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Submitted by:Name:-Rahul prem dalal
Roll no.:- RC 6903 B 54
Reg no.:- 10901707
Submitted to:Bharpur Singh

First and foremost I thank my teacher Mr. Bharpur Singh who
has given me this Term Paper to bring out my creative capabilities. I
am also thankful to him for their valuable suggestions on my term
I express my gratitude to my parents for being continuous
source of encouragement and for their entire financial aid given to
I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided to me by
the library staff of L.P.U.
My heartfelt gratitude to my friends for helping me morally to
complete my work in time.


Introduction to avionics


Main categories






Avionics is a portmanteau of "aviation electronics". It

comprises electronic systems for use on aircraft, artificial satellites
and spacecraft, comprising communications, navigation and the
display and management of multiple systems. It also includes the
hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual
roles; these can be as simple as a search light for a police helicopter
or as complicated as the tactical system for an Airborne Early
Warning platform.

History:-In the 1970s, avionics was born, driven by military need rather
than civil airliner development. Today, avionics as used in military
aircraft almost always forms the biggest part of any development
budget. Aircraft like the F-15E and the now retired F-14 have roughly
80 percent of their budget spent on avionics. Most modern helicopters
now have budget splits of 60/40 in favour of avionics.

MAIN CATEGORIES:- Aircraft avionics:-

The cockpit of an aircraft is a major location for avionic

equipment, including control, monitoring, communication,
navigation, weather, and anti-collision systems. There are several
major vendors of flight avionics, including Honeywell (which now
owns Bendix/King, Baker Electronics, Allied Signal, etc..),
Honeywell (NYSE: HON) (legally Honeywell International Inc.) is a
major conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer
products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide
variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations
and governments

A 1990 Honeywell-Bull DPS 7 mainframe.

Communications:-Communications connect the flight deck to the ground, and the

flight deck to the passengers. On board communications are provided
by public address systems and aircraft intercoms.Aircraft
communication can also take place using HF (especially for transoceanic flights) or satellite Communication.

Navigation:-Navigation is the determination of position and direction on or

above the surface of the Earth. Avionics can use satellite-based
systems (such as GPS and WAAS), ground-based systems (such as
VOR or LORAN), or any combination thereof. Older avionics
required a pilot or navigator to plot the intersection of signals on a
paper map to determine an aircraft's location; modern systems, like
the Bendix/King KLN 90B, calculate the position automatically and
display it to the flight crew on moving map displays.

Monitoring:-Glass cockpits started to come into being with the Gulfstream

G-IV private jet in 1985. Display systems display sensor data that
allows the aircraft to fly safely. Much information that used to be
displayed using mechanical gauges appears on electronic displays in
newer aircraft. Almost all new aircraft include glass cockpits. ARINC
818, titled Avionics Digital Video Bus, is a protocol used by many
new glass cockpit displays in both commercial and military aircraft.

Aircraft flight control systems:-Airplanes and helicopters have means of automatically controlling
flight. They reduce pilot workload at important times (like during
landing, or in hover), and they make these actions safer by 'removing'
pilot error. The first simple auto-pilots were used to control heading
and altitude and had limited authority on things like thrust and flight
control surfaces. The advent of fly by wire and electro actuated flight
surfaces (rather than the traditional hydraulic) has increased safety.

Avionics and Flight Control

LCA Avionics architecture is configured
around MIL-STD-1553B data buses, with
built-in redundancy. Mission Data Processor
design follows Open Architecture Computing
reusability. Commercial Off The Shelf
(COTS) components duly tested to military
standards have been extensively used.
The Digital Flight Control Computer
(DFCC) takes inputs from the pilot,
inertia & air data sensors, and
generates appropriate commands to
the control surface (rudder, elevon,
slats and air brakes) actuators for
effecting necessary deflections for
aircraft maneuvers as per pilot's

The Flight Control System software

has been developed using Ada
Verification & Validation (IV&V)
adherence to MIL standards of all
safety critical onboard software.

Aircraft collision avoidance

systems:To supplement air traffic control, most large transport aircraft
and many smaller ones use a TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System), which can detect the location of nearby aircraft,
and provide instructions for avoiding a midair collision. Smaller
aircraft may use simpler traffic alerting systems such as TPAS, which
are passive (they do not actively interrogate the transponders of other
aircraft) and do not provide advisories for conflict resolution.
To help avoid collision with terrain, (CFIT) aircraft use systems such
as ground-proximity warning systems (GPWS), radar altimeter being
the key element in GPWS. A major weakness of (GPWS) is the lack
of "look-ahead" information as it only provides altitude above terrain
"look-down". To overcome this weakness, modern aircraft use the
Terrain Awareness Warning System (TAWS).

The U.S. Air Force's F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance

Technology (ACAT) aircraft.

Weather radar:-Weather systems such as weather radar (typically Arinc 708 on

commercial aircraft) and lightning detectors are important for aircraft
flying at night or in Instrument meteorological conditions, where it is
not possible for pilots to see the weather ahead. Heavy precipitation
(as sensed by radar) or severe turbulence (as sensed by lightning
activity) are both indications of strong convective activity and severe
turbulence, and weather systems allow pilots to deviate around these

Weather radar in Norman, Oklahoma with rainshaft (Source: NOAA).


Military communications:-While aircraft communications provide the backbone for safe

flight, the tactical systems are designed to withstand the rigours of the
battle field. Ultra haigh frequency(UHF), VHF Tactical (30-88 MHz)
and SatCom systems combined with ECCM methods, and
cryptography secure the communications. Data links like Link 11, 16,
22 and BOWMAN, JTRS and even TETRA provide the means of
transmitting data (such as images, targeting information etc.).

The PRC 355 radio, used at Section/Platoon level as a replacement for

the Clansman PRC 351/2

Radar:-Airborne radar was one of the first tactical sensors. The benefit
of altitude providing range has meant a significant focus on airborne
radar technologies. Radars include Airborne Early Warning (AEW),
Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), and even Weather radar (Arinc 708)
and ground tracking/proximity radar.The military uses radar in

fast jets to help pilots fly at low levels. While the civil market
has had weather radar for a while, there are strict rules about
using it to navigate the aircraft.

Sonar:-Dipping sonar fitted to a range of military helicopters allows the

helicopter to protect shipping assets from submarines or surface


threats. Maritime support aircraft can drop active and passive sonar
devices (Sonobuoys) and these are also used to determine the location
of hostile submarines.

Electro-Optics:-Electro-optic systems include Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR),

and Passive Infrared Devices (PIDS). These are all used to provide
imagery to crews. This imagery is used for everything from Search
and Rescue through to acquiring better resolution on a target.


Aircraft networks
The avionics systems in military, commercial and advanced
models of civilian aircraft are interconnected using an
avionics databus. Common avionics databus protocols, with
their primary application, include:
Aircraft Data Network (ADN): Ethernet derivative for
Commercial Aircraft
ARINC 429: Generic Medium-Speed Data Sharing for Private
and Commercial Aircraft
ARINC 708: Weather Radar for Commercial Aircraft
MIL-STD-1760: Military Aircraft


Police and air ambulance:--

Police and EMS aircraft (mostly helicopters) are now a significant

market. Military aircraft are often now built with the capability to
support response to civil disobedience. Police helicopters are almost
always fitted with video/FLIR systems allowing them to track
suspects. They can also be equipped with searchlights and


EMS and police helicopters will be required to fly in unpleasant

conditions which may require more aircraft sensors, some of which
were until recently considered purely for military aircraft.

ADS-B Used For In-Trail Procedures:--

Avionics manufacturers are participating in oceanic in-trail

procedures (ITP) trials in the United States and Europe using
automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft position
In presentations at the AEEC General Session in Phoenix last year,
Honeywell and ACSS outlined separate efforts to demonstrate the
optimal flight profiles and reduced separations possible with ADS-B
There will be a 12-month operational evaluation beginning in 2011,
said Don Kauffman, Honeywell Aerospace senior technology
manager for communications, navigation and surveillance
technologies. Honeywell estimates the economic benefit of more
efficient routing will fall between $200,000 and$400,000 per year, per



HCLs Aerospace practice has experienced an explosive growth in its core

avionics skills and ability to run complex and large programs over a period of
last five years. HCLs end-to-end services both hardware and software in
avionics intends to bring the Research & Development Transformation.
Practitioners combining over 7000 person years of experience in avionics
specific programming languages, methodologies, tools, operating systems,
compilers and standards make us the largest Avionics Development practice
They are now getting complete outsourcing assignments of independent
development of core avionics subsystems. They are the first Indian IT
solutions provider for Aerospace industry to obtain AS 9100 certification
which is a testimony to the quality and domain expertise.

Services Spread
HCL partners with leading avionics companies on their core avionics systems
such as flight control systems, flight management systems, communication
HCL expertise on avionics also encompasses a range of mission critical
avionics, including electrical systems, power systems, environment systems, fire
protection systems, test systems, hydraulics, landing gear and in-flight


HCLs Avionics practice works on systems for new aircraft programs, besides
maintaining and enhancing avionics for aircraft in operation. This experience
ranges from software and hardware design, implementation to integration and


Objective - Consolidate within one report the operational

Constraints and Considerations for launch site testing of the
present Shuttle Avionics systems.
Constraint - Testing that requires special vehicle
configurations and ground support equipment configurations.
Consideration - Testing configurations that have driven
special infrastructure/ resource requirements, or have high
failure rates.


Purpose - To provide to the designers of future avionics

systems the information required to possibly design out these