour, an elastic-perfectly

plastic material with the von Misses criterion was assumed

f s sij q f y ;

2.3. Bond between concrete and reinforcement

To describe the interaction between concrete and reinforcement, a bond relationship was dened. In general, two different

bond-failure mechanisms may appear connected to a pull-out or

splitting mode. The pullout bond failure takes place when the bar

anchorage length is insufcient to carry tensile stresses in the

occurs when the concrete cover thickness is insufcient to resist

radial cracks caused by local forces transmitted through bar ribs.

To consider bond model, an interface with a zero thickness was

assumed along a contact surface, Since the bond model was crucial

for describing numerically the experimental failure mechanism,

three different bond stressslip denitions were tested. Initially,

the simple and well-known models proposed by Dorr [51] and

CEB-FIP Model Code [39] were used which described the pull-out

failure by a relationship between the bond shear stress and slip

displacement . The rst bond-slip model neglects softening and

assumes a yield plateau when the pullout failure begins (Fig. 3a).

The model needs solely 2 parameters: the tensile strength ft and

slip displacement u at which perfect slip occurs (usually

u 0.06 mm). In turn, the model in CEB-FIP Model Code [39]

assumes softening and residual yield (Fig. 3b). The 6 model

parameters 1, 2, 3, , max and f depend on the concrete

connement and bond conditions.

In order to describe the splitting bond failure along reinforcement, the model by Akkerman [52] was also used, being a

modication of the original model proposed by den Uijl and Bigaj

[53]. The model takes into account the evolution of the radial

stress sr,rs versus the radial strain r,rs and is divided into 3 phases

(Fig. 4). The rst phase (0 r r,rs rr,rs,max) characterizes a nonlinear material behaviour caused by cracks, the second one

(r,rs,max or,rs rr,rs,res) includes linear softening and the third

one (r,rs,res or,rs) described the residual behaviour

8

k 2

>

s

>

>

< r;rs; max 1 k 2

sr;rs r;rs sr;rs; max 1 1 b r;rs r;rs: max

r;rs r;rs: max

>

>

>

: sr;rs;res

r;rs: max o r;rs r r;rs:res

r;rs:res o r;rs

5

with

k

Er r;rs; max

sr;rs; max

and

r;rs

:

r;rs; max

maximum and residual stress (b sr,rs,res/sr,rs,max); it was assumed

as b 0.2. The initial radial stiffness (Eq. (6)) is

!1

cef f 0:5b 2 0:252b

;

7

Er E

cef f 0:5b 2 0:252b

where b is the bar diameter, ceff is the effective concrete cover and

E and are the modulus of elasticity of concrete and Poisson's

ratio, respectively.

The limit radial normal stresses and strains were dened as

follows:

cef f 0:88

cef f 1:08

f

sr;rs; max 2f t

; r;rs; max 4:2 t

8

b

E

b

r;rs;res

ft

E

2cef f c0

;

b

b

second phase (r,rs,max or,rs rr,rs,res). The radial strains were

29

related to the radial normal stress sr,rs by the ctitious friction rule

computed as follows:

tan b ; ;

r:rs

0:5b

10

where b is the cone angle between the bar axis and cone-shaped

cracking surface starting from ribs. The ctitious value was

assumed as b[o] 0.1fc [MPa]. In turn, the bond stress was

sr;rs cot b

11

concrete properties E, and ft, 2 depending on the specimen and

reinforcement geometry ceff and b and 3 empirical ones b, c0,

and b.

3. Random elds in statistical calculations

In the rst step, the material tensile strength ft was the sole

random parameter in our statistical analyses. The spatially correlated random elds of the tensile strength were described by a

Gauss distribution function and the homogenous squared exponential auto-covariance correlation function C

!

x1 x2 2

Cx1 ; x2 exp

;

12

2

lcor

where x1 and x2 are the co-ordinate points and l is the correlation

length. The auto-covariance function had the following spectral

decomposition:

1

Cx1 ; x2 i f i x1 f i x2 ;

13

i1

probability function, sampling parameter, Pi probability intervals).

Table 1

Geometry of reinforced concrete slender beams of Figs. 7 and 8.

Dimension Small-size beam

SL20

Medium-size beam

SL40

Large-size beam

SL80

L [mm]

Leff [mm]

H [mm]

D [mm]

a [mm]

b [mm]

3000

2700

400

360

1080

540

6000

5620

800

750

2250

1120

1500

1200

200

160

480

240

of the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind

Z

Cx1 ; x2 f i x1 dx1 i f i x2

14

D

The spatially correlated random elds H(x,) (here with the zero

mean and unit variance) were dened according to the Karhunen

Love expansion [54,55] by an innite linear combination of

orthogonal functions with random coefcients

1 p

Hx;

15

i i f i x;

i1

^

from N(0,1) distribution. The approximated solution Hx;

was

obtained by truncating the series in Eq. (17) after M terms. The

Fig. 7. Cross-section of slender reinforced concrete beams with horizontal bars used in calculations and experiments: (a) small-size SL20, (b) medium-size SL40 and

(c) large-size SL80.

30

Fig. 8. Geometry and loading scheme of reinforced concrete slender beams without stirrups.

Fig. 9. Experimental crack pattern on front (solid lines) and back (dashed lines) side of medium-size reinforced concrete beam.

Fig. 10. FE mesh for small-size beam SL20 (a) and large-size beam SL80 (b) (note that beams are not proportionally scaled).

8

x A 0; 0:5

>

<1

x A 0:5; 1

x 1

16

>

:

0

otherwise

by scaling and shifting it according to formula

j;k x j 2j x k;

j; k A N;

17

scaling and shifting and j is the function amplitude. In the current

study j 1, which forms an orthogonal basis. The extended set of

i, which creates the complete set of orthogonal functions over the

domain [0, 1], was dened after [58] as

0 x 1

Fig. 11. Calculated vertical force P versus deection u with various bond denitions

compared with experiments (small-size reinforced concrete beam SL20).

i x 2j x k;

18

level). Each eigenfunction was approximated by a truncated series

of the N Haar wavelets

N 1

resulting error was minimized by sorting eigenvalues in a decreasing order and controlling the sum of i for i 1,, M.

An analytical solution of Eq. (17) is available with e.g. an

exponential autocorrelation function (Ghanen and Spanos [56]).

In other cases, Eq. (17) has to be solved numerically. In our study,

the wavelet-Galerkin method proposed by Phoon et al [57,58] was

used wherein conventional bases (e.g. trigonometric or polynomials) were replaced by Haar wavelets. A family of the orthogonal

and

f k x di i x T xDk ;

k

19

i0

In order to reduce the number of statistical simulations, the

so-called stratied sampling scheme originally proposed by

Neyman [59] was used [60,61]. Initially 2000 random elds of

the local tensile strength were generated for each beam size. Next,

the generated samples were classied according to the sampling

31

Fig. 12. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 in small-size reinforced concrete beam SL20 at failure with various bond-slip models: (a) perfect bond, (b) by

Do rr [51], (c) by CEB-FIP [39] and (d) by Akkermann [52] from FE analyses compared to experimental crack pattern (single lines).

regions of beams (Fig. 5) according to their failure mode. Thus,

we assumed that the effect of the beam mid-region on the

statistical failure force was negligible (the effect of the sampling

region size on results merits further investigations). For the left

and right shear region of Fig. 5, the mean value was separately

calculated and afterwards the lower value was used. Next, the

random elds were classied and arranged in an increasing order

according to the calculated mean value. Based on the sampling

parameter, the cumulative probability of an initially generated set

of the random elds was calculated (Fig. 6). Next, the cumulative

probability function was divided into a nite number n of the

equal intervals (Pi, i1,,n), where n corresponded to the number

of samples. From each subset of samples included in the intervals

of the equal probability, only one sample (nearest to the midpoint) was chosen for further FE analyses. Thus, the chosen

representative set of n samples included random elds of the

mean value in a shear region from the lowest to the highest one.

We used the sampling procedure after the random elds were

generated instead of sampling of on random vectors (Eq. (15))

during a random eld generation [62] because of the inuence of

the input random vector on a random distribution. The sampling

on output random elds enabled us to choose the samples in a

critical localized zone of the beam shear region, being approximately representative for the beam failure force. Our method

allows for a fast convergence to the mean failure force [60,61].

4. FE input data

The FE-analyses of longitudinally reinforced concrete slender

beams without shear reinforcement were performed with 3 different beam sizes of a similar geometry from experiments by Syroka

Korol [19]. The beams had the same dimensions H L as in

the experiments: 200 1500 mm2 (small-size beam SL20),

400 3000 mm2 (medium-size beam SL40) and 800 6000 mm2

(large-size beam SL80) (Table 1). All specimens had the constant

thickness t200 mm and constant reinforcement percentage

1% (Fig. 7). The beams were subjected to 4-point bending

(Fig. 8) under the constant shear span to the effective depth ratio

a/D3. The numerical calculations were carried out under plane

stress conditions since experimental crack patterns were very

similar on both sides of all beams (Fig. 9 shows these patterns in

a medium-size beam).

The specimens were cast from concrete C35/45 of a maximum

aggregate size 32 mm (the characteristic compressive strength

fck 35 MPa, the characteristic tensile strength fctk 2.2 MPa,

Young modulus E 34 GPa and Poisson's ratio 0.2). The internal

friction angle was 141 with rs

bc 1.2 (Eq. (A2) and (A4)) and the

dilatancy angle 81 [34]. The calculations were carried out with

the characteristic length lc 5 mm based on the experimentally

measured mean width of localized tensile zones wloc by means of

the DIC technique equal to 20 mm. The non-locality parameter

was m 2 [42]. The ultimate non-local softening parameter in

tension was mainly u1 0.0207 (Gf gf4lc E 180 N/m) and in compression u2 0.0057 (Gc gc4lc E2700 N/m) based on initial calculations. The steel behaviour was specied by the yield stress

fy 500 MPa, the elastic modulus Es 200 GPa and the Poisson's

ratio s 0.3.

The bar diameters were b 10 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm in

the beams SL20, SL40 and SL80, respectively, and b 10 mm for

the second reinforcement layer in the large-size beam SL80. In the

model by Do rr [51] Eq. (7), the slip displacement was u 0.06 mm

(as originally proposed by Do

rr [51]). When using the bond model

by CEB-FIP [39], for the unconned concrete and good bond

conditions case, the material parameters were: 1 0.6 mm,

2 0.6 mm, 3 1 mm, 0.4, max 2.0fck 11.83 MPa and

f 0.15max 1.77 MPa. In the bond model by Akkermann [52]

(Eqs. (5)(11)), we assumed ceff 22 mm, b 0.2 [39] and

c0 0.18 mm (based on own initial FE simulations).

32

Fig. 13. Evolution of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 in small-size reinforced concrete beam SL20 with bond-slip denition by Akkermann [52] from FE analysis at

different vertical resultant force: (a) P 30 kN, (b) P 50 kN, (c) P 85 kN, (d) Pmax 91.4 kN and experimental crack pattern after failure [19] (e). (For interpretation of the

references to color in this gure, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

FE meshes of quadrilateral elements composed of four diagonally crossed triangles were used (Fig. 10). The nite elements

had mainly the area of 7.5 10 mm2 (width height) which was

equal to (1.52) lc to obtain mesh-independent results [24,26].

In the case of the large-size beam, the ne mesh covered the beam

mid-part of 4410 mm only. Totally, 130 6001690 344 nite elements

were used depending upon the beam size. The steel bars were

modelled as 2D elements with the width of 1.5 mm and height of

2.02.5 mm depending on the bar diameter b. Since our FE

analyses were two-dimensional, the bar height was taken as

0.5 b to obtain a similar contact surface as in experiments

(2 0.5b). The inuence of the mesh size on FE results was

checked by comparing 2 different meshes in the small-size

reinforced concrete beam SL20 assuming the bond model by

Akkermann [52].

Fig. 11 shows the calculated load-displacement diagrams with

different bond models of Section 3 for the small size-beam SL20,

and Figs. 12 and 13 the calculated evolution of the non-local

tensile softening parameter 1 .

Using the model by Akkermann [52] only, a satisfactory

agreement was achieved with experiments (Figs. 12 and 13). The

ultimate vertical force from deterministic simulations was 91.4 kN

which was by 1% lower only than the average failure force from

maximum vertical force was too high due to the different main

failure mechanism assumed that was not consistent with the

experimental failure mode (steel yielding instead of diagonal

tension). The number of localized zones varied from 5 with the

model by Do

rr (1980) [51] and by CEB-FIP [39] (Fig. 13c) up to

8 with the perfect bond (Fig. 12a). Thus, the pattern of localized

zones differed from the experimental one.

The evolution of localized zones was similar to the experimentally observed cracks with the bond model by Akkermann [52]

(Fig. 13). First, vertical tensile bending localized zones appeared

at the mid-region, next inclined shear localized zones developed

in the shear span region, and nally a diagonal sheartensile

zone occurred connected to the splitting failure along reinforcement, where bond radial stresses sr,rs reached their residual

value (marked as dashed line in Fig. 13e). A critical inclined

localized zone occurred at the distance of dc 270 mm from

the support with the ratio of dc/a 0.56 being identical as the

average experimental value from 3 tests. In total, 9 localized

zones were calculated whose average spacing was 87 mm

(the average experimental crack spacing was also similar

91 mm).

We investigated also the effect of plastic parameters , , Gf and

Gc on FE results. The effect of (with rs

bc 1.151.25) and (with

812o) was negligible. The lower Gf, less localized zones appeared

and a critical diagonal localized zone occurred at a higher distance

from the support. In turn, the effect of Gc on a localized zones

33

Fig. 14. Comparative deterministic FE results with coarse (element size 15 20 mm2) and ne mesh (element size 7.5 10 mm2) for small-size reinforced concrete beam

SL20: (A) load-deection diagram and (B) contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 at failure (a) coarse mesh and (b) ne mesh.

Fig. 15. Evolution of diagonal sheartensile localized zone with marked points: (a) at P 76 kN, (b) at P 86 kN, (c) at peak and (d) at failure (small-size reinforced concrete beam).

curves of Fig. 2 with Gf 180 N/m and Gc 2700 N/m provided the

most realistic FE results with respect to experiments.

The effect of the mesh size on the results is demonstrated in

Fig. 14. The results show that the FE results with a ne and a coarse

mesh are similar (Fig. 14A and B). The failure force for the coarse

mesh (element size 15 20 mm2) was 93 kN while for the ne

mesh (element size 7.5 10 mm2) was 91 kN (Fig. 14A). Based on

these results, we assumed that there was no need to decrease

more the size of nite elements (less than 7.5 10 mm2).

34

region at the support which gradually propagated along a beam

height during loading until they reached a compressive zone. The

critical inclined localized zones (preceding failure), which

occurred at the nearest distance x to the support (x Ea/2), were

the last ones which occurred in the shear region. They initiated

horizontal bond splitting failure zones along the reinforcement

propagating simultaneously towards both supports (Figs. 1719). A

similar failure mode happened during laboratory tests, however a

single horizontal splitting crack always appeared there.

Table 2 presents the calculated local normal (un) and tangential (ut) displacement increments across a diagonal localized

zone during its propagation path (Fig. 15) in the small beam

SL20. The dominant mechanism in a diagonal localized zone was

normal extension. Both displacement increments un and ut

gradually increased during deformation (e.g. un increased from

0.02 mm up to 0.39 mm, whereas ut increased from 0.13 mm up

to 0.25 mm across EF). However, the tangential displacement

increment ut reected mainly the beam deection.

The evolution of the vertical force versus the deection was

consistent with the experimental measurements for all beam sizes

(Fig. 16). The calculated maximum vertical forces were: 91.4 kN

(small-size beam), 167.9 kN (medium-size beam) and 263.9 kN

(large-size beam). Hence, the nominal shear strength, expressed

by N V/tD with V 0.5Pmax, was N 1.43 MPa, N 1.17 MPa and

N 0.88 MPa, respectively it decreased strongly with the beam

height. The calculated width of all localized zones was about

wloc 4lc, i.e. was similar as in our other FE simulations of

reinforced concrete elements [34,36,63]. It was also similar as in

our experiments (measured with the DIC technique using the

length resolution of 100 pixel/mm), which was 16.519.6 mm [19].

A direct comparison between the experimental and numerical

fracture pattern is demonstrated in Fig. 20. The critical diagonal

localized zone occurred at the distance dc 458 mm from

the support (dc/a 0.424) in the beam SL40 and dc 1161 m

(dc/a 0.523) in the beam SL80. The corresponding experimental

average values of the ratio dc/a were 0.58 (SL40) and 0.54 (SL80).

Thus, the numerical outcome was too small in the beam SL40 and

realistic in the beam SL80. The average spacing of vertical localized

zones s at the mid-region was equal to: 87 mm (SL20), 150 mm

(SL40) and 324 mm (SL80), i.e. it was close to the experimental

one, which was 76 mm, 155 mm and 300 mm.

The localized zones at failure in the beam SL20 covered 86% of

its height (0.86H), while in beams SL40 and SL80: 0.773H and

0.784H, respectively. The mean cracked region height in the

experiment was 0.864H (SL20), 0.816H (SL40), 0.836H (SL80),

indicating a good agreement with numerical results with the

small discrepancy of 6% in the beam SL40 and SL80.

6.2. Statistical calculations

compared to mean experimental results from 3 tests: (a) small-size beam SL20,

(b) medium-size beam SL40 and (c) large-size beam SL80.

6.1. Deterministic calculations

The deterministic simulations were carried out with the constant tensile strength ft 2.2 MPa. The results showed a signicant

effect of a beam effective depth on the nominal shear strength.

In analyses, the failure mechanism was similar in all beam sizes:

after appearance of several localized zones in a pure bending

on the nominal shear strength was investigated using spatially

correlated random elds. The random elds were generated with

the mean value of ft 2.2 MPa and variation coefcient covft 0.12

(covft sft/ft) using the Gauss distribution [26]. The range of

correlation was assumed to be lcor 100 mm 5wloc (Eq. (16))

based on calculations in unnotched concrete beams [26]. Using

the stratied sampling method (Section 4), 12 samples were solely

chosen for FE numerical analyses. Fig. 21 presents one exemplary

random distribution of the local tensile strength for each

beams size.

In the calculations, a diagonal sheartensile failure mechanism

always occurred (as in deterministic simulations). The 12 vertical

forcedeection curves from statistical calculations compared to

the deterministic curve are shown in Fig. 22. The mean failure

35

Fig. 17. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 (a) compared to experimental crack pattern (b) and its distribution along beam bottom (c) and along mid-height

(d) from deterministic simulations with small-size reinforced concrete beam.

83.0 kN (7 4.0 kN), 146.0 kN (76.1 kN) and 234.5 kN (7 12.7 kN)

in the small-size, medium-size and large-size beams, respectively.

The corresponding mean nominal shear strengths N V/tD

(V 0.5Pmax) were: 1.30 MPa, 1.01 MPa and 0.78 MPa, respectively.

They were solely by 9%, 13% and 11% lower than the deterministic

outcomes. Thus, a statistical size effect was practically negligible

that was in agreement with the theory by Bazant and Planas [22].

The contours of a non-local tensile softening parameter (with

the marked sections where the bond radial strain was higher than

the limit value r,rs Zr,rs,max) are shown in Figs. 2325.

The statistical width of localized zones and statistical height of

vertical localized zones in a constant bending moment region was

similar to the deterministic values, whereas the statistical height

of a critical diagonal localized zone was slightly higher than in

deterministic calculations: 0.92H (small-size beam SL20), 0.87H

(medium-size beam SL40) and 0.83H (large-size beam SL80),

respectively. The calculated normalized position of a critical

inclined localized zone dc/a in all beams during statistical simulations was higher on average than in corresponding deterministic

analyses and in experiments (i.e. the localized zone developed at a

larger distance from the support). It was dc/a 0.58 (Fig. 23a)

0.64 (Fig. 23c), dc/a 0.46 (Fig. 24a) 0.79 (Fig. 24c) and dc/a 0.43

(Fig. 25a) 0.70 (Fig. 25c) in the beams SL20, SL40 and SL80,

respectively. There exists a clear relationship between the beam

bearing capacity and the position of a critical inclined localized

zone from which the bond failure developed. Generally, when a

critical inclined zone appeared at a larger distance from the

loading point (i.e. at a smaller distance from the support), the

beam bearing capacity was higher. It was, in particular, visible in

strongly varied. The highest vertical force (Fig. 25a) was at a

critical inclined localized zone at the distance of 1.28 m from the

loading point, and the lowest one (Fig. 25c) at the distance of

0.68 m. The average spacing of vertical tensile zones in the smallsize beams was s 94 mm (86105 mm), in the medium-size

beams s 170 mm (137198 mm) and in the large-size beams

s355 mm (291463 mm).

In Fig. 26, a comparison of the maximum shear strength,

expressed in analogy to an elastic beam theory as N 1.5 V/(tD),

between FE deterministic and experimental outcomes together

with the calibrated SEL curve by Bazant (Eq. (1)) and two solutions

for a rigid-perfectly plastic body is given.

The original plastic solution for the shear failure mechanism with

a diagonal crack given by Eq. (20) [64,65] assumes an inclined

straight yield line starting from the support, whereas the improved

plastic solution (Eqs. (21) and (22)) by Zhang [66] considers an

inclined straight yield line starting at a certain distance from the

support x (x0.74D(a/D-2). The shear strengths by Nielsen and

Brstrup [64,65] and by Zhang [66], which create the upper bound

of the load bearing capacity, based on the equation of the internal

and external work, are calculated as follows:

"r

#

"r

#

a 2 a

a 2 a

0:5f

1

1

0:5c f ck

D

D

D

D

n

and

0:5f

nn

"r

#

"r

#

a x2 a x

a x2 a x

1

1

0:5s c f ck

D

D

D

D

20

21

36

Fig. 18. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 (a) compared to experimental crack pattern (b) and its distribution along beam bottom (c) and along mid-height

(d) from deterministic simulations with reinforced concrete medium-size beam.

Fig. 19. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 (a) compared to experimental crack pattern (b) and its distribution of along beam bottom (c) and along midheight (d) from deterministic simulations with large-size beam.

37

Table 2

Calculated normal un and tangential ut displacement increments between points of Fig. 15 across diagonal localized zone during its evolution (small-size reinforced

concrete beam).

Vertical force

u [mm]

Distance ab

Distance cd

Distance ef

Distance gh

Distance ik

Distance ln

Distance mo

Distance pr

76 kN

un

ut

0.01

0.12

0.01

0.12

0.02

0.13

0.04

0.13

0.09

0.11

0.01

0.09

0.02

0.12

0.15

0.12

86 kN

un

ut

0.03

0.15

0.05

0.15

0.10

0.17

0.15

0.18

0.22

0.14

0.11

0.07

0.04

0.13

0.27

0.12

At peak

un

ut

0.09

0.16

0.14

0.17

0.23

0.21

0.31

0.22

0.40

0.18

0.29

0.01

0.16

0.11

0.40

0.09

After failure

un

ut

0.16

0.19

0.26

0.19

0.39

0.25

0.49

0.28

0.61

0.20

0.46

0.06

0.29

0.11

0.48

0.07

Fig. 20. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 from deterministic simulations compared to experimental crack pattern (lines) with: (a) small-size,

(b) medium-size and (c) large-size beam.

Fig. 21. Exemplary random elds of tensile strength ft in: (a) small-size, (b) medium-size and (c) large-size beam used in FE analyses (note that beams are not proportionally

scaled).

with

3:5

1

c 1:6p0:27 1 p 0:15 0:58; ;

D

f ck

22

concrete whereas scfck is the effective compressive strength of

cohesion, expressed through the additional reduction factor s E0.6).

The FE deterministic nominal shear strengths match very well

the experimental ndings and experimentally calibrated SEL curve

by Bazant (with o 2.87 MPa and D0 213 mm in Eq. (1) using the

LevenbergMarquardt non-linear regression method). Both FE and

38

Considering statistical simulations, all mean values underestimate the experimental shear strength by 10% on average (this

result is probably caused by the assumption of a deterministic

bond model in statistical computations or a sampling region

limited to beam shear regions). The mean shear strength reduction

in statistical computations with respect to deterministic results

was close to the assumed coefcient of variation covft of the tensile

strength. Substituting into the experimentally calibrated SEL formula (Eq. (1)) the reduced value of o, expressed by o(1 covft)

2.87(1 0.12) 2.53 MPa, a perfect match between the new SEL

curve and the statistical results was obtained (Fig. 27). Therein, the

brittleness number dened by the ratio D/D0 was not modied.

This indicates that the size effect on the nominal shear strength is

predominantly of a deterministic type.

With respect to FE numerical results on a size effect by Sato

et al. [31], our deterministic results indicate a stronger reduction of

the nominal shear strength with similar increasing beam size (38%

between the small- and large-size beam against 20%).

7. Concluding remarks

The following conclusions can be drawn from our plane stress

non-linear FE analyses with a constant and spatially correlated

random distribution of the local tensile strength in geometrically

similar longitudinally reinforced concrete beams without shear

reinforcement failing in shear:

Fig. 22. Vertical force P deection u diagrams (12 curves) for reinforced concrete

beams from statistical FE simulations (solid lines) compared to one deterministic

curve (dashed line): (a) small-size beam, (b) medium-size beam, and (c) largesize beam.

the upper bound plastic theory (Eqs. (20) and (21)) and above the

lower elastic bound ( 1). The improved plastic solution (Eq. (21))

is closer to experimental results. The upper horizontal asymptotes

for small structures by Eqs. (20) and (21) are at 3.59 MPa and

3.13 MPa, respectively, whereas for the experimentally calibrated Eq. (1) at 2.87 MPa (Fig. 26).

local softening enhanced by a characteristic length of microstructure was able to realistically reproduce both a very

complex experimental failure mode in beams (combined

diagonal sheartensile failure and horizontal bond splitting

failure) and a pronounced reduction of the nominal shear

strength with increasing beam size by taking a bond model

into account.

The size effect on the nominal shear strength of slender RC

beams without shear reinforcement was of a deterministic type

only. The nominal shear strength from deterministic simulations strongly decreased with increasing specimen size. The

deterministic size effect was caused by localized zones with a

constant width and a linearly varying height. It was in agreement with the energetic size effect by Bazant. Thus, it was not

caused by non-symmetric cracking combined with the unintended out-of-plane beam action. The mean shear strengths in

statistical computations were solely lower by 10% than corresponding deterministic outcomes. The mean statistical shear

strength was proportional to the mean tensile strength reduced

by the standard deviation.

The effect of the bond denition between concrete and reinforcement was pronounced and led to the different failure

mode, load capacity, beam stiffness and number of localized

zones. The application of the bond model by Akkermann [52]

contributed to a sheardiagonal tensile failure mechanism in

numerical simulations as in experiments.

A position of a critical diagonal localized zone in deterministic

calculations was close to experimental outcomes. In statistical

calculations, a critical diagonal localized zone was located at a

higher distance from the beam support, hence the mean

bearing capacity was lower than the corresponding deterministic one. The height of a cracked section in experiment was

successfully reproduced by both deterministic and statistical

analyses. The height of a critical diagonal localized zone was

slightly larger in statistical calculations than in deterministic

ones. The width of localized zones was similar in deterministic

and statistical calculations.

39

Fig. 23. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 from statistical simulations of small-size reinforced concrete beam corresponding to: (a) highest failure force,

(b) mean failure force, and (c) lowest failure force.

Fig. 24. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 from statistical simulations of medium-size reinforced concrete beam corresponding to: (a) highest failure

force, (b) mean failure force, and (c) lowest failure force.

Fig. 25. Contours of non-local tensile softening parameter 1 from statistical simulations of large-size reinforced concrete beam corresponding to: (a) highest failure force,

(b) mean failure force, and (c) lowest failure force.

40

1

f 2 sij ; 2 q p tan c 2 q p tan 1 tan sc 2 r 0

3

A2

r

3

s s ;

q

2 ij ij

tan

Fig. 26. FE results of nominal shear strength 1.5 V/(tD) against effective beam

depth D from deterministic analyses for reinforced concrete beams without shear

reinforcement as compared with experiments, size effect law (Eq. (1)) and upper

bound plastic theory results (Eqs. (20) and (21)).

1

p skk ;

3

A3

31 r sbc

;

1 2r sbc

A4

g1 f 1

A5

g 2 q p tan

A6

yield stress, 1 the softening parameter equal to the maximum

principal plastic strain 1p, q the Mises equivalent deviatoric

stress, p the mean stress, the internal friction angle in the

meridional stress plane (pq plane), c the cohesion related to

uniaxial compression strength, sij the deviator of the stress

tensor sij, (sij sij ijp) sc the uniaxial compression yield stress,

2 the hardening/softening parameter corresponding to the

plastic vertical normal strain during uniaxial compression, gi

ow potential function, rbcs the ratio between the biaxial

compressive strength and uniaxial compressive strength

(rbcs E1.2) and the dilatancy angle (a). The last term in

Eq. (A3) results from the yield condition q p tan c 0 for

uniaxial compression with q sc and p 1/3sc.

The exponential function by Hordijk [37] was always taken as a

non-linear softening function in tension (Fig. 4a)

st 1 f t 1 A1 1 3 exp A2 1 A3 1

A7

with

A1

Fig. 27. Mean statistical nominal shear strength 1.5 V/(tD) against effective

beam depth D from FE analyses for reinforced concrete beams without shear

reinforcement compared to modied size effect law SEL of type II (Eq. (1)) by

expression o(1-covft).

Acknowledgements

The research work has been carried out within the project:

Innovative ways and effective methods of safety improvement

and durability of buildings and transport infrastructure in the

sustainable development nanced by the European Union

(POIG.01.01.02-10-106/09-01) and the project Experimental and

numerical analysis of coupled deterministic-statistical size effect

in brittle materials nanced by National Research Centre NCN

(UMO-2013/09/B/ST8/03598).

Appendix

In order to describe the concrete behaviour, two failure criteria

were assumed. In tension regime, the Rankine criterion was used

with the yield function f1 using isotropic softening and associated

ow rule and in compression, the DruckerPrager yield surface f2

with isotropic hardening/softening and non-associated ow rule

was used [36]

f 1 si ; 1 maxfs1 ; s2 ; s3 ;g st 1 r 0;

A1

c1

;

u

A2

c2

u

and

A3

1

1 c31 exp c2 ;

u

A8

softening parameter and ci are the empirical parameters (c1 3

and c2 6.93).

The compressive strength of concrete fc was assumed to be

equal to the characteristic compressive strength fck [38] and tensile

strength ft to the characteristic tensile strength fctk [28], respectively

q

3

2

f ctk 0:7f ctm 0:7 f ck with b 0:3

A9

The elastic modulus was Ec 9500(fck 8)1/3 [38] and the Poisson0 s

ratio 0.2. The ultimate value of the softening parameter under

tension u was estimated from the assumed concrete fracture

energy Gf gfwloc (gf area under the softening curve st(1),

wloc E4lc the width of a localized zone), wherein Gf was

calculated following CEB-FIP [39] as

Gf Gf o f cm =f cmo 0:7 ;

A10

fck 8 MPa, the reference value is fcmo 10 MPa and Gfo denotes

the parameter depending on the maximum aggregate size

(Gfo 0.058 N/mm with the aggregate diameter of 32 mm). The

ultimate softening parameter under compression 2 was calculated

similarly as in tension (Gc E 4lcgc) from the compressive fracture

energy based on initial computations [35].

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