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1/2/2011

Optimum Design
ChE 216
Optimum Design and
Design Strategy

Best Design
Maximum efficiency at the least cost

Equipment or Process design


corresponding to:
Minimum Total Cost
Maximum profits
Maximum Production/Yield

Evelyn R. Laurito
University of Santo Tomas
1/2/2011

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

1/2/2011

Optimum Design

Balance between increasing and decreasing


costs
TotalCosts
CT=CF+CV

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Fixed
Costs, CF

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

Procedure for Optimum Design


1. Determine the factor (F) to be max/min and
variables (x, y, z) to be optimized
2. Set up an equation relating F with the
variables; F = f(x,y,z)
3. Analyze the equation graphically or
analytically to get the Fmax or Fmin

Annual Cost, C

Opt Dv
Design variable (Dv)

Optimum Design

Economic balance

CTmin

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

Variable
Costs, CV
3

1/2/2011

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

1/2/2011

Example 1

Optimum Design

(Analytical Solution)

Analytical Solution

A plant produces softdrinks at the rate of P


bottles/day. The variable cost per bottle is :

1. Differentiate F w.r.t. x, y and z and equate


each derivative to zero
F
x

F
y

0
y,z

F
z

0
x, z

CV 0.15 0.012P 0.4

The daily fixed charges are PhP 175/day and


other expenses are constant at PhP 732.50/day.
What is the optimum Production rate
(bottles/day) of the softdrinks plant?

x, y

2. Solve the equations simultaneously for xopt,


yopt and zopt
3. Check for min/max point
1/2/2011

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

1/2/2011

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

Analytical Soln

Graphical soln

(MathCAD)
CV 0.15 0.012 P

PhP
bottle

0.4

CT( P) 0.15 0.012 P

0.4

(MathCAD)

a ) 2nd derivative test


2
-9
0.4 175 732.5
d
0.15 0.012 P
6.2653977485324231144 10
2
P

dP

Assume P 1000

.6

-3

907.5
P

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If P 5874

CT( P) 0.690643301

If P 5875

CT( P) 0.690643298

( 175 732.5)
P

0.690644

907.5
P

0.6906438

If P 5000

6
d
CT( P) 7.336 10
dP

If P 5874.989

d
CT( P)
dP

0.6906436

If P 6000

7
d
CT( P) 7.544 10
dP

0.6906434

Find ( P) 5874.989

0.4

0.6906442

b ) Increase through the point

-3

Given

CT( P) 0.15 0.012 P

A positive 2nd derivative indicates minimum


point (i.e. minimum cost; therefore it checks)

175 732.5

4.8 10
0.4 175 732.5
d
0.15 0.012 P

P
.6
dP

4.8 10

P 5860 5861 5890

Check for minimum point:

1
PhP

day bottles
P

day

CF 175 732.5

CT ( P)

- slope + slope
0 slope

Min Pt
ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes
by Evelyn R. Laurito

0.6906432
5860

ANS: 5875 bottles/day


7

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5865

5870

5875

5880

P
ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes
by Evelyn R. Laurito

5885

5890
8

1/2/2011

Example 2 (p.47/PT)

Analytical Soln

(Analytical Solution)

(MathCAD)
11900

CT( x y ) 2.33 x

The following variables show the effects of x


and y on the total cost for a particular
operation:

x y

1.86 y 10

11900
d
CT( x y ) 2.33
2
dx
x y
11900
d
CT( x y )
1.86
2
dy
x y

11900
CT 2.33x
1.86 y 10
xy

x 1

Assume

2 nd derivative Test
d

C ( x y )
2 T

23800

23800

dx

x y

y 1

Given
2.33

Find x and y that will give the least cost.

11900
2

x y
11900
x y

dy

C ( x y )
2 T

x y

1.86 0

15.975

20.012

Find( x y )
1/2/2011

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

1/2/2011

ChE 216- Plant Design Course Notes


by Evelyn R. Laurito

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