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IRPT Based Control of a 50 kW Grid Interfaced Solar

Photovoltaic Power Generating System with Power


Quality Improvement
Bhim Singh, Fellow IEEE

D. T. Shahani

Arun Kumar Verma

Electrical Engineering Department


Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
New Delhi-110016, India
bhimsingh1956@gmail.com

IDD Centre
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
New Delhi-110016, India
dt.shahani@gmail.com

IDD Centre
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
New Delhi-110016, India
arunverma59@gmial

improvement on converter side only [7-11]. However, the PQ


problems are dominant in the grid because of various
nonlinear loads in distributed system. These PQ issues are
poor power factor, voltage regulation and reactive power
compensation at AC mains. The effective control of SPV
generating system has been an important task in these systems
which may be effectively used for mitigation of PQ problems
of AC distribution system caused by nonlinear and unbalanced
loads. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) from SPV
array is also a challenging task and several methods of MPPT
are used [12, 13].
In the proposed SPV generating system, the basic advantage
of using a Y- transformer is used to eliminate the triplen
harmonics and zero sequence currents in the connected
windings of the transformer [14]. It results in the reduced
ratings of the VSC devices. A VSC also helps in the
compensation of reactive power and harmonic reduction of
connected load at PCC (point of common coupling). The
circulating current in the VSC is reduced as the neutral current
is compensated in the secondary windings of the Y-
transformer. In this proposed research work, a two stage SPV
power generating system is used with the features of reactive
power compensation for PFC or zero voltage regulation
(ZVR), load balancing, harmonics current elimination and
neutral current compensation. There are many control
techniques available to control the SPV power generating
system, here an IRPT (Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory)
[15] based control algorithm is used for these functions of
power quality improvements in 3P4W distribution system.

Abstract This paper deals with a modified instantaneous


reactive power theory (IRPT) based control of a grid interfaced
solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generation which also mitigates
power quality problems in three-phase four wire (3P4W)
distribution system. This is a double stage SPV power generating
system which accommodates wide varying input voltage. The
proposed grid interfaced SPV generating system consists of a PV
array, a DC-DC boost converter, a three leg VSC (Voltage Source
Converter), an isolated Y- transformer, a grid and connected
linear/nonlinear loads. The DC bus voltage of a three-phase VSC
is regulated using a PI (Proportional Integral) voltage controller.
The SPV energy is injected in to the DC bus of VSC during
sunshine hours. The proposed SPV power generating system
provides the zero voltage regulation (ZVR) or power factor
correction (PFC) along with harmonics elimination, load
balancing and neutral current compensation in 3P4W
distribution system. MATLAB/Simulink based simulation results
are presented to validate the design and control of SPV power
generating system for feeding 3P4W loads with improved power
quality.
Keywords Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (IRPT),
Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV), Neutral Current Elimination, Zero
Voltage Regulation (ZVR) and Power Factor Correction (PFC).

I.

INTRODUCTION

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy is most important energy as it


is green, pollution free and having no threat to environment.
Earlier SPV based electrical power generation has been
limited to stand alone SPV power generation, however, now
grid interfaced SPV generating systems are becoming popular
[1-3]. There are many potential configurations available in the
literature like single stage grid interfaced, two stage grid
interfaced and multi level grid interfaced for SPV power
generating system. The two stage SPV power generating
system has not considered the PQ (Power Quality) problems in
detail with and without availability of sun [4-6]. The grid
interfaced SPV generating systems have used various control
algorithms which have focused on PQ problems limited to
itself like, low harmonic distortion and high power factor and
harmonic compensation and mainly focused on the PQ

II.

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

The proposed SPV generating system is shown in Fig.1. A


photovoltaic array is designed to generate 50 kW as a peak
power under standard operating conditions and this peak
power is tracked from PV array using P&O (Perturb and
Observe Method) algorithm. A DC-DC boost converter
implements MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking). The
common DC link voltage is regulated using a DC bus voltage
PI controller of VSC. A VSC with a Y- transformer provides

the compensation of the neutral current, reactive power and


balancing of consumer loads connected at PCC. The VSC
consists of six IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Junction
Transistors), interfacing inductors and DC bus capacitor. The
VSC is used for reactive power compensation of 40 kVAR of
a 50 kW, 0.8 lagging power factor load in a 3P4W distribution
system where a 50kW SPV power is injected at PCC which
also reduces the overall losses in the system.
III.

B. Selection of DC Capacitor Voltage


In order to achieve proper compensation, the minimum DC
bus voltage of VSC should be greater than twice the peak of
the phase voltage of the system as [17],

Vdc = (2 2VLL )

(3)

Where VLL is the AC line output voltage of VSC and its value
is 239.6V. The estimated value of the Vdc from Eq. (3) is
obtained as 391.87 V and it is selected as 400 V.Selection of
DC Capacitor Voltage

DESIGN OF PROPOSED SPV GENERATING


SYSTEM

C. Design of DC-DC Boost Converter


Fig.1 shows a DC-DC boost converter used in this system.
The DC-DC boost converter is used to track the MPP and to
boost the input of SPV array which used to feed the active
power at the DC bus of the VSC.
The value of the ripple current for the boost converter is given
as,

A three-phase 50 kW SPV generating system has a


three-leg VSC and a Y- transformer. The selection of
components like IGBTs, inductors, DC bus capacitor and
the ripple filter is made according to design requirements.
The design of the system is given as follows.

i1 =

Vdc D(1 D)
(2 Lb f sw )

(4)

where D is Duty cycle i1 is input current ripple and for this


design the value of i1 is considered 5% of boost converter
inductor current i1 (= P/Vin) =165.56A. Thus the calculated
value of i1 is 8.25A. fsw is switching frequency and the value
of fswb is considered as 10 kHz. Where Vo, Lb and fS are fixed
value.
The condition of maximum value of the ripple current given
as,

(d i1 )
=0
(dD)

(5)

The value of D corresponding to maximum ripple current is


obtained from (5) is 0.5. The value of inductance (Lb) from
Eq. (4) is obtained as 1.12 mH and the selected value is
1.25mH.
D. Design and Selection of DC Link Capacitor
The value of DC link capacitor is estimated using energy
conservation principle. The design of DC link capacitor (Cd)
of VSC depends on the instantaneous energy available to the
VSC at the time of transients. By using the principle of energy
conservation the value of DC capacitor is given as [17],

Fig.1 Schematic Configuration of the Proposed SPV Power Generating


System

A. Design of Solar Photovoltaic Array


The PV panel is designed for a 50 kW peak power capacity.
A solar PV module is formed by connecting solar cells in
series. Each cell has an open circuit voltage of 0.5 V to 0.6 V
[16] and short circuit current (Isc) of 4A.
The generalized equation for an active power for SPV array is
given as,
PmaxM = VmppM * ImppM
(1)
Maximum power occurs generally at PmaxM = (85% of Voc * 85
% of Isc ) thus ImppM is 3.3A and VmppM is 0.42V of each cell.
720 cells are connected in series to achieve a maximum
voltage of 302V as Vmpp of SPV for proposed system.
The total calculated maximum power is given as,
(2)
Pmax = Vmpp * Impp = 50 kW
From (2) to achieve a 50kW peak power capacity [16], the
required value of maximum current (Impp) is 165.56 A, to
achieve this current (165.56/3.3) 50 solar cells are connected
in parallel respectively.

1
Cd V 2 dc V 2 dc1 = 3V It s
2

(6)

where Vdc is the reference DC voltage and Vdc1 is the minimum


voltage level of DC bus, is the overloading factor, Vp is the
phase voltage, I is the phase current, and t is the time by which
the DC bus voltage is to be recovered. Considering the
minimum voltage level of the DC bus, Vdc1 = 380 V, with
nominal Vdc = 400V, V = 138.560 V, I = 120.28 A, t = 250 s,
a = 1.2, the calculated value of Cd is 4522.28 F and it is
selected as 5000 F.
E. Selection of VSC Source AC Inductor
The VSC source inductance (Lf ) is given as[17],

Lf

(
=

3mVdc

(12hf s i )

the same time if there is a variable DC link voltage then it


takes care of low DC link voltage too. The grid side is
connected in star thus it can eventually step up the voltage in
case of low DC link.
Total apparent power for a linear load is given as,
S req = P 2 + Q 2 = 50 2 + (50 * 0.6)
= 62.5 kVA (12)
0.8

(7)

where i is current ripple, fs is the switching frequency, (Vdc)


is DC bus voltage, m is the modulation index and h is the
overload factor. Considering, i, = 3%, fs = 10 kHz, m = 0.9,
Vdc = 400 V, h = 1.2, the Lf value is calculated to be 2.16 mH.
A round-off value of Lf of 2.5 mH is selected in this
investigation.

where P is active power of 50kW of SPV and Q is


reactive power of the consumer loads of 50kW
connected at PCC respectively. By taking the effect of
harmonics and distortion factor it is also selected to
consider the case of nonlinear loads. The required
transformer design needs three single phase transformers
of 25 kVA, 240V/240V, totaling of 75kVA.

F. Design of Ripple filter


A first order filter is tuned at half the switching frequency (fsh
= 10kHz) is used to filter the harmonics from the voltage at
the PCC. At a frequency of 5 kHz by considering a small
impedance of 8 ohms for harmonic voltage, the ripple filter
capacitor is designed as Cf = 10 F. A series resistance (Rf ) of
5 is included in series with the capacitor (Cf). The calculated
value of the impedance circuit is 391 at fundamental
frequency, which is quite large, due to this the ripple filter
extracts very small fundamental current.

IV.

The control technique used here to control the proposed


system is based on the IRPT for VSC. There is a separate
control for MPPT using a DC-DC boost converter. The control
strategy is given in following sections.

G. Design of Voltage Source Converter


A three phase voltage source converter is shown Fig.1. The
VSC consists of six switching devices. The IGBTs with anti
parallel diodes are used in VSC for compensating the reactive
power, harmonics of consumer loads. A three - phase VSC for
compensation of 239.6 V, 50 kW at 0.9 p.f. lagging load and
SPV generation is designed here.

A. Control of DC-DC Boost Converter for MPPT


A DC-DC boost converter is used to achieve MPPT
employing a P& O algorithm. Due to variable solar radiation,
the varying output voltage of the SPV is fed to the DCDC
boost converter as input voltage. A PV array voltage and
power are used as inputs to the controller which decides the
duty ratio of the boost converter corresponding to peak power
point. The incremental change in D is considered 0.01. This
P&O control algorithm tracks the maximum power Ppv,
maximum current Ipv, and maximum voltage Vpv. The change
in power at tth instant is given as,
dp = pt pt 1
(13)

The value of rms load current is given as,


VA
P0
=
3Vo 3( PF )V0
where VA = (Load Power/PF)
I rms =

CONTROL TECHNIQUE FOR PROPOSED SPV


GENERATING SYSTEM

(8)

The rms value of load current from Eq. (8) is estimated as


133.6A for a 50 kW load. Since the crest factor (CF) of the
current of the nonlinear load is order 2, the peak load current
(Ip) is given as,
I P = (CF ) I rms
(9)
So the value of peak current from Eq. (9) is estimated as 267
A. By considering a safety factor of 1.2, the standard rating of
the IGBT device is selected 300 A.
For the VSC voltage of 239.6V rms, peak voltage of this three
phase VSC is given as,
V peak = 2 * Vrms
(10)

The change in power with respect to voltage is tracked and


given as,

dp pt pt 1
=
dv vt vt 1

(14)

and accordingly the increment and decrement in duty cycle is


resulted in the corresponding control signal and it is
compared with a saw-tooth waveform of 10 kHz and its output
controls the duty cycle of the boost DC-DC converter for
MPPT.
B. IRPT based Control of VSC

The value of peak voltage from Eq. (10) is estimated as


338.79V. By considering the safety factor of 1.5, the device
rating is estimated 508.18V. So the IGBTs of 500V and 300A
are selected to form the VSC.

The grid feeds an active power to connected consumer loads


at PCC. However, it supplemented by SPV power generation
through DC link voltage controller of VSC. The DC link PI
voltage controller of VSC takes care an injection of SPV
power generation, during the availability of sun. In order to
generate reference grid currents, the IRPT control algorithm is
employed to control the VSC. In the instantaneous reactive
power theory (IRPT), the estimation of instantaneous active
and reactive powers of the consumer loads is made after

H. Design of a Y- Transformer

Based on the compensation current provided by the


VSC, the current rating of the transformer winding is
decided. The calculated primary winding voltage is,
Va=VLL/(3)=415/3=239.60V
(11)
The star-delta transformer provides an isolation, step up of
SPV voltage and compensation of the neutral current and at

converting sensed voltages (VLa, VLb, VLc) and load currents


(iLa,iLb,ilc) to - reference frame as,

where

proportional and integral gain of the AC voltage PI controller,


Ve(n) and Ve(n-1) are the voltage errors at the nth and (n-1)th
sampling instant, Ql(n) and Ql(n-1) are the are the output of
the AC PI voltage controller at the nth and (n-1)th sampling
instant,
The reference reactive power at the grid is given as,

( ) ( 1 2 ) v

1 1
2

=
2
3
v


0
3

La
v
Lb
vLc
3

(15)

Q* g = Ql Qdc

La
i
Lb
i
3 Lc
2

(16)

These voltages and currents in the and reference are used to


estimate instantaneous active and reactive powers of the loads.
The active power taken by the loads is given as,

pw = ( v iL + v iL ) = Pdc + Pac

(v

2
La

2
2
+ vLb
+ vLc
)

12

P* g = Pl ( n ) Pdc

i*s
1
* = 2
2
i s v + v

v

v

v
v

*
P g
*
Q g

(24)

These reference grid currents in , reference frame are


transformed in to a,b,c reference frame by inverse Clark
transform in order to produce reference grid currents as,
0
1

i *sa

i*
*
2 1
3
2
* s
i
(25)
=
2
sb
3
i s
i *
3 2
1
sc

( )

( )
( ) (

2) Power Factor Correction and Load Balancing


The quadrature or reactive power components of grid
currents must be zero for power factor correction (PFC)
to unity at PCC. Power factor correction can be achieved
by putting the value of reactive power component (Q*g)
zero in Eq. (24). Similarly the reference grid currents are
generated by using Eq. (25).

This amplitude is filtered and the voltage error between the


reference voltage and this estimated voltage is fed to PI
controller which in turn regulates the PCC voltage.
The output of the PI controller is reactive power component
and it is estimated as,

(23)

The estimated reference active and reactive powers of the grid


from Eq. (21) and (23) are utilized to obtain reference grid
currents in , frame are given as,

(19)

Ql ( n ) = Ql ( n 1) + K pq vae( n ) vae( n 1) + K iq vae( n )

(22)

where vde(n)=vdcr - vdca(n) an error between sensed and


reference DC bus voltage of VSC kpq and kpi are proportional
and integral gain of the DC voltage PI controller, Vde(n) and
Vde(n-1) are the voltage errors at the nth and (n-1)th sampling
instant, Pl(n) and Pl(n-1) are the are the output of the PI DC
bus voltage voltage controller at the nth and (n-1)th sampling
instant,
The reference active power P*g of the grid is given as,

(17)

This reactive power of the loads consists of DC (Qdc)


component as well as AC component (Qac) after passing
through LPF this instantaneous reactive power, it is Qdc.
1) Voltage Regulation and Load Balancing
The quadrature or reactive power components of grid currents
takes care of the voltage drop in the grid (source) impedance
by injecting a small reactive power current in to the grid
through VSC. It may be lagging in nature if the loads are of
leading power factor. For this purpose, a voltage PI controller
is used to regulate PCC voltage. The output PI voltage
controller is reactive power component supplied by VSC for
voltage control. These quadrature or reactive power
components are estimated through following basic equations.
For PCC voltage regulation, an error voltage of the amplitude
of AC terminal voltage at the point of common coupling
(PCC) is regulated by a PI AC voltage regulator. The
amplitude of voltage at PCC is given as,
12

pl (n) = pl ( n 1) + K pd vde( n ) vde( n 1) + K id vde( n )

This active power consists of two components a DC


component ( Pdc ) and an oscillating component (Pac) which is
due to harmonics component, to be fed by VSC. This
instantaneous power Pw is passed through a low pass filter
(LPF) to extract its DC component the output from LPF is Pdc
which is fundamental active power of the loads used in
estimation of reference AC mains currents.
Similarly instantaneous reactive power of the loads is
estimated as,
Qw = v i v i = Qdc + Qac
(18)

Vm = ( 2 3)

(21)

For estimating active power components of grid currents, the


active power of consumer loads and output of DC link voltage
controller have to be estimated. The DC link PI voltage
controller of VSC takes care an injection of SPV power
generation, during the availability of sun. Following are the
basic equations for estimating active power components at nth
instant is given as,

( ) ( 1 2 ) i

1 1
2

iL

i = 2 3
L
3
0

vae( n ) = vmr vm( n ) and Kpq and Kiq are the

3) PWM Generator
These reference grid currents (i*sa, i*sb and i*sc) are compared
with the sensed grid currents (isa, isb and isc) in the PI current
controller for generating gating signals for VSC of SPV power
generating system.

(20)

V.

The nonlinear load is realized by using three single phase


diode rectifier with resistance load with capacitance filter.
Performance of the proposed SPV system is simulated and
waveforms of the grid voltage voltages (Vs), DC bus voltage
(Vdc), AC grid currents, (is), load currents, (IL) the active
power from /to grid (P), the reactive power (Q), solar PV
current (IPV), solar PV voltage (Vpv), solar PV power (Ppv),
VSC current (ic ), and terminal voltage at PCC (Vt) are
illustrated in Figs.3-5. The AC mains neutral current (isn),
transformer neutral current (Itn) and load neutral current (iln)
are also depicted in Fig.3-5 under load variations. Following
inferences are observed from these simulation results.
A. Performance of SPV Power Generating System at
Unbalanced Linear Load for UPF and Load Balancing
Performance of the proposed SPV power generating system
under linear unbalanced loads at lagging PF in a three-phase
four-wire distribution system is illustrated in Fig.2.Load

MATLAB BASED MODELING

Matlab model is developed of the proposed SPV generating


system. The simulation parameters are set as following light
intensity of SPV array is 1000W/m2 and this solar intensity is
also reduced to zero. Temperature is 250C. The SPV array
with DC-DC boost converter is used to track MPP, its control
through
P&O
algorithm
is
implemented
using
Matlab/Simulink. The Y- transformer which is utilized to
compensate neutral current which is also modeled using
Matlab/Simulink. The algorithm used for controlling the VSC
is realised in Simulink. The reference grid currents are derived
from the sensed load voltages (vLa, vLb, vLc ), load currents (iLa,
iLb, iLc), and the DC bus voltage of VSC (Vdc). A current
controller based on pulse width modulation is used for
comparing reference grid currents (i*sa,i*sb,i*sc), and sensed
grid currents (isa,isb,isc) to generate the switching pulses for the
IGBTs of the VSC.

Fig.2 Performance of Proposed SPV System at unbalanced Linear Loads for Unity Power Factor and Load Balancing

VI.

unbalancing occurs at 0.3 s. by removing load from two phase


and continues up to 0.45s. During load unbalancing, the grid
currents are sinusoidal and almost balanced. During sun shine
hours the active power is supplied from solar PV array. The
grid voltage and grid currents are in phase. The AC grid neutral
current (isn), transformer neutral current (Itn) load neutral
current (iln) are also depicted under load variations. The solar
PV generation is reduced to zero at 0.5s and afterwards

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Simulated results of SPV power generating system is


demonstrated in this section. The grid interfaced 50 kW solar
PV power generating system using IRPT control algorithm is
validated under different linear/nonlinear, balanced and
unbalanced consumer loads in a 3P4W distribution system.

Fig.3 Performance of Proposed SPV System at unbalanced Linear Loads for Unity Power Factor and Load Balancing

required compensation is provided by the VSC thus the grid


neutral current appears to be zero.

B.

Performance of SPV Power Generating system at


Unbalanced Nonlinear Load for UPF
and Load
Balancing

Fig. 4 Performance of Proposed SPV System at Unbalanced Linear Load for Load Balancing and Voltage Regulation

Fig.5 Performances of Proposed SPV System at unbalanced Nonlinear Loads for Load Balancing and Voltage Regulation

bus voltage of VSC is regulated close to the reference value


under unbalancing of the loads.

Fig.3 shows performance of SPV system under unbalanced


nonlinear loads for unity power factor at AC mains. Here it is
seen that the load is drawing non-sinusoidal and unbalanced
currents but AC grid currents are balanced and sinusoidal due
to compensation provided by the VSC. Unbalancing in the
nonlinear loads occurs at 0.25 s and continued till 0.5s. The
solar intensity becomes zero and now the load is fed through
AC grid. The zero sequence fundamental current of the load
neutral current resulted in the unbalanced load currents is
circulated in the Y- transformer and hence the grid neutral
current is maintained at nearly zero.

D.

Performance of SPV Power Generating System at


Unbalanced Nonlinear Load for Load Balancing and
ZVR
Fig. 5 shows the performance of the SPV system for voltage
regulation mode at nonlinear loads. PCC voltage is regulated
to rated value in spite the change in loads. The zero sequence
fundamental current of the load neutral current resulted in the
unbalanced load currents is circulated in secondary of the Y-
transformer hence the neutral current compensation is
achieved.
E. Power Quality Improvement
This IRPT controlled SPV power generating system improves
power quality of the 3P4W distribution system. The grid
currents are injected in to /or coming out from grid is in phase
of grid voltage maintaining unity power factor. The total
harmonics distortion in the load current, AC grid current and
load voltage are given in Figs. 6a-c. The FFT analysis of the
simulated results shows that The THD of the AC grid current
is 1.49 % and PCC voltage THD is 0.24 % [18]. The total
harmonics distortion of PCC voltage and AC grid current are
well within the limit of IEEE 519 standard under nonlinear

C.

Performance of SPV Power Generating System at


Unbalanced Linear Load for Load Balancing and ZVR
In Fig. 4, it has been observed load currents are compensated
and the grid currents are balanced and almost sinusoidal. The
unbalancing in loads is realized by removing loads from two
phases at 0.3s and further continues up to 0.45s. The grid
currents are almost balanced in-spite of zero load current in
two of the phases. When there is no sun light, reactive power of
the load is supplied by VSC. The AC mains neutral current
(isn), transformer neutral current (Itn) and load neutral current in
the load (iln) are also shown under varying loads. Due to proper
compensation, the grid neutral current is close to zero. The DC

[1]

loads having a load current THD of 77.34%.The terminal


voltage at PCC is regulated to its reference value in order to
maintain zero voltage regulation with reactive power
compensation. The Y- transformer is used along with VSC to
provide isolation, neutral current compensation and to step up
voltage to the grid.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Fig.6a Wave form and Harmonic Spectrum for PCC voltage

[6]
[7]

Fig.6b Wave form and Harmonic Spectrum for AC grid current

[8]
[9]
Fig.6c Wave form and Harmonic spectrum of load current

VII.

[10]

CONCLUSION

The proposed grid interfaced SPV power generating system is


capable to inject active power in to the grid and able to
compensate for load reactive power and load current
harmonics. The performance of the SPV grid interfaced system
has been validated for load reactive power compensation for
unity power factor operation and zero voltage regulation along
with harmonics elimination, load balancing and neutral current
elimination. The IRPT control algorithm for grid interfaced
SPV power generating has been used first time successfully.
Both modes of operation of ZVR and UPF of the proposed
system have been achieved and performance of the system has
been found satisfactory.
VIII.

[11]

[12]

[13]
[14]

[15]

APPENDICES

A. Design Parameters of a 50 kW Solar Photovoltaic System


Voltage/temperature coefficient (Kv) = -80e-3 V/K,
Current/temperature coefficient (Ki) = .003 A/K,
B. Parameters for VSC
DC bus voltage of VSC: 400 V, DC bus capacitance of VSC:
5000 F, AC inductor: 2.5 mH, DC voltage PI controller: Kpd
= 1.2, Kid = 0.9, PCC voltage PI controller: Kpq = 0.15, Kiq =
0.11, PWM switching frequency: 10 kHz, Ripple filter: Rf = 5
, Cf = 10 F. AC line voltage: 415 V, 50 Hz, Line
impedance: Rs = 0.002 , Ls = 1.6 mH,

[16]
[17]

[18]

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