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Code Switching and Code Mixing

Code switching and code mixing


Introduction:
Code switching and code mixing are two important terms in sociolinguistics. The
concept code switching and code mixing refers to code means language in speech
community there are people can use two or more Langs. In such circumstances Code
switching and code mixing take place so through this we can understand that for Code
switching and code mixing Person should know two or more then two languages.
As we know Code switching and code mixing are two important terms in sociolinguistics
we can define these two terms as follows:-

Code switching:
Code switching is the inevitable consequence of bilingualism or more generally
multilingualism. Any person who knows more then one language and can speak more then
one language chooses between them according to circumstances. First consideration for that
of course in which language will be comprehensible to the person address. Generally speaker
chooses a language which the other person can understand. In community multilingualism the
different languages are always used in different circumstances and the choice is always
controlled by social rules. Typically one language is reserved exclusive for use at home and
another is used in the wider community.
For example
A Marathi man settle in Punjab speaks Marathi at home. Hindi at shops and English
at work places.

Code switching is prominent term use in sociolinguistic and this term have its two basic
types. These are
1
2

situational Code switching


metaphorical Code switching

1. Situational code Switching


This kind of code switching is called situational code-switching because the switches
between languages always coin cite with changes from one external situation (for example
talking to members of the family) to another (for example talking to the neighbors) . The
choice of language is controlled by rules. Which members of the community learn from their
experience, so these rules are part of their total linguistics knowledge choice of language are
situational determined, shift in situations requires shift in language varieties . In order to
understand this activity fully, we will have to examine role relationship, types of interaction
and situational relevant domains . They may be analyzed in farms of the following
components and their inter relations
a)participants - their socio-psychological behavior their mood and their relative
social positions
b) socio-cultural

-Its distinguishing features setting

c) topic of discourse
A member of social networks sharing a linguistic repertoire must know when to shift
from one variety to another variety. One category of such shifts is that known as situational
shift. A shift in situation may require a shift in language variety .A shift in language variety
may single. Shift in relationship between co-members of a social network or shift in the topic
and purpose of their inter action, or a shift in piracy or locale of their inter action. It may be
repress ended diagrammatically as

This situation is more difficult in the case of bilinguals and multilingual who select
different varieties of two or more languages to meet the requirement of different situations.
Their choice are conditioned by their concepts of appropriateness and effectiveness
Now very obvious question arises: why should a whole community bother to learn three
different languages do? If everyone in saris knows standard Italian. Why dont they stick to
this all the time? No doubt saurian they have clear answer that the standard Italian would just
feel wrong at home. The rules link the language to different communities, so each language
also symbolizes that community speaking standard Italian at home would be like wearing suit
and speaking German in the village would be like wearing beach-clothes in church. in short
each language has a social function which no other language could fulfill . These social
functions betray resulted history but they are no less real for that the same seems to be typical
or bilingual communities in general .the main reason for preserving the languages is because
of the social distinction they symbolize.
There is an example of situational codes witching.
A Marathi language at home, Hindi with friends and English at work place.

At home
Aquinnah- mala Aaj kamavarun yayla usher hoeil.
Wife- ka?
Auinash - Aaj eka mothya componyshe carar honar aahe meeting usheraparyant chalel he
mala mehet aahe mhanun.

With friendsFriend- kyu bhai kal tumhare meeting thi wo cansel kya hai
Auinash- boss ke Tabiyat achanak kharab hone ke karun meeting cansel karne pade.

In office
Boss-thank you. Mr. Auinash
Auinash-thanks for what?
Boss-When I was ill . you immediately made a call to our international business. Partner
and convinced them forgetting new dates for the meeting
Auinash-Its my duty sir.

2.

Metaphorical code Switching-

The second kind of code switching is metaphorical code switching Like a


situational code switching metaphorical code switching is also a important term in
sociolinguistics. This term we can explain as follow.
The heavy symbolic load that language bear. It is entirely to be expected that bilingual
speaker will use their choice of language in order to define the situation rather than letting the
situation have define the choice of language. In clear cases we can tell what situation we are
in just by looking around for example if we are in a lecture room full of people or having
breakfast with our family. Classifying the situation is essay. If language choice varies with the
situation. It is clearly the situation that decides the language not the other way round. In
some cases the situation is less dear either because it is ambiguous or because the speaker
decide to ignore the observable external situation and focus instead on less observable
characteristic of people concerned such cases, where it is the choice of language that
determines the situation are called metaphorical code switching. In midsection the personal
introductory part of the meaning tend to be in the local dialect and the rest that is the business
part in the standard variety.
In the course of a morning spent at the community administration office we noticed that
darkest way as they can manipulate those governing the meaning of words by using them
metaphorically. This is something everyone knows from everyday experience.
The example of metaphorical code-switching.
Ankita- high Apurva how are you ?
Apurva- I am fine thankyou.
Ankita- suna ha ke kal tum mahabalashwar gei thiz kaisa raha tumhara anubhav?
Apurva- ekdem badhiya, je to ker raha tha ke aur 4-5 din wahe pe ruk jau. Lakin hamari
emtehan?

Ankita chinta karu nakos ajan parikshela 2mahine bake aahe.


Apurva- maq theke.
After looking what is mean by situational code switching and metaphorical code
switching we can summed up some of the main features of code switching.
a) Intralingua and Interlingua switching are sociolinguistic universals.
b) The switchers use English words and expressions even when equivalents exist in
Hindi they feel that their equivalents in Hindi might sound formal and unnatural.
c) Some of the formulaic expressions in English are now so deeply embedded in urban
bilingual societies that they come out naturally in formal conversations.
d) There is so much of English around and it is so much in active use that switching form
Hindi to English takes place automatically and unconsciously.
e) Code switching is context governed if the interlocutors have a degree in English and
use English as their medium of lecturing or in their office work.
f) The preponderance of a particular set of lexical items of code depends upon our
emotional and intellectual attachment to the code.
g) what is significant today is not that English is used in X situations and Hindi in Y
situation but that Hindi-English is being used more and more in informal everyday
conversation.
h) code-switching yield new collocations.
i) code-switching repeals certain patterns and regularities rather certain patterns and
regularities rather than purely random or idiosyncratic manifestations.
So in this way we can explain the term code-switching.

As the term code-switching is important in sociolinguistics term code-mixing emphasis


high and the term code switching emphasizes movement from one language to another
language.

Code-mixing:
Code-mixing take place when a fluent-bilingual changes. Language without any change
in situation while speaking to another fluent bilingual for the correct effect this kind of
alternation is called code-mixing. The purpose of code-mixing seems to be to symbolize
ambiguous situation for which neither language an on its would be quite right. To get the
right effect. The speakers balance the two languages against each other as a kind of linguistic
cocktail. A few words of one language then a few words of the other, then back to the first for
a few more words and so on. the changes generally take place more or; less randomly as far
as subject matter is concerned , but they seem to be limited by sentence structure.
A important question about code-mixing is what syntactic constraints apply to it and
attempt to answer this question have constituted. One of the main point of contact over the
last few years between sociolinguistics and non-sociolinguistics. There is no doubt that there
are syntactic constraints.
Code-mixing as a communicative strategy may be used in four function first it use for
register identification. Secondly code- mixing proudest formal dues for style identification.
Next it is used as a deuce for interpretation. In the last it is for neutralization.
So in this way we can understand the term code-mixing. There are some examples of
code-mixing.
1)
2)
3)

tumhare proposal accept hua kya?


May aajkal busy rahte hu.
Tumhare train kalse miss ho gayi.

4)
5)

Uska knowledge bahot vast hai.


Tum dance compition me bhaq lene wali thi kya hua?

All these examples show us the users of the language mix the codes. The use English
words in the Hindi sentences. They use it without breaking the rules of the making sentence.
There are some examples in which speakers use English words in Marathi sentences.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Please mala pan dana.


Kamble der uarshi with family world tour la jatat.
Tu maza wait karshil ka?
Mala important kam aahe.
Tula prize distribution ceremony la jaych aahe ka.

Examples of code-mixing English and French.


1)
2)

I was the belle of the ball.


I put the box las meas as

In the world of advertisement code mixing become a very important phenomenon.


There are some examples of in which code-mixing is used.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Ya dil mange more.


Thada thanda cool cool nauratna tail
What an idea sirji
Hero Honda dhak dhak go
Sidhi baut no bakwas

Conclusion:
In this way, we can say that the users of the language mix the codes. The use English
words in the Hindi sentences. They use it without breaking the rules of the making sentence.
Code-mixing emphasis high and the term code switching emphasize movement from one
language to another language. The switchers use English words and expressions even when
equivalents exist in Hindi they feel that their equivalents in Hindi might sound formal and
unnatural.