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1.

0 COMMON PRODUCTION PROCESS OF ACRYLONITRILE


1.1 PROPYLENE AMMOXIDATION
Acrylonitrile is produced in commercial quantities almost exclusively
by the vapor-phase catalytic propylene ammoxidation process developed
by Sohio (Castelli, 2010).

The commercial process uses a fluid-bed reactor in which propylene,


ammonia, and air contact a solid catalyst at 4005108C and 49196 kPa
(0.52.0 kg/cm2) gauge. It is a single-pass process with about 98%
conversion of propylene, and uses about 1.1 kg propylene per kg of
acrylonitrile produced. Useful by-products from the process are HCN
(about 0.1 kg per kg of acrylonitrile), which is used primarily in the
manufacture of methyl methacrylate, and acetonitrile (about 0.03 kg per
kg of acrylonitrile), a common industrial solvent (Castelli, 2010).
In the commercial operation the hot reactor effluent is quenched
with water in a counter current absorber and any unreacted ammonia is
neutralized with sulfuric acid. The resulting ammonium sulfate can be
recovered and used as a fertilizer. The absorber off-gas containing
primarily N2, CO, CO2, and unreacted hydrocarbon is either vented directly
or first passed through an incinerator to combust the hydrocarbons and
CO. The acrylonitrile-containing solution from the absorber is passed to a
recovery column that produces a crude acrylonitrile stream overhead that
also contains HCN (Davis et al., 2000).
The column bottoms are passed to a second recovery column to
remove water and produce a crude acetonitrile mixture. The crude
acetonitrile is either incinerated or further treated to produce solvent
quality acetonitrile. Acrylic fiber quality (99.2% minimum) acrylonitrile is

obtained by fractionation of the crude acrylonitrile mixture to remove


HCN, water, light ends, and high boiling impurities (Castelli, 2010).

Disposal of the process impurities has become an increasingly


important aspect of the overall process, with significant attention being
given

to

developing

cost-effective

and

environmentally

acceptable

methods for treatment of the process waste streams. These catalysts are
multi component mixed

metal

oxides

mostly

based on

bismuth

molybdenum oxide. Other types of catalysts that have been used


commercially are based on ironantimony
oxide, uraniumantimony oxide, and telluriummolybdenum oxide (Davis
et al., 2000) .

1.3 PROPANE CYANIZATION WITH NITRIC OXIDE

1.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PRODUCTION PROCESS

Table 1.4.1: Advantages and disadvantages of production process of propylene


Ammoxidation (Michael, 2010).

PRODUCTION PROCESS OF PROPYLENE AMMOXIDATION


Advantages
Disadvantages
Higher recovery efficiency of acrylonitrile
Additional energy consumption
due to low pH
Lower polymer production in the quench
section
Opportunity to re-use waste water streams

Table 1.4.1: Advantages and disadvantages of production process of propane cyanization


with nitric oxide.

1.5 REASON OF CHOOSING THE PROCESS


The first reason of choosing this process in production of acrylonitrile is because it is
very simple that could be easily carry out with best understanding. This is because it has a
clear flow process in a row of seven. Besides that, the convincing of choosing this process
flow diagram is because it has not very high temperature condition to proceed this
production of Acrylonitrile. Which is 410c 500c where by others process flow could
leads up to 1000C (Michael, 2010).
Moreover, in this process production of Acrylonitrile has a maximum beneficial of
the products. Where this process production produces a use by product which is HCN.
Besids that bypoduct, it also have CO, N2, and CO2 in off gas produce in Absorber
chamber. This gases are useful in incinerator in combust the hydrocarbons and CO. The
column bottoms are passed to a second recovery column to remove water and produce a
crude acetonitrile mixture. The crude acetonitrile is either incinerated or further treated to
produce solvent quality acetonitrile. Where there to have the maximum of production of
acrylonitrile (Michael, 2010).
The propylene-based process developed by ammoxidation was able to displace
almost all other commercial production technologies because of its substantial advantage
in overall production cost, primarily due to lower raw material costs. Raw material costs,
less by-product credits, account for 60% of the total acrylonitrile production for a world
scale plant. The process has remained economically advantaged over other process
technologies because higher acrylonitrile yields, resulting from the introduction of
improved commercial catalyst (Michael, 2010).

1.5 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF PROPYLENE AMMOXIDATION

Fig 1.5.1 Production of propylene ammoxidation (Michael, 2010).