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Patanjali Yoga Sutras

Sadhana Pada

P ATANJALI

YOGA

SUTRAS

SADHANA PADA
( Book II )
We are now entering into the practical aspects of Samadhi state. Always remember
that the entire yoga vidya is nothing but entering the samadhi state. We talk about the
Samadhi of Sai, the Samadhi of Sri Raghavendra Swamy and similarly many others, but
we see them only as temples and forget the real fact that they are called samadhis
which is a state of consciousness of the mind. In the previous pada ie., the Samadhi
Pada, Patanjali dealt completely in an intellectual manner, the various stages of samadhi
starting with Savitarka Samadhi and classifying various samadhis and ending with
Ruthumbara Pragya and Nirbeeja Samadhi. To start with in the following way :
Dharana
Dhyana
Samadhi
Which is followed by
Savitarka Samprajnatha Samadhi
Nirvitarka Samprajnatha Samadhi
Asamprajnatha Samadhi
These deal with the lower mind or concrete mind.

Savichara Samprajnatha Samadhi


Nirvichara Samprajnatha Samadhi
Asamprajnatha Samadhi
These deal with the Causal Body or Vigyanamaya Kosha

Sa-Ananda Samprajnatha Samadhi


Nirananda Samprajnatha Samadhi
Asamprajnatha Samadhi
These deal with the Buddhic Vehicle or Ananadamaya Kosa

Sa-Asmitha Samprajnatha Samadhi

These deal with Atmic Vehicle or Atma


These are followed by :
1) Nirbija Samadhi
2) Dharma Mega Samadhi
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The last two are called Nirbija Samadhi states and the rest are grouped as
Sabija Samadhi states. Even with a Casual look at the various stages of Samadhi,
one can very easily understand that they are related to the Pancha Kosa
Jagarana when we deal with Sabija Samadhi. Therefore the practical techniques
are enumerated in this second pada known as Sadhana Pada which deals on the
methodology and working tips and phenomenon to pass through the various
stages of samadhi.
Sutra 1.
Tapah Swadyayaa IshwaraPranidaanaani Kriyaa Yogaha
Tapah
Swadhyayah
Ishwara Pranidaanani
Kriya Yogah

=
=
=

Austerity
=
Study of Self
Surrender to Self or to God
Preliminary Yoga.

Austerity, self-study and resignation to Isvara constitute preliminary Yoga.


Austerity, Self-Study and Surender to Ishwara Constitute the Practical Yoga. So the entire
practice of being in the state of Samadhi, continuously reaching a state of mind and
keeping it there. The first thing that is required is tapas. Tapas means self control Dedication, control of senses for the cause. This state of mind of samadhi has to be dealt
with carefully. Tapas is related to will, Svadhyaya to the intellect and IsvaraPranidhana to the emotions. Before understanding the sadhana pada let us try to
understand why I am very particular that all of you read this Patanjali Yoga Sutras and
become experts on it. Let us go back to the Samadhi Pada , Sutra 42.
Tatra Sabhda Artha Jnana Vikalpaihi Sankirna Savitarka
Tapah means not sitting aloof and doing japa. It means doing good which your mind is
unwilling to do. For eg. a sugar patient should follow a strict diet. This is tapas for him.
Swadyaya means SELF study. It includes regular practice of asanas, after which
pranayama is possible. Then absolute surrender to the guru. One of the three or all the
three are required for a yogi. To overcome the Vrutthis and Kleshas three distinct,
separate methods are given in Book 2 Sutra 1.
Tapaha Swaadhyaaya Eshwara Pranidhaanaani kriya yogaha
Let me repeat that tapas means self control, dedication and control of senses for
the cause. Tapaha is the practice of Yama, Niyama and the four Samyamaas which we
condense as SIVA principle. Here,
S
I
V
A

Means
Means
Means
Means

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Samaya Samyamana
Indriya Samyamana
Vak Or Vichara Samyamana
Artha ( money ) or (meaning) Samyamana.
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All of you should have this S I V A principle very clear in your minds. Then
swadhyaya means that you have a dairy and you study yourself. It means self study. How
much are you able to practice these four principles of austerity or Tapas i.e S I V A. also
we should practice the niyamas and yamas. We should see that we are following
Ahimsa, satya, astheya, aparigraha, brahmacharya and then shaucha, santhosha,
swadhyaya, tapas, Iswarapranidhana. So these ten five yamas and five niyamas have to
practiced if you want to go to the higher stages of samadhis. So this is our present goal.
Crossing nirvitarka samadhi which we have yet to acquire and then pass through a stage
of asamprajnatha samadhi and go to savichara samadhi then to nirvichara Samadhi. For
this we have to practice tapas, swdhyaya and Ishwara pranidhani. Ishwara pranidhana surrender to God, surrender to the divine principle is the best method to reach these
states of samadhi. With all this we should remember that in studying the science of
Samadhi, most of us who are reading this book are in Savitarka Samadhi. It is the state
of mind in which you are always present. A continous state of mind samadhi. Savitarka
Samadhi is defined in Book 1 Sloka 42 as:
Tatra Shabdha Artha Jnana Vikalpayiehi Sankeerna Savitarkaa.
Shabdha

means

The Words We Are Uttering

Artha

means

The True Knowledge Which We Want To

Jnana
Perceptions and

means

Ordinary Knowledge based on Sense

Convey

Reasoning
Naturally there will be many Vikalpas or alternatives to our understanding, due to
doubt or uncertainty and also we may be in a state of Sankeerna that is a mixed up or
confused or unresolved state. Hence all of us are in Savitarka Samadhi in which
knowledge is based only on words, real knowledge and ordinary knowledge based on
sense perception or reasoning that are present in a mixed state and the mind alternates
between them. With this background let us proceed with the Sadhana Pada. You do not
have the technical knowledge before attending the classes the first day you join your
engineering course, but if you attend the classes for four years, and if you hear shabda
and artha you get a B.tech degree by the end of 4 years, jnana, a new knowledge. So
samadhi gives new knowledge. A knowledge which you do not have before. This is what
we should always remember when we talk about samadhi.
Sutra 2.
Samadhi Bhaavanaarthah Kleshatanukaranaardhascha
Samadhi
Bhavanartha
Klesha
Tanukaranartha
Cha

=
=
=
=

Samadhi
=
For bringing about
Afflictions
For reducing
And

(Kriya-Yoga) is practised for attenuating Klesas and bringing about Samadhi.


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Why should we practice this sadhana ie Tapas, swadhyaya, Ishwara


Pranidhani? Because we have to dilute our kleshas. We have to dilute our chitha
vrithis, we have to remove our chitha vruthis. Earlier we have told that chitha
vrithis are of five types i.e panchatayaha, klishtah aklishtah. These chitha vrithis
have to be completely removed to reach the samadhi state. Yoga means removing
of chitha vrithis. For this we practice tapas, swadhyaya, Ishwara pranidhani and the
kriya yoga. By practicing these sessions we dilute difficulties and hindrances. This
is what we mean by klesha tanukaranaardhascha. Because of this dilution or
removal of kleshas we go to Samadhi bhavanartha or samadhi state. Kriya-Yoga
not only attenuates the Klesas and thus lays the foundation of the Yogic life but it
also leads the aspirant to Samadhi, the essential and final technique of Yoga.
Master DK gives three kinds of seeds or Kleshas saying that these seeds are found
in three groups, each producing a large crop of hindrances or obstructions on the
three planes of man's evolution - the seeds latent in the physical body, those
producing the obstructions of the astral body, and the seeds latent in the mental
body. They are of three kinds in each case, making literally nine types or kinds of
seeds:
1. Seeds brought over from previous lives,
2. Seeds sown in this life,
3. Seeds brought into the field of one's life from the family or race with which one is
allied.
Sutra 3.
Avidyaa Asmitaa Raaga Dwesha Abhiniveshaah Kleshaa
Avidyaa
Asmitaa
Raagaa
Dweshaa
Abhiniveshaah
Kleshah

=
=
=
=
=
=

Ignorance or Illusion.
I-Am-Ness or Egoism
Attraction towards a particular desire
Repulsion
Clinging to Life
Miseries, causes of pain.

The lack of awareness of Reality, the sense of egoism or I-am-ness, attractions and
repulsions towards objects and the strong desire for life are the great afflictions or
causes of all miseries in life.
These are the hindrances in getting the knowledge be it physical or materialistic. The
cause of all lack of knowledge is ignorance. So if you want to become an engineer you
have to remove the avidya related to the knowledge of engineering. For samadhi state
also you have to remove a particular type of illusion. All these avidya are based on four
other types of dependent avidyas. Asmitha, Raaga, Dwesha, abhinivesha klesha are the
five hindrances for samadhi state. In the next sutra Patanjali says that avidya is the
main root cause out of which the other four kleshas develop. Asmitha is not selfishness
but I am. It is not egoism. Asmi mean I. Ta means the clause the feeling. Asmitha is the
feeling that I am there, not selfishness. In sleep you forget everything but when
somebody calls you by your name you wake up. That consciousness that makes you feel
that you are alive is asmitha. Avidya is the basis for all other disturbances. In this
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section or pada, we will learn a great deal about klesha, what they are, why should they
be destroyed and also how to destroy them and replace avidya by viveka. So in this sutra
we got to know what these 5 kleshas are and later on as we go ahead we will learn more
about them and know that it is these 5 wrong ideas or concepts have prevented men
from realizing that they are the true sons of God. It might be pointed out that two of the
hindrances, avidya and sense of personality, relate to man, the synthesis upon the
physical plane, that desire has relation to his astral body or vehicle of feeling, and that
hate and a sense of attachment are products of the sense of egoism (the ahamkara
principle) which animate the mental body. Thus the threefold personality is the field for
the seeds and in the soil of the personal life in the three worlds do these seeds
propagate and flourish and grow up to obstruct and hinder the real man. These seeds
must be destroyed, and in their destruction three things eventuate:
1. Karma is worked off,
2. Liberation is achieved,
3. The vision of the soul is perfected.
Sutra 4.
Avidyaa Kshetram Utareshaam Prasuptha TanuVichhinna Udaaraanaam
Avidya
Kshetram
Utareshaam
Prasupth
Tanu
Vicchinna
Udaaraanaam

=
=
=
=
=
=

Ignorance or lack of awareness


Field or source
=
Of the following
Dormant
Attenuated
Scattered or dispersed
Expanded, fully operative

Avidya is the source of those that are mentioned after it, whether they be in the
dormant, attenuated, alternating or expanded condition.
The field of avidya kshetram can be of four types. The avidya may be
prasuptha i.e sleepy or dormant. When I (Dr.RK-a Chemistry professor in physical
life) am talking these things my knowledge of chemistry is dormant. It is prasuptha
avidya, or my knowledge as Gayatri upasaka is dormant when I teach chemistry to
students at college. Prasuptha is ignorance, it could be ignorance of chemistry or
Gayatri. This knowledge is there in me but when I am talking about these sutras
that knowledge is prasuptha, or dormant. Then you have tanu which means
diluted. Sometimes the avidya may not be very active it could be very diluted. For
example I might be very sleepy while teaching a lesson, but not so sleepy to stop
my lecture. Therefore I control the sleep and continue my speech and then go to
sleep. So that particular disturbance or klesha of sleep is in a diluted state. With a
little effort I can overcome it, I can ignore it. And then you have the vichinna which
might mean cut off or alternating. Sometimes the chat conversations on T. V are
cut due to server problems. So because of this cut there is a break in the
transference of knowledge. This is known as vichinna or break. And then udaarana
ie great abundance. These types of avidya, uteresham means one after another
follow as asmitha, raga, dwesha and abhinivehsa, but they be in the prasuptha
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state i.e the dormant state or tanu state or dilute or vichinaa, alternating state or
udaaranam ie fully operative condition. So we now learnt that Avidyaa could be of
four specific types and we will learn the definition of avidya in the next sutra.
Sutra 5.
Anitya Ashuchi Dukhanaatmasu Nitya Shuchi Sukha AtmaKhyaatihi
avidyaa
Anitya
Ashuchi
Dukha
Anaatmasu
Nitya
Shuchi
Sukha
Atma
Khyathi
Avidya

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Non-eternal
Impure
Misery, pain
Non-atman, not self
Eternal
Pure
Happiness, pleasure
Self
Knowledge, consciousness
Ignorance

Avidya is taking the non-eternal, impure, evil and non-Atman to be eternal,


pure, good and Atman respectively.
If we can understand the broad field of knowledge that Patanjali paints before us to
understand avidya at this moment we can become God realized. He has given four
characteristics. anityaa ashuchi dukh anaatmasu. anitya means that which is
non eternal, asuchi that which is impure, dukha that which is painful and
anatmasu that which is not atma. We attribute the reverse characteristics nitya,
suchi, sukha, atmakhyatihi. We attribute eternity, purity pleasantness and atman
characteristics to those which is anitya, dukha and anatmasu. This is avidya. A feeling of
anitya to nitya, a feeling of suchi to asuchi, a feeling of sukha to dukha, a feeling of atma
to anatma is avidya. Avidyaa is taking the non eternal, impure, painful and non atman to
be eternal pure good and atman respectively. This avidya is the basis. Out of this
avidya spring the other kleshas. The method and process through which the human
being has evolved five senses or avenues of approach to the not-self are well known and
any standard physiological text book can supply the needed information. Three factors
must be borne in mind in connection with the spiritual unit:
1. The senses have to be evolved,
2. Their recognition and use must follow,
3. A period succeeds wherein the spiritual man utilizes the senses in the fulfilment of
his desire, and in so doing identifies himself with his apparatus of manifestation.
He is doubly blind, for he is not only born blind and senseless but he is mentally blinded
also, and does not see himself or things as they are but makes the mistake of regarding
himself as the material form, and this he does for many cycles. He has no sense of
values or of proportion but looks upon the transient, suffering, unclean, material, lower
man (his three sheaths in their totality) as himself, the reality, He cannot dissociate
himself from his forms. The senses are part of the forms; they are not the spiritual man,
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the dweller in the form. They are part of the not-self and the medium of its contact with
the planetary not-self.
Through discrimination and dispassion the self, who is permanent, pure, and blissful, can
eventually dissociate itself from the not-self which is impermanent, impure, and full of
pain. When this is not realized, the man is in a condition of avidya. When it is in process
of accomplishment, the man is a follower of vidya or knowledge, a fourfold path. When
the soul is known as it is and the not-self is relegated to its rightful place as a sheath,
vehicle or implement, then knowledge itself is transcended and the knower stands alone.
This is liberation and the goal.
Sutra 6.
Drigdarshanashakthyor Ekaatmateva Asmitaa
Drik
Darshana shakthayor
Ekatmatha
Iva
Asmitha

=
=
=
=
=

Power of Consciousness
Power of seeing, Buddhi
Identity, blending together
As if
I-am-ness

Asmita is the identity or blending together, as it were, of the power of


consciousness (Purusa) with the power of cognition (Buddhi).
Asmitha is the root cause of all our troubles. A president feels that he is
president, a labourer feels that he is a labourer and most of all we identify
ourselves with our names. I am Ramakrishna. This identification is known as
ekatmatha.
Ekatmatha
means
identification
with.
Identification
with
Drigdarshanashakthyo You are able to see but what you are seeing you think
that you are that. You are seeing your body and you are feeling that you are the
body. I am the body, I am a doctor, I am an engineer, I am walking, I am talking, I
am writing. Wherever you utilize this I am, asmitha is there, an illusion is there.
When the pure consciousness gets involved in matter and owing to the power of
Maya, knowledge of its Real nature is lost, the pure I am changes into I am this
where this may be the subtlest vehicle through which it is working, or the
grossest vehicle, namely the physical body. The moment the veil of Avidya
falls on consciousness its identification with its vehicles results immediately,
though philosophically Avidya must precede Asmita. As consciousness descends
into one vehicle after another the veil of Avidya becomes, as it were, thicker
and the tendency to identify oneself with the vehicle becomes stronger and
grosser. We should remember that all the activities are done by the physical body
and that HE is merely witnessing them through his mind.
When a person says he has a headache what is really happening is that there
is a slight disorder in the brain. This disorder by its reaction on the next subtler
vehicle through which sensations and feelings are felt produces the sensation of
pain. The indwelling entity identifies himself with this joint product of these two
vehicles and this results in his having a headache, although a little thought will
show him that it is not he but the vehicle which is having the pain of which
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he is aware. When the Jivatma is able to leave a vehicle at will and see it
separate from himself then only is the false sense of identification completely
destroyed. For the advanced Yogi who can and does leave his body every now and
then and can function independently of it in a routine manner, it is just like a
dwelling house. As the Yogi leaves one vehicle of consciousness after another in
Samadhi he destroys progressively the tendency to identify himself with those
vehicles and with the destruction of Asmita in this manner the veil of Avidya
automatically becomes thinner.
We should remember that :
1. His three sheaths or bodies which are his medium of contact on three planes:
a. The physical body,
b. The emotional or astral body,
c. The mental body.
2. On the physical plane he has his five senses, hearing, touch, sight, taste and
smell.
3. The mind, the great sixth sense which has a triple use. As yet for the majority of
men it has but one use:
Its first and commonest use is a gathering of the realized contacts together and
their transmission as information to the ego or knower, much in the same way as
the nervous system telegraphs to the brain the external contacts it makes. It is this
use of the mind which produces primarily the sense of personality which begins to
fade out as the other uses become possible.
A second use of the mind is the one which the first five means of yoga bring about
- the power to transmit to the brain the thoughts, wishes and will of the ego or
soul. This brings into the personal self on the physical plane a recognition of the
reality and the sense of identification with the not-self becomes steadily less.
The third use of the mind is its use by the soul as an organ of vision whereby the
realm of the soul itself is contacted and known. The final three means of yoga bring
this about.
It should be emphasized that this is a most important fact to note. If the aspirant
will regard the development and full use of the sixth sense as his immediate
objective, and will bear in mind the three purposes for which it is intended, he will
make rapid progress, the sense of personality will fade away and identification with
the soul will ensue. This is one of the greatest of the fetters which hold the sons of
men captive. It is here that the axe must be laid to the root of the tree.
Try to understand more and more attentively when we enter the nirvichara
sampragnata samadhi. At present we are in savitarka sampragnatha Samadhi.
Asmitaa is the identity, as if, the power of consciousness (Purusha Drig) with the
power of cognition Buddhi (Darshana shakthyo). To understand this we can take
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the example of the space contained in a moving car. The car is parked in front of
your house with all the glasses raised. When the car starts moving the space
contained in the car also moves but is it true. Think Over It.
Tatra Shabdha Artha Jnana Vikalpaihi Sankeerna Savitarkaa.
Tatra means here. From this we have to jump to the nirvichara sampragnatha Samadhi. We have to pass
through the nirvitarka samadhi and then go to asamprgnatha samadhi then to savichara samadhi and
then to nirvichara sampragnatha samadhi. That is our present goal. When we achieve it we will know
what real asmitha is. The seeing and the object seem to be one. The bodies in you feel to be one.
Wherever you say I am that, the asmitha is there. With this background let us proceed further.
Sutra 7.
Sukhaanushayee Raagah
Sukha
=
Anushayee =
Raag
=

Happiness, Pleasure
Accompanying, resulting
Attraction, liking

That attraction, which accompanies pleasure, is Raga.


Raga is defined in this Sutra as the attraction which one feels towards any
person or object when any kind of pleasure or happiness is derived from
that person or object. It is natural for us to get attracted in this manner because
the soul in bondage, having lost the direct source of Ananda within, gropes
after Ananda in the external world and anything which provides even a shadow
of this in the form of ordinary happiness or pleasure becomes dear to it.
We always try to feel happy, and love to go to a place where we find
pleasure. But this pleasure automatically involves asmitha. I wanted to go to a
place where I find pleasure. That I am ness. You want to go to a place of your
liking. Naturally it means that you have asmitha. The attraction which
accompanies pleasure is raga. But because it is based on asmitha and asmitha
itself is based on avidya this has to be overcome.
Try to analyze your desires. For example : lets say you always wanted to buy
a car. The moment you buy a car, you are very very happy. Is the happiness
because you bought a car or that the desire to buy it has been accomplished and
there is no desire left?
Sutra 8.
Dhukhhanushayee Dweshaha
Dukha
=
Anushayee =
Dwesha
=

Pain
Accompanying
Repulsion

That repulsion which accompanies pain is Dvesha.


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The essential nature of the Self is blissful' and therefore anything which
brings pain or unhappiness in the outer world makes the outer vehicles recoil
from that thing. That repulsion which accompanies pain is Dweshaha. But pain is
also based on I am ness. Now we are in savitarka sampragnatha samadhi,.The
entire humanity is in samadhi. You need not practise a particular type of samadhi,
you already know samadhi. It is known as savitarka samadhi or savitarka
sampragnata samadhi or you can say it dwells in the lower mental concrete mind,
the manomaya kosa. Because of the manomaya kosa you are able to understand
everything from the structure of an atom to the structure of the galaxies. You can
understand the sweep of the knowledge which the savitarka samadhi has been
given to humanity. Humanity is now in that state. But now we by reading these
sutras want to pass through nirvitarka sampragnatha samadh to asampragyatha
samadhi. From here we have to go to savichara samadhi. From that we have to go
through nirvichara samadhi. There we can understand what real spiritualism is.
With this background you have to go beyond these dwandwas sukha and dukha. If
this sukha and dukha are there, you are there or that I am is there.
These attractions and repulsions are really the breeders of desires
pertaining to the lower life they naturally keep us tied down to the lower worlds
where consciousness is under the greatest limitations. As Raga and Dvesa form
a pair of opposites we cannot transcend one without transcending the other.
They are like two sides of a coin. In the light of what is said above it will be seen
that Vairagya is not only freedom from Raga but also freedom from Dvesa. A
free and unconditioned mind does not oscillate from side to side. It remains
stationary at the centre. Attractions and repulsions really belong to the
vehicles but owing to the identification of consciousness with its vehicles we feel
that we are being attracted or repelled. Those who systematically try to attenuate
the Klesas by means of Kriya-Yoga can see the subtler workings of these
Klesas, how they permeate the whole fabric of our worldly life and prevent
us from having any peace of mind. The true yogi neither feels aversion or desire.
He is balanced between these pairs of opposites. Hate causes separation, whereas
love reveals the unity underlying all forms.
Sutra 9.
Swarasavaahi Vidhusha Api TathaRudoabhiniveshaha
Swarasavahi
Vidushaha
Api
Tatha
Ruda
Abhiniveshaha

=
=
=
=
=

=
Flowing automatically
Learned/Wise
Even
In that way
Dominating
Fear of death/Strong desire for life

Abhinivesa is the strong desire for life which dominates even the learned (or the
wise).
The last derivative of Avidya is called Abhinivesha. Abinivesha means fear of
death. Fear that I am not going to be there. Fear of vanishing of asmitha is
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Abhinivesha. What is death, the loss of I am. So this feeling that because of death I
am not going to be there is an illusion, is an avidya, because we from hindu
tradition very strongly believe that after death also we continue. But still we fear
death. That is why Patanjali says even though he is a pandita a wise man he still
fears death. Abinivesha is the strong desire for life which dominates even the wise.
The philosopher who is well versed in all the philosophies of the world and knows
intellectually all the deeper problems of life is as much attached to life as the
ordinary person who is ignorant about these things.
The desire to live is not the result of some accidental development in the
course of evolution. It seems to be an essential feature of that process. What is this
all-powerful force which seems to underlie the current of life and which makes
every living creature stick to life like a leech all the time? According to the Yogic
philosophy this force is rooted in the very origin of things and it comes into play
the moment consciousness comes in contact with matter and the evolutionary
cycle begins. Avidya is the root of all the Klesas and Abhinivesa is merely the fruit
or the final expression of the chain of causes and effects set in motion with the
birth of Avidya and the involution of consciousness in matter.
Sutra 10.
Te Pratiprasava Heya Sukshaamaha
Te
=
Pratiprasva =
Heyah
Sukshmah =

They
Re-absorption
=
Capable of being reduced or avoided
Subtle

These, the subtle ones, can be reduced by resolving them backward into their
origin.
So how do we get rid of these avidya, asmitha, raga, dwesha and
abhinivesha? Patanjali says go into the subtler and subtler states. Enter from the
manomaya kosha to the subtler states of vigyanamaya kosha. From the vitarka
samadhi state enter the vichara samadhi state. That is what he means by the
above sloka. These the subtle ones can be reduced by resolving them backwards
to their origin. How to do it ?
The transition from the fully active to the perfectly dormant condition
takes place through a number of stages which have been pointed out in II4. Through the practice of Kriya-Yoga they can be attenuated progressively
until they become quite dormant, incapable of being aroused by ordinary stimuli
from the external world. But given extraordinary conditions they can be made
active again. So we have to deal with two problems in the complete elimination of
the Klesas, first to reduce them to the inactive or Suksma state and then to
destroy even their potential power. The first is referred to generally as
reducing the Klesas to the form of seeds which under favourable conditions
have still the power to grow into a tree, and the second as scorching the
seeds so that while they may retain the outer form of the seeds they have
really become incapable of germinating and growing into a tree.
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The phrase Pratiprasava means involution or re-absorption of effect
into cause or reversing the process of Prasava or evolution. The process of the
development of Avidya into its final expression Ahhinivesa is a causal
process, one stage naturally and inevitably leading to the next one. It is therefore
inevitable that if we want to remove the final element of this fivefold series
we must reverse the process whereby each effect is absorbed in its immediate
cause and the whole series disappears. This means that Abhinivesa should be
traced back to Raga-Dvesa, Raga-Dvesa to Asmita, Asmita to Avidya, and
Avidya to Enlightenment.
Master DK answers this question of removing Ignorance (avidya) saying that
it must be supplanted by the true vidya or knowledge, and as is well know, in this
fourth race on this fourth globe and in the fourth round, the four vidyas and the
four noble truths and the four basic elements form the sum total of this knowledge.
The four vidyas of the Hindu philosophy might be enumerated as follows:
1.
Yajna Vidya - The performance of religious rights in order to produce certain
results. Ceremonial magic. Is concerned with sound, therefore with the Akasha or
the ether of space. The "Yajna" is the invisible deity who pervades space.
2.
Mahavidya - The great magic knowledge. It has degenerated into Tantrika
worship. Deals with the feminine aspect, or the matter (mother) aspect. The basis
of black magic. True mahayoga has to do with the form (2nd aspect) and its
adaptation to Spirit and its needs.
3.
Guyha vidya - The science of mantrams. The secret knowledge of mystic
mantrams. The occult potency of sound, of the Word.
4.
Atman vidya - True spiritual wisdom.
Sutra 11.
Dhyaana Heyaha TadhaVritthayaha
Dhyana
Heyaha
Tadvrittayaha

=
=
=

By Meditation
(Kleshas) to be avoided
Their Modifications, activites

Their active modifications are to be suppressed by meditation.


Vritthaya and klesha almost mean one and the same thing. The subtle
difference you have to learn yourself. The active modifications are to be
suppressed by meditation. Meditation leads to samadhi. So our present goal in the
kriya yoga practice by the practice of tapas, swadhyaya and Ishwara pranidhani is
to cross from savitarka samadhi state going through the different stages of
Samadhi into the nirvichara state by meditating. He goes deeper into the roots of
kleshas. No success in Yoga is possible unless all the energies of the soul
are polarized and harnessed for achieving the central purpose. So the word
Dhyana implies all mental processes and exercises which may help the Sadhaka to
reduce the active Klesas to the passive condition. It may include reflection,
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brooding over the deeper problems of life, changing habits of thought and
attitudes by means of meditation. Reducing the Klesas to the latent state means
making the tendencies so feeble that they are not easily aroused, though
they have not yet been rooted out.
The "opposing mental attitude" referred to in the previous sutra has distinct
reference to the seeds or the latent tendencies as they subsist in the mental body
and in the body of desire. This mental attitude has to become one of active mental
meditation and one-pointed thought if the activities of the physical body are to be
subjected to a like control. Much that we do is automatic and the result of long
continued emotional and mental habits. Instinctively, from ancient practice and
through subjection to a world of tangible forms, our physical plane activities are
governed by the five hindrances. These have to be suppressed and the work of
dealing with the latent seeds and with suppressing the external activities must
proceed simultaneously. The steady opposition of the mental attitude deals with
one; meditation which brings in the three factors of the thinker, the mind and the
physical brain will take care of the other, and this must not be forgotten, otherwise
theory will not become intelligent practice.
Sutra 12
Klesha Moolaha Karmaashayoh DrusthaaAdrustha Janma Vedaneeyaha
Klesha moolaha
Karmashayah
Drushta
Adrushta
Janma
Vedaneeyaha

=
=
=
=

Rooted in Kleshas
Reservoir of Karmas
Seen
Unseen, future
=
Lives
=
To be known, experienced

The reservoir of Karmas which are rooted


experiences in the present and future lives.

in Klesas brings

all

kinds

of

Karma only happens when I am ness is there. And asmitha is there because
of avidya. But whatever be the cause, at present we are having a reservoir of
karmas with us. And these karmas bring all kinds of experiences. I am a software
engineer. I am a chemistry lecturer, I am a Brahmin. All these are chittha vrithis.
Even though it becomes very difficult, remember this and this is known as
savitarka. Vitarka means differentiation. Savitarka means with differentiation. We
are already are in this state. We are having previous karmas and the previous
experiences. The reservoir of karma which are rooted in all the kleshas bring all
type of experiences in the present and future life. He is talking about today and
tomorrow. All our troubles are because of these kleshas, because of these vruthis
being present. The moment you can stop these vrithis you are beyond troubles.
Then you become nirvichara, without an idea.
Klesas are the underlying cause of the Karmas we generate by our thoughts,
desires and actions. Each human soul goes through a continuous series of
incarnations reaping the fruits of thoughts, desires, and actions done in the
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past and generating, during the process of reaping, new causes which will bear
their fruits in this or future lives. Each thought, desire, emotion and action
produces its corresponding result with mathematical exactitude and this result is
recorded naturally and automatically in our life's ledger, which is typically called as
the CHITRAGUPTA in hindu terminology. And this Chitragupta is not some God
residing outside us but everything which we have experienced through our
sense-organs is recorded in the brain and can be recovered in the form of
memory of those experiences. We cannot see these impressions and yet we know
that they exist. This Karmasaya is also identified with the Karana Sarira or
causal body. Because, it is the Klesas which are responsible for the continuous
generation of Karmas and the causal vehicle merely serves as a mechanism for
adjusting the effects of these Karmas we need to overcome them first. As the
hindrances are overcome and ignorance, the field of them all, is superseded by
divine wisdom, there are fewer and fewer effects to work out on the physical plane,
and the chains which link a man to the great wheel of physical manifestation are
severed one by one.
Sutra 13 .
Sati Mule Tad Vipaakaha JaatiAayurBhogaaha
Sati mule
Tad
Vipaakaha
Jaati
Ayuh
Bhogah

=
=
=
=
=
=

There being the root


(Of) it (Karmasaya)
Fruition, Ripening
Class
(Span) of Life
Experiences

As long as the root is there it must ripen and result in lives of different class,
length and experiences.
As long as the Klesas are operating in the life of an individual the
vehicle of
Karmas will be continually nourished by the addition of new causal impressions. If
the root remains intact the Samskaras in the causal vehicle will naturally
continue to ripen and produce one life after another with its inevitable misery and
suffering. Though the nature and con-tent of experiences gone through by human
beings in their lives is of infinite variety, Patanjali has classified these under
three heads (1) class, (2) length of life, and (3) pleasant or unpleasant
nature of the experiences. These are the principal features which determine the
nature of a life.
Jaati means a kind of livelihood. An Engineer lives his own way and a Doctor
lives his own way. So the kind of life a person has is determined in the first place by
Jati. Ayu is the time period and bhoga is your experiences in relation to your
potentiality to bring pain or pleasure to the individual, your ability to enjoy it. There
are some people who are well placed in life but have a difficult timenothing but
suffering and unhappiness from birth to death. On the other hand, we may have a
life lived in comparatively poor circumstances but the experiences may be
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pleasant all along. The pleasures and pains which we have to bear are not entirely
dependent upon our Jaati. There is a personal factor involved as we can ourselves
see by observing the lives of people around us. All these are based upon the
ripening of the vrithis, avidyas and kleshas. That the class, length and experiences
which you enjoy or suffer has their root in the kleshas. So its upto you to control
these kleshas and live a life you want.
The whole subject of karma (or the law of Cause and Effect) is dealt with in
this sutra, and is of too vast a subject to be enlarged upon here. For those who are
interested to read further on this subject can refer to Gahana Karmano Gatih by
Pandit Srirama Sharma Acharya and Many Mansions book by Gina Cerminara. You
have to learn in depth about the Sanchita, Prarabdha and Aagami Karmas. From
the standpoint of the Yoga Sutras the three kinds of karma are as given below:
1. Latent Karma. Those seeds and causes which are yet undeveloped and inactive
and must work out to fruition in some part of the present or subsequent lives.
2. Active Karma. Those seeds or causes [146] which are in process of fruition and for
which the present life is intended to provide the needed soil for the flowering forth.
3. New Karma. Those seeds or causes which are being produced in this life, and which
must inevitably govern the circumstances of some future life.
The beginner in this science of yoga can begin dealing with his active karma,
interpreting each life-event and every circumstance as providing conditions
wherein he can work off a certain specified series of effects. He can endeavor so to
watch his thoughts that new seeds are not sown so that no future karma can be
brought to fruition in some later life. The seeds of latent karma are more difficult
for the neophyte to work with and it is here that his Guru can help him manipulating his circumstances and dealing with his surroundings in the three
worlds in order that this type of karma may more quickly work out and be done
with.
It is well known that the tree of life is depicted with the roots above and the
flowering leaves downwards. In the tiny tree of life of the ego the same symbolic
presentation holds true. The roots are found on the mental plane. The flowering
forth into objectivity and fruition is to be seen on the physical plane. Therefore it is
necessary for the aspirant to lay the axe to the root of the tree, or to deal with the
thoughts and desires which produce the physical body.

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Sutra 14.
Te Hlada Paritaapa Phalaaha Punya Apunya hethutvaat
Te
Hlada

=
=

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They
Joy
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Paritaapa
Phalaha
Punya
Apunya
Hethutvat

Sadhana Pada
=
=
=
=

Sorrow
Fruit
=
Merit as opposed to sin
Demerit, sin
Being caused by, on account of

They have joy or sorrow for their fruit according as their cause is virtue or vice.
An experience may give you a happy feeling or a sorrowful experience according to
their causes based on virtue or vice. If it is a correct mode of action he will get
happiness if it is a non correct action you will get troubles. They have joy or sorrow
for their fruit accordingly. The punya results in hlada and apunya results in paritapa
just as a photographic copy is related to its negative. The effect is always naturally
related to the cause and its nature is determined by the cause. Since Karma is a
natural law and natural laws work with mathematical precision we can to a certain
extent predict the Karmic results of our actions and thoughts by imagining their
consequences. The Karmic result, or fruit as it is generally called, of an action is
related to the action, though the compounding of several effects in one
experience may make it difficult to trace the effects to their respective
causes. The orthodox religious conceptions of hell and heaven, in which are
provided rewards and punishments without any regard for the natural relationship
of causes and effects, are sometimes absurd in the extreme though they do, in a
general way, relate virtue to pleasure and vice to pain.
The point to ponder is that the Chitta Vritthis are not exactly your thoughts
but solidified, concretized permanently settled mind modifications. For e.g. Your
identity with the name you have is a ChittaVritthi. Your identity with a sex is Chitta
Vritthi. Your identity with a human frame or body is a Chitta Vritthi, but if you can
inhibit them or suppress them, you can become any name, any sex, any body.
Therefore always keep in mind that
Pramaana Viparyaya Vikalpa Nidra Smrutayaha

- 1.6

Always take this sutra as a standard to monitor your Vritthis. When


these Vritthis become operative, they are termed as Kleshas as given in Book
2 - Sutra 3.
Avidya Asmitha Raaga Dwesha Abhiniveshah Kleshaa - 2.3
Sutra 15 :
Parinaama
Taapa
DhukkhamEva
Sarvam Vivekinaha
Parninama
Taapa
Samskara
Dukhair
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=
=
=
=

Samskaara

DhukhairGunavritthi

VirodhaatCha

Change
Acute Anxiety
Impressions
Pains
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Guna
Vritti
Virodhaat
Cha
Dukham
Eva
Vivekinaha
discrimination.

Sadhana Pada
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Gunas
Modifications of the Mind
On account of Opposition or Conflict
And
Pain, Misery
Only
To the enlightened, to the person who has developed

To the people who have developed discrimination all is misery on


account of the pains resulting from change, anxiety and tendencies, as also on
account of the conflicts between the functioning of the Gunas and the Vrittis (of
the mind).
If virtue and vice beget respectively pleasurable and painful
experiences the question may arise Why not adopt the virtuous life to ensure in
time an uninterrupted series of pleasurable experiences and to eliminate
completely all painful experiences?. Of course, for some time the results of
vicious actions we have done in the past would continue to appear but if we persist
in our efforts and make our life continuously and strictly moral, eliminating vice of
every description, a time must come when the Samskaras and Karmas created
from vicious thoughts and actions in the past would get exhausted and life
thenceforth must become a continuous series of pleasant and happiness-giving
experiences. The philosophy of Klesas will appear to him unnecessarily harsh and
pessimistic and the ideal of a completely virtuous life will seem to provide a
very happy solution of the great problem of life.
This idea of ensuring a happy life by means of virtue, apart from the
impracticability of living a perfectly virtuous life continuously while still bound by
illusion, is based on a delusion about the very nature of what the ordinary man
calls happiness and II-15 explains why this is so. Not until the aspirant has realized
to some extent the illusion underlying the so-called happiness which he pursues
in the world can he really give up this futile pursuit and devote himself
wholeheartedly to the task of transcending the Great Illusion and finding
that Reality in which alone can one find true Enlightenment and Peace. Let the
serious student therefore ponder carefully over the profound significance of this
Sutra.
Nothing in this world is constant. Everything right from a solar system
to a grain of dust are continuously changing and growing, though the change may
be very slow that we are not conscious of it at all. Each cell in your body, your hair
everything grows daily but you are not aware of it. You are not the same person
everyday when you wake up in the morning each day. One effect of Maya is to
make us unconscious of the continuous changes which are taking place within and
without us. When the realization of this continuous, relentless change(Parinaama)
affecting everything in life dawns upon an individual he begins to realize what
illusion means. This realization is a very definite experience and is one aspect of
Viveka, the faculty of discrimination.
The Sutra in general means that all experiences are either actively or
potentially
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full of misery to the wise person whose spiritual perception has become
awakened. To the man in whom Viveka has been developed the pathetic pursuit of
pleasures, ambitions and the like appears in a similar light. Most of us have such
fears and anxieties(Taapa) gnawing at our heart constantly though we may not
acknowledge or be even conscious of this fact.
There is a law of Nature according to which any experience through which we
pass produces an impression (Samskara) on all our vehicles. The impression thus
produced makes a channel for the flow of a corresponding force and the channel
thus becomes deeper and deeper as the experience is repeated. This results in our
acquiring habits of various kinds and getting used to particular kinds of
environment, modes of living and pleasures. But there is at work simultaneously,
the law of change, referred to already, which is constantly changing our outer
environment and places us among new surroundings, circumstances and people.
No sooner do we settle down in a new habit or a new environment than we are
forced out of it, sometimes easily and gradually, at other times roughly and
suddenly. This continuous necessity for adjustment in life is a source of constant
discomfort and pain to every individual. Nature hardly allows us breathing time
and is continuously driving us into new kinds of experiences, much as we would
like to settle down in our grooves and comfortable positions which we have
gained. Of course, the intelligent man accepts this necessity for adjustment and
does what he can to reconcile himself to it but the fact remains that this is a major
affliction of life from which everyone would like to be free.
Sometimes, this conflict between the Gunas (Satwa, Rajas, Tamas) prevailing
at the time and the state of the mind or desire is of a temporary nature but it
always has the effect of producing discontentment for the time being. Let us try to
understand this with an example: There might be a person who is lazy and does
not like much physical exertion but is forced by nature to be in such a work place,
he keeps desiring for a peaceful, inactive life and as a result of this persistent
strong desire leads him to take up a job at a lighthouse in his next birth. That is
how Guna-Vrtti-Virodha becomes one of the causes of human misery in general.
What we should remember in this connection is that every set of circumstances in
which we find ourselves is the outcome of our own desires and nothing else. At
times there is a vast time gap between their fulfillment and during this period our
nature and desires may also undergo considerable change that when we really
face the fulfillment of our own desire we may not even realize that it was our own
desire.
Patanjali points out that this pain is comprehensive, covering past, present and
future.
1. Consequences. Pain is brought about through the activity of the past and the
working out of karma as it is expressed in the adjusting of mistakes, the paying of
the price of error. The settling of past obligations and debts is ever a sorrowful
process. Certain past eventualities necessitate present conditions both of heredity,
environment and type of body, and the form, both of vehicle and group relations, is
painful to the soul, who is confined thereby.
2. Anxieties. This concerns the present and is sometimes translated - apprehensions.
If the student will study this term he will note that it covers not only the fear of evil
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in suffering, but also the fear of failure in the spiritual body in service. These
equally cause pain and distress and parallel the awakening of the real man to a
realization of his heritage.
3. Subliminal impressions, has relation to the future and concerns those forebodings
as to death, suffering and need which dominate so many of the sons of men. It is
the unknown and its possibilities that we fear both for ourselves and others, and
this in its turn produces pain.
The existence of the afflictions mentioned above which are inherent in
human life produces such conditions that nobody who has developed Viveka or
spiritual discrimination can possibly consider the so-called happiness of ordinary
life as real happiness. Once we understand by our discriminative knowledge that
all this is the cause of misery the next sutra gives us courage.
Sutra 16.
Heyam Dhukkham Anagatam
Heyam
=
Dhukkham =
Anagatam =

To be avoided
Misery
Not yet come

The misery which has not yet come can and is to be avoided.
This sutra gives the need for practicing yoga. Giving a guarantee that the miseries
that have not yet come can be avoided by following the yogic regimen. According
to the Yogic philosophy it is possible to rise completely above the illusions and
miseries of life and to gain infinite knowledge, bliss and power through
Enlightenment here and now while we are still living in the physical body. And if we
do not attain this Enlightenment while we are still alive we will have to
come back again and again into this world until we have accomplished this
appointed task. So it is not a question of choosing the path of Yoga or rejecting it.
It is a question of choosing it now or in some future life. It is a question of gaining
Enlightenment as soon as possible and avoiding the suffering in the future or
postponing the effort and going through further suffering which is unnecessary
and avoidable.
Certain types of coming "misery" may be avoided by a right adjustment of a man's
energies so that through his changed attitude of mind, painful reactions are no
longer possible, and through the transmutation of his desires old "pains" are
impossible. It infers secondly that life will be so lived in the present that no causes
will be set in motion along the line of pain-producing effects. This dual inference
will cause in the life of the yogi a dual discipline involving a set determination to
practice non-attachment, and a steady discipline of the lower nature. This will bring
about a mental activity of such a nature that old tendencies, longings and desires
no longer attract, and no activities are indulged in which can produce later karma,
or results.
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Sutra 17.

Sadhana Pada

Drashtru Drusyayoh Samyogo Heya Hetuhu


Drashtru
Drusyayoh
Samyogo
Heya
Hetuhu

=
=
=
=
=

Seer
Seen
Union
That which is to be avoided
Cause

The cause of that which is to be avoided is the union of the Seer and the
Seen.
The general principle of yogic practices is now being given. What is the
root-cause of the misery which is caused by the Klesas and which is to be
avoided? The answer is given in this sutra. It has already been pointed out in
dealing with the nature of Asmita or the tendency of consciousness to
identify itself with its vehicles that this process begins with the coming
together of consciousness and matter as a result of the veil of Maya
involving it in illusion and consequent Avidya.
The cause of that which is to be avoided is the union of seer (Drastru
or Purusha) and Drushayoha that which is seen or Prakruthi, in other words
the union of spirit and matter. What is required is the disconnection between
purusha and prakruthi, this is the reason why we read purusha suktha and sri
suktha in the temples. To know that in the real sense of the term would be to
know the ultimate mystery of life and to have reached Enlightenment
already. Surely, that is the endwhat the aspirant sets out to achieve
through Yoga.
The great objective of Raja Yoga is to free the thinker from the
modifications of the thinking principle so that he no longer merges himself in
the great world of thought illusions nor identifies himself with that which is
purely phenomenal. He stands free and detached and uses the world of the
senses as the field of his intelligent activities and no longer as the field of his
experiments and experience-gaining endeavors.
It must be remembered that the means of perception are the six
senses; i.e. hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell and the mind, and that these
six must be transcended and known for what they are. The means of
perception reveal the great maya or world of illusion which is composed of
forms of every kind, built of substance which must be studied as to its atomic
and molecular construction and as to the basic elements which give to that
substance its specific differentiations and qualities. For purposes of study the
student will do well to remember that he must investigate the nature of the
following factors in the polar opposite to spirit which we call matter:
1.
Atoms,
2.
Molecular matter,
3.
The elements,
4.
The three gunas or qualities,
5.
The tattvas or force differentiations in their seven forms.
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Through an understanding of the nature and distinctions of matter he
will come to a comprehension of the world of form which has held his spirit a
prisoner for so long. This Patanjali points out in the next sutra.

18)

Prakaasha Kriya Sthithisheelam Bhuuta Indriya Atmakam Bhoga


Apavarga Artham Drushyam
The seen or Prakruthi or Objective side of manifestation consists of
elements and sense organs is of the nature of cognition, activity and stability
(Satwa, Raja, Tama i.e prakasa kriya sthithisheelam) and has a purpose of
providing the Purusha ( the sadhaka) with experience[bhoga] and liberation
[apavarga]. Here we should remember that through experience only
liberation can come. For a normal person who is not interested in yogic
sadhanas the Prakaasha Kriya Sthithisheelam Bhuuta Indriya
Atmakam gives experiences [bhoga] and for a sadhaka it gives
liberation[apavarga]. And that is the meaning of prakruthi artham .

19)

Vishesha Avishesha Linga Matra Alingaani Guna Parvaani


Vishesha Avishesha
Linga Matra
Alingaani
Guna
Particular Universal Differentiated
Undifferentiated Of the gunas
Or Specific
Parvaani
Stages
In this sutra Patanjali deals with Prakaasa Kriya Sthithisheelam or the
Satwa, Rajo, Tama Gunas.
He says that the stages of gunas are the particular, universal, the
differenciated and undifferentiated. We can link up these four stages of
Vishesha a stage of Guna with a state of consciousness called Vitarka and
the vehicle that is used to express this quality in vedanta as Manomaya
Kosha.
When the satges of Samadhi as Savitarka and Nirvitarka are overcome
and we pass through asampragyatha samadhi we are linked up with the
Avishesha or universal quality of guna. This is linked up with Vichaara and
Vignanamaya Kosha and the states of Samadhis can be linked up as
Savichaara and Nirvichaara. The quality of linga is linked up with the
Aananda state of consciousness and is expressed to Anandamaya Kosha and
can be linked with the SaAananda Samadhi. The Aalinga stage of Guna is
linked up with the Atma with the state of consciousness as Asmitha and
Samadhi being Asmitha Samadhi. Link up these four states viz. vishesha with
vitarka, avishesha with vichara, lingamatra with aanada and alinga with
atma. Now the purusha quality.

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You first try to have a deep study of satva, rajo and tamo guna. But
even then without a basic knowledge of these three the satva guna is harmony,
raja is active and tama is inactive. These three qualities develop into the world as
vishesha a particular one, avishesha a universal one, linga matra differentiated and
alingamatra undifferentiated universe. These four types of universe are linked with
the savitarka manasic sthithi, vichara manasica sthithi, ananda manasic sthithi and
atma manasica sthithi.
20)

Drustha Drushimatraha Shuddhaa Api Pratyayaa Anupasyaha


Drustha
The seer

Drushimatraha
Pure Consciousness

Shuddhaa Api
Pure
Though

Pratyayaa
Content of

mind
( Purusha )
Only
Anupasyaha
Appears to se along with
The seer the purusha is pure consciousness but even though he is pure, he
appears and feels as if he is the prakruthi because of the interference of the mind
or the chitha vruthis or kleshas. Here when we say mind we mean chitha vruthi.
21)

Tadardha Eva DrusShyasSha Atmaha


Tadardha
For the sake of
Purusha

Eva DrusShyasSha Atmaha


Alone Of the Seen
Nature / Being
Prakruthi

The very being of the seer or Prakruthi is for his sake. Prakriti exists for your
sake alone whoever is practicing is yoga. The entire world is for you. That is why
we say we are the king of kings, rajadhi raja.
22) Krutaardham
Prati
Nastham
Api
Anastham
Tat
Anya
SadharanaTwaath
Krutaardham
Prati
Nastham Api
Tat
Whose purpose is for
Destroyed Although
Fulfilled
Anya
To Others

Anastham
Not Destroyed

That

SadharanaTwaath
On Account of Being Common

Although this universe becomes non existant for the sadhaka, whose
purpose has been fulfilled it continues to exist for others on account of being
common to others besides him. For eg. Once you finish your course you need
not go to the university even though the university is there.
This gives an answer to the question of what happens to Prakruthi
when a Yogi gets self-realized and the answer is Prakruthi ceases to exist for
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the self-realized Purusha. We need not go to its details but learn by our own
personal experience.
23)

Swa Swami Shaktoha Swaroopa Upalabdhi Hethuhu Samyogaha


Swa
Prakruthi

Swami
Purusha

Shaktoha Swaroopa
The true
Own Form
Powers

Hethuhu
Cause

Samyogaha
Union

Upalabdhi
Experiencing

The purpose of coming together of Purusha and Prakruthi is the gaining


of Purusha his true awareness and the unfoldment of powers inherent in him
and Prakruthi. This is reflected in sloka from Gita:
Agopissan Avyayaatmaa Bhutaanaam Eshwaropisan
Prakruthim Swamadhisthaaya Sambhavami Aatmayaayaya. It gives
the cause for the union.
24)

Tasya Hethuhu Avidyaa


Tasya
Its

Hethuhu
Cause

Avidyaa
Ignorance

This union between the bodies is the true awareness caused because
of the ignorance of real nature. Its cause is lack of awareness of his real
nature. Patanjali in this sutra gives the cause of the union as Avidyaa
Ignorance whether we like this process or not let us not behave like children
who try to avoid going to school. The best way of freeing ourselves is to
acquire perfection as quickly as possible. Once we are intellectually
convinced about the truth of these statements let us not waste our time in
involving ourselves in asmithaI am ness. Let us try to avoid this. Do not
avoid the Patanajali sutras because the best way to avoid avidya is to
acquire perfection as soon a s possible as our masters want us to do.
25)

Tat Abhaavaat
Kaivalyam

Samyogaha

Abhaavaha

Hanaha

Tad

Drushavha

Tat

Abhaavaat
Samyogaha
Abhaavaha
Hanaha Tad
Drushavha
That Absence
Union
Disappears Remedy
That Of The Seer
Kaivalyam
Isolation or Liberation

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The
dispersion
This sutra
mind that
liberation.
26)

Sadhana Pada
disassociation of purusha and Prakriti brought about by the
of Avidya is the real remedy and that is the liberation of the seer.
is discussed in detail in the kaivalya pada. Keep the definition in
the disconnecting link between purusha and prakruthi gives you

Viveka Kyhaatihi Aviplava HanoPaayaha


Viveka Kyhaatihi
Aviplava HanoPaayaha
Discrimination
Unbroken The Remedy
Then what are we supposed to do. The unbroken practice of awareness of
the real is the remedy to disperse Avidya. TADA DRASHTU SWAROOPE
AVASTHANAM is the only way to break the avidya.

27)

Tasya Sapthdha Pranta Bhimihi Prajnaa


Tasya
His

28)

Sapthdha Pranta Bhimihi Prajnaa


Sevenfold Layer
Consciousness

This type of awareness breaking away from prakruthi and establishing


itself in its own consciousness is saptadah sevenfold, layers of varieties
Pragya or consciousness. In this case, the highest state of enlightenment is
reached by seven stages. These seven stages are to be linked with
Jagajjanani MahaYogeshwari Devi.
Because the entire de-linking of purusha with prakruthi has to be gone
through seven satges saptadah. Prantha bhimihi.
Yoganga
Anusthaanaat
Ashuddhi
Kshayoh
GnanaDeepti
Aa
Vivekakhyaateha
Yoganga
Anusthaanaat
Aa
The eight Angas By Practice
Of Yoga

Ashuddhi Kshayoh
Impurity

GnanaDeepti

Destruction Knowledge

Till

Vivekakhyaateha
Awareness of reality arises
From the practice of the Yoganga which causes the destruction of
impurity and arises spiritual illumination which develops into awareness of
reality.
29)

Yama Niyama Aasana Pranayama


Samaadhayaha AshtaAngaani

Pratyahara

Dharana

Dhyana

These are the eight parts of Yoga.


30)

Ahimsa Satya Astheya Brahmacharya Aparigraha Yamaa

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Ahimsa
Yamaa
Harmless
Possesiveness

Sadhana Pada
Satya
Truth

Astheya
Honesty

Brahmacharya Aparigraha

Sexual Contenance

Non-

Fullness
These are the four vows of self restraint. These five yamas are beyond time,
class and occasion. So whatever may be the sequence of time in any yuga
irrespective of where you are and how you are posited these five yamas are to be
practiced.
31)

Jaati Desha Kaala Samaya Anachhinnaah Sarvabhavma Mahavratam


Jaati Desha Kaala Samaya
Class Place
Time
Ocassion

Anachhinnaah
Not limites

Sarvabhavma
Applying to all stages

Mahavratam
Great Vow
The practice of these five is known as the mahavratha. These five vows
not conditioned by class , place, time or ocassion and extending to all stages
is the great est vow that a sadhaka can take. Then the niyama.
32)

Shauvcha Santosha Tapaha Swadhyaaya EshwaraPranidhaanaani


Niyamaha
Shauvcha Santosha Tapaha
Swadhyaaya EshwaraPranidhaanaani
Purity
Contentment
Austerity Self Study Surrender to God
Niyamaha
Are the Observances

33)

Vitarka Badhane Pratipaksha Bhavanam


Vitarka
Evil Thoughts

Badhane
Distrubances

Pratipaksha
Opposites

Bhavanam
Pondering

When evil thoughts disturb ponder on the opposites when mind is


disturbed by improper thoughts constant pondering over the opposites is the
remedy. The tip for success in utilizing this sutra is to be very attentive and
as soon as an inkling of negative thoughts causes substitute with the
opposite thought immediately. Even a moments delay will se you a slave to
that thought which destroys into a desire and helplessly you will act in that
direction. Therefore be very attentive to thoughts and nip them in the bud.

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34) Vitarka Himsaadayaha Krutha Kaarita Anumoditaah Lobha Krodha
Moha Purvakaaha Mrudu Madhyaa Adhimaatreeha Dhukkha
Agnaana Ananthaa Phalah Eti PratiPaksha Bhavanam
Vitarka
Himsaadayaha Krutha
Kaarita
Anumoditaah
Improper thoughts
Of Voilence etc. Done by Self Caused to be done
Approved
Lobha
Krodha
Moha
Purvakaaha
Madhyaa
Greed
Anger
Dillusion
Caused by
Medium

Mrudu
Mud

Adhimaatreeha
Dhukkha Agnaana Ananthaa Phalah
Eti
Intense
Pain
Ignorance Endless
Fruit
Thus
PratiPaksha
Opposites

Bhavanam
Dwelling in Mind

Why you are supposed to think opposite thought. As improper thoughts


emotions and actions such as those of voilence whether they are indulged in
[krutha-done by oneself], caused to be done or approved by you
[anamodthitha] whether caused by greed, anger or dillusion, whether
present in mild, medium or intense degree, result in endless pain and
ignorance. So there is a necessity of ponderings over the opposites.
Here the three karmic effects and possible degradation of character is
brought out. The first is very clearly done by oneself [krutha]. The second is
done through the agency of another [karitha] and third is approved off
[anamoditha]. Generally we do not attach much importance to the third
factor that is silently accepting what is happening. The man who sees a thief
breaking into a house but does not do anything to prevent the crime is also
responsible for the crime and has to bear the karmic effect and degradation
in character. In action, in a deed of mercy that is not being active when you
are able to do an action of mercy is action in a deadly sin said Buddha.
Budha says inaction in doing correct action is a sin. To be very very attentive
in what you are thinking and also in what you are doing. The moment you
see that the thoughts are going in the wrong way nip them in the bud.
35)

Ahimsa Prathisthayaam TatSannidhav Vairatyaagaha


Ahimsa
Prathisthayaam
Vairatyaagaha
Non Voilence
Being firmly established

TatSannidhav

In his vicinity
Hostility is
Abandoned
The best example is the incidents in the life of Mahatma Gandhi.
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36) Satya Prathisthyaam Kriyaa Phala Aashrayatvam

Sadhana Pada

Satya
Prathisthyaam Kriyaa
Phala
Aashrayatvam
Truthfulness
When establishedWhatever actions done Results

must

follow
This sutra means that the Yogi will be able to predict future exactly
because he has developed the capacity to weigh each word that comes out
of his mouth. So this says whatever you speak out whatever you intend i.e
positive intentions i.e if you put them into practice immediately you will get
in future, i.e whatever you intend to do will become a success.
37)

Astheya Prathisthaayaam Sarvaratna Upasthanam

Astheya
Upasthanam
Honesty

Prathisthaayaam
On being firmly
Established

Sarvaratna
All precious
Present themselves
stones and things

For example, if he is passing through a jungle he will be aware of any


treasure present under ground. He is able to get tremendous amount of
needful items from the atmosphere itself.
38)

Brahmacharya Prathistaayaam Veerya Laabaha

Brahmacharya
Prathistaayaam
Veerya Laabaha
Secual Contenance
When firmly established
Energy
obtained
With this energy he can move crores of people.
39) Aparigraha Sthirye Janma Kadhanta Sambodhaha
Aparigraha
Non Possesiveness
Wherefor

Sthirye
Onbecoming steady

is

Janma Kadhanta
Birth and its How &

Sambodhaha
Non-contact
By non possessiveness this quality becomes steady. One can understand
about his past and future births. These are the sidhis when we do the mahavratha
the great vow i.e following the five yamas. The sidhis that will develop when do the
five niyamas.

NIYAMA

40)

Sowchaat SvaaogaJugupsaa Paraiha Asansargaha

Sowchaat SvaaogaJugupsaa
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Paraiha

Asansargaha
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From purity One gets disgusted
With his own body

and with others

Sadhana Pada
Non-Contact

One is not easily dominated by others physical domination. The skin


deep beauty is understood and one feels disgusted. Naturally he same is
applied to others. The next sutra deals with mental Suchi.
41)

SatwaShuddhi Sowmanasya Ekaagraya Indriyajaya Atmadarshana


Yogyatvaanicha
SatwaShuddhi
Sowmanasya
Ekaagraya
Indriyajaya
By purity of Antahkarana
Cheerfulness
Fixing
Control of Senses

of

Attention

Atmadarshana
Yogyatvaanicha
Vision of Self or Atma Fitness is Obtained
Cleanliness in each and everything is stressed, in home office and in every act we do.
Everything arranged and perfectly kept.
42) Santoshaat Anutthamaha Sukhalaabhaha

43)

Santoshaat
Anutthamaha Sukhalaabhaha
From Contentment
Unsurpassed
Happiness is gained
Kaayendriya
Siddhi Asuddhi Kshayaat Tapasha

Kaayendriya
Tapasha
Body, Sense Organs
Tapassu
44)

Siddhi

Asuddhi

Kshayaat

Occult Powers

Impurity

Removal

By

Is developed
Swaadyaayaat Isthadevataa Samprayogah
Swaadyaayaat Isthadevataa
Samprayogah
From self study Desired Diety
Coming into Touch
From self study the diety will be realized.

45)

Samaadhi Siddhi Eshwara Pranidhaanaat

Samaadhi Siddhi
Eshwara
Pranidhaanaat
Samadhi is accomplished
Desired Diety
Coming into Touch
This is the easiest methods when you surrender yourself to eashwara,
Eashwara means solar logos the Sun. Patanjali Yoga sutras is a step
wise,developed graded consciousness. You have tp practise yama and niyama.
46)

Sthira Sukham Aasanam


Sthira

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Sukham

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Steady

Sadhana Pada
Comfortable

Posture

Patanjali describes the goal for which the yogi practices asanas and to
be comfortable. This Asana concept is based on the principle that changes in
consciousness can be brought about by setting in motion, currents on certain
kinds of subtler forces
which are chanelled in the body.( prana,
kundalini) in the physical body. When you become steady and comfortable
the next has to be followed.
47)

Prayatna Shaidhilya Anantha SamaapatthiBhyaam


Prayatna Shaidhilya Anantha SamaapatthiBhyaam
Effort
Relaxation Endless
Meditation ( Posture is mastered)
Here two tips are given. One is Prayatna Shaidhilya, that is relaxation
of effort. There should be a gradual transfer of control of the body from
conscious to subconscious mind. So that one can sit for any length of time
without paying attention to physical body.As you practise asana see that you
become very relaxed and very comfortable. One should not feel that you
doing an asana. It should be sthira , sukham aasana so that when this
relaxation of effort is achieved one can sit for anylenghth time without
paying attention to the body. Something very special happens that one has
to experience that the asana changes the consciousness. The consciousness
will be similar and identical to the name given to the asana.
The second tip that is given is Anantha SamaaPatthi bhyam, Anantha is
the great serpent Aadishesha who upholds the earth. Meditation on the
anantha posture is mastered.When we say mastered it is not your ability to
sit in the posture but your ability to enter into that consciousness. The ability
to read those powers. When you do halasana you must be able to plough
your mind as people plough the Earth. How it happens and what are the
steps to be taken.
It is the symbolic representation of the force which
maintains the equilibrium of earth and keeps it in its orbit round the sun.
Anantha is the power of the universe where the balance is maintained. The
problem of a person, who is sitting in a particular asana has to keep his
equilibrium Samatvam. Since Anantha , the serpant symbolizes this
particular pose, meditation on Anantha gives stability in the Aasana. The
word SamaapatthiBhyaam conveys the meaning fusing the mind with.
Therefore meditation on anantha gives stability or mastery over Aasana. We
have to fuse ourselves with the consciousness of aadisesha. AASANA MEANS
CHANGE OF CONSCIOUSNESS.

48)

Tataha Dwandwaha Anabhighataha


Tataha
Dwandwaha
Anabhighataha
From that
Pairs of opposites Do not Assualt
( Mastery Over Asana)

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Pranayama is dealt in the next five sutras. You go beyond the pair of
opposites.Sukha and dukha . Similar types of pairs will stop troubling you.
49.

Tasmin
Sati
Shwasprashwasyoh Gativichhedah
on perfection accomplished in breathing &out
moment
cessation break
of asana
breathing
Pranayama
In pranayama[follows]
This pranayama exploits the relation existing between prana and mind.
Sitting in a particular aasana allows your body prana and kundalini shakthi
flow in a particular direction. You should be very attentive and careful in
selecting aasanas before you practice pranayama. We have thousands of
yogi to guide us. The best aasana before pranayama is PADMAASANA, the
sukha aasana or the vajraasna or any other aasana in which you feel
sukham and sthiram.he Consciousness expressing itself through the mind
cannot come in touch with matter without the intermediate presence of
prana. Prana is the link between mind and matter. Prana has in itself the
essential qualities of both consciousness and matter and is thus able to
serve as an instrument to link each other i.e change of consciousness
through change of aasanas through pranayama. Prana is different from
breath as electric current is different from the movements of the blade in an
electric fan. There is a close connection between these two. Prana and
breath are inter-related. The methods of manipulating prana by regulation of
breath is a closely guarded secret because its practise without guidance may
result in one becoming insane. Sometimes one may die also. Do not practise
any paranayama technique unless you are with a well versed master.
Prana is different from breath as electric current is different from the
movement blades in an electric fan. But there is a close connection between
these two.Similarly prana and breath are inter-related. But the methods of
manipulating prana by regulation of breath are a closely guarded secret.But
meditating on asanas and its link with pranayama may be of great help.
Deep breathing can be safely undertaken.That iswhat I advise as sukha
pranayama. Breathe out fully with your naval going back as though it is
going to touch your back bone.Again breathe in breathe out deeply.This can
be done wherever and whenever you want. LOMA VILOMA PRANAYAMA can
also be undertaken with certain precautions i.e alternating breath. You
release breath from your left nostril breathe in through the left nostril
breathe out through the right nostril and breathe in through the right nostril.
This can be safely done. Stop this when you feel dizzy.Do it very slowly and
silently.Do not create any sound while breathing. This pranayama can be
done for a long time.See that your back bone is straight. This can be done
while walking. But other types of pranayama should not be carried out
without the guidance of a competent guide. It is important to remember that
KUMBHAKA is the essential element of real pranayama. It is not the

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breathing in and the breathing out that is important. But it is the interval the
cessation of breath whether you hold the breath inside known as
antahkumbhaka or stop the breath when you have completely exhaled or
bahya kumbhaka. It is not the breathing which is important but the cessation
which is important. [refer dwjalakul discipleship in new age]
50. BAHYA
ABHYANTARA
STHAMBHA
SANKHYABHI
outer
internal
suppressed
number
PARIDHRYSHTAHA
Measured

VRUTHI

DESHA

KALA

place

time

DHEERGHASOOKSHMAHA
prolonged and subtle

It is an external, internal or suppressed modification, here the three moods of


breath being held are discussed.
1.BAHYA----breath is held outside
2.ABHYANTARA----breath is held inside
3.sthambha-vruthi----suppressed modification that is just stop wherever it is
at that moment.
The position or manner in which the breath is held or stopped
determines the kind of pranayama. The second factor is place where
pranayama is performed. The pranayama practiced in tropics naturally
differs from pranayama practiced in the higher altitudes of Himalayas.
The third factor is time, kala. This means not only the relative duration
of Pooraka , khumabaka, rechaka, but also the time of the year. The diet also
has to be taken into account.
Diet also has to be taken into account. Especially when done on fruit
diet. Pranayam on milk diet when doing on chandryana vratha. All these
decide the pranayama. All these details show what great science this science
of union is. All these meditations are farce. Savitarka Samadhi cannot guide
us to Nirvichara Samadhi. If you want to go Nirvichara Samadhi you have to
go stage by stage i.e., from Yama Niyama asana and pranayama. These can
be done together.
The fourth factor number, sankhyabhi refers to number of rounds at
each sitting and the number of sittings in one day. And lastly he gives the tip
of prolonging the Khumbaka [retention of breath] for long periods of time
dheergha, and then gradual transferring of the process from the outer
breathing technology to the invisible inner plane of pranayama kosha..
[Sukshma]. This retention of breath is the cause of the universe. You can
manipulate the entire universe, if you know how to manipulate these three
kumbhakas. Bahya kumbhaka, anthah kumbhaka and kevala kumbhaka.
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51. BAHYA
external

ABHYANTARA VISHAYA
internal
domain

Sadhana Pada
AKSHEPI
CHATURDHA
going beyond
is the fourth

In this pranayama, the highest kind of pranayama transcends the


moments of breath altogether. The breathing is stopped but the subtle pranic
currents are being manipulated. That is what the Sukshma word refers to
subtle. By gradual practice of pranayama we reach the fourth one. The
subtle pranic currents are being manipulated. Patanjali gives the benefit of
doing this pranayama. Even sukha pranayama will give you many many
results. Because it is simple it is not so useful. Any type of disease that is
related to the gall bladder pancreas kidneys, intestine and some aspects of
heart will be cured as and when you understand the process of sukha
pranayama. You are breathing out the naval goes in. You are breathing out
your navel goes out. So there is a massage of internal and most vital organs
the pancreas, the Gall bladder, the urethra almost all the important organs
are located there. So a sincere practice of sukha pranayama wherever
possible and if possible continuously is going to make a very definite positive
change in your physical and vital health. Your pranamaya kosha also
becomes strong. The Loma viloma pranayama purifies the 72000 nadis
present in the pranamaya kosha.
We advise you to practice sukha
pranayama continuously and Loma viloma sometimes per day. If you practice
these two pranayama the teachers will come and teach you the next step as
told in guruji Atma katha.
52.

TATAH
then

KSHIYATE AVARANAM
disappears light covering

From this pranayama the covering of light is dissolved and manipulation of


subtler vehicles is easy. The soul light, the divine light is covered by these
five bodies. Because of this pranayama our body becomes pure and our light
shines out.
53.

DHARANASUCHA
for Dharana and

YOGYATA MANASA
fitness of
mind

By the practice of pranayama the mind becomes fit for practicing another
Anga of
Yoga.
54. SWA VI SHYA ASAMPRAYOGA
CHITAH
SWAROOPA
ANUKARA
Their
objects
not coming into contact
individual
nature
imitating
Respective
mind
IVA
As if according to
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INDRIYANAM
by the senses

PRATYAHARA
abstraction
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These indriyas of the mind has three categories. Reaction to sense, organs
memories of the past anticipation of the future. The object of the pratyahara
is to eliminate the first category altogether. Your reaction to the external
world is completely withdrawn It is like a thick veil which is withdrawn.
Pratyahara or abstraction is as it were the imitation by the senses of the
mind by withdrawing themselves from their objects.
If we examine the contents of our mind at any time they can be
divided into three categories:
1)
The ever-changing impressions produces by the outer
world through the vibration impinging upon sense organs.
2)
Memories of the past.
3)
Anticipations of future.
The object of pratyahara is to eliminate the first category altogether. The
second and third are then mastered by Dharana & Dhyana but it should be
remembered that without the practice of Yama & Niyama emotional
disturbances cannot be eliminated. Without Asana & Pranayama, physical
body cannot be practices. Thus every step of Asthanga Yoga has to be
mastered.
55.

Tatah
Then

Parama
Vasyata Indriyaanaam
Greatest
Mastery Over the senses.

In this 55th sutra the result of successful practice of Pratyahara is given.

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