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# Designing concrete bridges to

EN 1992-2
Dr Stephen Salim

Structure of Eurocodes
EN 1990

## Structural safety, serviceability

& durability

EN 1991

Actions on structures

EN 1992

EN 1993

EN 1994

EN 1995

EN 1996

EN 1999

EN 1997

EN 1998

Design &
Detailing
Geotechnical &
seismic design

## Gives values/approaches where

National Determination is allowed

EN 1990

EN 1991

## Limit states, combination

and partial factors

application etc.

Design
Analysis and section
design, partial factors

EN 1992

## Design approach, partial factors,

foundations, earth pressures etc.

EN 1997

## Comparisons with current

practice Concrete design
Uses cylinder strength ( 0.8fcu )
More rooted in plasticity theory
Consistent approach for reinforced concrete and
prestressed concrete
Greater coverage of non-linear analysis and time
dependent effects

designs?

ULS Flexure

Strain

Stress Blocks
Stress

cc * fck / c
0.8

or

cc * fck / c

cc * fck / c

fcd

Where
cc

0,85

1,5

fck

0,8 * fcu

cc * fck / c

(From UK NA)

(approx)

Reinforcement

1.15 as BS 5400

closer to 8110).

## Compression steel more advantage than in BS 5400 but

otherwise Very Similar
already used in BD 86 assessment

ULS Shear

## For RC approach and results fairly similar to BS 5400

except more benefit for compression
For Prestressed approach same as for RC with axial load.
Tends to be more conservative than BS 5400, except for
external prestress.

## Unlike BS 5400 which uses the addition principle ( V =

In EN 1992 - shear is taken by the links once the shear
strength without links are exceeded and the strength is
calculated using the varying angle truss approach

Variable Angle Truss Analogy

Concrete Struts

Steel Ties

=

Asw / s

z
fywd

=
=

## Lever Arm (normally 0,9d for RC)

(i.e. with factor of 1,15)

VRd,S
where

VRd,max

where
cw

## Coefficient taking account of

compression stress
(1.0 for R.C. can be up to 1.25)

bw

fcd

## Design concrete strength

(As in flexure but cc can be 1.0)

Choice of

cot = 2.5

cot = 1.0

(45o truss)

## If shear too great for cot of 2.5 but within limit,

optimum is with:
VRd,s = VRd.max
for higher shear, pays to use 80% yield

600

EN 1992

500

Stength(kN)

Shear Strength
of
300 wide 400 deep
RC beam
with
25/30 Concrete
(1% steel)

400

BS 5400

300
200
100
0
0

1200

Stength(kN)

1000

Shear Strength
of
300 wide 400 deep
RC beam
with
50/60 Concrete
(1% steel)

EN 1992

800
600

BS 5400

400
200
0
0

10

A lot but possible!

## Varying Angel Truss Analogy

But
Affects curtailment and EN 1992 already tends to be more
conservative for these
Design calculations more complicated (can optimise for

## Shear in Prestressed Concrete

Same general approach as RC
But
VRd,max = cw * b * w * z * 1 * fcd / (cot + tan ) + k1 * cp
Concrete crush strength increased for
( 0 < cp < 0.5fcd )

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Stress/fcd

0.8

Strength (kN)

3000

EN 1992

2500

For

2000

## 250 x 1100 beam

1500
1000
500

BS 5400

50/60 concrete

(uncracked in flexure)

7N/mm2 prestress

0
0

10

## Shear in Prestressed Concrete

Can have thinner webs
Bigger reduction for plastic ducts

by
= av/2d
(av 0.5d)

av

## Short Shear Span Enhancement

Altering loads is inconvenient and conservative for multiple
So
EN 1992-2 NA has changed it back to an enhancement
factor to the resistance

## SLS Stress Limits

Steel: 0.80fyk

(0.75fy in BS 5400)

## Concrete: 0.6fck for both RC & PSC

(0.50fcu for RC and 0.40fcu for PSC in BS 5400)
but calculated on cracked section

SLS Cracking
BS 5400 Class

EN 1992 Equivalent

Decompression

None

## Crack Width Check

(As for RC)

Decompression VS Class 1

Tendons
Cracked

OK to either

OK for decompression,
not class 1

## Table 7.101N Recommended values for wmax &

relevant combination rules
Reinforced members and prestressed members
without bonded tendons

tendons

X0, XC1

0.3a

0.2

0.3

0.2b

XS3

0.3

## 0,2d and Decompression

Exposure Class

a For X0, XC1 exposure classes, crack width has no influence on durability and this limit is set to guarantee
acceptable appearance. In the absence of appearance conditions this limit may be relaxed.
b For these exposure classes, in addition, decompression should be checked under the quasi-permanent
c For the crack width checks under combinations which include temperature distribution, the resulting member
forces should be calculated using gross section concrete properties and self-equilibrating stresses may be
ignored.
d 0.2 applies to the parts of the member that do not have to be checked for decompression

Cracking in RC
Only checked under quasi-permanent
Unlikely to be critical
Result: despite apparently radical treating of RC and
prestressed together, still tends to give:
RC: designed at ULS
Prestressed: designed at SLS

Cracking in PSC
More sensitive to damage from corrosion than normal
reinforcement due to smaller diameter and higher level of
stress under which they normally operate
Therefore more onerous ruler and reflects in stricter crack
control criteria for bonded tendons
Checked under frequent OR quasi-permanent load
combination depending on exposure class

## Determination of crack widths

Calculate
or
Comply with max bar spacing
or
Comply with max bar diameter table
Same basic approach used for PSC

Design Examples
1. Concrete composite construction with precast, pretensioned beams and a cast in-situ slab
2. In-situ post-tensioned box girder bridge

Section

## Precast Beam & Slab Bridge

Comparison of moments - BS 5400 and EN 1992
Design code
& exposure
class
BS 5400
EN 1992
XD exposure
EN 1992
XC exposure

## Design moment (kNm) for checking

Compression

Decompression /
Class 1

Cracking /
tensile stress

3000

1160

2900

(LC 1-5)

(LC 1, no LL)

(LC 3)

3090

2460

3090

(Characteristic LC)

(Frequent LC)

(Characteristic LC)

3090

1230

2460

(Characteristic LC)

(Quasi-permanent LC)

(Frequent LC)

## In-Situ Post-tensioned Box Girder Bridge

Mid-span section
Support section
Spans 70m - 100m 70m

## Post-tensioned Box Girder Bridge

Comparison of moments - BS 5400 and EN 1992
Design code
& exposure
class
BS 5400

EN 1992
XD exposure
EN 1992
XC exposure

## Design moment (MNm) for checking

Compression

Decompression /
Class 1

Cracking /
tensile stress

235
-402

109
-224

231
-386

(LC 1-5)

(LC 1, no LL)

(LC 3)

235
-397

199
-346

235
-397

(Characteristic LC)

(Frequent LC)

(Characteristic LC)

235
-397

115
-2.29

199
346

(Characteristic LC)

(Quasi-permanent LC)

(Frequent LC)

First positive value represents the sagging moment at mid-span, second negative is the
hogging moment at the piers

## Post-tensioned Box Girder Bridge

Comparison of prestress requirement
Design code
& exposure
class

Mid-span

Pier

Prestressing
force (kN)

Peak
concrete
compressive
stress
(N/mm2)

Prestressing
force (kN)

Peak
concrete
compressive
stress
(N/mm2)

BS 5400

70800

18.5

73000

23.3

EN 1992
XD exposure

66700

18.7

76400

22.7

EN 1992
XC exposure

45000

22.0

50500

26.0

## Challenges for UK bridge designers and clients

To be ready for the introduction of the Eurocodes
Minimise increases in design costs due to unfamiliarity of
documents
Manage the risks associated with this magnitude of
change