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Physics

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Physics

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com

KANCHIPURAM - 631501.

HIGHER SECONDARY SECOND YEAR

Prepared by

B.ELANGOVAN. M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Phil.,

(Tamilnadu Dr.Radhakrishnan Best Teacher Award recipient - 2011)

P.G.Teacher in Physics,

PACHAIYAPPAS HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,

KANCHIPURAM - 631501.

www.kalvisolai.com

www.kalvisolai.com

PHYSICS PRACTICAL

HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR

S.NO

DATE

Spectrometer - Prism

Spectrometer - Grating

Metre Bridge

Potentiometer

Tangent Galvanometer

Sonometer

10

11

12

PAGE

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FORMULA REQUIRED:

Refractive index of the material of the given prism is

Where,

AD

2

A

sin

2

sin

D is the angle of minimum deviation

Unit of refractive index =no unit.

DIAGRAM:

To find the angle of Prism

deviation

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AIM :

To determine the angle of a given prism and its angle of minimum deviation and

hence to calculate its refractive index.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Spectrometer, solid Prism, sodium vapour lamp and reading lens.

PROCEDURE :

1) ANGLE OF THE PRISM

i)

After making initial adjustments, the prism is placed on the prism table.

ii)

iii)

The telescope is rotated until the image of the slit formed by reflection at the

face AB is made to coincide with the vertical cross wire of the telescope in the

position T1. The reading of the verniers are noted.

iv)

The telescope is then rotated to the position T 2 .The image of the slit formed by

reflection at the face AC coincides with the vertical cross wire. The readings

corresponding to the verniers are again noted.

v)

The difference between these two reading gives twice the angle of the prism.

Half of this gives the angle of the prism.

i)

The prism is placed on the prism table so that light from the collimator falls on

one refracting face. The refracted image is observed through the telescope.

ii)

The prism table is now rotated so that the refracted image moves towards the

direct ray. If necessary the telescope is rotated so as to follow the image.

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iii)

It will be found that, the image moves towards the direct ray upto a point and

then turns back. The position of the image where it turns back is the minimum

deviation position and the prism table is fixed in this position.

iv)

The telescope is now adjusted so that its vertical cross wire coincides with the

image and reading of the verniers are noted.

v)

Now the prism is removed and the telescope is turned to receive the direct ray

and vertical cross wire is adjusted to coincide with the image. The reading of the

verniers are noted.

vi)

The difference between the two readings give the angle of minimum deviation (D).

vii)

The refractive idex of the material of the prism is calculated using the formula

A D

2

A

sin

2

sin

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CALCULATIONS:

To find A

2A

= R1 R2 = 227o20 - 127o16

2A

= 120o4

2A = R1 R2 = 407o20 - 287o16

2A

A = 60o2

= 120o4

A = 60o2

Average A = 60o2

To find D

D = R3 R4 = 39o44 - 0o0

D = R3 R4 = 219o44 - 180o0

D = 39o44

D = 39o44

Average D = 39o44

To find

+

602 +

3944

2

2

=

602

2

2

=

=

9946

2

602

2

4953

301

0.7647

0.5003

1.528 ( no unit )

RESULT:

i) The angle of the prism

= 60o 2

= 39o44

iii) Refractive index of the material of the given prism = 1.528 (no unit)

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FORMULA REQUIRED :

The wavelength () of a spectral line using the grating is given by

sin

mN

Where,

is the angle of diffraction

m is the order

N is the number of lines per unit length drawn on the grating

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AIM:

To determine the wavelength of the composite light using a diffraction grating and

a spectrometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Spectrometer, solid Prism, sodium vapour lamp and reading lens.

PROCEDURE:

The preliminary adjustments of the spectrometer are made. The slit is illuminated

by white light from mercury vapour lamp. The grating is mounted on the prism table. The

direct image (white) of the slit is adjusted to coincide with the vertical cross wire. The

direct reading RI is measured using the verniers.

Now the telescope is released to get the first order (n= 1) diffracted image of the

slit in the left side. It is adjusted so that the vertical cross wire coincides with violet

spectral line. Readings corresponding to both the verniers are taken as R 2. The angle of

diffraction for violet is found as R1 R2. The experiment is repeated for green and

yellow spectral lines also.

The number of lines per unit length of the grating is N. Wavelength of the

spectral line is calculated from the formula

sin

mN

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www.kalvisolai.com

CALCULATIONS :

TO FIND THE

RAY

RD1 R1

RD2 R2

BLUE

B = 13o34

GREEN

G = 15o45

YELLOW

Y = 16o42

0.2346

B

mN

1 5 105

5 105

0.04692 105 m

B = 4692 Ao

The wavelength of the Green spectral line :

0.2714

G

0.05429 105 m

5

5

mN

1 5 10

5 10

G = 5429 Ao

The wavelength of the Yellow spectral line :

0.2874

Y

0.05748 10 5 m

5

5

mN

1 5 10

5 10

Y = 5748 Ao

RESULT :

B = 4692 Ao

i)

ii)

iii)

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3. METRE BRIDGE

FORMULA REQUIRED :

Resistance of the wire P Q

l1

ohm

l2

Resistance of the wire P Q

l2

ohm

l1

Where,

r2P

Q is known resistance

l 2 is the balancing length of Q

r is the radius of the wire

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

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3. METRE BRIDGE

AIM :

To determine the resistance of the given coil of wire using a meter bridge and to

calculate the specific resistance of the material of the wire.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

The metre bridge, battery, key, galvanometer, known and unknown resistances,

high resistance and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :

The connections are made as in the circuit diagram. The jockey J is pressed near

the ends A and C and if the deflections in the galvanometer are in the opposite directions,

then the circuit is correct. Now the jockey is moved over the wire and its position J is

found when there is no deflection in the galvanometer. The balancing lengths AJ = 1

and JC =2 are measured. The experiment is repeated four more times by increasing the

value of Q in steps of 1 ohm.

When the known resistance Q is in the right gap G2, the resistance of the wire

unknown resistance P Q

l1

.

l2

Then the resistances Q and P are interchanged in the gaps G1 and G2. The

unknown resistance P is calculated from the formula P Q

l2

.

l1

The length () of the coil is measured using scale and radius(r) of the coil is

measured using screw gauge. The specific resistance of the coil is calculated using the

formula

r2P

l

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www.kalvisolai.com

CALCULATIONS :

RESULT :

1) Resistance of the wire

P = 4.569

= 1.39 x 10 -6 m

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4.

FORMULA REQUIRED :

E1 l1

E2 l2

( NO UNIT )

E 2 emf of primary cell 2 (Daniel cell)

l1 is the balancing length for cell 1

l 2 is the balancing length for cell 2

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Here,

Bt = Battery, K = Key, Rh = Rheostat, G = Galvanometer, HR = High resistance

J = Jockey

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4.

AIM:

To compare the emfs of two primary cells using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Potentiometer, Battery, Key, Rheostat, Galvanometer, High resistance,

the two given cells, Jockey and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :

i)

The connections are made according to the circuit diagram. The jockey

J i s p r e s s e d in the first and the last wire and the opposite side

deflections in the galvanometer shows that the connections are

correct.

ii)

The jockey is moved over the potentiometer wire to get zero deflection in

the galvanometer. The balancing length AJ is measured as 1.

iii)

Daniel cell is included in the circuit using the DPDT switch, and

the balancing length is measured as 2.

iv)

direction for changing the current in the circuit.

v)

The ratio of the emf of the two cells is found from the formula

E1 l1

E2 l2

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CALCULATIONS:

RESULT :

The mean ratio of emf of the two cells using the Potentiometer =

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AIM :

To determine the value of the horizontal component of earths magnetic field (B H)

using the Tangent Galvanometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Tangent galvanometer, key, Rheostat, ammeter, commutator

and connecting wires.

FORMULA REQUIRED :

n number of turns

I

current

a radius of coil

mean deflection produced in TG

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Here,

Bt = battery,

K = key

A = ammeter,

C = commutator

TG = Tangent galvanometer,

Rh = rheostat

tesla

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AIM :

To determine the value of the horizontal component of earths magnetic field (BH)

using the Tangent Galvanometer

FORMULA :

0

n

I

a

tesla

number of turns

current

radius of coil

mean deflection produced in TG

PROCEDURE:

The battery, rheostat, ammeter and tangent galvanometer are connected as in

the circuit diagram. The coil in the tangent galvanometer is adjusted to be along the

magnetic meridian. Then the compass box alone is rotated so that the aluminum pointer

read 00 00.

The current I is passed through the circuit and the deflections of the needle are

noted as 1 and 2 . By reversing the current, the deflection are noted as 3 and 4.

The average deflection is found out.

The experiment is repeated by varying the current.

The average value of

The Horizontal component of earths magnetic induction is calculated by the

formula

=

tesla.

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www.kalvisolai.com

CALCULATIONS :

Radius (r) =

7.5 102 m

. : 2

. : 1

0.7

0.6

=

=

tan

41

0.7536

0.6

0.6

=

=

tan

37

0.7536

= 0.8052

= 0.7961

. : 3

. : 4

0.8

0.6

=

=

tan

46

1.0355

0.9

0.9

=

=

tan

50

1.1918

= 0.7725

Mean

= 0.7555

0.7961+0.8052+0.7725+0.7555

4

= 0.7823

=

=

=

4 10 7 5 0.7823

2 7.5 10 2

49.12844

105 = 3.28 105

15

RESULT :

The horizontal component of earths magnetic field (BH) = 3.28 X 10 - 5 Tesla

www.kalvisolai.com

6. SONOMETER FREQUENCY OF AC

AIM:

To determine the frequency of the ac main using a sonometer.

FORMULA REQUIRED:

The frequency of the ac main

is the resonating length

m is the linear density of the wire

DIAGRAM :

www.kalvisolai.com

6. SONOMETER FREQUENCY OF AC

AIM:

To determine the frequency of the ac main using a sonometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

The sonometer, 6V AC power supply, Different loads, bar magnets, knife

edges and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE:

The ac mains voltage is brought down to 6 V by means of step down

transformer. The secondary of the transformer is connected to the ends of the

sonometer wire. A bar magnet is held below the sonometer wire at the centre. The

magnetic field is horizontal and at right angles to the length of the wire.

With 250 gms (M) added to the weight hanger, the a.c. current is passed through

the wire. Now the wire is set into forced vibrations. The length between the two

knife edges is adjusted so that it vibrates in one segment. The length between the

knife edges is measured as 1. The same procedure is repeated and 2 is measured. The

average 1 and 2 is . The experiment is repeated for the loads 500gm, 750 gm and

1000 gm.

The radius of the wire r is measured using screw gauge. The linear density of the wire

is m = r2, where is its density.

=

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CALCUATIONS :

Diameter of the wire d =

Radius of the wire r =

Linear density m = 2 =

= ( 1.72 X10-3 ) = 4.147 X 10 -2

S.No: 1

T = 0.250 9.8 = 2.45

= 1.565

= 0.332 m

1.565

=

= 4.714

0.332

= 2.214

= 0.455 m

2.214

=

= 4.863

0.455

= 2.711

= 0.559

2.711

=

= 4.849

0.559

= 3.130

= 0.644

3.13

=

= 4.860

0.644

S.No: 2

T = 0.500 9.8 =4.90

S.No: 3

T = 0.750 9.8 =7.35

S.No: 4

T = 1.000 9.8 =9.80

Mean

4.714+4.863+4.849+4.860

4

= 4.8215

1 4.8215

2 4.147 10 2

= 58.13 Hz

RESULT :

The frequency of the ac main n =

58.13 Hz

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FORMULA REQUIRED :

Forward resistance of the PN junction diode

Here,

is the forward current.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PN - JUNCTION DIODE - forward bias

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

ZENER DIODE reverse bias

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AIM :

a)

the forward resistance of the diode.

b)

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

PN-junction diode, zener diode, variable voltage source, milliammeter, voltmeter

and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :

1) Forward Characteristic Curve of a PN junction diode:i)

ii)

The forward voltage Vf is increased from zero in steps of 0.1 V upto 1V.

iii)

The corresponding values of If are noted. A graph is drawn with Vf along Xaxis and If along Y-axis. This is called forward characteristic curve.

iv)

The reciprocal of the slope of this curve above the knee point is found as

forward resistance of the Diode.

v)

Forward resistance =

ii)

corresponding values of IZ are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VO along X-axis and IZ along Y-axis. This is called

reverse characteristic curve.

iv)

zener voltage (VZ)

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www.kalvisolai.com

CALCULATIONS :

RESULT :

i)

ii)

7.3 volt.

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AIM :

To study the characteristics of a common Emitter NPN transistor and to determine

its input impedance and output impedance.

FORMULA REQURIED :

(i)

Input impedance =

(ii)

Output impedance =

Here,

is the change in base emitter voltage

www.kalvisolai.com

AIM :

To study the characteristics of a common Emitter NPN transistor and to determine

its input impedance and output impedance.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

NPN transistor, milliammeter, microammeter, voltmeters, variable voltage sources

and connecting wires

PROCEDURE :

The circuit connections are made as in the diagram.

ii)

The base emitter voltage VBE is increased from zero in steps of 0.1 V

upto 1V. The corresponding values of IB are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VBE along X-axis and IB along Y-axis. This is called

input characteristic curve.

iv)

The reciprocal of the slope of this curve above the knee point is found as

input impedance of the transistor.

v)

ii)

are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VCE along X-axis and IC along Y-axis. This is called

output characteristic curve.

iv)

Output impedance =

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RESULT :

i)

ii)

iii)

2 k

700

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FORMULA REQUIRED :

i)

Output impedance =

ii)

Current gain

(No unit)

Here,

is the change in base emitter voltage

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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AIM :

To study the characteristics of a common Emitter NPN transistor and to

determine its output impedance and the current gain.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

NPN transistor, milliammeter, microammeter, voltmeters, variable voltage

sources and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE:

ii)

are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with VCE along X-axis and IC along Y-axis. This is called

output characteristic curve.

iv)

horizontal part gives the output impedance (r0).

Output impedance =

ii)

values of IC are noted.

iii)

A graph is drawn with IB along X-axis and Ic along Y-axis. This is called

transfer characteristic curve.

iv)

The slope of this curve gives the current gain of the transistor.

Current gain =

(no unit)

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CALCULATIONS:

RESULT :

I)

II)

III)

700

100 ( no unit )

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FORMULA REQUIRED :

ii)

The output voltage of the inverting summing amplifier, V0 = (V1 +V2) volt

Here,

V0 output voltage

Vin, V1 and V2 are the input voltages

Rf and Rs are the external resistances

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS :

INVERTING AMPLIFIER :

SUMMING AMPLIFIER :

i)

(no unit)

www.kalvisolai.com

AIM :

To construct the following basic amplifiers using OP-AMP IC741.

i)

Inverting amplifier

ii)

Summing amplifier

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Operational amplifier(IC-741), dual power supply, 10K, 22K, 33K resistors, digital

voltmeter and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :

INVERTING AMPLIFIER:i)

ii)

RS is kept as 10 K and RF as 22 K.

iii)

from the digital voltmeter.

iv)

2.5 V.

v)

vi)

vii)

SUMMING AMPLIFIER:i)

ii)

The values of R1, R2 and RF are kept as 10 K . The input voltages are kept

as VI = 1V and V2 =2.0V and the output voltage Vo is measured using the

digital voltmeter

iii)

Then the experiment is repeated for different sets of values for V 1 and V2.

Theoretical output v o l t a g e i s found from V0 = - (V1 + V2).

iv)

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CALCULATIONS :

1. Inverting amplifier

EXPERIMENTAL GAIN

S.No : 1

2.26

=

=

= 2.26

1.0

THEORETICAL GAIN

22

=

= 2.20

10

22

=

= 2.20

10

22

=

= 2.20

10

22

=

= 2.20

10

S.No: 2

3.42

=

=

= 2.28

1.5

S.No: 3

4.54

=

=

= 2.27

2.0

S.No: 4

5.73

=

=

= 2.29

2.5

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CALCULATIONS :

Summing amplifier

Theoretical output

S.No : 1

Experimental output Vo = - 3.08 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - ( 1 + 2 )

= - 3.00 V

Theoretical output

S.No: 2

Experimental output Vo = - 4.05 volt

Theoretical output

S.No: 3

Experimental output Vo = - 5.09 volt

Vo = (V1 + V2) = - (2 + 3)

= - 5.00 V

Theoretical output

S.No: 4

Experimental output Vo = - 6.06 volt

RESULT :

i)

The inverting amplifier and summing amplifier are constructed using OP-AMP and

the experimental and the theoretical outputs are compared.

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Non-Inverting amplifier

FORMULA REQUIRED :

ii)

The output voltage of the inverting summing amplifier, V0 = (V1 +V2) volt

Here,

V0 output voltage

Vin, V1 and V2 are the input voltages

Rf and Rs are the external resistances

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS :

NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER :

SUMMING AMPLIFIER :

=1+

i)

(no unit)

www.kalvisolai.com

AIM :

To construct the following basic amplifiers using OP-AMP IC741.

i)

Non-inverting amplifier

ii)

Summing amplifier

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Operational amplifier(IC-741), dual power supply, 10K, 22K, 33K resistors, digital

voltmeter and connecting wires.

PROCEDURE :

1. NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER:I)

II)

RS is kept as 10 K and RF as 22 K.

III)

from the digital voltmeter.

IV)

2.5 V.

V)

VI)

VII)

=1+

2. SUMMING AMPLIFIER:i)

ii)

The values of R1, R2 and RF are kept as 10 K . The input voltages are kept

as VI = 1V and V2 =2.0V and the output voltage Vo is measured using the

digital voltmeter

iii)

Then the experiment is repeated for different sets of values for V1 and V2.

Theoretical output v o l t a g e i s found from V0 = - (V1 + V2).

iv)

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www.kalvisolai.com

CALCULATIONS :

Non- Inverting amplifier

EXPERIMENTAL GAIN

S.No : 1

3.26

= = 1.0 = 3.26

THEORETICAL GAIN

= 1 +

S.No: 2

4.86

=

=

= 3.24

1.5

= 1 +

S.No: 3

6.56

=

=

= 3.28

2.0

= 1 +

S.No: 4

8.05

=

=

= 3.22

2.5

= 1 +

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

22

= 1 + 10 = 3.20

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CALCULATIONS :

Summing amplifier

Theoretical output

S.No : 1

Experimental output Vo = - 3.08 volt

Theoretical output

S.No: 2

Experimental output Vo = - 4.05 volt

Theoretical output

S.No: 3

Experimental output Vo = - 5.09 volt

Theoretical output

S.No: 4

Experimental output Vo = - 6.06 volt

RESULT :

The non-inverting amplifier and summing amplifier are constructed using OP-AMP

and the experimental and the theoretical outputs are compared.

www.kalvisolai.com

AIM:

To study the Truth Table of integrated Logic Gates IC 7400(NAND), IC 7402

(NOR), IC 7404 (NOT), IC 7408(AND), IC 7432 (OR), and IC 7486 (EXOR)

1) For ICs 7400 (NAND), 7408(AND), 7432(OR) & 7486(EX-OR)

2) For IC 7402(NOR)

FORMULA REQUIRED :

OR gate:

Boolean equation

Y =A + B

AND gate:

Boolean equation

Y = AB

NOT gate:

Boolean equation

Y=A

NOR gate:

Boolean equation

Y=A+B

NAND gate:

Boolean equation

Y=A B

EX-OR gate:

Boolean equation

Y = AB = AB + AB

Here, A, B = inputs

and

Y = output

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AIM :

To study the Truth Table of integrated Logic Gates IC 7400(NAND), IC 7402

(NOR), IC 7404 (NOT), IC 7408(AND), IC 7432 (OR), and IC 7486 (EXOR)

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

Logic Gates IC 7400(NAND), IC 7402 (NOR), IC 7404 (NOT), IC 7408(AND), IC 7432

(OR), and IC 7486 (EXOR)

PROCEDURE :

For NAND gate, AND gate, OR gate and EXOR gate:i)

Power supply +5V is connected to pin 14 and ground to pin 7 of the IC.

ii)

iii)

iv)

Inputs A & B are kept at 0 & 0 and output LED is observed. Then the

inputs are changed as 0 & 1, 1 & 0 and 1 & 1 and the outputs are

observed each time. The inputs and outputs are tabulated in the truth

table.

v)

Similarly, ICs 7408 (AND), 7432 (OR) and 7486 (EXOR) are placed on the

board and the same procedure is followed as for NAND gate and outputs

are tabulated in the truth table.

NOR gate :-

i)

IC 7402 is placed on the board. Power supply and ground are connected

as before.

ii)

The inputs are connected to pins 2 & 3 and the output to pin 1 of IC.

Then the same procedure is repeated and tabulation is done in the truth

table.

NOT gate :-

i)

the output to pin 2 of IC. I

ii)

Input is kept at logic 1 and then at logic 0 and the outputs are

found and tabulated in the truth table.

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CALCULATIONS :

RESULT :

The performance of digital gates OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR and EX-OR gates

and their truth tables are verified using IC chips.

www.kalvisolai.com

L

Prepared by

(Tamilnadu Dr.Radhakrishnan Best Teacher Award recipient - 2011)

P.G.Teacher in Physics,

PACHAIYAPPAS HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL,

KANCHIPURAM - 631501.

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