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Endocrine Functions
ƒ Maintains homeostasis by producing and
releasing chemicals called hormones
ƒ Controls long-term processes
examples:
ƒ Growth & development
ƒ Reproduction
ƒ Metabolism

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Types of Glands
ƒ Exocrine Glands
ƒ Formed from epithelial tissue.
ƒ Release their products at the body’s surface or
into body cavities through ducts.
ƒ Endocrine Glands
ƒ Formed from epithelial tissue.
ƒ Release their products - hormones -into the
blood or lymph - ductless glands
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What are Hormones?
ƒ Chemical messengers secreted by
endocrine glands.

ƒ Responsible for specific regulatory effects


on certain parts or organs.

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Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1
ƒ Hormones affect only certain target
tissue cells or organs (specificity)
ƒ Note: blood-borne hormones circulate to all body
organs

ƒ Hormones interact with specific


receptors in specific target cells
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Mechanisms of Hormone Action 2

ƒ Receptor Responses:
ƒ Stimulate synthesis of proteins or certain
regulatory molecules in cell
ƒ Activate or inactivate enzymes
ƒ Stimulate mitosis
ƒ Increase or decrease the rate of
normal cell function
ƒ NOT new function

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Control of Hormone Release
ƒ Negative feedback mechanism
1. Hormone secretion triggered by some
stimulus.
2. Rising hormone levels inhibit further hormone
release.
3.Hormones vary only within a very narrow
range.

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Endocrine Gland Stimuli
1. Hormonal stimulus
ƒ Endocrine gland prodded into action by other
hormones
2. Humoral stimulus
ƒ Changing blood levels of certain ions and
nutrients may stimulate hormone release
3. Neural stimulus
ƒ Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release
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Major Endocrine Organs

ƒ Hypothalamus ƒ Pancreatic islets


ƒ Pituitary Gland ƒ Pineal Gland
ƒ Thyroid Gland ƒ Thymus
ƒ Parathyroid Glands ƒ Ovaries
ƒ Adrenal Glands ƒ Testes

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Hypothalamus hormones
stimulates
Anterior pituitary

stimulates
Thyroid
Adrenal cortex
Gonads

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Posterior Pituitary Hormones
ƒ Oxytocin
ƒ Acts on
ƒ mammary glands
ƒ uterus

ƒ ADH - antidiuretic hormone


ƒ Acts on kidney tubules
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Anterior Pituitary Hormones
ƒ TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone
ƒ FSH & LH - follicle stimulating hormone &
luteinizing hormone
ƒ ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
ƒ MSH - melanocyte stimulating hormone
ƒ PRL - prolactin stimulating hormone
ƒ GH - growth hormone

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FSH and LH
ƒ Females
ƒ FSH – stimulates follicle development
ƒ LH – triggers ovulation of egg

ƒ Males
ƒ FSH – stimulates sperm development
ƒ LH – stimulates testosterone production

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Male Gonads
ƒ Testes
ƒ Suspended in scrotal sac
ƒ Produces:
ƒ Sperm
ƒ Androgens
ƒ testosterone

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Female Gonads
ƒ Ovaries
ƒ Produces:
ƒ Eggs
ƒ Steroid hormones
ƒ estrogens
ƒ progesterone
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Adrenal Medulla
ƒ Stimulated by Sympathetic NS
ƒ “fight or flight”

ƒ Secretes two (2) hormones (catecholamines)


ƒ Epinephrine
ƒ Norepinephine

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Adrenal Cortex
ƒ Secretes 3 different corticosteroids
1. Mineralocorticoids
ƒ Increases salt & water levels in blood
ƒ aldosterone
2. Glucocorticoids
ƒ Increases blood glucose levels
ƒ cortisol
3. Androgens
ƒ males & females

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Aging Baby
Boomers turn
to hormone
Aging Baby Boomers turn to hormone / Some doctors concerned about growing 'off-label'
use of drug
Runner and equestrian Hanneke Hops mounts her horse, C.C., near her Hayward home. Hops
says her daily injections of HGH give her energy and a sense of well being.
Some doctors
Injecting HGH keeps Hanneke Hops, 56, feeling
concerned about young. Hops holds a syringe she uses to take the
drug.

growing 'off-label' use


of drug

Sabin Russell, Chronicle Staff Writer


Monday, November 17, 2003
©2003 San Francisco Chronicle
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Growth Hormone
ƒ Youth - promotes bone and muscle growth
ƒ final body size
ƒ Adulthood – promotes repair
ƒ Hypersecretion
ƒ youth - gigantism
ƒ adult - acromegaly
ƒ Hyposecretion

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Pancreas
ƒ location
ƒ mixed gland
ƒ endocrine
ƒ insulin & glucagon
ƒ exocrine
ƒ digestive enzymes
ƒ pancreatic islets
ƒ beta cells
ƒ alpha cells

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Thyroid Gland
ƒ Location
ƒ Most cells of body have receptors for thyroid H
ƒ Produces:
ƒ thyroid hormone
ƒ increases rate of O2 use
ƒ Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
ƒ increases use of glucose
ƒ for ATP production
ƒ Calcitonin
ƒ calcium homeostasis
ƒ increases osteoblast activity

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Hyperthyroidism

NORMAL GOITER
• Graves’ Disease
• Low iodine intake
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Parathyroid Gland
ƒ Location & Number
ƒ Produces parathyroid hormone
ƒ calcium homeostasis
ƒ increases blood calcium levels
ƒ increases osteoclast activity

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Pineal Body
ƒ Location: in epithalamus of diencephalon
ƒ Functions: (some uncertainty)
ƒ biological clock
ƒ inhibits sexual maturation in childhood
ƒ inhibits secretion of FSH & LH
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Thymus Gland
ƒ Location: posterior to sternum
ƒ Size relative to age
ƒ Functions:
ƒ promotes immune system development and
function
ƒ T-lymphocytes maturation

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Negative
Side Effects
of Anabolic
Steroids

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Kelli White
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1987
Barry Bonds 1987-2000
2000
210lbs 49HR

1999
1998 210lbs
206lbs

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47 Barry Bonds 2001-03
2001
73HR
228lbs

2002
228lbs

2003
228lbs

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Body Growth
The following hormones stimulate body
growth and development of nervous tissue:

ƒ Growth hormone
ƒ Insulin
ƒ Thyroid hormones
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Aging and Endocrine Function
Pituitary gland
ƒ decrease GHÆmuscle atrophy
Thyroid gland
ƒ decrease thyroxinÆdecrease metabolism
Æ increase fat deposition
Pancreas
ƒ decrease insulinÆpoorer control of glucose
levels

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The End