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Particularit@]ile tehnologice fundamentale pentru asigurarea

calit@]ii construc]iilor sudate din o]eluri cu rezisten]@


mecanic@ ridicat@
Fundamental technological features for quality assurance
of high-strength steel welded constructions
Prof. Dr. Ing. Gheorghe Zecheru, Prof. Dr. Ing. Mihail Minescu, Conf. Dr. Ing. Gheorghe Dr@ghici,
Conf. Dr. Ing. Andrei Dumitrescu, Universitatea Petrol - Gaze din Ploie}ti
E-mail: gzecheru@upg-ploiesti

Rezumat

n lucrare sunt prezentate, analizate i interpretate soluiile tehnologice actuale privind realizarea construciilor sudate
din laminate (de tip tabl, band sau eav) obinute din oeluri slab (sau mediu) aliate cu granulaie foarte fin,
avnd rezisten mecanic i tenacitate ridicate. Proprietile tehnologice (prelucrabilitatea prin deformare plastic
la rece sau la cald, sudabilitatea etc.) unor astfel de oeluri este caracterizat innd seama de compoziia lor chimic
i de particularitile structurilor conferite semifabricatelor prin procesele metalurgice de mare complexitate care se
desfoar n cursul obinerii acestora prin laminare termomecanic. Aplicarea recomandrilor fcute n lucrare
privind tehnologiile de sudare conduce la o bun corelare a caracteristicilor mecanice ale mbinrilor sudate cu cele
ale materialelor de baz i asigur obinerea unor construcii sudate cu performane tehnice foarte ridicate privind
rezistena mecanic i durabilitatea.

Abstract

In this paper there are presented, analyzed and interpreted the current technological solutions for the welded
constructions made of rolled semiproducts (sheet, strip or pipe) obtained from low (or medium) alloy steels with
ultra-fine grain, having high strength and toughness. The technological properties (formability, weldability etc.) of
such steels is determined by their chemical composition and by the structural particularities of semiproducts given
by the high complexity metallurgical processes which take place during the operation of obtaining them by
thermomechanical rolling. Applying the recommendations formulated by the paper concerning the welding technologies
leads to a good correlation between the mechanical properties of the welded joints and the ones of the base materials
and assures a welded construction with high technical performances in what strength and endurance are concerned.
Cuvinte cheie: construc]ii sudate din HSLAS, propriet@]i mecanice,
propriet@]i tehnologice, tehnologii de sudare

Keywords: HSLAS welded construction, mechanical properties,


technological properties, welding technologies

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Construciile sudate moderne, de tipul recipientelor sub


presiune, rezervoarelor, silozurilor, podurilor, utilajelor
pentru construcii civile i industriale, utilajelor pentru
drumuri i mbuntiri funciare, conductelor tehnologice
i de transport (terestre i submarine), mainilor de ridicat
i transportat, utilajelor i echipamentelor miniere, platformelor petroliere marine, navelor etc., trebuie proiectate
i realizate folosind semifabricate metalice care ndeplinesc
simultan urmtoarele criterii:
a) rezisten mecanic ridicat, care s confere
construciilor capacitatea de a prelua n siguran solicitrile
mecanice la care sunt supuse n cursul exploatrii, n
condiiile fabricrii lor cu un consum raional de materiale;
b) tenacitate ridicat i comportare ductil la rupere,
care s asigure un nivel neglijabil al riscului de fisurare sau
cedare fragil a construciilor n condiiile lor de utilizare
(temperatur, viteze de solicitare, medii de lucru);
c) comportare bun i durabilitate ridicat la
aciunea eventualelor procese (coroziune, oboseal, fluaj
etc.) care pot determina deteriorarea construciilor pe
parcursul exploatrii;
d) proprieti tehnologice (prelucrabilitate prin
deformare plastic, sudabilitate etc.) bune, care s permit
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Modern welded constructions, such as pressure vessels,


storage tanks, silos, bridges, civil and industrial construction
equipment, equipment for roads and land improvements,
industrial and transport pipelines (on land and offshore),
cranes, trucks and earth moving equipment, mining tools
and equipment, offshore oil platforms, ships etc., must be
designed and build using metallic semiproducts which
simultaneously fulfill the following criteria:
a) high strength, granting the constructions the
capacity to safely resist the mechanical loads to which they
are subjected during exploitation, in the conditions of their
manufacturing with a rational materials consumption;
b) high toughness and a ductile behavior at
breaking, which ensure a negligible level of the risk of brittle
cracking or failure of the structures in their operational
conditions (temperature, load speed, working environments);
c) good behavior and high endurance to the action
of the eventual processes (corrosion, fatigue, creep etc.)
which can determine the deterioration of the constructions
during their exploitation;
d) good technological properties (formability, weldability etc.), which allow for the structures manufacturing by
means of simple technological procedures and with low costs.
SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

fabricarea construciilor prin procedee tehnologice simple


i cu costuri sczute.
Semifabricatele metalice care ndeplinesc aceste criterii i
se folosesc n prezent pe scar larg la realizarea construciilor metalice sudate (de tipul celor precizate mai nainte)
sunt semifabricatele laminate din oeluri slab aliate cu
rezisten mecanic ridicat HSLAS (High Strength Low
Alloy Steels). Potrivit estimrilor din [1], ponderea
procentual actual a HSLAS n producia mondial de
semifabricate din oel este de aproximativ 12 %, iar ponderile
utilizrii acestora n diferite tipuri de aplicaii sunt cele
precizate n tabelul 1.

Metallic semiproducts which fulfill these criteria and are at


present widely used to manufacture welded metallic
constructions (such as the ones mentioned above) are
semiproducts rolled from High Strength Low Alloy Steels
HSLAS. According to the estimations from [1], the present
day percentage share of HSLAS in the worlds fabrication of
steel semiproducts is of approximately 12 %, and the shares
of their use in different types of applications are the ones
indicated in Table 1.
Obviously, the replacement of semiproducts made of usual
carbon or low alloy steels with HSLAS semiproducts will lead
the way to a decrease in thickness and mass of the structural

Tabelul 1. Ponderea utiliz@rii HSLAS ^n aplica]iile industriale


Table 1. Shares of HSLAS use in industrial applications

Evident, nlocuirea semifabricatelor din oeluri nealiate sau


slab aliate obinuite cu semifabricate din HSLAS va conduce
la micorarea grosimii i masei componentelor construciilor, dar, aa cum sugereaz figura 1, elaborat prin pre-

Figura 1. Reducerea posibil@ a masei componentelor


construc]iilor ^n cazul utiliz@rii semifabricatelor din HSLAS
Fig.1. Possible reduction of the mass of the constructions
components in case of using HSLAS semiproducts
SUDURA , XXI - 4/2011

components, but, as suggested in Figure 1, obtained by


processing the information from [2], such decrease does
not depend only upon the increase of the values of the
mechanical strength characteristics of semiproducts (yield
strength, Rp and tensile strength Rm), but also upon the
geometrical configuration of the constructions components
and the manner in which they are subjected to mechanical
loading.
HSLAS are considered to be economical materials, the
costs involved in their elaboration and by manufacturing
rolled semiproducts from such steels being close to the
ones corresponding to the fabrication of semiproducts made
of usual carbon and low alloy steels. This statement,
sustained by the information synthesized in the diagrams
from Figure 2, drawn with the help of the data from [3], as
well as the idea suggested by the diagrams from Figure 3
[1], according to which the total manufacturing cost of
HSLAS structures can be smaller than the one related to the
fabrication of similar structures made of usual carbon or
low alloy steels, due mainly to the decrease of the costs for
the transportation and manipulation of semiproducts, the
diminution of the expenses for the implementation of the
operations of the constructions manufacturing process
(especially the ones related to the welding operations, which
are performed on semiproducts with smaller thickness) and,
sometimes, the reduction of the costs regarding the
constructions exploitation (for instance, the expenses with
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lucrarea informaiilor din [2], aceast


micorare nu depinde numai de creterea
valorilor caracteristicilor de rezisten
mecanic ale semifabricatelor (limita de
curgere. Rp i rezistena la rupere Rm), ci i
de configuraia geometric a componentelor
construciilor i de modul de solicitare
mecanic a acestora.
HSLAS se consider a f i mat eriale
economice, costurile implicate de elaborarea
lor i de realizare a semifabricatelor laminate
din astfel de oeluri fiind apropiate de cele
corespunztoare obinerii de semifabricate
din oeluri nealiate i slab aliate obinuite.
Aceast afirmaie, susinut de informaiile
sintetizate n diagramele din figura 2, Figura 2. Pre]urile de referin]@ ale semifabricatelor laminate livrate din Rusia:
construite cu ajutorul datelor din [3], ca i PRL-0 - pre]ul laminatelor din o]elurile grade A, B / API 5L; PRL-1 - pre]ul
ideea sugerat de diagramele din figura 3 laminatelor din o]elurile X42...X60 / API 5L; PRL-2/HSLAS - pre]ul laminatelor
[1], conform creia costul total de realizare din o]elurile X65...X80 / API 5L - HSLAS
Figure 2. Reference prices of rolled semiproducts delivered from Russia: price
a construciilor din HSLAS poate fi mai mic
of rolled semiproducts made of steel grades A, B / API 5L; / price of rolled
dect cel aferent obinerii construciilor semiproducts made of X42...X60 steels / API 5L; / price of rolled semiproducts
similare din oeluri nealiate sau slab aliate made of X65...X80 steels / API 5L - HSLAS
obinuite, datorit, n principal, micorrii
costurilor de transport i manipulare a semifabricatelor, the fuel needed for the propulsion of the 100000...150000
diminurii cheltuielilor de realizare a operaiilor din procesul DWT ships, where semiproducts made of usual steels have
tehnologic de fabricare a construciilor (n special
a celor aferente operaiilor de sudare, care se
efectueaz pe semifabricate cu grosime mai mic)
i, uneori, reducerii costurilor privind exploatarea
construciilor (de exemplu, cheltuielile cu combustibilul necesar pentru propulsia navelor de
100000...150000 DWT, la care semifabricatele din
oeluri obinuite au fost nlocuite n proporie de
40...50 % cu semifabricate din HSLAS, se reduc cu
110000...130000 $/an [1]), trebuie privit cu realism,
innd seama de toate particularitile tehnologice
(expuse n prezenta lucrare) ale elaborrii oelurilor,
transformrii lor n semifabricate laminate,
prelucrrii i asamblrii acestora n vederea
realizrii construciilor.

2. Proprietile mecanice i particularitile


fabricrii laminatelor din HSLAS

Proprietile de rezisten mecanic, plasticitate


i tenacitate ale semifabricatelor din HSLAS sunt
remarcabile, valorile minime specificate pentru
caracteristicile mecanice determinate prin
Figura 3. Costul realiz@rii componentelor pentru poduri din HSLAS
ncercrile la traciune (limita de curgere R p ,
Figure 3. The cost of making bridge components from HSLAS
rezistena la rupere Rm i alungirea procentual
dup rupere A, corelat invers proporional cu caracteristicile
been replaced in a percentage of 40...50 % with HSLAS
Rp i Rm) fiind Rp = 340...1300 MPa, Rm = 450...1700 MPa; A
semiproducts, decrease with 110000...130000 $/year [1]),
= 8...22 %, iar clasele de tenacitate asigurate (definite cu
must be looked at with realism, taking into account all the
criteriile KV27 J clasa J, KV40 J clasa K sau KV60 J
technological particularities (exposed in the present paper)
clasa L, considernd valorile energiei de rupere KV
of steels elaboration, of their transformation in rolled
determinate prin ncercarea la ncovoiere prin oc,) fiind
semiproducts, of their processing and assemblage in view
JR...J6, KR...K2 sau LR.
of obtaining structures.
Simbolurile utilizate pentru mrcile de HSLAS precizeaz
c pentru aceste oeluri caracteristicile de calitate principale
sunt caracteristicile de rezistena mecanic; n mod obinuit, 2. Mechanical properties and particularities of
simbolurile au urmtoarea structur: o liter sau un grup the manufacturing of HSLAS rolled semiproducts
de litere (S steel; L linepipe; WELDOX construcii The properties concerning the mechanical strength,
sudate), un grup de cifre care indic valoarea minim plasticity and toughness of HSLAS semiproducts are
garantat a limitei de curgere Rp i un grup de litere i cifre remarkable, the minimum specified values for the
care precizeaz tehnologia de realizare a semifabricatelor mechanical characteristics determined by the tensile tests
i/sau de obinere a strii structurale care confer (yield strength Rp, tensile strength Rm and percentage
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SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

semifabricatelor caracteristicile mecanice impuse (N


laminare normalizant sau tratament termic final de
normalizare; M laminare termomecanic; Q tratament
termic final de clire sau de clire urmat de revenire),
precum i clasa de tenacitate asigurat (D sau Q oel cu
clasa J2; E sau L oel cu clasa J4; F sau L1 oel cu clasa
J6). Modul de simbolizare sugereaz c productorii de
semifabricate din HSLAS nu au restricii privind reetele de
aliere sau tehnologiile de fabricare utilizate, cu condiia s
asigure produselor lor caracteristicile mecanice i
tehnologice impuse de aplicaiile tehnice pentru care
acestea sunt destinate. n acest context este interesant de
precizat c principalele ci de aciune i soluiile privind
compoziia chimic i tehnologiile de lucru care au permis
obinerea de semifabricate din HSLAS pentru construcii
sudate cu performane tehnice din ce n ce mai ridicate au
fost [4-11]:
a) stabilirea judicioas a reetei oelurilor,
ncepnd cu adoptarea concentraiilor carbonului i elementelor de aliere care pot asigura obinerea caracteristicilor
de rezisten mecanic i tehnologice (deformabilitate,
sudabilitate) dorite, continund cu alegerea i corelarea
coninuturilor de elemente de microaliere care pot favoriza
realizarea de structuri cu granulaie fin, cu o bun combinaie a caracteristicilor de rezisten mecanic i tenacitate,
care pot determina durificarea structural prin precipitare
a oelurilor i/sau care pot favoriza transformarea la rcire
a austenitei prin mecanismele fr difuzie sau intermediar
i ncheind cu alegerea i stabilirea concentraiilor elementelor de aliere care s conduc la obinerea unor efecte
sau caracteristici speciale: modificarea formei i proprietilor incluziunilor nemetalice, creterea rezistenei la
coroziunea atmosferic, realizarea unei bune tenaciti la
temperaturi sczute etc. Semifabricatele utilizate n prezent
pentru construcii sudate sunt obinute din HSLASa cu reete
alctuite astfel: concentraia masic a carbonului limitat
la valori %C = 0,10...0,12 % (pentru asigurarea unei bune
sudabiliti), alierea cu elemente (Mn, dar i Cr sau Ni) care
s permit asigurarea performanelor de rezisten
mecanic i tenacitate, microalierea cu Nb, V, Mo, Ti, Al, N
pentru obinerea de semifabricate laminate cu granulaie
fin i pentru durificarea acestora ca urmare a formrii n
cursul laminrii a unor precipitate de carburi, nitruri sau
carbonitruri ale acestor elemente, microalierea cu pmnturi
rare (Ce) pentru modificarea formei sulfurilor, evitarea
formrii structurilor de laminare cu dispunerea n iruri a
constituenilor i obinerea de semifabricate izotrope, alierea
cu Cr, Ni, Mo, B pentru a dirija convenabil mecanismele de
transformare la rcire a austenitei.
b) elaborarea oelurilor prin procedeul bazic,
n convertizoare cu oxigen sau n cuptoare electrice,
purificarea avansat a oelurilor (care s asigure
respectarea criteriilor %S 0,005 % i %P 0,020 %) i folosirea
turnrii continue (n locul turnrii n lingouri) pentru
realizarea semifabricatelor primare (de tipul sleburilor sau
bramelor), care se supun laminrii pentru a obine
semifabricate de tip tabl, band sau eav, destinate
realizrii construciilor sudate.
c) utilizarea laminrii controlate (laminrii
programate sau laminrii termomecanice TM), care
este un proces de laminare cu grade mari de deformare la
care se controleaz strict temperaturile de lucru, vitezele
de nclzire i rcire, gradele i vitezele de deformare la
fiecare trecere, prin care se transform semifabricatele
primare, obinute prin turnare continu, n semifabricate
de tip tabl, band sau eav i se confer acestora structura
SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

elongation after breaking A, correlated inversely


proportional with the characteristics Rp and Rm) being Rp
= 340...1300 MPa, Rm = 450...1700 MPa; A = 8...22 %, and the
assured toughness class (defined with the criteria KV27 J
class J, KV40 J class K or KV60 J class L, considering
the values of the impact energy KV determined by means
of the Charpy V-notch impact test) being JR...J6, KR...K2 or
LR.
The symbols used for HSLAS grades specifies that, for these
steels, the principal quality characteristics are the
mechanical strength characteristics; usually, the symbols
have the following structure: a letter or a group of letters (S
steel; L linepipe; WELDOX welded constructions), a
group of digits indicating the minimum guaranteed value
of the yield strength Rp and a group of letters and digits
specifying the manufacturing technology of the
semiproducts and/or of achieving the structural state which
confers to the semiproducts the imposed mechanical
characteristics (N normalizing rolling or final heat
treatment of normalizing; M thermomechanical rolling;
Q final heat treatment of quenching or quenching followed
by tempering), as well as the assured toughness class (D or
Q J2 class steel; E or L J4 class steel; F or L1 J6 class
steel). The manner of symbolization suggests that the
manufacturers of HSLAS semiproducts have no restrictions
regarding the alloying recipes or the manufacturing
technologies used, with the condition to secure for their
products the mechanical and technological characteristics
imposed by the technical applications for which they are
intended. In this context, it is interesting to mention that
the main ways of action and solutions regarding the chemical
composition and the working technologies, which have
allowed for obtaining HSLAS semiproducts for welded
constructions with higher and higher technical
perforb
mances, have been [4-11]:
a) the judicious determination of the steels
recipe, beginning with the adoption of the carbon and
alloying elements concentrations that can secure the
achievement of the needed mechanical strength and
technological characteristics (formability, weldability),
continuing with the selection and the correlation of the
contents of micro-alloying elements which can favor the
achievement of fine grain structures, with a good
combination of the mechanical strength and toughness
characteristics, which can determine the structural precipitation hardening of steels and/or can favor the austenite
transformation mechanisms at cooling, and ending with
the selection and the definition of the alloying elements
concentrations that can lead to obtain some special effects
or characteristics: modification of the shape and
characteristics of the non-metallic inclusions, increase of
the resistance to atmospheric corrosion, attainment of a
good toughness at low temperatures etc.; semiproducts
presently used for welded constructions are obtained from
HSLAS with recipes composed as follows: the mass
concentration of carbon limited to values %C = 0,10...0,12
% (to ensure a good weldability), alloying with elements
(Mn, but also Cr or Ni) enabling to secure the mechanical
strength and toughness performances, micro-alloying with
Nb, V, Mo, Ti, Al, N in order to obtain rolled semiproducts
with fine grain and to harden them as a consequence of the
formation during rolling of precipitates with carbides,
nitrides or carbonitrides of these elements, micro-alloying
with rare earth elements (Ce) in order to change the shape
of sulfides, to avoid the formation of rolling structures with
constituents arranged in strings and to obtain isotropic
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(cu granulaie foarte fin, cu densitate de dislocaii controlat, cu precipitate durificatoare fine, uniform distribuite i
coerente sau necoerente cu reelele cristaline ale fazelor
matrice n care s-au format i cu diverse tipuri constitueni:
ferit acicular, ferit i bainit, bainit, martensit etc.)
care le asigur caracteristicile mecanice impuse; procesul
de laminare poate fi finalizat cu aplicarea unui tratament
de clire martensitic urmat de revenire (quenching and
tempering QT), cu o rcire accelerat (accelerated cooling
ACC) sau cu o rcire intensiv direct (direct intensive
cooling DIC), care determin formarea structurii finale n
semifabricate, cu diferite niveluri ale caracteristicilor de
rezisten mecanic.
Modul n care soluiile tehnologice anterior prezentate au
contribuit la dezvoltarea produciei de semifabricate din
HSLAS pentru construcii sudate este ilustrat sugestiv n
figura 4 [1,10]. Din prezentarea anterioara trebuie s se
desprind urmtoarele aspecte:
a) creterea performanelor semifabricatelor din
HSLAS pentru construcii sudate necesit investiii
importante pentru construirea unor linii de fabricaie noi
sau pentru modernizarea celor existente; ca urmare,
meninerea semifabricatelor din HSLAS n domeniul
materialelor economice nu se poate explica dect prin
creterea important a cererii de astfel de semifabricate i
crearea condiiilor pentru amortizarea rapid a investiiilor;
b) caracteristicile ridicate de rezisten mecanic
i tenacitate ale semifabricatelor din HSLAS sunt determinate de particularitile structurale generate n cursul
laminrii: constitueni de tip ferit acicular, bainit sau
martensit, granulaie fin (obinut prin controlul
proceselor de ecruisare recristalizare n cursul deformrii
plastice, asigurat de programarea strict a gradelor de
deformare i a vitezelor de rcire pe parcursul laminrii i
de prezena barierelor de cretere a cristalelor, constituite
din carburi, nitruri sau carbonitruri ale elementelor de
microaliere), durificare prin formarea n structur a unor
precipitate foarte fine (de dimensiuni nanometrice, coerente
sau semicoerente cu reelele cristaline ale fazelor care
constituie matricea n care apar) de carburi, nitruri sau carbonitruri ale elementelor de microaliere;
c) deoarece structurile semifabricatelor din HSLAS
sunt n afar de echilibru, operaiile tehnologice impuse de
utilizarea lor la realizarea construciilor sudate (debitare,
deformare plastic, sudare etc.) pot determina, mai ales
dac implic o activare termic important, modificri
structurale care s conduc la deteriorarea caracteristicilor
mecanice ale acestora.

semiproducts, alloying with Cr, Ni, Mo, B to conveniently


lead the transformation mechanisms at austenite cooling.
b) steels elaboration using the basic procedure,
in oxygen converters or in electric furnaces, advanced
purification of steels (that secures the fulfillment of the
criteria %S 0,005 % and %P 0,020 %) and the use of
continuous casting (instead of ingots pouring) to obtain
primary semiproducts (of the type slab or billets), that are
subjected to rolling in order to obtain sheet semiproducts
of the type strip or pipe, intended for the manufacture of
welded constructions.
c) the use of controlled rolling (programmed
rolling or thermomechanical rolling TR), which is a
rolling process with high deformation degrees in which
there is a strict control of the working temperatures, warming
and cooling velocities, deformation degrees and velocities
at each pass, through which primary semiproducts, obtained
by continuous casting, are transformed in semiproducts of
the type sheet, strip or pipe and they are given the structure
(with ultra-fine grains, with controlled dislocations density,
with fine hardening precipitates, uniformly distributed and
coherent or incoherent with the crystalline lattice of the
matrix phases in which they were formed, and with various
types of constituents: acicular ferrite, ferrite and bainite,
bainite, martensite etc.) which secures them the imposed
mechanical characteristics; the rolling process can be
finalised with the application of a treatment of martensitic
quenching followed by tempering (QT), with an accelerated
cooling (ACC) or with a direct intensive cooling (DIC), which
determines formation of the final structure in semiproducts,
with different levels of the mechanical strength
characteristics.
The way in which the technological solutions previously
presented have contributed to the development of the
fabrication of HSLAS semiproducts for welded constructions
is suggestively illustrated by Figure 4 [1,10]. From the
presentation above, the following aspects must be pointed
out:
a) the increase of the performances of HSLAS
semiproducts for welded constructions requires important
investments to build new manufacturing lines or to modernize the existing ones; therefore maintaining the HSLAS
semiproducts in the field of the economic materials can be
explained only by the important increase of the demand for
such semiproducts and the creation of the conditions for
the rapid amortization of investments;
b) the high strength and toughness characteristics
of HSLAS semiproducts are determined by the structural
particularities generated during
rolling: constituents of the type acicular ferrite, bainite or martensite,
fine grain (obtained by controlling
the processes of strain hardening
recrystallization during plastic deformation, ensured by the strict programming of deformation extent
and of cooling velocities during
rolling and by the presence of
barriers against grain growth, made
of carbides, nitrides or carbonitrides
of micro-alloying elements),
hardening by means of the formation in the structure of some ultraFigura 4. Efectele solu]iilor tehnologice utilizate asupra performan]elor tehnice ale
semifabricatelor laminate din HSLAS pentru construc]ii sudate
fine precipitates (of nanometric
Figure 4. The effects of the used technological solutions upon the technical performances
dimensions, coherent or semiof rolled semiproducts made of HSLAS for welded constructions
coherent with the crystalline lattices

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SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

3. Proprietile tehnologice ale laminatelor din


HSLAS i particularitile utilizrii acestora la
fabricarea construciilor sudate

of the phases constituting the matrix in which they appear)


of carbides, nitrides or carbonitrides of the micro-alloying
elements;
c) because the structures of HSLAS semiproducts
are out of equilibrium, technological operations imposed
by their use for the manufacture of welded constructions
(cutting, forming, welding etc.) can determine, particularly
if they imply an important thermal activation, structural
changes that lead to the deterioration of their mechanical
characteristics.

Pentru a putea fi utilizate la realizarea construciilor sudate,


semifabricatele laminate din HSLAS trebuie s prezinte o
serie de proprieti tehnologice: o bun comportare la
debitarea prin procedee mecanice sau termice, o bun
comportare la prelucrarea prin deformare plastic (la rece
sau la cald) i, mai ales, o bun sudabilitate.
Debitarea prin procedee mecanice (forfecare, achiere, jet
de ap ) sau termice (oxi-gaz, oxi-arc, cu jet de plasm, cu 3. Technological properties of HSLAS rolled
laser) poate determina modificri de compoziie chimic,
structur i proprieti mecanice n zona adiacent semiproducts and the particularities of their usage
tieturilor (denumit zon influenat de tiere ZIT). for the manufacturing of welded constructions
Materialul din ZIT poate fi puternic ecruisat (n cazul debitrii In order to be able for the use in obtaining welded
prin procedee mecanice) sau poate fi fragilizat datorit constructions, HSLAS rolled semiproducts must have a
modificrilor structurale (n cazul debitrii prin procedee series of technological properties: a good behavior at cutting
termice) i n aceast zon se pot forma microfisuri. Ca by means of mechanical or thermal procedures, a good
urmare, dac semifabricatele debitate (sau componentele formability (cold or hot) and, especially, a good weldability.
structurilor realizate din acestea) urmeaz a fi sudate cap Cutting using mechanical (shearing, machining, water jet)
la cap, iar zon influenat de tiere nu este topit complet or thermal (oxy-gas, oxy-arc, with plasma jet, with laser)
la sudare (pentru a forma, mpreun cu materialul de adaos procedures can determine modifications in the chemical
folosit la sudare, baia de metal topit din care rezult prin composition, structure and mechanical characteristics in
solidificare CUS), se impune prelucrarea prin achiere the zone adjacent to the cuttings (named cutting affected
(frezare, rectificare, polizare etc.) a marginilor semifa- zone CAZ). The material from CAZ can be strongly strain
bricatelor dup debitare, adaosul de prelucrare Anp trebuind hardened (in the case of cutting using mechanical
s fie dimensionat pe baza prelucrrii informaiilor sinte- procedures) or embrittled due to structural changes (in the
tizate n diagrame de tipul celor prezentate n figura 5, case of cutting using thermal procedures) and in this zone
obinute prin cercetarea experimental a efectelor proce- micro-cracks can take shape. As a consequence, if cut
selor de debitare [11].
Prelucrarea prin deformare plastic la rece
a semifabricatelor din HSLAS (ndoire,
curbare sau ambutisare) poate determina
ecruisarea, diminuarea plasticitii i modificarea structurii acestora, procese care,
n funcie de intensitatea cu care se produc,
determinat n principal de gradul de
deformare a materialului semifabricatelor,
pot avea consecine negative importante:
diminuarea rezistenei mecanice, plasticitii i tenacitii i apariia de fisuri. Ca
urmare, la proiectarea operaiilor de prelucrare prin deformare plastic la rece a
semifabricatelor din HSLAS trebuie s fie Figura 5. Extinderea zonelor influen]ate de t@iere la debitarea prin procedee termice
disponibile i s se utilizeze informaiile, a tablelor }i benzilor cu grosimea sS = 20 mm din o]el DILIMAX 690 (S690 Q)
de tipul celor sintetizate n diagramele din Figure 5. The extent of the cutting affected zones at thermal cutting of sheets and
figurile 6 i 7, privind razele minime de strips with the thickness sS = 20 mm made of DILIMAX 690 steel (S690 Q)
ndoire permise ria i dimensiunile necesare ale sculelor folosite la ndoire, razele
semiproducts (or the components of the structures made
de curbare rc (pentru obinerea prin curbare a compofrom those) are to be butt welded, and the cutting affected
nentelor cilindrice cu o anumit raz rm, innd seama de
zone is not completely melt at welding (to form, together
relaxarea elastic a acestora la scoaterea de pe mainile
with the filler material used at welding, the molten metal
de curbat cu role), puterea necesar Pm a mainilor pe care
pool from which the seam results by solidification), the
se obin prin curbare componente cilindrice pentru
machining (milling, rectifying, grinding etc.) of the
construciile sudate etc. [11-13].
semiproducts edges after cutting imposes itself, the
Prelucrarea prin deformare plastic la cald a semifabricatelor
processing addition Anp having to be dimensioned based
din HSLAS (ndoire, curbare sau ambutisare) conduce la
on processing information synthesized in diagrams of the
modificri eseniale ale structurii, densitii de dislocaii i
type presented in Figure 5, obtained by means of the
granulaiei acestora, determinnd deteriorarea major a
experimental research of the effects of the cutting processes
caracteristicilor de rezisten mecanic i tenacitate. Ca
[11].
urmare, prelucrrile de acest fel ale semifabricatelor din
Cold forming of HSLAS semiproducts (bending or deep
HSLAS trebuie evitate, iar atunci cnd nu este posibil, dup
drawing) can determine strain hardening, plasticity
deformarea plastic la cald trebuie aplicate tratamente
diminution and modification of their structure, processes
termice care s refac starea structural existent n
which, as a function of the intensity with which they take
semifabricate la livrare [6-14].
place, mainly determined by the deformation extent of the
SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

15

Figura 6. Diagramele de stabilire a condi]iilor de lucru la ^ndoirea


la rece a semifabricatelor laminate din HSLAS
Figure 6. Diagrams for the determination of the working conditions at cold
bending of rolled semiproducts made of HSLAS

semiproducts material, can have important


negative consequences: reduction of the
mechanical strength, plasticity and toughness,
and apparition of cracks. Therefore, when
designing the cold forming operations of HSLAS
semiproducts, the information that must be
available and should be used has to be of the
type synthesized in the diagrams from Figures
6 and 7, regarding the minimum bending radii
allowed ria and the required dimensions of the
tools used for bending, the bending radii rc(in
order to obtain by bending cylindrical
components with a certain radius rm, taking
into account their elastic relaxation when
removed from the rolls bending machines), the

Semifabricatele din HSLAS pentru construcii sudate


trebuie s aib o bun sudabilitate, deoarece la
realizarea acestor construcii, prin asamblarea
semifabricatelor sau a componentelor prelucrate din
astfel de semifabricate, se utilizeaz cu precdere
procedee de sudare prin topire. Pentru asigurarea
sudabilitii, toate mrcile de HSLAS au concentraia
de carbon limitat %Cc0, valoarea maxim c0 fiind
precizat n funcie de marca oelului i de grosimea
componentelor care se sudeaz i trebuie s prezinte
un nivel ct mai sczut al carbonului echivalent CE,
determinat cu relaia recomandat de IIW, notat CEIIW:

CEIIW = [%]C +

%Mn %Cr+%Mo+%V %Ni+%Cu


(1)
+
+
6
5
15

sau cu relaia recomandat n Anexa C din [15] (n special


pentru aprecierea sudabilitii HSLAS), notat CEEN:

CEEN = [%]C +

%Mn+%Mo %Cr+%Cu %Ni


+
+
10
20
40

(2)

Valorile maxime ale CE garantate de productorii de


semifabricate laminate din HSLAS sunt, n mod obinuit,
inferioare celor maxime recomandate n standardele
care reglementeaz calitatea acestor tipuri de oeluri
(de exemplu, standardul [14]).
n cazul construciilor sudate realizate cu semifabricate
din HSLAS, una din problemele tehnologice principale
care trebuie rezolvat o constituie evitarea apariiei
fenomenului de fragilizare i/sau fisurare la rece (denumit
i fisurare datorit hidrogenului sau fisurare ntrziat).
Fisurarea datorit hidrogenului se produce dac sunt
ndeplinite simultan urmtoarele condiii:
a) exist hidrogen n mbinarea sudat;
b) mbinarea sudat prezint zone cu structura
susceptibil la fisurare;
c) n mbinarea sudat sunt generate tensiuni
mecanice de ntindere.
Pentru a se evita fenomenul de fisurare datorit hidrogenului, la conceperea tehnologiilor de sudare necesare
realizrii construciilor trebuie s se acorde mai nti atenie
alegerii i utilizrii materialelor tehnologice (electrozi nvelii,
srme pline sau cu miez de flux, fluxuri etc.) cu coninut
sczut de hidrogen i crerii condiiilor desfurrii unor
procese de sudare cu niveluri sczute ale hidrogenului
difuzibil n mbinrile sudate. Evident, alegerea materialelor
tehnologice trebuie s aib n vedere i realizarea unor CUS
cu caracteristici mecanice asemntoare cu ale materialului
de baz MB (al semifabricatelor, pieselor, componentelor
care se mbin prin sudare); n figura 8 sunt prezentate
16

Figura 7. Diagramele de stabilire a condi]iilor de lucru la curbarea


pe ma}inile cu 3 role a semifabricatelor laminate din HSLAS
Figure 7. Diagrams for the determination of the working conditions
at bending of rolled semiproducts made of HSLAS on the 3 roll
machines
necessary power Pm of the machines on which cylindrical
components for welded constructions are obtained by
bending etc. [11-13].
Hot forming (bending or deep drawing) of HSLAS
semiproducts leads to essential changes in their structure,
dislocations density and grain size, determining a major
deterioration of the mechanical strength and toughness
characteristics. As a consequence, this kind of processing
of HSLAS semiproducts must be avoided, and when this is
not possible, after hot forming heat treatments must be
applied in order to restore the structural state existing in
the semiproducts at delivery [6-14].
HSLAS semiproducts for welded constructions must have a
good weldability, because in order to obtain these
constructions, by the assembly of the semiproducts or of
the components made from such semiproducts, the
procedures of fusion welding are used in principal. To ensure
the weldability, all HSLAS grades have a limited carbon
concentration %Cc0, the maximum value c0 being specified
as a function of the steel grade and the thickness of the
components which are welded and must have an as low as
SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

soluiile recomandate pentru materialele de adaos MA


destinate realizrii construciilor sudate din HSLAS cu
procedeele de sudare uzuale: 111, 121, 131, 135, 136 i 137
[6-11,16].
A doua categorie de msuri care trebuie aplicate pentru a
se evita fenomenul de fisurare datorit hidrogenului are ca
obiectiv minimizarea posibilitii formrii n mbinarea
sudat (n custur CUS i n zona inf luenat
termomecanic ZIT) a unor microstructuri sensibile la
fisurare. Alegerea tipului / mrcii HSLAS care reprezint
materialul de baz MB (al semifabricatelor, pieselor,

possible level of the carbon equivalent CE, determined with


the relationship recommended by IIW, noted CE IIW :

CEIIW = [%]C +

%Mn %Cr+%Mo+%V %Ni+%Cu


(1)
+
+
6
5
15

or with the relationship recommended in Annex C from [15]


(especially for the assessment of HSLAS weldability), noted
CEEN:

CEEN = [%]C +

%Mn+%Mo %Cr+%Cu %Ni


+
+
10
20
40

(2)

The maximum values of CE guaranteed by the


manufacturers of HSLAS rolled semiproducts are,
usually, inferior to the maximum ones recommended
in the standards which regulate the quality of these
types of steels (for instance, the standard [14]).
In the case of the welded constructions made of HSLAS
semiproducts, one of the main technological problems
that must be solved is constituted by the avoidance
of the occurrence of the embrittlement and/or cold
cracking phenomenon (named also hydrogen induced
cracking or delayed cracking). The hydrogen induced
cracking takes place if the following conditions are
simultaneously fulfilled:
a) there is hydrogen in the welded joint;
b) the welded joint presents zones with structure
susceptible to cracking;
c) in the welded joint traction mechanical stresses
are generated.
In order to avoid the hydrogen induced cracking
phenomenon, when conceiving the welding technologies required for the structures manufacturing,
attention must firstly be granted to the selection and
Figura 8. Materialele de adaos recomandate pentru realizarea
use of technological materials (covered electrodes,
^mbin@rilor sudate prin topire ale construc]iilor din HSLAS
full or flux-cored wires, fluxes etc.) with low hydrogen
Figure 8. Recommended filler materials for the fusion welded
content and to the creation of conditions for the
joints of HSLAS structures
deployment of welding processes with low diffusible
componentelor care se mbin prin sudare) este o prim hydrogen levels in the welded joints. Obviously, the selection
msur de acest tip, deoarece, aa cum sugereaz diagrama of technological materials must also take into account the
din figura 9, %C i CE sunt factori determinani ai tendinei achievement of seams with mechanical characteristics
de fisurare la sudare a HSLAS; pe diagrama din figura 9 se similar with the one of the base metal BM (of semiproducts,
evideniaz, cu caracter de exemplificare, modul n care parts, components that are joined by welding); Figure 8
nlocuirea la fabricarea navelor a laminatelor din oeluri HY- presents the recommended solutions for the filler metals
80 i HY-100 cu laminate din oeluri HSLA-80 i HSLA-100 FM intended for the manufacture of HSLAS welded
(echivalente din punctul de vedere al caracteristicilor constructions with the usual welding procedures: 111, 121,
mecanice garantate, dar cu compoziia chimic ameliorat) 131, 135, 136 and 137 [6-11,16].
a determinat mbuntirea sensibil a sudabilitii, prin The second category of measures that must be applied in
eliminarea pericolului fisurrii la rece la sudare [15]. Alte order to avoid the hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon
msuri eficiente din aceast categorie sunt: utilizarea unei has as a purpose to minimize the possibility of the formation
energii liniare de sudare corelat cu nivelul vitezelor de of micro-structures sensible to cracking in the welded joint
rcire n CUS i ZIT, sudarea cu prenclzire i alegerea (in the weld seam and in the thermo-mechanically affected
convenabil a temperaturii de prenclzire, folosirea unor zone TMAZ). The selection of the HSLAS type / grade
temperaturi corespunztoare ntre trecerile necesare pentru representing the base material BM (of semiproducts, parts,
realizarea rndurilor i straturilor CUS, precum i aplicarea components that are joined by welding) is a first measure
de tratamente termice postsudare. Valorile recomandate of this type, because, as suggested by the diagram from
pentru temperaturile de prenclzire tpr i ntre treceri tit la figure 9, %C and CE are determining factor of the cracking
sudarea semifabricatelor i/sau componentelor din HSLAS tendency at HSLAS welding; in the diagram from Figure 9
sunt redate n figura 10, cu precizarea c aceste valori it is highlighted, as an exemplification, the way in which the
corespund utilizrii unei energii liniare de sudare EL = 1,7 replacement in ship building of rolled semiproducts made
kJ/mm i unor materiale de adaos cu coninutul de hidrogen of HY-80 and HY-100 steels with semiproducts made of HSLAdifuzibil CH5 ml/100 g de metal depus i c tpr trebuie 80 and HSLA-100 steels (equivalent from the point of view
mrite cu 25 oC, dac se sudeaz n atmosfer cu umiditate of the guaranteed mechanical characteristics, but with
ridicat sau cu temperatura sub 5 oC, dac EL1,0 kJ/mm improved chemical composition) have determined the
sau dac componentele care se sudeaz sunt fixate rigid; sensible improvement of weldability, by eliminating the
folosirea tratamentului de postnclzire, la o temperatur hazard of cold cracking at welding [15]. Other efficient
SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

17

egal cu cea folosit la prenclzire i o durat de meninere


de 1,5...2,0 ore, poate asigura dehidrogenarea avansat a
mbinrilor sudate i diminuarea drastic a pericolului de
fisurare ntrziat [6-11,16].
n sfrit, cea de-a treia categorie de msuri care trebuie
aplicate pentru a se evita fenomenul de fisurare datorit
hidrogenului vizeaz asigurarea unor intensiti sczute
ale tensiunilor reziduale (de sudare i de reacie) generate
la sudare i unor efecte sczute de concentrare a acestor
tensiuni la rdcina mbinrilor sudate; principalele msuri
care aparin acestei categorii sunt: alegerea convenabil a
procedeului de sudare i folosirea unor soluii (dispozitive)
adecvate de poziionare i fixare n vederea sudrii a
semifabricatelor sau componentelor care se asambleaz
prin sudare la fabricarea construciilor.

Figura 9. Diagrama de apreciere a sudabilit@]ii HSLAS prin


prisma criteriului pericolului de fisurare la rece la sudare
Figure 9. Assessment diagram for HSLAS weldability based
on the criterion of cold cracking hazard at welding
O alt problem important care trebuie rezolvat la
fabricarea construciilor sudate cu semifabricate din HSLAS
o constituie obinerea unor mbinri sudate cu CUS i ZIT
avnd caracteristici mecanice asemntoare celor pe care
le prezint MB; problema are un grad de dificultate ridicat,
deoarece, aa cum s-a mai comentat anterior, performanele
de rezisten mecanic i tenacitate pe care le prezint MB
sunt asigurate n principal
prin procesele de finisare a
granulaiei, de durificare prin
precipitare, de inducerea a
unei anumite densiti de
dislocaii i de dirijare a
transformrilor la rcirea
austenitei, care se produc n
cursul obinerii semifabricatelor prin laminare controlat i care nu se pot reproduce la sudare.

measures from this category are: the use of a linear welding


energy correlated with the level of cooling velocities in the
seam and TMAZ, welding with preheating and the convenient
selection of the preheating temperature, the use of
corresponding interpass temperatures required to obtain
the beads and layers of the seam, as well as applying post
weld heat treatments. The recommended values for the
preheating temperature tpr and the interpass temperature
tit when welding HSLAS semiproducts and/or components
are given in Figure 10, with the specification that these
values correspond to the use of a linear welding energy EL
= 1,7 kJ/mm and of filler materials with the content of
diffusible hydrogen CH5 ml/100 g of deposited metal and
that tpr must be increased with 25 oC, if welding takes place
in an atmosphere with high humidity or at temperatures
below 5 oC, if EL1,0 kJ/mm or if the components to be
welded are rigidly fixed; the use of post-heating treatment,
at a temperature equal to the one used for preheating and
a maintaining duration of 1,5...2,0 hours, can secure the
advanced dehydrogenation of the welded joints and the
drastic reduction of the delayed cracking danger [6-11,16].
Finally, the third category of measures that must be applied
in order to avoid the hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon aims at assuring low intensities of residual stresses
generated at welding and reduced effects of the concentration of these stresses at the root of the welded joints; the
principal measures belonging to this category are: a
convenient selection of the welding procedure and the use
of appropriate solutions (devices) for positioning and fixing
in view of welding semiproducts or components that are
assembled using welding for constructions manufacturing.
Another important problem that must be solved when
manufacturing welded constructions with HSLA semiproducts is constituted by obtaining welded joints with the
seam and TMAZ having mechanical characteristics similar
to the ones of the BM; the problem has an increased degree
of difficulty because, as already commented above, the
mechanical strength and toughness performances that the
BM presents are mainly secured by means of processes
finishing the grain size, of precipitation hardening, of
inducing a certain dislocations density and of leading the
austenite transformations at cooling, that take place during
semiproducts manufacturing by means of controlled rolling
and that cannot be replicated at welding.
Achieving the desired mechanical characteristics in the
seam and TMAZ of the welded joints of HSLAS structures

Figura 10. Temperaturile de


pre^nc@lzire }i ^ntre treceri
recomandate la sudarea
construc]iilor realizate din HSLAS
Figure 10. The preheating and
interpass temperatures
recommended for welding
constructions made of HSLAS
18

SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

Obinerea caracteristicilor mecanice dorite n CUS i ZIT ale


mbinrilor sudate ale construciilor din HSLAS are ca soluii
alegerea judicioas a materialelor de adaos (utiliznd
recomandrile prezentate anterior) i utilizarea unor
procedee de sudare i unor regimuri de sudare adecvate.
Pentru HSLAS cu grade de rezisten mecanic inferioare
(pn la S500), folosirea materialelor de adaos i procedeelor
de sudare clasice (v. fig. 8) permite realizarea unor mbinri
sudate avnd n CUS i n ZIT caracteristici mecanice egale
sau uor superioare celor ale MB, n timp ce n cazul
construciilor realizate din HSLAS cu grade de rezisten
foarte ridicate (S960...S1300) CUS i, mai ales, ZIT ale
mbinrilor sudate realizate cu tehnologiile clasice pot
prezenta caracteristici de rezisten mecanic inferioare
celor ale MB (de exemplu, ciclurile termice de sudare
determin deconsolidarea ZIT, deoarece produc procese
de coalescen a precipitatelor durificatoare, de cretere a
mobilitii dislocaiilor i de reducere a densitii acestora).
Pentru realizarea construc-iilor din HSLAS cu grade de
rezisten foarte ridicate se obin rezultate bune ncercnd
utilizarea unor procedee combinate de sudare, de tipul
celor prezentate schematic n figura 11: sudarea prin
presiune + sudarea prin topire SE sau MIG/MAG, sudarea
MIG/MAG cu dou srme din MA (una din ele rece, introdus
n baia de metal topit obinut prin topirea cu arcul electric
a celeilalte), sudarea hibrid cu laser + MIG/MAG, sudarea
cu laser asistat cu un sistem de nclzire prin inducie (la
care inductorul deplasat n faa i/sau n spatele capului
de sudare cu laser asigur efectele de prenclzire i/sau
postnclzire necesare realizrii condiiilor dorite de formare
a structurilor n CUS i ZIT i, ca urmare, de asigurare a
caracteristicilor mecanice necesare ale mbinrilor sudate)
[17-21].

has as solutions the judicious selection of filler metals


(based on the previously presented recommendations) and
the use of appropriate welding procedures and regimes.
For the HSLAS with inferior mechanical strength grades (up
to S500), the usage of filler materials and of classical welding
procedures (see fig. 8) enables to obtain welded joints
having in the seam and in the TMAZ mechanical characteristics equal or slightly superior to the ones of the BM,
while in the case of the constructions made of HSLAS with
very high strength grades (S960...S1300) the seam and,
especially, the TMAZ of the welded joints made using the
classical technologies can have mechanical strength
characteristics inferior to the ones of the BM (for instance,
the weld thermal cycles determine the deconsolidation of
TMAZ, because they generate processes of coalescence of
hardening precipitates, of increase in the dislocations
mobility and of reduction of their density). For the
manufacture of HSLAS structures with very high strength
grades good results are obtained when trying to use some
combined welding procedures, of the type schematically
presented in Figure 11: pressure welding + MMA or MIG/MAG
fusion welding, MIG/MAG welding with two FM wires (one of
them cold, introduced in the molten metal pool resulting
from the other being melt by the electric arc), laser +
MIG/MAG hybrid welding, laser welding assisted by an
induction heating system (in which the induction coil moving
in front and/or behind the laser welding head assures the
preheating and/or post-heating effects needed to achieve
the desired conditions for the formation of structures in the
seam and TMAZ, and therefore the mechanical characteristics required for the welded joints) [17-21].
The aspects previously presented must be the basis for
defining the essential variables of the welding processes,
elaborating the specifications and qualification of
the welding procedures
applicable for the manufacturing of HSLAS
structures.

4. Conclusions

The usage of rolled semiproducts made of high


Figura 11. Procedee combinate de sudare utilizate la fabricarea construc]iilor din HSLAS
strength low alloy steels
Figure 11. Hybrid welding methods used for the fabrication of HSLAS structures
H S L A S fo r t h e m a n u a. Sudarea cu arc acoperit }i s$rm@ rece / Cold wire feed submerged arc welding - CWF-SAW;
facturing of welded consb. Sudarea cu laser combinat@ cu MIG/MAG / Laser welding combined with MIG/MAG;
tructions represents a soluc. Sudarea cu laser asistat@ prin induc]ie / Induction assisted laser beam welding
1. Material de baz@ - MB / Base material - BM; 2. Cap de sudare cu arc acoperit /
tion with multiple technical
Submerged arc welding head; 3. Cap de sudare cu laser / Laser welding device;
and
economical
4. Fascicol laser focalizat / Focused laser beam; 5. Cap de sudare MIG/MAG / MIG/MAG welding advantages.
gun; 6. S$rma rece / Cold wire; 7. Inductor de pre^nc@lzire / Preheating inductor;
The knowledge regarding
7. Inductor de post^nc@lzire/ Postheating inductor
the technological particuAspectele prezentate anterior trebuie s stea la baza definirii larities of obtaining HSLAS rolled semiproducts (presented
variabilelor eseniale ale proceselor de sudare, elaborrii in this paper) is extremely important, as it allows for the
specificaiilor i calificrii procedurilor de sudare aplicabile correct design (entailing a minimum risk of alteration of
la fabricarea construciilor din HSLAS.
the mechanical characteristics that semiproducts have at
delivery) of the technological processes for the manufacture
of welded constructions or of their components.
4. Concluzii
Utilizarea semifabricatelor laminate din oeluri slab aliate The technological operations of cutting (by means of
cu rezisten mecanic ridicat HSLAS la fabricarea mechanical or thermal procedures), of forming (cold or hot)
construciilor sudate reprezint o soluie cu multiple and, especially, of welding the rolled semiproducts made
of HSLAS can determine structural changes that entails an
avantaje tehnice i economice.
Cunoaterea particularitilor tehnologice ale realizrii important degradation of their mechanical characteristics.
semifabricatelor laminate din HSLAS (prezentate n lucrare) As a consequence, when designing the manufacturing
este deosebit de important, deoarece permite proiectarea technologies of such semiproducts of the welded
SUDURA , XXII - 1/2012

19

corect (care implic un risc minim de alterare a


caracteristicilor mecanice pe care semifabricatele le prezint
la livrare) a proceselor tehnologice de obinere a
construciilor sudate sau a componentelor acestora.
Operaiile tehnologice de debitare (prin procedee mecanice
sau termice), de prelucrare prin deformare plastic (la rece
sau la cald) i, mai ales, de sudare a semifabricatelor
laminate din HSLAS pot determina modificri structurale
care determin degradarea important a caracteristicilor
mecanice ale acestora. Ca urmare, la proiectarea
tehnologiilor de fabricare din astfel de semifabricate a
construciilor sudate se impune respectarea tuturor
prescripiilor i recomandrilor prezentate n lucrare, n
acest fel asigurndu-se premisele realizrii de construcii
sudate cu performane tehnice ridicate (rezisten mecanic
nalt, pericol minim de cedare fragil, durabilitate bun la
oboseal i la coroziune etc.) i cu costuri totale (de fabricare
i de exploatare) reduse.

constructions, the compliance with all requirements and


recommendations presented in the paper imposes itself,
thus and so ensuring the premises of obtaining welded
constructions with increased technical performances (high
mechanical strength, minimum danger of brittle failure,
high endurance to fatigue and corrosion etc.) and with
reduced total costs (for manufacturing and exploitation).

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