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MASONRY
DESIGN
MANUAL
FOURTH EDITION

MASONRY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA
www.masonryinstitute.org
(800) 221-4000

www.iccsafe.org
(888) 422-7233

MASONRY
DESIGN
MANUAL
FOURTH EDITION

Contributors:
John Chrysler, P.E.
Craig V. Baltimore, S.E., Ph.D. Thomas Escobar
Executive Director
Cal Poly State University
Design Director
Masonry Institute of America San Luis Obispo, California
Masonry Institute of America

Published by

MASONRY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA
(800) 221-4000
www.masonryinstitute.org

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL
5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600
Falls Church, Virgnia 22041-3401
www.iccsafe.org

4th Edition
First Printing, January, 2007

Copyright © 1969, 1972, 1979, 2007
by
Masonry Institute of America
and
International Code Council
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a computer or retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, fax, recording or otherwise, without
the prior written consent of the Masonry Institute of America or the International Code Council.
ISBN-10: 0-940116-44-8
ISBN-13: 978-0-940116-44-3
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Printed in the United States of America
Portions of this publication are reproduced, with permission, from the 2006 International Building Code, 2006
edition copyright © International Code Council.
In this publication the Masonry Standards Joint Committee’
s (MSJC) Building Code Requirements for Masonry
Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402) is hereafter referred to as the MSJC Code, and the MSJC’
s Specification
for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602) is hereafter referred to as the MSJC Specification.
This book was prepared in keeping with current information and practice for the present state of the art of
masonry design and construction.
The authors, publisher and all organizations and individuals who have contributed to this book cannot assume or
accept any responsibility or liability, including liability for negligence, for errors or oversights in this data and
information and in the use of such information.

MIA 601-07

01-07 2M

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------xix
SECTION 1

MATERIALS

CHAPTER 1

CLAY BRICK UNITS--------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.1

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1.1
Reinforced Brick - an Overview------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1.2
Shapes of Brick----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.1.3
Orientation of Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.1.4
Patterns of Brick---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
1.1.5
Mortar and Grout--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.2
Building Brick or Common Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.2.1
Grade of Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.2.2
Appearance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.3
Durability------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.4
Freezing and Thawing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.5
Absorption and Saturation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.6
Compressive Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.7
Colors and Texture------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1.2.8
Size--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1.2.9
Coring-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.10
Frogging--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.11
Tolerances-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.12
Initial Rate of Absorption (I.R.A.)------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.13
Visual Inspection--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
1.2.14
Efflorescence-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
1.3
Face (or Facing) Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.1
Grade-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.2
Types-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.3
Durability-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.4
Freezing and Thawing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.5
Absorption and Saturation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.6
Compression Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.7
Color and Texture-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.8
Size-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.9
Coring-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.10
Frogging--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.11
Tolerances-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.12
Initial Rate of Absorption (I.R.A.)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------13
1.3.13
Visual Inspection---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
1.3.14
Efflorescence-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
1.4
Hollow Brick-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
1.4.1
Hollow Spaces------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
1.4.2
Types-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
1.4.3
Tolerances------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
1.4.4
Color and Texture-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16

vi

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

CHAPTER 2

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS---------------------------------------------------17

2.1
2.2

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17
Properties----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18
2.2.1
Dimensions and Modular Sizes-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2.2.2
Metric-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2.2.3
Compression Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
2.3
Architectural Units------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.1
Slumped Units------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.2
Split Faced Units--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.3
Veneer Units--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.4
Screen Block-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.3.5
Cap Units------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.4
Concrete Brick----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.5
Paving Units-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.6
Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) - Illustrated---------------------------------------------------------------22
2.7
Component Units and Sections--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
2.8
Concrete Paving Pattern Units--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32
2.9
Resin (Glazed) Coatings---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
2.9.1
Specifications------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
2.9.2
Manufacturer’
s Standards---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34
2.9.3
Shapes and Sizes of Glazed CMU--------------------------------------------------------------------------34
2.10
Segmental Retaining Wall Units-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36

CHAPTER 3

NATURAL STONE-----------------------------------------------------------------------37

3.1
3.2
3.3

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
ASTM Stone Standards----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
Classification of Stone------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
3.3.1
Geological Classification-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
3.4
Texture of Quarried Stone-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39
3.5
Physical Characteristics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40
3.6
Physical Nature---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
3.7
Evaluating Stone-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
3.8
Properties----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9
Variations-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.1
Granite----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.2
Marble----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.3
Limestone------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.4
Travertine------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43
3.9.5
Sandstone-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43
3.10
Quarrying and Milling-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43

CHAPTER 4
4.1

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47
4.1.1
Characteristics------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------49

CHAPTER 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

TERRA COTTA-----------------------------------------------------------------------------47

GLASS BLOCK----------------------------------------------------------------------------51

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51
Special Shapes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51
Glass Block Properties-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------52
Glass Block Applications---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 6
6.1
6.2

VENEER--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61
Shelf Angles-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62
Flashing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62
Weep Holes-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63
Connectors---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
7.5.1
Wall Ties-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
7.5.2
Anchors--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------65

CHAPTER 8
8.1

REINFORCING STEEL-----------------------------------------------------------------55

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55
Types of Reinforcement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56
6.2.1
Reinforcing Bars---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56
6.2.2
Joint Reinforcement-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58

CHAPTER 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

vii

MORTAR AND GROUT---------------------------------------------------------------67

Mortar---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
8.1.1
Types of Mortar----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
8.1.1.1
Selection of Mortar Types---------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
8.1.1.2
Specifying Mortar---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------68
8.1.2
Mortar Materials----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70
8.1.2.1
Cements--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70
8.1.2.2
Hydrated Lime------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------71
8.1.2.3
Mortar Sand---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------71
8.1.2.4
Water------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.2.5
Admixtures-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.2.6
Color-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3
Mixing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3.1
Measurement of Mortar Materials-----------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3.2
Job Site Mortar Mix-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3.3
Extended Life Mortar----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73
8.1.3.4
Pre-Blended Mortar------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73
8.1.3.5
Retempering---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------74
8.1.4
Types of Mortar Joints-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------74
8.2
Grout----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75
8.2.1
Types of Grout-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75
8.2.1.1
Fine Grout------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.1.2
Coarse Grout--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.1.3
Slump------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.1.4
Self-Consolidating Grout-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.2
Proportions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.1
Aggregates-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.2
Mixing Grout---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.3
Grout Admixtures---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.4
Grout Strength Requirements-----------------------------------------------------------------------------78
8.2.2.5
Testing Grout Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
8.2.2.6
Methods of Grouting Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------79
8.2.2.7
Consolidation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------82
8.2.3
12 Foot Grout Lifts------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------82

viii

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION
CHAPTER 9
9.1

9.2

9.3
9.4

9.5

9.6

2

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION-------------------------------------------83

Aesthetic Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83
9.1.1
Brick Masonry Bond Patterns----------------------------------------------------------------------------------83
9.1.2
Modular Brick Masonry-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------85
9.1.2.1
Dimensions of Modular Units-----------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.2.2
Coordination of Masonry Units---------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.2.3
Initial Design Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.2.4
Grid Locations of Masonry Walls------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.3
Brick Masonry Dimensioning-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------87
9.1.4
Color------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
9.1.5
Texture----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
9.1.6
Scale------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
Design Loads-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
9.2.1
Loads-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
9.2.1.1
Dead Loads----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
9.2.1.2
Live Loads-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.3
Wind Loads----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.4
Seismic (Earthquake) Loads----------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.5
Hydrostatic Loads--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.6
Material Property Loads------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
Load Distribution-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
Masonry Stresses------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
9.4.1
Compressive Stress----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
9.4.2
Flexural Tension Stresses---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
9.4.3
Shear Stresses-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
Empirical Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.1
Allowable Stresses------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.2
Minimum Thickness-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.3
Lateral Support-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.4
Lateral Stability-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.5.5
Bond and Anchorage---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
Clay Brick Design for Moisture and Movement--------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.1
Moisture Resistance----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.2
Sources of Moisture----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.3
Selection of Wall Type------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.4
Water Penetration Resistance-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94
9.6.5
Flashing--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94
9.6.6
Weep Holes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.7
Vents------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.8
Coatings--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.9
Efflorescence-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.10
Movement-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.1
Thermal Movement-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.2
Moisture Movement------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.3
Creep------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.4
Deflection-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.5
Differential Movement---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.6
Expansion Joints---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
9.6.10.7
Expansion Joint Placement--------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
9.6.10.8
Location of Expansion Joints--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
9.6.10.9
Control Joints----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------102

1.4 Garden Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153 9.3 Drainage--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146 9.7.2.1.4 Solid Masonry Walls----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------107 9.9.3.5 Installation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------147 9.10 Cleaning------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------158 9.1.9.12 Cavity Wall Connections--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125 9.9.9.9.3 Thermal Mass------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 9.2.3 Sound Transmission Class-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 9.1.9 Brick Applications------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------105 9.8 Reinforced Hollow Masonry Walls-----------------------------------------------------------------------118 9.9.8.8 Acoustics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 9.7.1 Traffic------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146 9.9.9.1.TABLE OF CONTENTS 9.9.3 Weather Resistance-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138 9.2 Attachment of Components-------------------------------------------------------------------------------105 9.2.9.1.3 Brick Paving Design--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------145 9.9.1.5 Material Selection--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144 9.1 Decibels--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 9.13 Brick Masonry Rain Screen Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------129 9.9.9.9.Wall Types----------------------------------------------------------------------------105 9.9.9.8 Corbels and Racks-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156 9.9 Thin Brick Veneer-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------157 9.9.9.10 Masonry Cavity Bearing Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------121 9.1.1.9.10 Brick Sculpture-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------157 9.9.9.3.2 Planter Boxes-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153 9.9.1 Steps-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153 9.6 Double-Wythe Grouted Walls-----------------------------------------------------------------------------116 9.14 Vapor and Air Barriers------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------134 9.9.2.1 Structural Brickwork .9.4.2.6 Structural Brick Floors-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------148 9.9.2 U-Value---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------103 9.4.1.5 Single-Wythe Bearing Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------107 9.3.7 ix Heat Transfer-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------102 9.5 Fountains-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153 9.2.3.9 Cavity Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------118 9.9.9.1.4.4.11 Masonry Cavity Walls with Concrete Frame-----------------------------------------------------------------123 9.3 Screen Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153 9.1.2 Brick Masonry Arches--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135 9.9.1.2 Transmission Loss------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104 9.8.9.7 Bearing Wall Types------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116 9.1 Terminology---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135 9.1.4 Edging-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------147 9.9.4 Detailing Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------140 9.7 Parapets-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156 9.9.8.4.6 Construction and Workmanship--------------------------------------------------------------------------144 9.3.9.1 Composite/Non-Composite Wall------------------------------------------------------------------------105 9.3.11 Sound Barrier Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------158 9.9.9.15 Thermal Insulation---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------134 9.9.9.11 Reinforced Grouted Brick Masonry-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------160 .9.9.4 Landscaping---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------152 9.3 Barrier and Drainage Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------106 9.1 R-Value---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------103 9.5 Fireplaces and Chimneys---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------154 9.2 Site--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146 9.1.2 Structural Function-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138 9.9.9.9.7.9.6 Masonry Heaters--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156 9.9.

18.8 Vertical Steel Placement---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------186 10.4 Supported Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------209 10.15.4 Foundation Details-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------175 10.9 Pilaster Details--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------186 10.17.2 General Notes------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------202 10.17.5 Segmental Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------209 10.1 Conventional or Gravity----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------210 10.2 Soil-Reinforced or Geosynthetic---------------------------------------------------------------------------------210 10.18.1 Modular Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------172 10.5.18.2.4 Natural Lighting---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.1 Residential Construction Isometric with Roof Diaphragm----------------------------------------------195 10.8 Noise Control-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------212 10.2 Modular Dimensions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------172 10.6.3 Wall and Opening Dimensions-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------174 10.17.18.11 Lintel and Bond Beam Connection------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------189 10.1 Timber Connections----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------179 10.2 Steel Connections-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181 10.18.4 Raised Wood Floor Connection for Residential Construction-----------------------------------------199 10.7 Corner Patterns--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------183 10.1 General---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------202 10.17 Retaining Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------203 10.15.18.15 Residential Design-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------195 10.3 Textures and Interior Finishes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.3 Continuous Footing Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------203 10.6 Roof Connection Details for Residential Construction--------------------------------------------------201 10.15.10 Wall to Wall Connections--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------188 10.11 Construction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------214 .18.16.5 Concrete Masonry Wall Assembly Detail----------------------------------------------------------------------------------177 10.2 Strength and Durability-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.17.5 Foundation Details for Residential Construction------------------------------------------------------------200 10.3 Cantilever Retaining Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------206 10.18.15.17.10 Water Penetration Resistance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------213 10.2 Layout and Assembly--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------172 10.6 Fire Resistance----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.12 Control Joints-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------189 10.13 Door Jamb Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------192 10.x MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL CHAPTER 10 CONCRETE BLOCK--------------------------------------------------------------171 10.17.2 Residential Construction Isometric without Roof Diaphragm------------------------------------------197 10.5.18 Concrete Masonry Basements-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.1 Gravity Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------204 10.9 Basement Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------212 10.18.18.3 Resdiential Wall Section-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------198 10.16.1 Maintenance and Low Cost------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.6.15.18.7 Areas of Refuge---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------212 10.17.16 Garden Fences---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------202 10.2.1 General--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------171 10.6 Floor and Roof Connections Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------179 10.2 Counterfort or Buttressed Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------205 10.5 Energy Efficiency------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211 10.14 Window Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------194 10.15.16.

1 General---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------230 11.2 Tolerances for Placement of Reinforcement---------------------------------------------------------------224 11.5 Shrinkage and Temperature Stresses----------------------------------------------------------------------------------219 11.1 Clearance Between Reinforcement and Masonry Units-------------------------------------------225 11.8.4 Stone Construction------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------239 .2.11.1 General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------235 12.2.1.11.6.2.1 Deformed Reinforcement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------227 11.1 Location of Reinforcement “ d”Distance--------------------------------------------------------------------223 11.2.1 Minimum Area of Steel------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------221 11.1 Rubble Stone Masonry Patterns-------------------------------------------------------------------------237 12.7.4 Shear Stresses---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------218 11.8.2.8.11.2.10.2 Ties at Anchor Bolts in Columns-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------230 11.1 General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------215 11.1 Beam with Vertical Load----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------216 11.11.8.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 11 xi REINFORCING STEEL----------------------------------------------------------------215 11.1 Minimum Steel Requirements for Low Seismic Exposure----------------------------------------221 11.4 Non-Projecting Wall Columns------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------233 11.3 Compression Stresses------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------217 11.2.1 Development Length of Straight Reinforcement-----------------------------------------------------227 11.11.1.7 Minimum Reinforcement Requirements--------------------------------------------------------------------------------221 11.8.6.2 Wall with Lateral Load-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------216 11.1 Development Length---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------227 11.1 Column Tie Requirements---------------------------------------------------------------------------------231 11.5.2 Stone Coursing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------236 12.3.2.2.9 Anchorage of Reinforcing Steel in Masonry--------------------------------------------------------------------------227 11.5 Clearances----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------225 11.7.3 Placement of Steel------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------224 11.11.8.2.1 Rubble and Ashlar Stone----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------235 12.8.2 Tension Stresses-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------216 11.2 Hooks------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------228 11.9.2 Split Stone Masonry Patterns-----------------------------------------------------------------------------237 12.2.2 Joint Reinforcement and Ties----------------------------------------------------------------------------227 11.2.5 Projecting Wall Columns or Pilasters------------------------------------------------------------------------234 CHAPTER 12 NATURAL STONE-----------------------------------------------------------------------235 12.1 Tie Spacing for Lower Sesimic Risk--------------------------------------------------------------------232 11.8.3 Stone Finishes------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------237 12.9.6 Reinforcement Cover---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------227 11.9.8.11.1.4 Reinforcing Bar Positioners-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------225 11.2 Column Ties--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------231 11.2 Typical Layout of Ties and Masonry Units for Columns--------------------------------------------232 11.10 Anchor Bolts-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------229 11.2 Special Provisions for Higher Seismic Risk----------------------------------------------------------------229 11.5.8.11.3.3 Tie Spacing for Elements that are Part of the Lateral System------------------------------------------232 11.9.3 Lap Splices for Reinforcing Steel-----------------------------------------------------------------------------229 11.2 Minimum Steel Reinforcement for High Seismic Exposure-------------------------------------------222 11.7.6 Seismic Forces---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------219 11.9.2.2 Tie Spacing for Higher Seismic Risk-------------------------------------------------------------------233 11.2 Types of Stone----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------235 12.2 Clear Spacing Between Reinforcing Bars-------------------------------------------------------------226 11.10.11 Columns------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------230 11.1.8 Reinforcement Spacing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------223 11.11.2.1 General---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------229 11.3 Split Stone Masonry Height Pattern---------------------------------------------------------------------237 12.

4 Connection Detail-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------286 13.2.3.1.3.3.3.7 Expansion Joints---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272 12.3.3.3.3.3.3.6 Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------260 12.2 Energy Conservation---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.2 Typical Glass Block Details-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------285 13.3.2 Sealing----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------280 12.5 Maintenance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------259 12.3.3.3 Typical Sill Details-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------286 13.6 Panel Anchor Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------287 CHAPTER 14 VENEER--------------------------------------------------------------------------------289 14.4 Summary-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------279 12.2 Discoloration--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271 12.xii MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 12.3 Wood Stud Backup-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------291 14.2 Structural Support Backup Materials-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------290 14.1 Structural Masonry Backup-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------290 14.2.5 Maintenance--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.1.3.3.2 Structural Concrete Backup------------------------------------------------------------------------------------291 14.2 Typical Jamb Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------286 13.3.2 Characteristics---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------246 12.3 Maintenance-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------280 CHAPTER 13 GLASS BLOCK-------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.3.2.3.2.3.1 Application-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------245 12.2.2.3.3 Interior Veneer------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------247 12.4 Installation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------247 12.3.3 Differences in Stone---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240 12.1 Stone Anchorage--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------279 12.4.3.1 General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------289 14.2.3.3.2.4 Steel Stud Backup------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------292 .3 Anchors-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272 12.3 Limestone------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271 12.1.6 Sealant Systems---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272 12.1 Characteristics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240 12.2.2 Marble----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------245 12.6 Code Requirements-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.3.2.8 Cleaning-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------273 12.4 Mortar and Pointing----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272 12.3 Environmental------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.3.1.3.1.3.1.4 Security---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.1 General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.3.2.4.1 Design----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283 13.4 Travertine------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------278 12.7 Installation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------284 13.9 Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------274 12.1.2.1.3.4.4 Details-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------242 12.5 Sandstone-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------279 12.2.2.1 Classifications-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271 12.3 Maintenance----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------241 12.2.5 Miscellaneous Interior Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------286 13.5 Cold Weather Protection-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------272 12.1.2 Building Applications-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240 12.3.1.2.1 Granite----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240 12.1.1 Head Details--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------285 13.3.3.

2.2.3 Horizontal Surfaces---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------334 15.7.1 What is Waterproof-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------326 15.3.6 Expansion Joint Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------321 14.7.3.1 Stone Veneer--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------304 14.2 Block Veneer.1 Wall Caps-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------333 15.2 Fire Ratings of Brick Veneer Walls----------------------------------------------------------------------------338 15.4.1.2.2.2 Installation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------297 14.7.8.8.4 Water Repellent Types-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------329 15.2.2 Shelf Angle/Flashing Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------310 14.7 System Detail Requirements----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------295 14.3.2.1 Definitions------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------296 14.2.2.1.3 Terra Cotta-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------299 14.2.9 Other Critical Elements----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------332 15.7.9.7.1 Roof/Parapet Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------308 14.4 Adhered Veneer Installation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------299 14.7.1 General Requirements-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------296 14.2 Moisture Resistance------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------325 15.3 Moisture Intrusion------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------327 15.3 Shelf Angles-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------293 14.9.5 Wall Base Details-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------317 14.3.4.7.6 Expansion Joints-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------295 14.1 Masonry Sound Transmission Class (STC)-------------------------------------------------------------341 15.5 Surface Treatments-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------330 15.2 Adhered Veneer----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------298 14.8.3 Fire Safety Environments---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------338 15.2.2.3 Sill and Jamb Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------313 14.4 Noise Control---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------340 15.2 Isolation vs.1 Thin Brick------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------298 14.5 Wall Penetrations---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------335 15.2.3 Insulation by STC-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------342 .8 Interior Moisture Control-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------332 15.6 Integral Water Repellents-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------331 15.7.TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii 14.1 Fire Ratings-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------337 15.3.2 Moisture Migration Control-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------326 15.2.1 General----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------325 15.4 Flashing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------294 14.7.9.2 Movement Joints------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------333 15.3 Anchored Veneer--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------301 14. Insulation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------342 15.3.4 Floor Connection Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------316 14.3 Fire Resistance--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------336 15. Concrete Units----------------------------------------------------------------------------307 14.2.8.4.7 System Configuration---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------323 CHAPTER 15 SPECIAL TOPICS----------------------------------------------------------------------325 15.7.5 Fire Resistance Ratings----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------340 15.2.3.9.2.4 Windows and Doors----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------334 15.9.8 Typical Details-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------308 14.2.2.3.5 Weep Holes--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------294 14.2.7.7 Consideration in Selection--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------331 15.2.8.1 Openings-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------329 15.11 Testing---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------335 15.2.10 Inspections-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------335 15.2 Honeycomb Stone--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------299 14.8.8.4 Fire Safety Facts--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------338 15.

1 Direct Gain---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352 15.8 Passive Solar Basics------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352 15.5.7 Impact Noise Control--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------345 15.5.5.5.5.3 Passive Solar Heating------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351 15.1 Design Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------346 15.5 Building Codes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349 15.3 Design---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349 15.5 Sound Absorption and Noise Reduction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------344 15.1 Shape and Orientation-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352 15.7.9.4.4.5.9.4 STC Values of Masonry Walls------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------342 15.9 Passive Solar Systems----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352 15.8.4.5.5.8 Traffic Noise--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------345 15.4.5.5.5.5.4 Convective Loop--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------353 15.7.2 Active Solar Heating-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351 15.3 Attached Sunspace---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------353 15.9.2 Thermal Storage/Retrieval-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352 15.4.4.5.1 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------348 15.8.10 Masonry and the Sun------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------354 CHAPTER 16 UNIT CONVERSIONS------------------------------------------------------------------355 CHAPTER 17 GLOSSARY---------------------------------------------------------------------------------359 CHAPTER 18 REFERENCES----------------------------------------------------------------------------373 CHAPTER 19 INDEX-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------377 .5.8.5.5.xiv MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 15.4 Hybrid Solar Heating--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352 15.7.4 Energy Systems-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349 15.7 Passive Solar Energy-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351 15.6 Roof Overhang-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------350 15.5.1 Principles------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351 15.9.8.5 Thermal Storage Roof------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------354 15.5.4.5.5.5 Solar Energy-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------348 15.5.9.7.6 Flanking Path Control-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------344 15.2 Thermal Storage Wall------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------353 15.2 Principles------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349 15.2 Visual Considerations-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------348 15.

Jim Hensley. This book is intended to assist the designer in understanding the materials and the construction process. This book incorporates the latest information available and is consistent with the design provisions of the 2006 International Building Code. the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ ASCE 5/TMS 402) and the 2005 Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.xv PREFACE Masonry is perhaps the oldest building material. Steve Winegardner and Julie Salazar who have given their full cooperation to see that this publication has been successful and a benefit for the masonry industry. Countless hours of staff support were provided by Luis Dominguez and Debby Chrysler in the development and production of this publication. This publication is not intended to replace the designer and anyone developing a masonry project should seek the assistance of a design professional. yet it is the least understood. We appreciate the continued support of the Board of Trustees of the Masonry Institute of America. James J. We sincerely appreciate their input. Others that made significant contributions included Larry Carnes. . that is. to understand masonry materials in simple terms. Sr. Rennie Tejeda. Doug Williams. The authors are presenting the material intended for the benefit of non-engineering disciplines. but they are important to understanding the value of the basic concepts of masonry. Jim Smith. Technical support and comments came from many sources and we are grateful to all. Frank Smith. Leonard L. Kesler. Amrhein. James Feagin and Roger Utesch continually offer suggestions on practical construction methods. We are particularly appreciative to James E. Bobby Williams. It is our desire to fulfill a need of the designer. The compilation of this information is focused to the benefit of the designer and should be a valuable tool in improving the masonry industry.. Gregg Borchelt of the Brick Industry Association provided many useful comments relative to brick masonry. Dan Autovino and Jim Buckley. such as architects and contractors. Thompson and John J. There are a number of engineering concepts contained in the publication.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602). Ken Tejeda. Van Houten who were the contributing authors to the previous edition. Ron Bennett. There are several sources that this publication incorporates. The Masonry Institute of America welcomes recommendations for the extension and improvement of the material and any new design techniques that may be incorporated into future editions. including the previous editions of the Masonry Design Manual. Technical Notes from the Brick Industry Association and National Concrete Masonry Association and a number of other technical publications developed by the Masonry Institute of America and other sources were used in the develpment of this publication. Chairman. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge the recommendations and suggestions of the professionals who helped improve and prepare this publication.

the ICC offers a means of focusing national and international attention on these concerns. recognizing the urgent need for a single set of codes that would serve national needs. designers. States and localities that currently write their own codes or amend the early model codes may choose to adopt the International Codes without technical amendments. Inc. International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). Enhanced membership services are an additional benefit. conducting research projects. Inc. or fire protection. founded in 1957 under the name of Masonry Research. But. improving national and local building codes. Substantial advantages are inherent to this single set of codes. the United States had been served by three sets of building codes developed by three separate model code groups: Building Officials and Code Administrators International. Code enforcement officials. in 1994. all for the purpose of improving the masonry industry. and Southern Building Code Congress International. The Masonry Institute of America is supported by the California mason contractors through labor management contracts between the unions and contractors.xvi MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL MASONRY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA The Masonry Institute of America. is a promotional. accessibility. All issues and concerns of a regulatory nature now have a single forum for discussion. (SBCCI). technical research organization established to improve and extend the use of masonry. innovative technology. coordinated. engineers. These codes were extremely effective and responsive to regional needs. energy conservation. presenting design. (BOCA). Whether the concern is disaster mitigation. INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL Since the early 1900s. consideration. architects. including: • • • • • • • International Building Code International Energy Conservation Code International Fire Code International Fuel Gas Code International Mechanical Code International Plumbing Code International Private Sewage Disposal Code . which encourages consistent code enforcement and higher quality construction. construction and inspection seminars and publishing technical and non-technical papers. The ICC makes available an impressive inventory of International CodesTM. the three groups united to form the International Code Council (ICC) with the express purpose of creating and developing one master set of comprehensive. The Masonry Institute of America is active in California promoting new ideas and masonry work. and resolution. and contractors throughout the United States can now work with a consistent set of requirements. design and construction codes. The Masonry Institute of America does not engage in the practice of architectural or engineering design or construction nor does it sell masonry materials.

In the pursuit of its goals.xvii • • • • • • International Property Maintenance Code International Residential Code for One-and Two-Family Dwellings International Zoning Code ICC Performance Code for Buildings and FacilitiesTM International Existing Building CodeTM International Wildland-Urban Interface CodeTM These codes provide a comprehensive package for adoption and use in the 21st Century. TMS has become the lead sponsor in the production of the MSJC. educational. Working under its three sponsoring organizations. and The Masonry Society (TMS). and education have established experience in the manufacturing of masonry units and materials and the design and construction of masonry structures. 4. 6. Resolve negative votes from ballot items. Products and services readily available to code users include: • • • • • • • • • Code application assistance Educational programs Certification programs Technical handbooks and workbooks Plan reviews Automated products Monthly magazines and newsletters Publication of proposed code changes Training and informational videos MASONRY STANDARDS JOINT COMMITTEE The Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) is an organization comprised of volunteers who through background. Monitor international standards. with more than 300 highly qualified staff members at 16 offices throughout the United States and Latin America. the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). and informational products and services in support of the International Codes. Develop and ballot new standards for masonry. Since The Masonry Society has received ANSI accreditation. 3. Sponsor educational seminars and symposia. 5. use. the American Concrete Institute (ACI). the Committee has been charged with developing and maintaining consensus standards suitable for adoption into model building codes. Committee activities include: 1. . 2. Identify areas of needed research. Evaluate and ballot proposed changes to existing standards of the Committee. The ICC also offers unmatched technical.

educators.000 members and 93 chapters in 30 countries. their careers. technical. manufacturers. builders. partners and the public. advocates lifelong learning. material suppliers. share. it has retained the same basic mission: develop. and others who want to contribute to and benefit from the global pool of knowledge on masonry. is an international gathering of people interested in masonry. AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE ACI is a technical and educational society founded in 1904 with 30. advances technology. founded in 1977. researchers. As ACI moves into its second century of progress through knowledge. ASCE develops leadership. building officials. It is a professional. architects. and disseminate the knowledge and information needed to utilize concrete to its fullest potential. and educational association dedicated to the advancement of knowledge on masonry. TMS members are design engineers. . and promotes the profession.000 members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) was founded in 1852 and currently represents 125.xviii MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL THE MASONRY SOCIETY The Masonry Society. ASCE’ s vision is to position engineers as industry leaders building a better quality of life. To provide essential value to members.

C.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Masonry structures have been constructed since the earliest days of mankind. As with the Egyptian Pyramids. Stonehenge ring on England’ s Salisbury Plains. Egyptian Pyramids located in Giza were constructed around 2500 B. Cheops. The 1500 mile Great Wall of China was constructed of brick and stone between 200 B. numerous other structures such as the 1500 mile long Great Wall of China testify to the durability of masonry. Note limestone veneer at the top of the great pyramid.C. Stone was the first masonry unit and was used for primitive but breathtaking structures such as the 4000 year old Stonehenge ring on England’ s Salisbury Plains. Limestone veneer which once clad the pyramids can now be seen only at the top of the great pyamid Cheops. Stone was also used around 2500 B.D. and 1640 A.C. not only for homes but also for works of beauty and grandeur. . to build the Egyptian pyramids in Giza. since much of the limestone facing was later removed and reused.

dominates the landscape of the ancient city of Teotihuacan in Mexico. demonstrates unique monumental characteristics of stone.D. the stone walls at the Machu Picchu in Peru have masonry unit joints so tight that it is difficult to insert a knife blade between units. The Pyramid of the Sun. The Pyramid of El Castillo de Chichén Itzá in Yucatán in Mexico was built between 700 and 900 A. the Taj Mahal depicts grandeur in symmetry. while the remainder of this impressive cathedral was constructed in the 17th century. The stone walls at Machu Picchu in Peru were built between 1200 and 1400 A.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Additionally. In fact. demonstrate the skill of ancient masons. structures such as the stone pyramids of Yucatan and Teotihuacan.D. built in the 2nd century A. Mexico. The outer walls of St. The Taj Mahal in Agra.D. Basil’ s Cathedral in Moscow. were built in 1492. India. Masonry has been used worldwide to construct impressive structures such as St. Built between 1631 and 1653. Basil’ s Cathedral in Moscow. .

Completed in 1971. the Queen’ s Surf in Long Beach. California is located in one of the most severe seismic areas in the world. completed in 1971. The load bearing walls for the complex required masonry with a specified compressive strength of 4. high Constructed primarily of concrete masonry units. In the early 1900’ s concrete block masonry units (CMU) were introduced to the construction industry. Massive dead loads from the thick and heavy walls stabilized the unreinforced structures against lateral forces. (305 mm) thick CMU for the bottom three floors and 8 in. Later.INTRODUCTION In the United States. California rises 16 stories. The load bearing. (203 mm) thick CMU for the upper 10 floors. most masonry structures were designed to support only gravity loads.000 psi at the base of the wall. while the forces from wind and earthquakes were ignored. strength concrete block walls are 12 in. reinforcing steel was introduced into masonry construction to provide increased resistance to lateral dynamic forces from earthquakes. The introduction of reinforced masonry allowed wall thickness to be decreased dramatically and provided a rational method to design walls to resist dynamic lateral loads from winds and earthquakes. the 16 story brick Monadnock Building in Chicago is still in use today. Built in 1891. like the newer 16 story Queens Surf in Long Beach. The Pasadena Hilton. Prior to the development of reinforced masonry. . This large high-rise complex consists of four buildings each containing 1008 hotel rooms. Nevada. Another oustanding example of reinforced load bearing masonry is the 28 story Excalibur Hotel in Las Vegas. masonry is used from Maine to Hawaii and has been the primary material for building construction from the 18th to the 21st centuries.ses 16 stories. California and the 19 story Holiday Inn in Burbank. between 1930 and 1940. An excellent example of the benefits of reinforced masonry is the 13 story Pasadena Hilton Hotel in California. 13 Story Pasadena Hilton Hotel.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 28 Story Excalibur Hotel. Hawaii. The Getty Center. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. Coe College McCabe Hall. Cedar Rapids. Walt Disney Concert Hall. Although taller masonry buildings may someday be constructed. Iowa. Anahola Station. it is of more importance that the benefits of reinforced masonry are appropriate not only for multi-story buildings. but for buildings of every size and type. . California. Las Vegas. Physical Science Building. Nevada. even single story dwellings. Riverside. California. California.

allows for additional array of shapes and characteristics not created through machine manufactured brick. strong. but still conforming to the requirements of the ASTM Standard (ASTM C 62.000 years brick has played an important role in the history and development of architecture.1 REINFORCED BRICK –AN OVERVIEW Brick is intrinsically strong in compression but weak in tension. in the modern sense. sorted and packaged for easy and safe shipment to the retail distribution facility or job site. Bricks made in the United States are of high quality conforming to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards. Standard Specification for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made From Clay or Shale)). The brick will be precise in dimension (within tolerances). earthen material (clay) is mixed with water to form a thick paste. “ Moldability”of brick allows it to be shaped into literally thousands of combinations of sizes. the clays used in brick production must possess certain properties and characteristics. and color-fast. however. brick can be hand formed. units must have sufficient strength to maintain shape after forming. the basic materials and techniques used to make brick have remained essentially the same. it wasn’ t until recent history that the weakness of brick in tension was overcome by combining the brick (strong in compression) with a material that is strong in tension –steel. There must be plasticity. W hile different methods of brick production have been introduced during that time. shapes.1. In addition to machine manufactured brick.1 GENERAL For more than 10. The thick paste is molded into brick shapes and then cured with heat to give the brick strength. The term “ brick”means manufactured units of either clay or shale. dried and fired. colors and textures.SECTION 1 M A T E R I A L S CHAPTER 1 CLAY BRICK UNITS 1. Also. Furthermore. Hand formation of brick. Brick’ s main ingredient is clay. Heavy machinery is used to mine and transform the clay into dense. a mason can be assured that the properties and characteristics of a brick manufactured in North Carolina are similar to a brick manufactured in Oregon. 1. Mechanization and automation have been growing in the brick plant during the past fifty years. requiring . must use a descriptive adjective relating to the brick material. While clay is one of the most abundant materials on the earth. While brick masonry is one of the oldest forms of building construction. By conforming to the ASTM Standards. durable. the clay particles must fuse together to create a durable unit. brick has been the building material of choice since it “ stacked”well and has high compressive strength properties. which permits units to be shaped or molded when mixed with water. when subjected to elevated temperatures during the firing process. such as concrete. for example. The bricks are fired in continuous tunnel kilns at carefully controlled temperatures to produce the best unit that can be made from the clay used. the brick was reinforced with the steel. concrete brick. Hand formed bricks are unique and the compressive strength characteristics are less than for the machine extruded brick. and so forth. Any of the other materials that are made into brick units. sand lime. Again. The brick is inspected. Through the centuries. reinforced brick masonry in the United States is a relatively new type of construction. That is. In other words. precise units.

Brunel’ s discovery of reinforced brick masonry increased. is credited with the discovery of reinforced masonry nearly 200 years ago. reinforced masonry has not only been successfully used on the West Coast of the United States.2 Angle brick. through the construction of thousands of buildings which have demonstrated the practicability and economy of construction and whose performances have confirmed the soundness of the principles of design and through ongoing research focused at practical ways to reinforce old brick masonry and limits on the performance ability of new masonry construction. Reinforced brick masonry consists of brick masonry in which steel reinforcement is embedded in the brick masonry system. The method recommended for accomplishing this is to fill all the interior voids with grout. particularly in seismically active areas of India. During the past 60 years reinforced brick masonry has been used for the construction of a wide variety of structures. FIGURE 1. engineers turned to reinforced brick masonry and adopted it as standard construction for public and important private buildings. Thus. Since structural steel and suitable form lumber were relatively expensive in these countries. These countries are subjected to severe earthquakes and buildings which can be expected to withstand such shocks must be designed with relatively high resistance to lateral forces. Since that time. shearing and compressive stresses. bending (causing a member to curve) can create tension forces.2 SHAPES OF BRICK Because of bricks ability to be molded. reinforced brick masonry is competitive with reinforced concrete. About 70 years ago. it was in connection with the building of the Thames Tunnel in 1825 that he made his first major application of its principles.1. Technical Notes 2 are: Angle Brick is any brick shaped to an oblique angle to fit a salient corner. such as walls and columns. there are a variety of different sizes and shapes of brick. These methods have been developed during the past 70 years from experimental investigations. In addition to direct tension (pulling something apart). In order to have the reinforcement and the brick work as a system. The principles of reinforced brick masonry design are the same as those commonly accepted for reinforced concrete and similar design formulae are used.2 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL new design procedures and construction methods. The reinforcement is placed so that the masonry. . cells or cavities containing reinforcement must be filled with a bonding material. a reinforced masonry system (strong in tension and compression) is designed to resist bending as well as compression. 1. CA earthquake. on a structure in just about any direction. Grout is made by adding sufficient water to a cementitious material and aggregate to provide a fluid consistency. FIGURE 1. will have greatly increased resistance to forces which produced tensile. but also throughout the world. Japan and the United States.1 1933 Long Beach. He first proposed the use of reinforced brick masonry in 1813 as a means of strengthening a chimney under construction. Since no forms are required for these members. as a whole. the concept of reinforced masonry was advanced in California primarily as an outgrowth of the need to improve the resistance of existing brick masonry structures to earthquake forces. Lateral forces can come in any direction and therefore impose tension and compression forces. In the United States the most extensive use has been in the construction of vertical members. Some of the common types of brick defined by the Brick Industry Association (BIA). once Chief Engineer of the City of New York and later Knighted by Queen Victoria. however. Marc Isambard Brunel.

7. often treated to produce desired surface texture. Hollow Brick is a masonry unit of clay or shale whose net cross sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75% of its gross cross sectional area measured in the same plane. Building Brick is a brick unit for building purposes not especially treated for texture or color and also called Common Brick.6 Standard 900 Corner Types of thin brick units. and conforms to ASTM C 62.1. Maximum thickness as defined in ASTM C 1088 is 13/4 in. 1. No FIGURE 1. such as corner units. Fire Brick are made of refractory ceramic material and resist high temperatures.5 mm). (12.3 No Voids Voids 25% or less of cross-sectional area Arch brick.3 ORIENTATION OF BRICK In order for a building to achieve unique character. FIGURE 1. or treated.7 and 25. Solid Brick is any clay or shale masonry unit whose net cross sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is at least 75% of the gross cross sectional area measured in the same plane. Arch brick FIGURE 1.5 Thin Brick are clay units specifically designed for adhered veneer application.3 CLAY BRICK UNITS Arch Brick is a wedge shaped brick for special use in an arch. Face Brick or Facing Brick are brick made for facing purposes.4 Double shell hollow brick units Norman Cored shell hollow brick units Types of hollow (structural) brick. They are made of selected clays. and are commonly between 1/2 and 1 in. (44.4 mm) thick. 35/8 21/2 75/8 75/8 Modular 21/4 75/8 21/2 Standard 21/4 Standard 31/2 21/2 111/2 111/2 Jumbo Solid shell hollow brick units FIGURE 1. (19. Lintel Corner Paving Brick are vitrified brick especially suitable for use in horizontal installation applications where resistance to abrasion is important. brick may be oriented a number of different ways in a wall. . to produce desired color and conform to ASTM C 216. part of any hole is to be closer than 3/4 in. Types of solid clay brick. Thin brick can also be manufactured in special shapes.1 mm) to any face perpendicular to the bearing surface of the brick. Commonly used in kilns and fireboxes of fireplaces. The term Solid Brick does not necessarily mean 100% solid and the holes in the brick are not intended to be reinforced and grouted. Typical orientation is shown in Figure 1.

4 PATTERNS OF BRICK The designer is limited only by his or her imagination for the available pattern or combination of patterns.7 Soldier Typical brick orientation.8 Running Bond.8 shows a few typical examples of brick patterns.4 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Stretcher Header Rowlock Flemish Bond Shiner Soap Split Running Bond With Rolock Course Sailor FIGURE 1. Stack Bond 1. 1/3 Bond Typical bond patterns. Running Bond With Soldier Course American Bond Running Bond.1. . 1/2 Bond Dutch Cross Bond FIGURE 1. Figure 1.

Standard Specification for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made From Clay or Shale)..2 BUILDING BRICK OR COMMON BRICK Building Brick or Common Brick refer to the basic type of clay brick unit.. 1. size.. Table 2 Mortar and grout. Mortar and grout structurally bind masonry units together.10 displays weathering indexes for the United States..1.. Applicable standards are covered in ASTM C 62. This standard covers the acceptable parameters for grades.10 Weathering index map of the United States. . coring. SW (Sev ere Weathering). Grade SW or grade MW may be substituted for grade NW brick. The brick may be exposed and the designer must be aware that the visual quality associated with face brick is not a requirement for common brick. ..5 MORTAR AND GROUT Mortar and grout are the bonding agents that integrate masonry units into masonry walls.... are classified according to their weathering resistance.. When the grade of brick is not specified. Grout is located in the voids on the inside of the brick or in the cavity created between two wythes of brick. MW (Moderate Weathering) and NW (Negligible Weathering). freezing and thawing criteria.5 CLAY BRICK UNITS 1.9 In vertical surfaces In contact with earth Not in contact with earth In other than vertical surfaces In contact with earth Not in contact with earth 1 MW MW SW SW SW SW SW MW SW SW SW SW ASTM C 62.. durability.1 GRADE OF BRICK The three grades of brick.1. Figure 1. strength. Grade NW (Negligible Weathering) brick is acceptable for interior masonry and backup for interior masonry.. Grade MW (Moderate Weathering) brick should be used where moderate resistance to frost damage is acceptable and unsaturated freezing of the brick is permissible. Grade SW (Severe Weathering) brick should be used where a high and uniform degree of resistance to frost action and disintegration by weathering is desired and exposure is such that the brick may freeze in the presence of moisture. . Reinforcing steel Table 1. . Common brick may be used for structural or nonstructural applications where the external appearance of the brick is not a requirement. and grade SW brick may be substituted for grade MW brick. FIGURE 1. absorption and saturation. Grade requirements for exposures are listed in Table 1.. Mortar is located between bricks... frogging and permissible variations in dimension... .1 Grade Recommendations for Face 1 Exposures W eathering Index Exposure Less 50 to 500 and than 50 500 greater Mortar joint FIGURE 1.. Grade NW units may disintegrate when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. grade SW shall govern. and are described below. Brick tie Grout The effect of weathering on brick is related to the weathering index which is the product of the average annual number of freezing cycle days times the average annual winter rainfall in inches for any given locality..2. 1..

the brick is placed in boiling water for 5 hours. Next. will have room to expand under freezing conditions. some consider only the C/B ratio a measure of durability.5 ABSORPTION AND SATURATION When consistent color.90 1500 (10.78 0.2 APPEARANCE 1. Initially.2. brick will melt in the kiln. by 5-h Saturation 2 Gross Area. The amount of water absorbed is recorded as a percentage of total weight of the dry unit. 2 The saturation coefficient. Brick may be solid or cored at the option of the installer and seller unless otherwise specified in the contract documents. 3 . Section 8.0 20. higher firing temperatures in the kiln usually produce higher compressive strength brick.7) 2500 (17. Standard Specification for Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile.2. C 216 or C 652. which easily enters the brick. Absorption should not be confused with Initial Rate of Absorption (IRA) as explained in Section 1. uniformity. When the weathering index. % Coefficient Designation Average of 5 Individual Average of 5 Individual Average of 5 Individual brick brick brick G rade SW 3000 (20. If firing temperatures are too high. Therefore. exposed particles or lime.2) 17. psi (MPa) Boiling. Durability can be evaluated by a pass-fail grading according to the test method contained in ASTM C 67. Additionally.12. or saturation coefficient.6) no lim it no lim it no limit no lim it 1 Based on ASTM C 62.3 DURABILITY The durabili ty of brick is indi cated by measurements of water absorption.2) 2200 (15. Facing Brick. Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile. saturation coefficient and compressive strength as described in ASTM C 62. 1 Table 1. a 24 hour cold water submersion is performed and the amount of water absorbed is recorded as a percentage of total weight of the dry unit.2. 1. from the concept that water. Brick with glazed surfaces should be specified under ASTM C 126. Does not apply for ASTM C 216 and C 652. warping. as shown in Figure 1.2 Common Brick or Building Brick Durability Physical Requirements Minim um Com pressive Maximum W ater Absorption Maxim um Strength (brick flatwise). Standard Specification for Facing Brick with such requirements noted. texture. The associated tolerances should be carefully reviewed and any deviation from the specified tolerances should be clearly noted in the design stage of the project. The resultant ratio of the two is the cold water/boiling water (C/B) ratio. is the ratio of absorption by 24-hour submersion in cold water to that after 5-hour submersion in boiling water. the brick should be specified according to Face Brick.6 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 1. the absorption and saturation coefficients may be waived in accordance with ASTM C 62.2. 1. however.2.0 0.0 0. and Solid Masonry Units. the default specification should be for extruded and kiln-fired brick. The total absorption of brick units is measured in a two step process.2.4 FREEZING AND THAWING The criteria listed in Table 1.3) 1250 (8. finish. Similarly. ASTM C 216. 1.6 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH Based on the gross area. Grade MW brick is limited to a less stringent value for the absorption and saturation coefficient and there is no limit placed on Grade NW brick. is less than 50.88 0. which means that there will be less moisture present within the unit when subjected to the freezethaw cycle. or limited amount of cracks.10.80 Grade MW G rade NW 3 2500 (17. extruded brick generally yield a higher compressive strength and lower absorption than those using the dry-press or soft-mud process.2 shows that Grade SW brick is limited in the absorption and saturation coefficient. Section 4.2) 22. or C/B Ratio. are desired.0 25. Even though durability is a combination of three physical properties.2.

The brick texture is usually smooth or wire cut. (203 mm) long brick as standard.31/ ” 8 2 4” Standard Modular 95/8” Standard Engineer Modular 12” Norman The standard common building brick (ASTM C 62) color is terra cotta red. Norman and Utility brick. . Jumbo.2 are rarely a problem.25/8” 3” 31/5” 4” Closure Modular 8” 4” Utility 8”x 8” 31/5” 4” 8” 12” 12” 6” FIGURE 1.9 MPa). such as for heavier loads in multi-story construction or other specific requirements for loading or weathering.2.11 Common brick sizes (nominal dimensions). Common. Notwithstanding the dimension terminology stated above. Units of buff. red or brown may also be supplied.2. Roman. Compressive strength of brick can be greater than 20. orange. or whatever textures are agreed upon prior to delivery. however.000 psi (137.7 CLAY BRICK UNITS The compressive strength of brick produced in the United States normally exceeds the compressive strengths associated with concrete. and King Size.7 COLOR AND TEXTURE Building bricks are manufactured in a variety of colors and textures. or mutually agreed upon. 21/4” 22/3” 8” 8” 35/ ”. therefore. One should check the local market to find out what is readily available and sizes associated with local terminology. Higher required strengths. are supplied as standard units of the brick manufacturer unless a specific requirement has been stated. another may consider a full 8 in. manufacturers have the discretion to produce brick in various sizes. There are limits to physical dimensions as noted in ASTM C 62 and special attention should be given to the quality control of long thin brick. but it may also be scored. the minimum compressive strengths of Table 1. Other common terms used to designate brick in non-modular sizes are Oversize. Engineer Modular.5 MPa). between the buyer and seller prior to delivery. Round Cap Ridge Cap Tread Cove Ogee Watertable Interior Single Napoleon Cap Interior Corner Bullnose Exterior Corner Lipped Stretcher FIGURE 1.12 Exterior Double Special brick shapes.8 SIZE Bricks are manufactured in a variety of different sizes and shapes. and most brick exceed compressive strength of 5. (190 mm) long brick standard. salmon.000 psi (34. must be expressly specified. 1. The colors and textures. For example. 31/5” 22/3” 4” King Size 8” 4” 23/4”. combed face. one manufacturer may consider a 71/2 in. 8” 4” 4” 12” 8” 4” 12” 4” Engineer Norman 1. Some of the modular brick terminology listed includes Modular.

4) /8 (3. Frogs exceeding 3/ 8 in.R. Today. or minor chipping caused by the handling and delivery of brick shall not be grounds for rejecting the brick.12 INITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION (I. (3. There are a number of reasons that the I. is between 5 and 30 grams per minute per 30 square inches (194 cm2) of brick surface immersed in 1/8 in. FIGURE 1. Table 1. 5 Over 12 to 16 (305 to 406) incl.3 shows the allowable dimensional tolerances in the manufacturing of building brick. Table 3 /32 (2. which contains guidelines of distance for visual inspection.8) /4 (6.1 mm) to the exposed surface of the brick. inches (mm) Up to 3 (76) incl. These voids. Frogs were common when brick manufacturers ‘ stamped’their product (see Figure 1. (9. permit more uniform firing and reduces the weight of the unit. As required in ASTM C 62.2. R.2.10 FROGGING A frog is a recession (not exceeding 3/8 in. The maximum bond strength between the clay brick and the mortar will be achieved when the I.9) /8 (9. the brick should be specified under ASTM C 216. It does not have any consistent relationship with the total absorption. a frog may not be any closer than 3/4 in. Minor indentations or surface cracks incidental to the manufacturing process.11 TOLERANCES 1. a good bond between the brick and mortar may not be achieved. providing conformance as noted in the material standard. 1.13). 3 Over 6 to 8 (152 to 203) incl. Frogs were also common in ancient masonry where the craftsmen wrote the name of the reigning monarch on the brick.3 Permissible Variations in Dimensions Specified Dimension. not contain more than 5% broken brick. (9. 1 Over 8 to 12 (203 to 305) incl. (194 cm2) per minute. 1 Table 1.2. which is beneficial in the transportation of the brick from the manufacturing plant to the project site. exceeds the proper rate. save on material used. the holes shall be at least 3 /4 in. Also. or holes. (19. the rate of laying brick will be influenced by the rate of water loss from the mortar bed before the brick is laid. which offers a means for archaeologists to identify the age of discovered ruins. If a higher degree of precision from chips and cracks is required.2) /16 (4. brick deliveries shall 2.9 CORING Coring is the term used to describe the voids in the brick perpendicular to the bearing surface.5 mm) are permitted.1 mm) from any surface which is perpendicular to the bearing surface.A. Additionally.4) /16 (7. is important: 1.) The Initial Rate of Absorption is a measure of the amount of water that a brick will absorb in one minute expressed in number of grams per 30 sq. the net cross sectional area of the cored brick in the plane parallel to the bearing surface shall not be less than 75% of the gross cross sectional area. If the I.A.8 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 1.5 mm)) in the bearing surface of the brick and often contains the stamped name of the manufacturer. Brick Company “ frog” . (19. Like the holes in cored brick. When mortar is spread on the bed joint. inches (mm) 1 Maximum Permissible Variations from Specified Dimension. in. 3 Over 3 to 4 (76 to 102) incl.R. 1. A.2.R.A. 1 Over 4 to 6 (102 to 152) incl.A. f rogs are less comm on si nce the manufacturing of this type of brick requires a labor intensive ‘ dry press’ or ‘ molded’ process.5) .13 L.2 mm) of water. + or -. 3 ASTM C 62.

Attention should be given to the following: 1. Article 3. Keep gutters and drain pipes functional. 1. 4. surface cracks and minor chips resulting from the customary handling of building brick shall generally not be deemed grounds for rejection in the wall. For customary construction.2.2 C. Use portland cement with low alkali content and chemically pure lime.14 EFFLORESCENCE Efflorescence is caused by the leaching of soluble salts from within the masonry to form a whitish surface deposit.CLAY BRICK UNITS 3. When bricks with an excessively high I. By drying out. The International Building Code references MSJC Code for requirements. An extremely high I. the excess water 9 on the inside of the brick will dry out. when delivered to the job site. Figure 1. but may be done immediately before laying if time is a constraint. 3.035 ounce per square inch (1. 4. The wetting of the brick is preferred 3 hours to 24 hours prior to laying.R.13 VISUAL INSPECTION The building brick delivered to the site shall. building bricks. conform with the requirements as specified by the purchaser if special requirements have been stated in addition to ASTM. Fill all joints at sills. This can be compensated for by using a mortar with low water retention. Proper design of construction details such as providing dampproof course at proper levels and at correct locations. Special attention should be given to properly tooled mortar joints. such as concave tooled. which may be necessary for the stated reasons. are tapped into place. will have the tendency to rapidly dry the mortar so that the proper water retention for high strength and good bond may not be achieved. The key is to minimize the migration of water into the masonry. Brick with an extremely low I. shall contain not less than 95% whole brick according to ASTM C 62. Moisture condition of inside . Specify and use a weather resistant joint.14 brick. Fill cracks and joints properly. 7. (a) Saturated (b) Dry 5. by visual inspection. 5. Requirements are the same as 30 grams per minute per 30 square inches (194 cm2).A. minor flaws. This migration has the potential to bring with it soluble salts and create efflorescence.2 of the 2005 MSJC Specification requires that the initial absorption rate shall not exceed one gram per minute per square inch.6 L/m 2) during a period of one minute.R. proper planning is necessary. (c) Surface Wet FIGURE 1. Burned clay units shall have an initial rate of absorption not exceeding 0. Unl ess otherwise agreed upon by the manufacturer or the seller. Avoid using brick with high soluble salt content. the bond between the brick and the mortar may be disturbed. 8. 2. or comply with the sample or samples supplied to the purchaser.A.R. do not draw water from the mortar and the brick tend to float. Surface dry is the ideal condition where the center is wet and the surface is slightly damp. (d) Surface Dry 9.R. Prevent brick work coming into contact with salt bearing materials. Prevention of water entering into the body of the brickwork. Surface dry is the ideal condition for creating the maximum bond strength. the water will migrate to the surface of the brick. In order to minimize efflorescence. 6.14 shows different water content conditions of the brick unit. 1. However. indentations. 6. A good bond between the mortar and brick is preferred to achieve the desired resistance to water penetration through the masonry system.2. Wetting of the brick prior to laying achieves a lower I.A. Precautions must be taken to minimize efflorescence and achieve the optimum in masonry strength and aesthetics.A.

3. Figure 1 1.0 Maximum 2 Saturation Coefficient Average of Individual 5 brick 0. Table 1 2 The saturation coefficient on C/B Ratio. compressive strength.0 20.S. The definitions and weathering index.10 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 1. finish. Table 1.5 ABSORPTION AND SATURATION As in the absorption and saturation measurement for common brick. color. There are three types of face brick. For face brick. initial rate of absorption.4 FREEZING AND THAWING The criteria listed in Table 1.4 (as there is for common brick) since face brick is not intended for use as a back up brick. The criteria for Face Brick is based on grade. Weathering Index Map). are identical to those for building brick. Type FBS (Face Brick Standard) is for general use where normal variation in size is permitted. size or texture of the individual units.3 DURABILITY As with common brick.3.1 GRADE There are two grades of face brick. 1. % Designation Average of Individual Average of Individual 5 brick 5 brick Grade SW 3000 (20.7) 2500 (17. 1.88 0. face brick is also categorized according to type. type.2 TYPES In addition to the criteria for building brick.0 25. FBX and FBA.3. Type FBA is usually related to a specific project. These brick follow the guidelines of ASTM C 216. saturation coefficient and compressive strength as described in ASTM C 216. Section 8.78 0. total absorption. there is no classification for Grade NW (see Figure 1. durability can be evaluated by a pass-fail grading according to the test method contained in ASTM C 67. color. . the total absorption of a face brick unit is measured in a two step process. a 24 hour cold water submersion is performed and the amount of water absorbed is recorded as a percentage of total weight of the dry unit. Type FBX (Face Brick Extra) is for general use in exposed faces of interior and exterior masonry where a higher degree of mechanical precision and a lower permissible variation in size is required. Type FBA (Face Brick Architectural) is for general use in masonry manufactured and selected to produce characteristic architectural effects resulting from non-uniformity. 1.3 FACE (OR FACING) BRICK Clay units manufactured to a higher visual standard than Building Brick for the purpose of being an exposed surface of the masonry wall are called Face Brick. and there is no Grade NW brick in Table 1. the durability of face brick is indicated by measurements of water absorption. is the ratio of absorption by 24-hour submersion in cold water to that after 5-hour submersion in boiling water. however. physical properties. material. and no type is noted. which means that there will be less moisture present within the unit when subjected to the freezethaw cycle.4 Grade Recommendation for Face Brick Exposure* Weathering Index Exposure Less 50 and than 50 greater In vertical surfaces In contact with earth Not in contact with earth In other than vertical surfaces In contact with earth Not in contact with earth MW MW SW SW SW MW SW SW *ASTM C 216.2) 22. Types FBS.2) 2200 (15. the designer should be aware that the basic requirements of Type FBS govern. When Face Brick is specified. Initially.2) 17. psi (MPa) by 5-hour Boiling. Section 6.80 0.3. texture. the brick is placed in 1 Table 1. for these two grades. Standard Specification for Facing Brick.5 Face Brick Durability Physical Requirements Min. warping and visual inspection.10 for U.90 1 Based on ASTM C 216.5 show that Grade SW brick has the least absorption and saturation coefficient.0 Grade MW 2500 (17. Grade SW (Severe Weathering) and Grade MW (Moderate Weathering).1. 1. Next. Compressive Strength Maximum Water Absorption (brick flatwise).3.

As with building brick.6 and the distortion tolerances are in Table 1. According to ASTM C 216. or combination of colors.3. If the project requires two ends or two faces to be of finished texture and color. Manufacturers frequently make special brick to satisfy project requirements. Some projects require a consistent color. with intermediate colors of yellow.3. warpage or exposed particles. will have room to expand under freezing conditions. purple. Brick samples of at least four units should be approved for texture and color prior to the start of the project.7. (9. The resultant ratio of the two is the cold water/ boiling water (C/B) ratio. the requirement must be clearly stated by the specifier.000 psi (20.5). There is a wide range of available colors for face brick. the brick may or may not be cored at the option of the manufacturer or possibly the option of the contractor. Standard practice in the masonry industry is to define unit size in the order of width x height x length.8 SIZE Brick manufacturers may name brick rather than list by size. 1. must be expressly specified. with the same restrictions. and no core hole may be closer than 3/4 in.500 psi (17. while others specify a ‘ blend’ .11). or the saturation coefficient.7 MPa) for Grade SW brick is required (Table 1. The colors may range from off-white to jet black. The dimensional tolerances require greater precision than that for common or building brick and type FBX brick require greater precision than FBS brick. nearly all brick in the United States were molded with the signature of the manufacturer embossed in the frog. compressive strength of 2. When the weathering index.3.2 MPa) for Grade MW brick and 3. red.7 COLOR AND TEXTURE Color and texture are “ strong points”of face brick. Norman and Roman (see Figure 1.9 CORING Unless specified.3.CLAY BRICK UNITS boiling water for 5 hours. Most manufacturers follow the terminology and sizes for brick defined for modular brick such as Standard Modular. Absorption should not be confused with Initial Rate of Absorption (IRA). a manufacturer will provide a majority of the brick with cored holes which permit a more uniform firing.3. saves on material. since both attributes are exposed.11 TOLERANCES The dimension tolerances for face brick are contained in Table 1.5 mm) deep and the frog may not be closer than 3/4 in.6 COMPRESSION STRENGTH Similar to common brick. At one time. Higher required strengths. Face brick is available in many appealing textures and finishes while enjoying relative freedom from cracks. .1 mm) to any exterior face of the brick. Face brick can be manufactured in a variety of textures ranging from smooth to combed face. 11 1. The best practice is to specify brick size in the order of width x height x length.10. brown and gray. The designer should verify that the size and orientation of the brick is compatible with the project drawings. which easily enters the brick. and is beneficial in the trasportation process. The C/B ratio is considered a measure of durability from the concept that water. as shown in Figure 1. Economy. (19. 1. (19. 1. Normally. and then by name. The amount of water absorbed is recorded as a percentage of total weight of the dry unit. deep frogs are permitted. is less than 50. blue. the absorption and saturation coefficients may be waived in accordance with ASTM C 216.3. 1. The net cross sectional area in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores shall not be less than 75% of the gross cross sectional area.10 FROGGING One bearing edge of the face brick may contain a frog not exceeding 3/8 in. orange. such as for heavier loads in multi-story construction or other specific requirements for loading or weathering.1 mm) to any exterior face of the brick. but most brick are now manufactured using the extruded process and frogs are only occasionally seen in new brick. 1. a majority of the brick will have one end-texture and color similar to the face.

15 Various brick textures. .12 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL California Used Honey Mushroom Cedar Bark Mohave Bark Desert Sand Bank Saturn Red Harbor Mist Sedona FIGURE 1. (Courtesy of Higgins Brick Company).

6) 3 /32 (2. lot size shall be understood to include all brick of one size and color in the job order.4) 1 /16 (1.) Except for chips. shale or fireclay materials and that any admixtures or colors used in giving a special color to a unit shall be uniformly distributed through the entire This visual guideline applies to the installed materials. Table 4 In order to determine dimensional tolerances.16 (304 .6 m). These definitions relate to dimensional tolerances only.203) incl.4) 1 /8 (3.6 Face Brick Tolerances on Dimensions Maximum Permissible Variation. The I.6. in. in. (mm) Specified Dimension or plus or minus from: Average Brick Size in Job Column A Column B Lot Sample.6 (102 . 1.305) incl. 1 5 /16 (1.2) 1 /32 (2.4) 3 /32 (2. 1.1) 3 3 /8 (9.2) /32 (2. 7 Over 12 .4) 1 /32 (2.8) 1 3 /32 (5.6) 1 /8 (3.8 list the ASTM acceptable extent of chipping. The standard also states that the brick shall be free of cracks and other defects that will interfere with the proper setting of the brick or that will impair the strength or the permanence of the construction.2) /16 (4.4) 1 Over 12 . 5 Over 8 .4) 3 /32 (2. Table 3 2 Lot size shall be determined by agreement between purchaser and seller. a sample of ten brick representing the extreme range is selected and compared to the allowable variation in Table 1.3. Table 1. R. the average size is determined and the permissible dimensional tolerances from the average size is listed in Table 1.6) /8 (3. .8) 3 /32 (4. in. (mm) 2 (for Specified Dimension) (for Average Brick Size in Job Lot Sample) Type Type Type Type FBS Type FBS 3 4 FBX FBS FBX Smooth Rough 3 (76) and under 1 Over 3 .1 m).2) /32 (4. (mm) Type FBX 1 Type FBS 8 (203) and under 1 3 Over 8 . 9 3 /16 (1.2) 3 /16 (4.4 (76 .CLAY BRICK UNITS 13 1 Table 1.5) 1 ASTM C 216.4) /8 (3. in. These definitions apply to dimensional tolerances only.4) /8 (3.9) 1 /32 (7.6) 5 /16 (7.4) /8 (3. rounded.0) 1 /4 (6. body of the brick.12 (203 .8 (152 . From the sample of ten brick. FBX brick shall be free of cracks and other imperfections when viewed from a distance of 15 ft (4. it may not be merely a surface color unless specifically agreed upon by the purchaser and seller. including wire cut surfaces. Column B.4) /16 (1.R.9) /8 (9.8) 5 /16 (4.8) /4 (6.5) /4 (6.12 (203 . requirements for face brick are the same as common or building brick. A. and FBS or FBA brick shall not exhibit these imperfections when viewed from a distance of 20 ft (6.0) ASTM C 216.6) 1 /32 (2. Type FBS Rough units have textured. or tumbled edges or faces. Type FBS Smooth units have relatively fine texture and smooth edges.13 VISUAL INSPECTION ASTM C 216 states that all brick units shall be made of clay. Column A.4) /16 (7.12 INITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION (I.406) incl. In other words.102) incl.2) 3 /16 (4.3.6. 3 /32 (2.4) 3 /8 (3. (mm) Maximum Permissible Distortion.406) incl.6) 3 /16 (1.2) 1 /32 (2.152) incl.305) incl.7 Face Brick Tolerances on Distortion Maximum Dimension. 3 Over 4 .A. and can also be used for workmanship acceptance of the complete brick installation. If not specified. 1 Over 6 . 3 4 1 Table 1.16 (305 .

/8 (6. (57. FIGURE 1. the same precautions as noted in Section 1. or scarified or the die skin on the face is entirely broken by mechanical means such as wire-cutting or wire-brushing. the term Hollow (Clay) Brick applies and is widely recognized and understood.2.9) 5 /16 .5) /2 .3.9 .4) 1 1 95 to 100% 0 .1) Percentage allowed2 Corner 1 3 Edge 3 /4 .16 Efflorescence.1) Corner 1 0 .5) 85 to 100% 0 . (25.6./8 (0 .2 lm/m2).6. One of each of the pairs of brick is partially immersed on end. but Jumbo Brick has remained a common reference name. The specimens are then compared at a distance of 10 ft (3. the standards for efflorescence are more stringent for face brick than for common or building brick.4) 1 FBS (Smooth) 1 5 /4 .4 .12. The units have been used in thousands of buildings since the 1920’ s. these units were made and marketed under several different names in different regions of the country. The brick are inspected and all brick are placed in a drying room for 24 hours. As their popularity grew.14 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 1. Since the geometry of this type of brick is a significant departure from Face Brick.19.3/4 (12. but not more restrictive than Type FBS (rough) 1 ASTM C 216. the brick shall achieve a rating of “ not effloresced” . If no perceptible difference is observed.5/16 (0 .2 .2 by 305 mm) to nominal 4 by 12 in. .9) 0 .12. Hollow brick are made of dried and fired clay. 60 percent solid. (203 mm) nominal in through-thewall thickness.11. They were typically 8 in.4 .7/16 (7.14 EFFLORESCENCE Since face brick are used for appearance.5 . 3 Smooth texture is the unbroken natural die finish. exposed surfaces with unsightly white stains from salt is not acceptable. In the United States. hollow brick were first developed and marketed in the Southeast under a regional specification of “ Jumbo Brick” .8 Maximum Permissible Extent of Chippage from Edges and Corners of Finished Face or 1 Faces onto the Surface Type Percentage allowed2 Chippage in in. In order to minimize efflorescence in the system. 4 Rough texture is the finish produced when the face is sanded./16 (6.4 HOLLOW BRICK Hollow brick units are very similar in shape and use to concrete masonry units. and had face sizes ranging from nominal 21/4 by 12 in. combed.6. (102 by 305 mm). Hollow brick units contain cells.3. (mm) in from 1 3 to meet the designated sample or as specified by the purchaser.14 should be observed. like solid brick. scratched.9. Table 2 Percentage of exposed brick allowed in the wall with chips measured the listed dimensions in from an edge or corner. approximately 40 percent void.7) Chippage in in.7 . in 1 in.9./4 (0 . This test requires five pairs of brick which are separated.7.4) 0 . 1.4 mm) of water for seven days in a drying room. When face brick are tested in accordance with ASTM C 67.2) 90 to 100% 0 ./4 (0 .1 m) with illumination of at least 50 footcandles (538. Thus.1/ 2 (0 ./4 (3.7) 1 /8 – /2 (9.7. 2 1. (mm) in from Edge 1 FBX 5% or less 3 10% or less FBS4 (Rough) 15% or less FBA /8 ./8 (0 . then the brick are rated as “ not effloresced” .

.4.1 HOLLOW SPACES Double Shell Hollow Brick Units The thickness of face shells and webs are limited by ASTM C 652. Most Class H60V hollow brick contain two cells that are aligned when laid in running bond. in. 15 patterns. Table 2. The standard describes hollow units in two classes based on void area. (13 mm) for any edge. Solid Shell Hollow Brick Units Cell Core or cell in face shell Core in face shell Double face shells End shell or end web Webs 1.2 (650 mm2) in shells cored not more than 35% shall be not less than 3/8 in. (mm) 3 /4 (19) 1 1 (25) 1 1 (25) 1 /2 (38) 1 /2 (38) 3 5 1 /8 (41) 1 /8 (30) 1 2 (50) 1 /8 (30) 10 (250) 1 /8 (35) 12 (300) 1 /2 (38) 1 1 Cores greater than 1 in. 3 Based on ASTM C 652. in. Grade SW units provide high and uniform resistance to frost action when saturated with water. 2 The thickness of webs shall not be less than 1/2 in. (13 mm) between cells. Grade MW units are intended for applications that are unlikely to be saturated with water when exposed to freezing temperatures.2 (650 mm2) in cored shells shall be not less than 1/2 in. (6 mm) between cores. The cells intended to receive reinforcement must align so that reinforcing bars can be properly placed. there are two Grades that exist in ASTM C 652: Grades SW and MW. Hollow units shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 652 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick. Other bond Cored face shell End shell or end web Core in face shell Cell Webs Cored Shell Hollow Brick Units FIGURE 1. Figure 1.17 Hollow brick units. 3/8 in. Hollow units with void areas up to 40 percent are Class H40V. (10 mm) from any edge.9 Hollow Brick Section Properties Nominal width of Minimum solid Minimum cored units. The Grade establishes requirements to ensure adequate freeze/thaw resistance. End shell or end web Solid face shell Cell or core Cell Webs Within the two classes of hollow brick (H40V and H60V). where the crosssection is aligned parallel to the bedding surface. such as one-third bond and bonds at corners may require different unit configurations to permit placement of reinforcement. (mm) in.CLAY BRICK UNITS Today.9 provides the minimum required thickness of face shells and cross webs. The dimensions of the unit and the configuration of voids are critical for reinforced brick masonry. Void areas are defined by the void space that yields the least cross-sectional area. 3 Table 1.17 defines the nomenclature associated with hollow brick units and Table 1. The designer should check with the brick manufacturer to determine the cell patterns available. in. (mm) face shell or double face 1 thickness. which accommodate vertical reinforcement and grout. hollow brick are prevalent in reinforced brick bearing walls because they hav e cells. shell thickness . Units with void areas up to 60 percent of the gross area are defined as Class H60V. Cores not greater than 1 in. (10 mm) between cells and cores or 1/4 in. (mm) 3 3 & 4 (75 & 100) /4 (19) ---- 1 6 (150) 1 (25) 8 (200) 1 1 /4 (32) Minimum end shell or end web 2 thickness .

± /32 (2.18) 1 ± /16 (4. Dimension. (mm) 1 Permissible Distortion.18) /32 (3. with intermediate colors of yellow.11 Hollow Brick Tolerances on Distortion. ± /8 (3. Some projects require a consistent color. since both attributes are exposed. blue. Hollow brick can be manufactured in a variety of textures ranging from smooth to combed face.4. warpage and other imperfections are qualifying conditions of Type.76) 5 ± /4 (6. The colors may range from off-white to jet black. Brick samples of at least four units should be approved for texture and color prior to the start of the project.4 COLOR AND TEXTURE Four Types of hollow brick are covered by ASTM C 652: Types HBS. chippage. Hollow brick is available in many appealing textures and finishes while enjoying relative freedom from cracks.97) . max. ± /32 (5. Table 1. Dimensional variation. is considered to be standard and is specified for most applications.38) 3 ± /8 (3.18) /32 (2.97) Over 8 to 12 (306). Table 4 /8 (3. max.58) Over 3 to 4 (102). Type HBB brick is specified. Type HBA brick are unique units which are specified for non-uniformity in size or texture.52) 3 (76) and under ± /16 (1. incl. orange.10.18) Over 6 to 8 (204). incl.94) 9 ± /8 (9. ± /32 (7. Each of these Types relate to the appearance of the unit. Type HBX brick is specified where a higher degree of precision is required. According to ASTM C 652. incl.38) /8 (3. warpage or exposed particles.10. 1 Type HBS and HBB 1 Type HBX Type HBS 8 (204) and under 1 /16 (1. The dimensional tolerances require greater precision than that for common or building brick and type HBX brick require greater precision than HBS and HBB brick. ± /32 (3. a sample of ten brick representing the extreme range is selected and compared to the allowable variation in Table 1.58) 3 Over 8 to 12. the average size is determined and the permissible dimensional tolerances from the average size is listed in Table 1. purple. If the project requires two ends or two faces to be of finished texture and color.10 and the distortion tolerances are in Table 1. incl. These applications are usually unexposed locations. while others specify a ‘ blend’ .11. Type HBS. Specified Dimensions Type HBX 1 ± /32 (2. in. Type HBX.3 TOLERANCES The dimension tolerances for hollow brick are contained in Table 1.35) 7 ± /16 (7. the requirement must be clearly stated by the specifier.56) Over 12 to 16 (408). or combination of colors.38) 1 Over 12 to 16 (408).14) 3 1 3 1 5 3 ASTM C 652.4. incl. texture or uniformity is not required.4. 1. In order to determine dimensional tolerances. Where a particular color.10 Hollow Brick Tolerances on Dimensions 1 Permissible Variation.38) Over 4 to 6 (152). The most common type. 3 /32 (2. brown and gray. Color and texture are “ strong points” of hollow brick. From the sample of ten brick.16 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 1. 1 5 ASTM C 652.2 TYPES 1. HBX. (306). Table 3 Table 1. incl. red. There is a wide range of available colors for hollow brick. a majority of the brick will have one end-texture and color similar to the face. HBA and HBB. max. incl.

Part of this ease of installation is that concrete masonry units contain cells (large voids inside the concrete masonry unit) which conceal the reinforcing steel.1 GENERAL Ancient Greeks and Romans used natural stone as their primary building material which is evidenced by the existence of the monuments that still remain. In the tradition of stone. Concrete masonry’ s characteristics of strength. When the cells containing the reinforcing steel are properly grouted (filled with cementitious material).CHAPTER 2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS 2. Because of its endurance from ancient times. concrete masonry demonstrates sturdy and honest expression with viable properties. but without the expense. Concrete masonry. and beauty. Under extreme weather conditions. sizes. for ease of handling in the installation process. The hollow cells in the concrete masonry provide an airspace within the masonry wall which helps resist the transmission of heat or cold. textures and colors. In addition to using natural stone for its inherent strength. the system acquires strength that is capable of resisting large compression and tension forces. The concrete masonry industry considers concrete masonry units (CMU) as the “ stone”of modern times. sizes. . When concrete masonry is not required to resist large forces. but never being superficial in appearance. as concrete masonry is available in a wide variety of shapes. and sound. providing infinite possibilities for self expression. In addition to structural integrity. stone has earned a reputation as the material symbolic of permanence. The artists of the time crafted stone into sculptures of different shapes. A look at some of the work accomplished by distinguished architects will convince the designer of a material that is indeed beautiful. concrete masonry units can vary in color and texture allowing the designer to create an aesthetically pleasing structure. some or all of the cells of the concrete masonry units may remain empty (a void space). that is masonry constructed of concrete masonry units. Concrete masonry units are designed. and form. the hollow cells may be filled with an insulating material such as vermiculite. fire resistance and sound insulation demand a look at its versatile design possibilities when all these advantages can be included at a competitive cost with other materials. Concrete masonry units are made up of concrete (cement. perlite or insulating foam. while also allowing for flexibility and delicacy. in shape and size. in good taste and sophisticated. durability. The beauty of concrete masonry is left to the designer’ s imagination. durability. and water) that consists of natural aggregates carefully graded to provide the concrete masonry units with properties of strength. enjoys a reputation for strength and durability. The evident advantages of concrete masonry are:  Strength (compression and tension when reinforced)  Durability  An insulator for extreme weather conditions  An insulator for sound  Aesthetic beauty  Fire resistance The advancement in building construction practices have opened new opportunities in creative design with concrete masonry units. the ancient Greeks and Romans also used natural stone for beauty. aggregate.

Color can also be altered or enhanced by aging and erosion. This will result in a more natural appearance with lower maintenance costs and can facilitate material duplication for future additions to the structure. Occasionally. 10 in. Use of natural colors makes the structure appear to belong to the environment. enhanced by control of colors and textures and by introducing contrasts.5 mm) mortar joint while still keeping a standard module. or by the action of acid or detergent cleaners. Many times a unit which can be readily made with the same pattern or treatment on both faces serves handsomely as both exterior and interior finish wall material with added economic and aesthetic advantages. Standard Specification for Concrete Brick. Ground face units can be utilized to add interest in the form of color and texture. The nominal length of concrete brick is commonly 8 in. have an improved noise reduction coefficient and are more economical to place in the wall. (305 mm). (9. the overall effect will be influenced and heightened by the play of lights and shadows. in that order. sandblasting. Nominal block lengths are normally 16 in. but can be as long as 12 in. (152 mm). With any configuration or texture the designer chooses. for appealing space dividers and for attractive exterior terrace walls and other enclosures. (406 mm). Vertical surfaces can produce bold rugged effects. Many of the fluted and ribbed units are designed so the vertical flutes or striations will appear in the finished wall as unwavering continuous straight lines for indefinite height. (305 mm). (254 mm) and 12 in. Concrete masonry units are referred to as lightweight. (102 mm).7 mm) high. The size of concrete masonry units is designated by width by height by length. Classification 3 pcf (kg/m ) Less than 105 (1680) Lightweight 105 to 125 Medium weight (1680 -2000) 125 and greater Normal weight or (2000) Heavy weight 2. Curved surfaces will produce interesting shadows caused by broken surfaces. The most common nominal widths of concrete masonry units are 4 in. conforming to ASTM C 129 Standard Specification for Non-Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units. The weight of concrete masonry units varies. which allows for a 3/8 in. The common heights are 4 in. The nominal dimensions are typically 3/8 in. A sparkling white color can also be achieved with the use of natural white sand and white cement. higher water penetration resistance and greater thermal storage capabilities. concrete masonry units are normally manufactured using concrete with densities ranging from 85 to 140 pounds per cubic foot (1362 to 2243 kg/m3). (102 mm) and 8 in. even when laid in regular running bond wherein the joints alternate over the center of the block unit in the courses above and below. medium weight. (203 mm). One should not hesitate in availing such expert technical knowledge. (203 mm). Another interesting variation consists in using units which are only half the usual course height and occasionally projecting these units slightly beyond the face of the wall plane.5 mm) larger than the actual unit dimensions. There are precision units. Concrete masonry units can be installed in a multitude of pattern arrangements and combinations to create an unending diversity of effects. Heavier units occasionally provide increased compressive strength. (67. use of a transparent sealer may be warranted. Projecting or recessing a certain number of units can create a geometric pattern or design. There are many different sizes and textures of concrete masonry units to fit any application. 6 in. 8 in. which may be typically 22/3 in. cements and aggregates is recommended. (203 mm).1 CMU Weight Classification Unit Weight. except for concrete brick. (9. Different colors can be produced by using different aggregates or different natural cements.18 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Concrete masonry units are equally adaptable for interior as well as exterior treatments. Table 2. or normal weight depending on the unit density (see Table 2. The designer not only prefers to express ingenuity in development of the design. or color can be changed by pigments or by surface treatment. sands. but also can very often obtain helpful suggestions or useful guidance through consultation with manufacturers’representatives or industry professionals. The color of natural sands and aggregates render an earthy look of the masonry units. Concrete brick should conform to ASTM C 55.1). . Depending on the aggregates used. One of the many benefits of concrete masonry is natural appearance.2 PROPERTIES Concrete Masonry Units can be either hollow or solid load-bearing in accordance with ASTM C 90 Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units or hollow or solid non-loadbearing. Use of natural materials. The lighter units provide more fire resistance. The continuity contributes to creation of the soaring monolithic effect.

less mortar joint = Actual length A 2. x 75/8 in. fluted block. Ears 2. which is maintaining the current size of the unit and using metric nomenclature that is not rounded to size.1 Industry standard modular block. For example.2.1. Slumped (adobe textured) block are made by a wet mix process under high vibration with the actual dimensions. a 6 x 8 x 16 in. Manufacturers also have a wide variety of colors available on special order. (152 mm) wide by 8 in.2 Industry standard modular block. A-A FIGURE 2. The sloped sides helps the block slide out of its mold after it has cured. Figure 2. (12.19 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS slumped. (406 mm) long. (143 mm x 194 mm x 397 mm). The manufacturing process of the concrete block causes the bottom of the block to have narrower thickness and sloped interior sides. A (US) standard nominal size concrete .2 lists the minimum thickness of the shell and webs. (9. Many countries use the metric or Systems International (SI) method of measurement.2 and Table 2. tan and pink. Standard colors are gray.7 mm) less than the nominal dimension. minimum face shell thickness shall be not less than 5/8 in. The industry standard modular concrete block is shown in Figure 2.5 mm) is the allowance for the size of the mortar joint. This also allows a larger surface for bedding of mortar as units are laid in the wall. The United States favors a conversion to the ‘ soft metric’ system for concrete block. Table 2. (152 x 203 x 406 mm) block would refer to a unit that is 6 in. (9.2 For solid grouted masonry construction. A Face shell thickness Nominal length .2. or adobe textured block.2 METRIC Face shell Concave end FIGURE 2. in that order.1 DIMENSIONS AND MODULAR SIZES Web thickness The industry standard for block dimensions is to state the nominal width by the nominal height by the nominal length.5 mm) less: 55/8 in. (16 mm). Face shell End Web Cell Shapes of block include straight. (203 mm) tall by 16 in. even though the actual dimensions are 3/8 in. typically 1 /2 in. Consultation with the manufacturers support staff is invaluable assistance to the designer in the choice of materials. split-faced block. ground faced block and special effect architectural units. x 155/8 in.2 Minimum Thickness of Face Shells 1 and Webs Web Cell 1 2 Nominal Width Specified Width Minimum Face Shell Thickness Minimum Web Thickness (in) (in) (in) (in) 4 5 3 /8 3 6 5 5 /8 1 1 8 5 7 /8 1 1 /4 1 10 5 9 /8 3 1 /8 1 /8 12 11 /8 1 1 /8 5 2 /4 1 /2 3 /4 1 1 This table is to be used in combination with Figure 2. The 3/8 in. radius and angled. Plan View of a Modular Block Cross Section of a Modular Block. Actual width Most block manufacturers have an excellent support staff and offer valuable assistance to the designer in the conceptual phase of the project.

Adding a typical 9 to 10 mm mortar joint makes the US units slightly. (Avg. the widely used 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) Standard 21-4 was similar to ASTM C 90.000 psi m (2006 IBC Section 2105. min. the Cox Bill. 1996. speed.342 kPa) m for solid or partially grouted reinforced masonry walls. The definition of f’ is the design value used in masonry.20 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL block 8 in.100 kPa). 2 Higher compressive strengths may be specified where required by design.3 Strength and Absorption Requirements Water Absorption. The strength of the grout should conform to ASTM C 476 and the minimum compression strength of the grout must equal or exceed f’ but not be less than 2. which is the required unit for ASTM C 90. (9. 1 Table 2. In Chapter 16. energy and temperature from English measurement to SI (metric) measurement. Standard 21-4 recognizes the Type II unit. weight or mass. Even though the dimensional difference of 8 in. Max. high by 16 in. also known as the Savings in Construction Act went into effect in the United States. force. This m value of 1. volume.1. In 1990.2). The specified compression strength value that is common for ASTM C 90 conforming units can be used to verify a design strength (f’ ) = 1. One of the differences is the recognition of both Grade N and Grade S by Standard 21-4. Table 2. m The actual compressive strength of the masonry system must not be less than the design value of f’ .5 mm) mortar joint.3 COMPRESSION STRENGTH ASTM C 90. but intolerably.500 psi (10. (203 mm) and 200 mm is small. Grade N units were defined as acceptable for exterior use above or below grade. of 3 Units Individual Unit Lightweight Less than 105 Medium Weight 105 to Less than 125 Normal Weight 125 or More 1900 1700 18 15 13 1 ASTM C 90.2. larger than the metric units. In November. psi Oven-Dry Weight of Concrete. Consult with local suppliers to determine availability of units of higher compressive strength. For historical references. lb./ft Average Net Area Weight Classification Avg. old Grade N.900 psi (13.3 lists the strength and absorption requirements for concrete masonry. Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units. Table 2.2. requires that the average compressive strength of 3 units. Also. be at least 1. there are very few block manufactured that conform only to Type S specifications. density.2. it is the design value of the total masonry system. pressure. In addition to the Type I unit. .500 psi is not the compression strength of the unit. standard.2. it is too great to be compensated by a 3/8 in. The slump textured block is widely used in the Southwestern United States to duplicate the traditional adobe appearance. ASTM deleted the differentiation between Grade N and Grade S concrete block and required all block units under ASTM C 90 designation meet the higher. whereas Grade S units were limited to above grade exterior use provided the units are covered with a protective coating or not exposed to the weather. Table 2105. of 3 units) With 2 3 Compressive Strength . there are conversion tables for values of length. This bill gave designers and the industry the flexibility to continue design and use of the English System of units for concrete block masonry. The amount of moisture a concrete unit absorbs can affect its strength. Since 1996 the use of English Units has continued and will continue for the foreseeable future. however Standard 21-4 did contain some intentional differences relating to the concrete masonry unit requirements. UBC Standard 21-4 specifically recognizes slumped block units as a structural unit. the standard 190 x 90 x 390 metric block becomes 200 x 100 x 400 block in metric (millimeter) units. lists verified compression strengths of the masonry based on the compression strength of the concrete unit and the type of mortar used. wide by 4 in. Adding a 10 mm mortar joint. The cost to industry to manufacture and stock two sets of units (English and Metric) would be staggering.1.2.2 of the 2006 International Building Code (2006 IBC). long is 194 mm by 92 mm by 397 mm. As a practical matter. area. based on the net area of the unit. 2.

The width of veneer units varies from approximately 2 in. These units are usually available by special order only. (152 mm) wide units commonly used. In the Western United States. which is readily available. As the architectural features of the building change. For high-rise load-bearing buildings. When high strength units are required. However.2 SPLIT FACED UNITS Split-faced units have an irregular surface appearance. Split face units are also available with one or more vertical scores. With modern technology. Producers also make a special slumped cap unit. the finish and texture of some architectural units require a higher water/cement ratio (more water) that causes the concrete block mix to slump or provides an adobe texture.3.3 VENEER UNITS Veneer units are manufactured in a multitude of colors and many textures. the material strengths should be 25% to 33% greater than f’ . (50. 2. the units should be specified as follows: 2.1 SLUMPED UNITS Concrete masonry units are manufactured with virtually zero slump (very low water/cement ratio). The same technology also offers the designer more variety in the creative selection of the building appearance.3 ARCHITECTURAL UNITS The technology of the manufacturing process keeps the concrete masonry unit cost effective as a useful building material. .” m ‘ The percentage of desirable increase over the specified f’ is dependent on the materials and m experience in the area. such as the exterior facing of a concrete floor line where the floor intersects the structural masonry wall. (102 and 203 mm). however. One special feature of these units is the architectural appearance of one or more sides. except that the average unit net area strength shall be at least _______psi and the specified compression strength of the masonry wall. with 6 in. Two split faced units are manufactured as one block and separated into two units by splitting the block (Figure 2. the concrete masonry units need to be 1. Split-faced units are manufactured in standard and special sizes and in a variety of textures and colors. This makes possible a standard block texture on one side of the wall and a special stone-like texture on the exposed side. as well as a fluted split face block configuration. 2. are also available by special order. such as gray and tan. 2.CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS For example. solid grouted. the strength of the concrete masonry unit may require more than the basic minimum strength of ASTM C 90. slumped concrete masonry units are readily available in standard colors. Special colors.500 psi. so too must the materials change. They are non-structural and laid against a structural backup wall. high cantilever retaining walls. or heavily loaded members. Veneer units can also be used under special conditions in a structural wall. where adobe is popular.900 psi using Type S or M mortar.3. Typically. f’ = _______psi. The height may vary depending on the design requirements. slumped units can be manufactured as slumped on one side only and radius wall units.8 mm) for precision units up to 41/2 in. such as brown and buff. (114 mm) for fluted and split face units. m . This provides an irregular roughened texture on the face shell. the standard heights are 4 and 8 in. tall slender walls with an h/t ratio between 30 and 50. “ Concrete masonry units shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 90. when a masonry wall is designed for a compression strength of 1. 21 Split line FIGURE 2.3 Plan view of a fluted split face unit (Before splitting).3. These are usually limited to special orders.3). shall not be less than the design strength. The slump block width varies.

driveways. 2.7 and can add significantly to the beauty of any paved area.22 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 2.5 4 x 8 x 8 Half Typical concrete masonry units. They may be used as backup units to a clay face brick wall or as units making up the total wall. or virtually any horizontal application.4 SCREEN BLOCK 2.5 PAVING UNITS FIGURE 2. however. 2. streets.6 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS (CMU) . Concrete brick can be produced to effectively imitate clay brick. 4 x 8 x 12 Corner 4 x 8 x 16 Stretcher Unit . The sizes have a range to meet nearly every decorative need from a 4 in. Many integral colors are available. textures and sizes and are economical and attractive masonry units. patios. Consult with the local manufacturer for complete availability of product line and colors.4 Screen block units. Concrete paving units are manufactured to high strength and density specifications.3. colors and arrangements as shown in Figure 2. the units may be ordered to provide a specific color.3. 4" High Units 4 x 4 x 16 Standard 4 x 4 x 8 Half 4 x 4 x 12 Corner 4 x 4 x 16 Stretcher Unit 4" WIDE WALL. 4" WIDE WALL. 8" High Units 4 x 8 x 16 Standard FIGURE 2.5 CAP UNITS Cap units are manufactured in a variety of sizes to match wall widths. Manufacturers will typically inventory grey or stock color units. Concrete brick are manufactured in block modular and regular brick sizes and conform to ASTM C 55. They can be used for walkways. They are typically used to cap the top of free-standing walls and may be used for patio paving. They come in a variety of patterns. (102 mm) cube to the giant 16 in.ILLUSTRATED Shown below and on the following pages are a few of the many types of concrete masonry units available. 2. Standard Specification for Concrete Brick. (406 mm) square.4 CONCRETE BRICK Screen wall units are manufactured in standard face and sculptured designs. See the specifications provided by the manuf acturer for vehicular and non-vehicular recommendations. These units are used in areas to screen out direct sunlight as well as to add to the aesthetic design of the wall or structure. Concrete bricks are manufactured in various colors.

4" High Units 6 x 4 x 16 Standard 6 x 4 x 16 Stretcher Unit 6 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam 6 x 4 x 8 Half 6 x 4 x 14 Corner 6" WIDE WALL. 6 x 8 x 16 Return Corner . 8" High Units 6 x 8 x 16 Standard 6 x 8 x 16 Bond Beam FIGURE 2.5 6 x 8 x 8 Half 6 x 8 x 16 Open End Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS 23 6" WIDE WALL.

4" High Units 8 x 4 x 16 Standard 8 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam 8 x 4 x 8 Half 8 x 4 x 16 Open End 8" WIDE WALL. 6" High Units 8 x 6 x 16 Standard 8 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam 8 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam Closure 8" WIDE WALL. 8 x 8 x 16 Double Open End Bond Beam 8 x 8 x 16 Bond Beam 8”Y-Block . 8" High Units 8 x 8 x 16 Standard 8 x 8 x 8 Half 8 x 8 x 16 Open End Bond Beam 8 x 8 x 16 Open End 8 x 8 x 16 Lintel 8 x 8 x 16 Grout Lock FIGURE 2.24 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 8" WIDE WALL.5 Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

4" High Units 12 x 4 x 16 Standard 12 x 4 x 8 Half 12 x 4 x 16 Open End Bond Beam 12 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam 12" WIDE WALL. 8" High Units 10 x 8 x 16 Standard 10 x 8 x 16 Open End Bond Beam 10 x 8 x 16 Open End 10 x 8 x 8 Half 12" WIDE WALL.5 12 x 8 x 16 Bond Beam 12 x 8 x 16 Open End 12 x 8 x 8 Half 12 x 8 x 16 Open End Bond Beam Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS 10" WIDE WALL. 12 x 8 x 12 Column 12 x 8 x 8 Lintel 25 . 8" High Units 12 x 8 x 16 Standard 12 x 8 x 16 Double Open End Bond Beam FIGURE 2. 4" High Units 10 x 4 x 16 Standard 10 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam 10 x 4 x 8 Half 10" WIDE WALL.

12 x 8 x 8 C-Alternate . 8" WIDE WALL. 8" High Units 12" Wide Pilaster 12 x 8 x 16 Banjo Pilaster 16" Wide Pilaster 16 x 8 x 16 Banjo Pilaster 16 x 8 x 6 C-Alternate FIGURE 2. 8" High Units 8 x 8 x 24 Open End 8 x 8 x 24 Standard 8 x 8 x 12 Half 8 x 8 x 24 Vertical Score 8 x 8 x 24 Open End Bond Beam PILASTER UNITS.26 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 24" LONG UNITS.5 Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

5 21/2 x 8 x 16 Split Face Veneer 8 x 8 x 16 Standard 45o 10 x 4 x 8 Sill 8 x 2 x 16 Cap 8 x 8 x 16 Corner 45o 8 x 8 x 16 Bullnose Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS 8" WIDE RADIUS WALL.4 Foot Radius 2 Foot Radius . 27 .Alternate Course 4 Foot Radius .2 Foot Radius 8 x 8 x 16 . 8" High Units 8 x 8 x 16 .Alternate Course ACCESSORY BLOCK 21/2 x 8 x 16 Veneer 8 x 8 x 16 H-Pilaster FIGURE 2.

28 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 4" WIDE. 4" High Slumped Block 6 x 4 x 16 Standard 6 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam 6 x 4 x 16 Solid Top Cap 6 x 4 x 14 Corner 6 x 4 x 8 Half 6" WIDE. 6 x 6 x 14 Corner 6 x 6 x 15 Corner 6 x 6 x 8 Half 6 x 6 x 9 Half .5 6 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam 6 x 6 x 18 Bond Beam 6 x 6 x 16 Solid Top Cap 6 x 6 x 18 Solid Top Cap Typical concrete masonry units (Continued). 6" High Slumped Block 6 x 6 x 16 Standard 6 x 6 x 18 Standard FIGURE 2. 4" High Slumped Block 4 x 4 x 16 Standard 4 x 4 x 16 Solid Top Cap 4 x 4 x 12 Corner 4 x 4 x 8 Half 6" WIDE.

6" High Slumped Block 8 x 6 x 16 Standard 8 x 6 x 8 Half FIGURE 2. 8 x 6 x 16 Open End Bond Beam 8 x 6 x 9 Half . 4" High Slumped Block 8 x 4 x 16 Standard 8 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam 8 x 4 x 16 Open End Bond Beam 8 x 4 x 16 Solid Top Cap 8 x 4 x 16 Open End 8 x 4 x 8 Half 8" WIDE.CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS 29 8" WIDE.5 8 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam 8 x 6 x 18 Standard 8 x 6 x 16 Open End 8 x 6 x 18 Bond Beam Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

3 Score Split Face Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).3 Score Split Face 155/8” 75/8” FIGURE 2. 1” 3” 10 x 8 x 16 .5 95/8” 23/4” 1 /4” 1 .30 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL SLUMPED CAP UNITS 6 x 2 x 16 Cap 4 x 2 x 16 Cap 8 x 2 x 16 Cap ARCHITECTURAL FEATURE UNITS 155/8” 15 /8” 15 /8” 5 5 75/8” 75/8” 75/8” 75/8” 11/2” 75/8” 1” 3” 2” 8 x 8 x 16 .3 Score Split Face 1” 8 x 8 x 16 Fluted Split Face 155/8” 75/8” 115/8” 11/2” 2” 2” 12 x 8 x 16 Scored Split Face 115/8” 1” 3” 1” 12 x 8 x 16 .

21/4 x 8 x 24 Split Face 21/4 x 8 x 24 Standard Inside Face 21/4 x 8 x 12 x 24 Split Face Outside Corner Return . The component units are held in place through cross ties. Reinforcing bars are placed in the cavity between units (where the web of the standard unit would normally be) and the void is filled with grout (Figure 2. This system of creating walls allows the designer to vary the width wall without having the block manufacturer make special block and permits different colors and textures on opposite faces of the wall.5 8 x 8 x 16 Projected Block 8 x 8 x 16 .6).5 Score FIGURE 2. 115/8” Variable wall thickness 23/4” 235/8” 235/8” 75/8” Reinforcing steel 75/8” 21/4” 513/16” 12” 513/16” Ties 21/4 x 8 x 12 x 24 Outside Corner Return Grout cavity Variable wall thickness FIGURE 2.31 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS ARCHITECTURAL FEATURE UNITS .7 COMPONENT UNITS AND SECTIONS A component masonry wall is a system of creating concrete masonry walls by using the face shell pieces of the block.11 Score 8 x 8 x 16 Center Score 8 x 8 x 16 Combed Face Typical concrete masonry units (Continued). 2.CONTINUED 8 x 8 x 16 Shadow 8 x 8 x 16 Split Face 8 x 8 x 16 .3 Score 8 x 8 x 16 .6 Masonry component system.

Components can act as a façade/formwork thus combining the formwork and veneer cost in one labor step. The greater the number of special order block. Check local manufacturer for availability. .32 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The expense of a special order block is directly related to the quantity of the order. (25. (203 mm) to 24 in.4 mm) increments. The structural system is the reinforced concrete located on the inside of the component units. Since the face shells are separated until tied in the wall. They are economical and construction is rapid and easy. If the quantity of special order is not large enough to justify the cost. Concrete paving units are designed and manufactured for efficient locking of individual units in place providing an attractive arrangement of maintenance-free areas. Both designer and engineer can enjoy the versatility of components which typically conform to ASTM C 55 with 2500 psi (17. Varying the bond or joint pattern of a concrete masonry patio or walk can create a wide variety of interesting and attractive designs. durable and available in multiple designs and colors. (610 mm) in 1 in. (203 mm) walls. Due to this unique feature. The following figure shows some of the paving units available. producing the special order.8 CONCRETE PAVING PATTERN UNITS Concrete paving units are high strength.7 Paving bond patterns. However this design approach sacrifices the economy in wall thickness. different units may be used on each side of the wall. 2. The designer enjoys the flexibility of wall thickness and the engineer benefits from higher strengths. and finally resetting the molds for the standard production.237 kPa) compressive strength. the greater the set-up fee can be distributed over and thus bring the cost per unit down. Basketweave/Parquet Units and Pattern FIGURE 2. dense. a designer might consider the component unit system of concrete masonry wall construction. since the component units might not be considered in the structural design. providing that component units are readily available. Symmetry and Square Units and Pattern The components are given a 4 hour fire rating when used in 8 in. then setting the molds for the special order. There is an initial set up fee associated with stopping the production line run of standard modular block. components are the most economical method of using white cement and limestone units for one finished wall face. Wall thicknesses are available from 8 in.

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS 33 2.5 m).4 mm) exposed mortar joint.6 mm) thick.4 Concrete Masonry Unit Standards Product Specification Concrete Building Brick ASTM C 55 Hollow Loadbearing Block ASTM C 90 Hollow Nonloadbearing Block ASTM C 129 Solid Loadbearing Block ASTM C 145 2. Glazed units shall be used in the widest nominal dimension compatible with accepted concrete masonry design. and single through-the-wall units shall be used where possible. at right angles to the wall. Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. Standard Test Method for Linear Drying Shrinkage of Concrete Masonry Units. with respect to imperviousness. the facing shall have a wear factor not in excess of 130. The facing shall return over ends and edges of the block. Units tested for shrinkage as per ASTM C 426. shall be free of crazing.7 ued).1 SPECIFICATIONS Venus II Unit and Pattern Facing material shall conform to ASTM C 744. (6. When tested for abrasion. One method of protection at the job site is to carefully stack and protect from weather by covering with tarpaulins or storing inside until placed in wall. using daylight without direct sunlight.9. cracks. resulting in a 1/4 in. cracking and spalling. forming a lip at least 1/16 in. resistance to fading (chemical resistance).9 RESIN (GLAZED) COATINGS Glazed concrete masonry units are concrete block. (1. Paving bond patterns (Contin- The glazed surface must be free from chips. shall have a flame spread index and other fire characteristics in accordance with local requirements. Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units.4. Block shall conform to type and use noted in Table 2. Herringbone Unit and Pattern FIGURE 2. opacity and tolerances on dimensions. and when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. Table 2. Standard Test Method for Relative Resistance to Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by the Taber Abraser. in accordance with ASTM C 501. . pinholes and other imperfections detracting from the appearance of the finished wall when viewed at five feet (1. Deliver units to job site on pallets with individual faces protected. with finished and exposed surfaces covered at point of manufacture with a thermo-setting resinous compound permanently adhered onto base block by an external heat-polymerizing process.

yellow and brown are available. fire ratings of 1.8 6 X 8 X 16 Glazed Concrete Masonry Units. 8 X 8 X 16 8 X 8 X 16 . upon completion. green. (1. Glazed units provide the same fire rating as concrete block. permit construction and finish of two-faced walls in a single operation. Structural glazed units are often used where sanitary conditions are a concern. During erection. Permissible variation in bed depth dimensions from Standard: _________ 1/16 in.9. 3 and 4 hours can easily be achieved with structural glazed units.6 mm). including blue. Tolerances on dimensions shall be: 1. if available. (1. Maximum permissible face distortion: _____________________ 1/16 in.9. Laying of these units is performed in the same manner as for precision structural concrete block units. 2. depending on wall thickness and grouting requirements. Structural glazed units offer many fire safety advantages. As with any manufactured item. edges and corners.34 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL At all times use reasonable and proper care in handling units to prevent marring or damaging faces.6 mm). This system should be used only when tight bed depth tolerance or second face alignment is not mandatory. keep walls free of excess mortar and.6 mm).2 MANUFACTURER’ S STANDARDS Concrete units to be glazed shall be top grade units conforming to the latest revision of ASTM Specifications for Concrete Masonry Units. The color of the surface shall conform to an approved sample consisting of f iv e stretcher units fully representing the range of shade and color. 2. 2. 2. As with precision concrete block. 3. Double-glazed units. a minor variation in shade or color is to be expected. (1. Permissible variation in face dimensions from Standard: ______________ 1/16 in. such as kitchens and hospitals. The impervious facing is easily cleaned and sanitized. A wide range of colors.3 SHAPES AND SIZES OF GLAZED CMU Stretcher Units Glazed 1 Side 2 X 8 X 16 6 X 8 X 16 4 X 8 X 16 8 X 8 X 16 Glazed 2 Sides 4 X 8 X 16 FIGURE 2. clean walls with a masonry cleaning compound recommended by the manufacturer.

8 4 X 8 X 16 2 X 8 X 16 Glazed Concrete Masonry Units (Continued).CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS Cove Base Glazed 1 Side 2 X 8 X 16 4 X 8 X 16 6 X 8 X 16 8 X 8 X 16 Glazed 1 Side and 1 End 2 X 8 X 16 4 X 8 X 16 2 X 8 X 16 4 X 8 X 16 Jamb Glazed 1 Side and 1 End 4 X 8 X 16 2 X 8 X 16 4 X 8 X 16 Cap 2 X 8 X 16 FIGURE 2. 4 X 8 X 16 35 .

FIGURE 2. ASTM C 1372.000 psi (20. but are designed with a mechanical interlock for stability. such as the maximum water absorption requirements and the weight classification. taller walls typically require design with a geogrid mesh assisting in the retention of the SRW units. are significantly heavier.10 SEGMENTAL RETAINING WALL UNITS Relatively new on the scene is Segmental Retaining Walls. up to 100 pounds (45 kg) each due to more volume with each unit. since there is a limitation on how tall the walls can be constructed while maintaining a factor of safety.2 m) are normally constructed without any significant special provisions. are equivalent to ASTM C 90. Walls not exceeding 4 feet (1. The units are not mortared. This type of masonry unit uses weight and gravity to retain soil.68 MPa). . Other properties. Individual units. Segmental Retaining Wall (SRW) units have a separate material standard. This standard is somewhat different from ASTM C 90 requiring compressive strength of the units to average at least 3. however.9 Segmental retaining wall units. Standard Specification for Segmental Retaining Wall Units. The manufacturer’ s product data is essential for the correct application of SRW units. however.36 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 2.

such as the Parthenon of ancient Greece. Figures 3. Consideration also should be given to cost and availability. When considering the use of natural stone as a facing. Stone may be trimmed and cut to form regular patterns such as range. . three factors of building stone that most influential in the selection are pattern.2 Ashlar stone. but overlapping categories. natural stone is used in building as a facing. the major factors affecting the suitability and use of stone fall under two broad. veneer or decoration. and color.1 Range Course Square Stone Rubble stone.1 GENERAL Today. veneer. Uncoursed Field Stone Random Range Broken Range Long Stone Random Range Polygonal or Mosaic Coursed FIGURE 3. and decoration.CHAPTER 3 NATURAL STONE 3. For physical and structural properties. weathering characteristics. physical and structural properties versus aesthetic qualities. the arrangement of the stone type and color should be considered.2 provide various patterns of rubble and ashlar stone. Hundreds of stone types and colors are available for use as veneer on buildings.1 and 3. This is in contrast to natural stones used as a structural load carrying building material. For aesthetics. texture. size and thickness limitations are factors of selections. In addition. random or broken ashlar. FIGURE 3.

In order to assure quality stone the following ASTM Standards may be referenced: 3.1 Building Stone Surface Finishes Geological Category Common Name 1. 4 Travertine is actually a limestone but is classified with marbles for surface finishes. Gneiss will take all of the finishes of marble and may also be flame finished. ASTM C 170 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Dimension Stone. Sedimentary OF Finishes A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) J) K) L) M) N) O) P) Q) R) S) T) U) Smooth (machine finished by saw.1 GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION In the most general sense.3 CLASSIFICATION ASTM C 97 Standard Test Method for Absorption and Bulk Specific Gravity of Dimension Stone. 2 . Sedimentary. 3 Diorite will not take flame finish.3. grinder or planer) Machine tooled (with uniform grooves) Chat Sawn (non-uniform) Shot Sawn (irregular and uneven markings) Split Face (concave-convex) Rock Face (convex) Sanded Honed Polished Wheelabraded Bush-Hammered Split Face Rock Face Sawn Honed Polished Machine Tooled (4-cut. pointed. ASTM C 99 Standard Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Dimension Stone. etc.2 ASTM STONE STANDARDS ASTM C 880 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Dimension Stone. is one of the most beautiful of earth’ s natural materials used in construction.When the earth formed. Granite is a multicolored intrusive igneous rock ranging in color from Slate Table 3. such as marble and granite. ASTM C 616 Standard Specification for Quartz-Based Dimension Stone. chiseled. partially filled and unfilled. ASTM C 629 Standard Dimension Stone.38 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 3. the crust was at one stage a viscous liquid skin that slowly cooled and hardened into igneous rock. ASTM C 615 Standard Specification for Granite Dimension Stone. axed. Igneous . Metamorphic Marble Serpentine Onyx 1 Slate 1 Quartzite 2 Gneiss 4 Travertine Granite Syenite 3 Diorite Gabbro Andesite Basalt 3. Igneous 1 STONE Natural stone. ASTM C 568 Standard Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone. 6-cut.) Flamed Sand Finished Split Face Rock Face Slate and quartzite cannot be polished. and Metamorphic. masonry stone are rocks that form the earth’ s crust and fall into three genetic groups: Igneous. ASTM C 503 Standard Specification for Marble Dimension Stone (Exterior). The variegated surface of marble and the visual strength of granite have made these stones ideal for the creative designer. Specification for Sandstone Limestone Dolomite 2. 3. Travertine finishes include filled.

The texture or grain pattern can be: Equigranular . When limestones or dolomites crystallize. Interlocking .relatively large. differing widely from the igneous or sedimentary types.grains of markedly unequal sizes such as granite. . Table 3. consolidating crystallization and hardening of chemical solutions and biological deposits.3 Getty Center. Pattern. In addition to the pattern. Igneous rocks may also be metamorphosed by heat. pressure and cementitious action to produce sedimentary rock. Natural patterns within the stone can be highly varied. texture.where grains with irregular boundaries interlock by mutual penetration such as granite and breccia. granite has the ability to become a highly polished finish which can be maintained over the life of the stone. Mosaic (or Granulitic) . shape.grains of approximately the same size. pressure and shear. Metamorphic . pressure and shear but the changes are usually less drastic.W hen sedimentary rocks are subjected to increasing heat. and color are all affected by how the stone is fabricated and finished.closely packed grains with smooth to moderately irregular. the texture is varied. Grano Balstic .4 TEXTURE OF QUARRIED STONE The term “ texture” . Elastic . Sedimentary . while limestone color changes with exposure.naturally cemented fragmental grains but without interlocking or mosaic relation such as quartzite. Texture also varies with the hardness of minerals composing the stone. FIGURE 3.a granular mosaic texture in which the grains are tightly compacted. along with a description of the available finishes. Textures may range from rough and flamed finishes to honed or polished surfaces. All calcareous (calcium based) rocks. As igneous rock weathers.1 lists some of the common masonry stone types and their geologic category. the minerals are then altered chemically and distorted or physically realigned to produce metamorphic rocks. coarse crystal called phenocrysts of one or more mineral components in a ground mass of markedly finer texture such as granite. such as limestone. 39 3. mica and ferro magnesium minerals. as well as some dolomitic and serpentine rocks that are able to be polished. degree of uniformity and arrangement of the component grains or crystals. Inequigranular . As a ‘ hard’ stone. This manner of heat and pressure forms dense metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks may resemble their original sedimentary ancestors but are usually more crystalline and dense. ranging from coarse fragments to fine grains and crystalline structures. they form a metamorphic rock commonly called marble. as applied to marble. feldspar. Granite is composed of quartz. Porphyrithic . relates to the size.Sedimentary rocks are formed by the process of cementing. Los Angeles. and provide special features that make building stone a unique material. the minerals are dominantly of equidimensional kinds and present irregular mutual boundaries such as granite. Table 3. it deteriorates into deposited soils that are then consolidated due to heat. Granites hold color and pattern.NATURAL STONE white to black. are commercially called marbles.2 list some common stone veneers used in the United States. non-interlocking mutual boundaries such as feldspar and pyroxene.

the need for an experienced and qualified designer in stone attachment is a necessity. The home could be built closer to food and water and also be built with a greater degree of comfort. relieving angles for stone support and anchorage may be necessary. The quality and durability of installation is affected by the correct design of joints. based on the variability of the stone properties as well as other considerations such as anchorage. installation and recent developments in the design and detailing of stone cutting. The physical properties of the stone being selected include: • • • • • • • • • coefficient of expansion change in shape modulus of rupture shear strength modulus of elasticity weatherability creep deflection moisture resistance compressive strength Epoxy adhesives. To prevent unacceptable loading of the stone. Stone was first used for shelter simply because it formed the walls of caves in which people took refuge from the ravages of the elements. Instead. deficient workmanship.40 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 3. selection of mortars. the use of large. which are frequently used with stone are affected by cleanliness of the surfaces to be bonded and ambient temperature. Today. as humanity evolved. This worked.5 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The use of the physical characteristics of a particular stone must be appropriate. delivery and installation. Also. method of support and degree of exposure of the cladding installation a correct safety factor should be developed. . Based on physical properties Coverage (SqFt/Ton) 40-45 40-45 40-45 40-45 45-50 40-45 45-50 150-180 300-350 45-50 45-50 45-50 25-30 45-50 45-50 45-50 45-50 of the stone. natural stone is not used as a structural element of buildings. support and anchorage. Unfortunately. and use of sealants. The stone should be protected from staining and breakage during shipment. and the loads it must resist. Later. but early man had to leave the shelter of the dark cave to forage and hunt. With these variables and factors. solid blocks of stone to build homes gave the builder choice of location and layout. its method of anchorage. Only the very wealthy could build with stone. Physical properties of the actual stone must be determined and applied. The adequate design and detailing of each piece of stone anchorage is required. This use allows any building to be economically constructed with stone. Costs can be controlled with the introduction of new systems of manufacture. This worked better. building with solid stone was a costly venture requiring much time and labor. the size and thickness of the stone should be established. as opposed to using generic table values. thin slabs of natural stone are used to clad buildings in aesthetically pleasing stone veneer.2 West Coast Veneer Stone Name Type Palos Verdes Bouquet Canyon Santa Maria Drift Stone Black Lava White Marble Arizona Cut Wall Featherock Slate Texas Shell Texas Lime Whitewater Canyon Mariposite Grimes Canyon Desert Bark Santa Rita Apache Stone Sedimentary Limestone Granitic Schist Sedimentary Limestone Wallostonite Lava Limestone Sandstone Pumice Sedimentary Shale Oolitic Limestone Oolitic Limestone Unknown Quartzite Unknown Shale Sedimentary Limestone Shale Color Texture Off White to Gray Tan to Rust Cream to Rust Brown to Black Black White Tan and Red Gray-Black Gray-Green-Plum Cream Cream Red w/Yellow Green w/White Red w/Yellow Red to Brown Cream to Gray Green-Red-Pink Flat to Uneven Flat to Uneven Flat Rough to Rugged Rough to Rugged Irregular Smooth Rough Smooth Irregular Smooth Irregular Irregular Irregular Irregular Flat Flat 3. Curing time increases with cold temperatures and decreases with warmer temperatures. to assure an adequate design and installation. The development of stone in construction has been a continually evolving process.

Today. Marble and granite age gracefully with passing years and weather nature’ s fury with serenity. as necessary. the v arying characteristics of individual units enhance the beauty of the finished product. This is possible due to the manufacturers’ ability to make stone thinner and in larger face sizes. For selfsupporting stone. Typically. Where the new stone is to be installed. is less expensive and the manufacturing technology for producing thinner stone which could fit in the evolving curtain wall has advanced to make stone lighter. Products of refined recipes of minerals and matter combined under controlled processes to yield clearly measurable and predictable physical behavior are concrete. The initial tests of the material to discover the basic strength values and the variability are required even before beginning to design the stone’ s support. superimposed pressures. . even when the stone is unpredictable and widely varying compared to other materials. to assure strength conformance of the stone since natural stone wasn’ t created within a quality control program. yielding non-isotropic and uneven mixture of substance with moderately irregular and changeable behavior. to assure aesthetic characteristics. the need for testing to determine the behavior properties is a requirement. Stone engineering requires stone strength characteristics be confirmed throughout the project. Extracting deposits in the original or natural place and then changing rough stone blocks into thin slabs typically increase any natural inconsistent behaviors due to imperfections. a review is required prior to the stone installation to permit adjustments of anchorage or thickness to be incorporated into the design of the facade area.NATURAL STONE Features of stone construction include natural beauty. with or without reinforcement or special support considerations. Inconsistent properties can be accommodated into a safe and permanent building system. the results of which. aluminum. Initial testing is the only acceptable data source for engineering when it comes to natural stone. Thus. maintains the same indigenous and varying physical characteristics that it did in the ground. 3. analysis of risk and consequence of a potential failure is essential. prospective anchorage types and redundancy are parameters that should be considered in the implementation of this objective information. Natural stone contains varying minerals. and eternal strength. are compared to the initial testing values and conclusions. This requires that practices be developed to evaluate each stone’ s ability to function as a structural component combined with other different elements within a building’ s skin. grooves. While published strength values are practical. natural stone has been incorporated in massive architecture as one of the preferred building claddings. designers have included stone in their material palette in recognition of that inherent permanence and durability. rubber and other familiar curtain wall building materials. friction. the quality control program usually consists of tests conducted on smaller sample quantities. the historic anchorage approaches of stacking. As with any masonry product. Using the same initial testing sequence. For predicting the utility of stone. Stone used in buildings is not new and was utilized as a shelter in ancient times. permanence and safety. these values are never acceptable data for natural stone engineering. Over the last four decades. mass and gravity have been replaced by pins. steel. these tests are the designer’ s foundation.6 PHYSICAL NATURE Stone is a natural material which. Before a final judgment on factor of safety is provided. as an end product. marble and granite do not lose beauty with age as do so many other materials. Support backup behavior climate. The buyer must conduct quality control testing. subliminal feeling of security. Stone that appears to exceed its own carrying capacity can be self-supporting under wind or seismic loads. In addition. glass. To assure basic strengths and inconsistencies. when completed. natural stone may not be the correct material selection. a similar program is introduced which requires visual inspection of the production stone supplied and comparison to an approved range of sam ples. Conclusions drawn from the initial testing of a generous sampling of the selected stone become the foundation of structural proof of each stone panel’ s adequacy. Natural stone is easy to obtain.7 EVALUATING STONE Tests that measure physical properties are important in evaluating material durability. do not depart from the safe useful range established on the conclusions of the initial tests. 41 3. wedges and other means of positive anchorage. If consistency in the final product is desired. even within the same quarried block. This data is collected by statistical analysis to determine standard differences and mean values from which correct factors of safety are suggested.

The major metamorphic stones utilized in construction are slate and marble. frequently with beautiful patterns of veining. . limestone. rift and moisture susceptibility which must be evaluated. Missouri. Due to its soft consistency limestone is easy to quarry and shape. however. Typically. green and red and is quarried in Vermont and Pennsylvania. Marble used in the United States comes from Georgia. Granite is a mosaic of mineral crystals.3 LIMESTONE The principal sedimentary stones used in construction are limestone and sandstone. resulting in location-dependent physical properties. None of them will accept a high polish. which provide difference in color and patterned movement. is non-crystalline and has very uniform composition. Also. granite may also be quarried in highly consistent grains. displays closely spaced planes of cleavage. The surface can be finished in a number of textures including a mirror-like polish. pink. non-isotropicity. strong and durable. Most natural stone has veins or rifts. width and throughout the mass. travertine and sandstone are the most common. The marble colors vary from white to black with a wide variety of hues. black and nearly every color. purple. Most limestones originated from the deposits of shellfish and fossils of marine invertebrates. granite resists severe environments. resulting in wetness dependent physical properties. The physical characteristics of each stone is distinctive which affects applicability to numerous building designs. Limestone contains several natural characteristics. In the sampling testing programs the designer must recognize that different stones possess different degrees of heterogeneity. Tennessee and Vermont. Limestone may experience discoloration and disintegration from air pollution and show erosion over time. This means it is possible to get a large square footage of granite with similar color and pattern. 3. is considerably softer than granite. and can be obtained in a range of colors that includes gray. They can be found in a strongly stratified form. It is the most commonly stone quarried for construction in North America. hard. black. when subjected to greater wear and weathering. Due to its highly polished finish. Marble is a recrystallized form of limestone. Europe. buff and green. red. Marble is available in white. It is soft. which means that there exists a predominant direction of crystal flow resulting in direction-dependent physical properties. blue. This stone is known as the hardest building stone with a very dense grain. the natural composition of natural stone differs along length. chemicals or air pollution. Marble.9. Granite may be mixed with other minerals to provide color and different patterned movement. composed of fine to coarse-grained recrystallized calcite and/or dolomite. which makes it resistant to stain. which consequently freezes and cracks the stone with the corners more vulnerable to fissures and chipping. the most permanent of building stones.9. suitable for use in contact with the ground or exposed to severe weathering. or in deposits that show little stratification (free-stone). which makes it easily carved and polished.9. However. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of calcites or calcium carbonate. which allows it to split into sheets usable for roof shingles and thin wall facings. marble is crystalline white calcite. In the United States granite is quarried primarily in the eastern mountains and the upper Midwest. Marble is not appropriate for environments where it will be exposed to many foods. With very little movement. since it may stain. In addition. 3. Slate comes black.1 GRANITE Granite is an igneous rock created in the deep part of the earth’ s crust and slowly cooled and hardened under great pressure.2 MARBLE Marble is a metamorphic rock. 3. marble.9 VARIATIONS In today’ s stone industry there are many different types of building stones. gray. When it is at its purest form. although rifts are almost invisible with some dense granites. The characteristics and physical properties of these important building stones are described below. granite. The surface of all marbles may trap water. Granite is nonporous.8 PROPERTIES The composition of natural stone is an uneven mixture of many mineral and fossil ingredients.42 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 3. texture and structure. Slate formed from clay. the majority of marbles are mixed with impurities such as dolomite silica or clay. and recently Africa has increased marble quarrying. 3. which makes it marine in origin. the presence of moisture modifies stone’ s behavior. brown. Italy and Greece also have large sources. principally feldspar and quartz.

particularly hot springs. Two types of sandstone are brownstone.4.5 SANDSTONE Sandstone is a sedimentary rock usually consisting of quartz cemented with silica. Travertine is marble-like and has a polished surface which brings out the full color and the character of this stone. but are vulnerable to frost damage when saturated. and bluestone. Brownstone is a variety of sandstone.9. the finished pieces of stone are marked to match the precise position in the building and delivered to the construction site. Most limestones are easy to work with. It is considered a precipitate calcium carbonate formed by deposits of warm or hot water. FIGURE 3. A quarried block with an Edge . a presentation of these items can help in the stone decision process. edged.4 TRAVERTINE Travertine exhibits characteristics similar to limestone and it is classified as sedimentary rock. Ohio. Sandstone is easy to quarry and shape due to its soft consistency. Block FIGURE 3.4 A quarried block and a cut slab. Sandstone has a wide range of colors. 3.5 Bedded slab. typically used in wall construction. brought into the mill. limestone may be composed either of calcium carbonate or a mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonates. Thin slabs of stone should be cut from a large block of quarried stone so that the slabs will be attached to the structure in the same perspective they had in the quarry as shown in Figure 3. or planed to a molding profile to give the desired surface. However. principally for paving and wall copings. and sawed into slabs. When quarried. As indicated on the shop drawings. Several sedimentary rocks are cut out from the quarry strata and used as rubble masonry. The designer’ s drawings are used to guide the work of the mill in producing the stones. Colors range from white through gray and buff to iron oxide red. depending on the presence of other minerals. from red to yellow to white. iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Colors range from light buff through tan to brown and shades of red. rough blocks of stone are selected in the quarry. limestone is a porous stone that contains considerable ground water (quarry sap). the majority of building stones must be cut from the quarry in big blocks.NATURAL STONE Major quarries for large dimension stone located in Indiana and Missouri supply limestone throughout North America. The stone becomes harder and is resistant to frost damage after seasoning in the air. It is vulnerable to erosion and deterioration from air pollution. Finishing may require the stone slabs to be sawed.9. Originally formed by the skeletons or shells of marine organisms. Sandstone is quarried primarily in New York. 43 The stone producer works from the designer’ s drawings when preparing cut stone for a building to make a set of shop drawings that show each individual stone and how it is to be dimensioned and shaped. Block 3. Then. and Pennsylvania and formed from deposits of sand (silicon dioxide).10 QUARRYING AND MILLING Since the quarrying and milling process affect the finish stone qualities. 3. carved. planed flat.

9 Finishing for matched patterns is on adjacent faces.8 Finishing for blend or slip patterns is on the same face of each slab. The stones could have a tendency to scale off in layers. The natural seams are exposed on the surface and could wash out in time. Blend Pattern . Consideration of the veining or rifts is essential for the aesthetics of natural stone.7 and 3.A random arrangement of stone panels that may or may not be from the same block.6 A quarried block with a Face Bedded slab. 1 2 FIGURE 3. panel arrangements should be planned for groupings of four panels of equal size. . 2 1 FIGURE 3.44 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Figure 3. The pattern is arranged to uniformly blend the different stones into the wall. If no pattern is specified then a blend pattern will be provided. 3 4 FIGURE 3. 43 21 FIGURE 3. This type of stone is called edge bedded.7 Quarried block of stone ready for fabrication into slabs. For optimum pattern uniformity. FIGURE 3.5 illustrates a stone slab that is attached to a structure with the bedding planes perpendicular to the face of the wall. The architect may visit the quarry and view the quarried block prior to the cutting of the slabs.10 Blend Pattern. When the bedding planes are parallel to the face of the wall it is called face bedded as shown in Figure 3. The drawings shown in Figures 3.8 illustrate how the veins of the slab are related to the block.6. The figure is idealized. Actual stone patterns will have variations due to the portion of the stone that will be lost during fabrication and sawing.

12 Matched 2 Pattern. Match Pattern . 1 FIGURE 3.A combination of book matching stone slab veneer from the same block so that veining patterns are mirror imaged in the adjacent stones.Stone slab panels are placed side by side so that veining patterns run parallel with each other and is usually done with stones from the same block. FIGURE 3.Stone panels from the same block are inverted and finished on adjacent surfaces so the veining will be a mirror image.11 45 Quarter or Diamond Matched Pattern .13 Pattern.NATURAL STONE Slip Pattern . 1 2 3 4 Slip Pattern. FIGURE 3. Quarter or Diamond Match .

46 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Kerlan Jobe Medical Center. California. Hawthorne. . Los Angeles. California. FAA Federal Credit Union. Soka University. Aliso Viejo. California.

means cooked or baked clay. and it was in the clay plains of Northern Italy that terra cotta was first predominantly employed over other materials in architectural construction and ornamentation. of so-called terra cotta lumber resulted in a confusion of terminology and the application of the name ‘ terra cotta’to products which have little or no resemblance to the original product or to its rightful successor. about 1883. which is left porous after the burning by the sawdust being consumed. This clay is fired at high temperatures to give nearly glass hardness and compact. Terra cotta lumber. Pompeii. The inspiration of modern designs in architectural terra cotta is largely drawn from these works. It is then carried to the ground floor and dried on a brick floor heated by flues running underneath it from a furnace. There it is shoveled into a compressor. architectural terra cotta shapes of the simplest designs were machine made. as it is now known. not as homogeneuos and coarser in texture. is described by Davis in his book previously referenced to as follows: “ The New York Terra Cotta Lumber Company has established large works at Perth Amboy for the manufacture of lumber by mixing resinous sawdust with the wet clay. and remains in that portion of the building for a time to stiffen. “ Manufacture of Bricks. the shapes or blocks are molded and carved or otherwise decorated by hand. through which it passes to the floor below.” According to Davis terra cotta is of ancient origin and like brick. This ancient process has been used for thousands of years. ‘ Terra Cotta’ is more descriptive of the ancient material which was usually less burned. terra cotta was produced even in the days of early Greece with ceramic slips as well as natural finishes. Like brick. the present architectural terra cotta. The material is thoroughly ground and mixed in a mill and carried to the upper portion of the building by an elevator bucket belt. and Mediaeval Italy. especially those structures erected from the middle of the thirteenth century until the commencement of the sixteenth century. and. and is forced through a die into any requisite shape. A special aged clay is used which can be molded into simple building units or into very ornate three-dimensional figures. is described by Charles Thomas Davis in his book. The development. Terra Cotta or Architectural Terra Cotta. Etruria. . Following the development of the extrusion brick machine.CHAPTER 4 TERRA COTTA 4. The term is of Italian derivation. as produced by the New York Terra Cotta Company in 1884. Tiles and Terra Cotta. Terra cotta was largely used for architectural decorations in Greece.1 GENERAL Terra cotta is a Latin word that means “ baked earth” . literally translated. as follows: “ Terra cotta is but another name for architectural enrichments of brickwork of various designs and shapes. Rome.” published in 1884. Current manufacturing processes yield a material that is kiln-fired for quality and durability and well-mixed for more consistent and smoother texture.

The material is also being used increasingly in new construction. and produces in that period about one hundred and eighty tons of fireproof lumber.’Mr. T he Woolworth Building. These authors report: “ He was a clay manufacturer who in 1883 made the experiment of mixing prairie soil with clay and found that it burned to a light porous block. Although used in construction since ancient times. he exclaimed: ‘ This is what I have always been looking for. Buildings such as the historic Rookery Building in Chicago. Gilman was the actual discoverer of the method of making this porous fireproofing. there has been a steady and increasingly large demand for these hollow blocks. which he subsequently fired and placed under a receptacle for heating coffee. were used extensively during the early part of the 20th century and since these products were produced from the same raw materials as terra cotta lumber. floors and fireproofing iron or steel structural members. have passed their 100th anniversary with the terra cotta intact and in good condition. It served as an excellent cladding which architects appreciated for its fire safety. where it is brought to a high heat.” cladding material on skeletal-framed structures. used for partitions. designed by Burnham & Root. as previously indicated. they were improperly referred to as terra cotta or porous terra cotta. it is true that ever since the introduction of fireproofing in the New Jersey works. It is next planed. However. . produced from clays to which high (30-50) percentages of sawdust had been added. increasing interest in the preservation and conservation of historic structures has returned terra cotta to the attention of the building industry. in their book. tongued. Whether or not Mr. credited the discovery of terra cotta lumber to a man named Gilman of Eldora. which burns out the sawdust and fuses clay particles. It is frequently used for special ornamental work and architectural detail. as well as for its aesthetic appeal. and now New Jersey stands as the leading producer.” Hollow brick. the term terra cotta has for centuries been applied to decorative molded clay units whose properties are similar to brick. NY. Heinrich Ries and Henry Leighton. grooved.48 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL It then goes in the form of slabs to the kilns. terra cotta can enjoy a long and successful service life. whether filled with sawdust or not. terra cotta enjoyed renewed popularity in North America from the late 19th century through the 1920’ s as a FIGURE 4. Terra cotta can be molded into any designs or architectural shapes or colors needed. This was used for absorbing alcohol. The attention of a New York architect being accidentally drawn to this porous block. light weight and low cost. Gilman sought to carry out the idea and hit upon the use of sawdust as a desirable substitute for prairie soil.”published in 1909. or sawed into any desirable shapes. If properly maintained.1 Decorative terra cotta. New York. This process takes about forty-eight hours. both for cladding and ornamental purposes. This material is now known as architectural terra cotta and it would appear that the term should be limited to this product alone. Iowa. “ History of the Clayworking Industry in the United States. a practice which still continues in some parts of the country. In recent years. for fireproofing purposes.

In the past. which hold horizontal bars threaded through holes formed in the webs of the terra cotta block. the units are glazed on surfaces that will be exposed when the block is set in the wall. feldspars.. it is fired clay.TERRA-COTTA 49 Today units are used as cladding are supported by steel shelf angles at floor levels.3 Terra cotta cornice. sand and grog. FIGURE 4. Also. Both hand pressed and extruded shapes are manufactured. They are processed and ground to enable a smooth surface. They can be ashlar units or have more intricate profiles. the hollow backs of the units were filled with masonry and mortar. Steel straps are set into slots at the back of each unit for horizontal support and tied to the anchorage system of the supporting wall. terra cotta units were laid up in the wall with narrow mortar joints using a cement-lime mortar. In some buildings. ball clay. metal ties were used providing positive anchorage of the terra cotta. above wall openings and at projections such as cornices.1. CA. FIGURE 4. Well engineered systems will withstand earthquake and severe weather conditions. The clays are a composition of fire clays. 4. with the fill keyed into the masonry backup wall. fired to vitrification and impervious to moisture. open at the back with several web stiffeners to reduce the weight of terra cotta manufactured for cladding.2 Rookery Building in Chicago designed by Burnham & Root. Two Rodeo Drive. . Beverly Hills. Typically. The projecting cornice units are suspended from the anchorage system by steel bolts. Typically terra cotta units are formed in hollow blocks.1 CHARACTERISTICS Toady terra cotta is used as a ceramic veneer.

Beverly Hills.50 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Two Rodeo Drive. . California.

Solid glass units also possess beneficial solar properties. 5. Standard glass block panels are limited in size by 2005 MSJC Code. such as police stations. Glass block faces may be clear. glass end block may be used to end interior partitions or walls as well as space dividers. A practical example of the use of solid units is for high security applications.1 m) in height. (203 mm x 203 mm) and 12 in.1 Glass block halves. Solar control units have either inserts or exterior coatings to reduce heat gain. x 12 in. or with integral relief forms. FIGURE 5. Check with the manufacturer for available products.2.1.CHAPTER 5 GLASS BLOCK 5. Exterior limitations are based on Design Wind Pressure with a maximum width dimension of 25 ft. When installed horizontally. (102 mm). (305 mm x 305 mm). Thick block.6 m) between supports or 20 ft. finished surface on one edge.3 FIGURE 5. Normal nominal face sizes for glass block are 6 in.2 Solid glass block.1 GENERAL Glass block is one of the most attractive and practical materials available to architects and designers. resistant to impact while allowing transparency. Glass block may also be solid. . Some styles offer half units for the 8 in. (7.2 SPECIAL SHAPES FIGURE 5. (76 mm) to 4 in. x 6 in. (152 mm x 152 mm). The typical thickness of glass block ranges from 3 in. figured. x 8 in. Glass block widen the aesthetic possibilities of glass whi le combining unique design and f unct ion characteristics. 8 in. End block units have a rounded. (203 mm) module. These half units can be oriented vertically or horizontally. (6. Section 7. The glass block unit is made by combining two halves together with a partial vacuum inside.

6 Glass block entrance.7 Light diffusion.8 Sound reduction. FIGURE 5. 53/4” 53/4” 37/8” Mortar /4” 1 Glass block unit corner block Horizontal reinforcement Glass block unit 37/8” FIGURE 5. Corner block. is provided by glass block. among light transmitting materials. is the most successful insulator against heat and cold.52 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL FIGURE 5. 5.3 GLASS BLOCK PROPERTIES One of the major characteristics of glass block is allowing soft daylight into a building while controlling undesirable heat and glare. Solar reflective glass block screens out approximately 70% of the sun’ s heat while standard glass block screens out approximately 35% of the sun’ s heat.5 The maximum sound insulation possible among light transmitting materials. Glass block. FIGURE 5. including double glazing.4 FIGURE 5. These units may also be placed together for varying patterns and forms. Manufacturers produce special shapes for executing corner designs. . End block.

10 Condensation reduction. the other surface usually remains intact and the unit can easily be replaced by a mason without interruption of normal activities. Today’ s architecture glass block is emerging as a classic building material. . The glass block is noncombustible and has the highest fire resistive capacity among any light transmitting materials. Architect Peter Hamilton demonstrates the versatility of glass block in his design at 136 Cumberland Street. The designer’ s imagination is the only limitation in the application of glass block. for function and beauty.GLASS BLOCK 53 Panels of glass block are strong and provide security without a closed-in feeling. when one surface of a glass block is broken. FIGURE 5. partitions and skylights. 5. The architect Gwathmay Siegel used glass block for a bridge in the Disney World Convention and Exhibition Center. Glass block also allows the control of noise. translucency. partitions. skylights. windows and stairways. Selection of glass block includes plain and patterned surfaces with variations in transparency. The high levels of condensation related to wide temperature variations between interior and exterior is reduced significantly with glass block. The flexibility of masonry installation offers a wide range of design possibilities for walls. including curved and serpentine shapes. facades. which range from walkways. FIGURE 5. Security can also be achieved when using bullet-resistant glass block.9 Heat dissipation. Typically.11 Fire resistance. both natural and artificial. Toronto. glass block units permit the control of light. combining unique and highly desirable functional values with versatility as a design element.4 GLASS BLOCK APPLICATIONS FIGURE 5. dust and thermal transmission.12 Security. interior dividers. In all applications. light directive. floors. FIGURE 5. solar reflection and color options. windows.

. Disney World Convention & Exhibition Center.13 Glass block bridge.54 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL FIGURE 5.14 Glass block walk-in shower. Toronto. FIGURE 5. Glass block panel.16 Glass block jacuzzi enclosure.15 FIGURE 5. Cumberland Street. FIGURE 5.

and later in 1919.CHAPTER 6 REINFORCING STEEL 6.400 km) long Great Wall of China. .1 Long Beach earthquake of 1933. formulas developed in the middle 1800’ s for the design of reinforced concrete became the forerunners of the reinforced masonry design methods. British Undersecretary of India. Numerous unreinforced masonry buildings in Long Beach were severely damaged by the earthquake and it became evident that an improved type of masonry construction was required. Ancient Greece and Rome were built primarily of brick and stone as was the 1500 mile (2. reinforced masonry has been developing for only the last two centuries. The first major use of reinforced masonry in the United States occurred in 1931. 75 ft (23 m) deep caisson. Later in 1923. one was 25 ft (7. and Peru were constructed of stone masonry. The data obtained from the tests provided answers to many of the questions which had been raised regarding reinforced masonry construction. With the development of Portland cement around the year 1850. Reinforced masonry construction is a relatively new application to an old material. earthquake. Two 52 ft (16 m) high reinforced brick masonry sand storage bins were constructed for Wedron Silica Company of Illinois. Brunel used 30 in.6 m) in diameter. reinforced masonry beams were constructed and tested. In 1913. on extensive tests conducted on reinforced brick masonry. Abe Brentner. Soon it was discovered that using Portland cement in masonry mortars increased the strength of masonry assemblage. (762 mm) thick iron reinforced brick masonry walls in the construction of a 50 ft (15 m) diameter.1 GENERAL Unreinforced masonry has been used throughout the world since the earliest known history. reported FIGURE 6. California. and the other 16 ft (4. The first use of reinforced masonry is credited to Mark Isambard Brunel in 1825. Mexico. Significant impetus was added to the use of reinforced masonry following the 1933 Long Beach. thus leading to a close alliance and identit y between masonry and concrete. Moses made bricks of clay while the Egyptian pyramids and numerous temples in Guatemala.9 m) in diameter. Additionally. As part of the Thames Tunnel. Although structures throughout the world have been made of masonry for thousands of years. concrete and reinforced concrete were introduced. In biblical times.

27 (819) #11 (36) 5. . Sizes and Weight (ASTM A 615 Chart) 2 Inch-Pound Bar Nominal Dimensions Nominal Weight Size Diameter Cross Sectional Area lb.60 (387) #8 (25) 2. The temperature coefficient for steel. Structures subjected to severe lateral dynamic loads.128 (28.235) 0. Adequate grout coverage of the reinforcing steel. the reinforcing steel must be designed and placed properly to provide a continuous load path throughout the structure.5) 0. The designer must pay special attention to reinforcing steel details to ensure continuity. Reinforcing steel serves to resist the shear and tensile forces generated by the dynamic loads.2.500 (12.375 (9. A 767 and A 775 are generally not applicable since they cover low alloy. A 706. and ties in order to provide confinement.7) 1. 6.303 (6. steel.56 (1006) 1 2 Bar numbers are based on the number of eighths of an inch included in the nominal diameter of the bars (bar numbers approximate the number of millimeters of the nominal diameter of the bar).270 (32. The proper size and amount of reinforcement which complies with the limited minimum and maximum percentages of reinforcement and other code requirements.1 REINFORCING BARS For reinforced masonry construction.000 (25.560) 0. [34.56 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Reinforcing steel in masonry has been used extensively in the West since the 1930’ s. 7. A 775 or A 996 which specify the physical characteristics of the reinforcing steel. grout and the masonry units are very similar.668 (.3) 1.2 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT 6. The proper spacing of longitudinal and transversal reinforcement.042) 0. This similarity of thermal coefficients allows the different component materials to act together through normal temperature ranges.1 Reinforcing Steel Bar Designations.9 mm] diameter) as required by 2005 MSJC Code. Disruptive stresses are not created at the interface between the steel and the grout which would allow effective force transfer. 5. ASTM A 615 and A 996 list the requirements for reinforcing steel manufactured from billet. 2. grout. toughness and energy absorption that is necessary in structures subjected to the dynamic forces of earthquakes.3. zinccoated and epoxy-coated reinforcing steel which are seldom used in masonry construction.79 (510) #9 (29) 3. A 767.400 (5. Reinforced masonry performs well because the materials. Adequate lapping of the reinforcing bars. The Strength Design Provisions of 2005 MSJC Code Section 3. The minimum reinforcement protection.1. Sufficient anchorage of flexural and shear reinforcing bars. Reinforcing steel extends the characteristics of ductility.2.404) 1.1 limits the maximum size of reinforcement to a #9 bar. spirals. This reinforcing steel must conform to ASTM A 615. Sufficient stirrups.625 (15.750 (19. and mortar.5 mm] diameter) to a maximum size of #11 (13/8 in. In order for the reinforcing steel to provide adequate ductility and strength. must be capable of providing the necessary strength or energy absorbing capacity and ductility to withstand these forces. unreinforced masonry.907) 1.44 (284) #7 (22) 2. (mm) in (mm ) #3 (10) 0.00 (645) #10 (32) 4.7) 0. 6.8) 1./ft.552) 0.994) 0.043 (1. deformed bars range in size from #3 (3/8 in.11 (71) #4 (13) 0.9) 0. 4. 3.4) 0.3.31 (199) #6 (19) 1. (kg/m) 1 2 2 Designation (mm) in.875 (22. work together as a single structural unit. It can also provide sufficient ductility to the masonry structure so that the structure can sustain load reversals beyond the capability of plain.13. revitalizing the masonry industry in earthquake prone areas.044 (3.1) 0. masonry units. [9.313 (7.670 (3.376 (. ASTM A 707. The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a plain round bar having the same weight (mass) per foot (meter) as the deformed bar. metal plates.502 (2. rail and axle steel respectively.20 (129) #5 (16) 1.2) 0. The following items must be provided: 1. Section 1.060) 1. mortar.410 (35.973) 1. Table 6. such as earthquakes.

R for Rail. there are two grade mark lines.2 4 Grade mark Grade line (One line only) Grade 420 (Metric) Reinforcement Identification –Grade 60 Steel. #5 and #6 sizes. Grade 300 (Metric) . The identification marks are shown in Figures 6.2).000 psi (276 MPa) or Grade 60 minimum with a minimum yield strength of 60. If Grade 40 steel is required. For grade 75 steel.000 psi (414 MPa). with a minimum yield strength of 40. #4.2 and 6.REINFORCING STEEL Reinforcing steel may be either Grade 40. for Grade 60 steel (grade is shown as a marked 60 or One (1) grade mark line (Figure 6. S for Billet. A designer should verify that the grades and sizes of reinforcement are available in the geographic area of a given project. Main ribs Main ribs H Initial of producing mill H 11 Bar size #11 11 Type of steel (Billet) S Grade mark 60 S H Initial of producing mill H 36 Bar size #36 36 Type of steel (Billet) S S Grade line (One line only) Grade 60 (English) FIGURE 6.3 and described in descending order: 1st—Producing Mill (usually an initial) 2nd—Bar Size Number (#3 through #18/#10 thru #55) 3rd—Type of steel (Type A for Axle. Main rib Main rib H Initial of producing mill H Initial of producing mill 6 Bar size #6 19 Bar size #19 S Type of steel (Billet) S Type of steel (Billet) Grade 40 (English) FIGURE 6.) 4th—Grade of reinforcement. made bars.3 57 Reinforcement Identification –Grade 40 Steel. W for Low Alloy. special note must be made to ensure delivery. The grade mark line is smaller and between the two main longitudinal ribs which are on opposite sides of all U.S. Grade 60 steel is furnished in all sizes. while Grade 40 steel bars are normally available in #3.

6 Pilaster reinforcement.7 Column reinforcement. The most common uses of joint reinforcement are: 1.2. such as tension and shear. . To act as a continuous tie system for veneer and cavity walls.4 Heavily reinforced masonry wall.58 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL FIGURE 6. 4.8 Corner reinforcement. FIGURE 6. 2. 6.5 Typical wall reinforcement. To control shrinkage cracking in masonry walls. 3. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 6. To function as designed reinforcement that resists forces in the masonry. FIGURE 6. To provide part or all of the minimum steel required.2 JOINT REINFORCEMENT High strength steel wire fabricated in ladder or truss type configurations placed in the bed joints to reinforce the wall in the horizontal direction is called joint reinforcement.

(406 mm) on center. the designer should not be concerned which type is used. Plain. When vertical reinforcement is combined with horizontal joint reinforcement.10 FIGURE 6. In addition to wire material conforming to ASTM A 82. Ladder type joint reinforcement spaced at 16 in. for Concrete Reinforcement. ladder type joint reinforcement is far more practical since the perpendicular cross wires will not interfere with the vertical reinforcement when the joint reinforcement is properly placed.11 Truss type joint reinforcement.9 Ladder type joint reinforcement. in a concrete masonry wall.13 Truss type joint reinforcement tying brick veneer face to concrete masonry wall. FIGURE 6. .12 Truss type joint reinforcement spaced at 16 in. FIGURE 6. Since truss-type and ladder type joint reinforcement equally satisfy the code requirements. Standard Specification for Masonry Joint Reinforcement.REINFORCING STEEL 59 Joint reinforcement must meet the requirements of ASTM A 951. FIGURE 6. vertically. FIGURE 6. Standard Specification for Steel Wire. (406 mm) on center in a concrete masonry wall.14 Ladder type joint reinforcing tying brick veneer face to concrete masonry wall. FIGURE 6. longitudinal wires must be deformed.

Glass block Masonry mortar Joint reinforcement FIGURE 6.60 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL FIGURE 6.15 Ladder type joint reinforcement tying two wythes of a brick wall together.16 Joint reinforcement in glass block wall. .

can be designed to carry both vertical and lateral (horizontal) loads.1 Egyptian Pyramid located in Giza constructed around 2.C. 2006 Random House Webster’ s Unabridged Dictionary. In fact. Structural masonry. limestone veneer covered some of the pyramids in Egypt and pieces of it can still be seen at the top of the Great Pyramid. as a facing of brick applied to a frame house. to face or cover (an object) with a material that is more desirable as a surface material than the basic material of the object” The use of v eneer is by no means a new development. is carried by a system behind the veneer –a backup system. the masonry veneer is relatively thin compared to the structural wall. the veneer also increases the fire resistance. by contrast. noise resistance and water resistance over a non-veneered wall. The primary difference between masonry veneer and structural masonry is that veneer is designed to carry only its own vertical weight. The lateral loading.” Masonry veneer is a system which uses clay brick.” Similarly. but not counted as adding strength to the wall. Lateral loads are transferred FIGURE 7. enclose and protect a building.A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of providing ornamentation. Additionally. Three of these definitions are particularly appropriate to the presentation of masonry veneer: Since veneer is not intended to resist lateral loads. © 2006 provides eight definitions for the word veneer.1 GENERAL directly from the veneer into the structural backup.500 B. to give a superficially valuable or pleasing appearance to.” Yet the veneer still provides both the beauty and durability of masonry. a facing of a certain material applied to a different one or to a type of construction not ordinarily associated with it. Cheops. stone or terra cotta to adorn. . “ 6. Building Trades. the 2006 International Building Code defines veneer in Section 1402. “ 8. seismic or other lateral loads.CHAPTER 7 VENEER 7.1 as follows: “ VENEER . “ 3. concrete masonry. due to wind. protection or insulation.

5) is still required to support the veneer for lateral loads. Thus. 7. W eatherproof membrane W eatherproof membrane Sheathing board Sheathing board Mortar net Concrete masonry unit Flashing Brick veneer Flashing Non-combustible veneer support FIGURE 7. concrete masonry units. (0. Shelf angles are typically installed at each floor level of multistory buildings in high seismic exposure so that the vertical loads on the veneer are not excessive and so the structural frame can move slightly without damaging the masonry veneer. Stainless steel is workable.7 mm) compressible pad or space is placed directly beneath the shelf angle allows for minor movements. prevent water from penetrating into the building interior by directing water toward the exterior face of the veneer. 7. although only stainless steel flashings are recommended. Historically most flashings were made from 10 to 20 ounce per square foot (3. the ease which they may be worked with and record of performance. Type 304. A 1/4 in.25 mm) thick and should meet the requirements of ASTM A 167. When stainless steel sheet metal flashing is used. economy and durability.05 to 6. stone and terra cotta. . Similarly. Other material considerations related to masonry veneer include anchoring and support systems. galvanized steel and stainless steel are also used.2 SHELF ANGLES Corrosion resistant shelf angles are provided to support only the weight of the veneer. asphaltimpregnated membranes and vinyl membranes. Shelf angles are also used to support the weight of veneer above window and door openings. as well as long term brick expansion. to 1/2 in. a backup system (Section 7.2 Masonry flashing material. As noted. flashing. Advantages of such materials include availability in a variety of preformed shapes. yet capable of resisting rough handling at the job-site. These materials perform quite well but their use has steadily decreased due to the initial cost and the potential for staining and galvanic corrosion. cathedrals and monuments for beauty. such as sheet metals. Aluminum flashings should be used with extreme caution since the wet and alkali environment of mortar can corrode aluminum. some galvanized flashings can corrode in fresh mortar and the galvanized coating may crack during bending and handling. architects have historically chosen masonry veneer to adorn churches.3 FLASHING Flashing materials. it should be at least 0. Sheet metal flashing of aluminum. This accommodates shrinkage of concrete and wood frame buildings.62 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Additionally.11 kg/m2) copper or lead sheeting. It does not stain and is available in several gauges and finishes. Stainless steel sheet metal flashing provide an excellent corrosion resistant water barrier.01 in.4 to 12. weep holes and expansion joints. (6. masonry veneer facing consists of clay brick.

the plastic tubes may be removed when the section of veneer is complete. cotton wick ropes rot. 2 layers of asphalt impregnated sheets such as 30 lb. to ensure satisfactory performance. Accordingly.0 mm). also called bituminous fabrics or building felt. ideally leaving clear drainage holes. (406 mm) on center.5 to 1. therefore the wick ropes should be placed approximately 16 in.VENEER Asphalt impregnated membrane flashing.5 mm) in diameter have been used to drain moisture from cavity and veneer walls.4 WEEP HOLES 63 Mortar disturbing material Sheathing board Brick veneer Weep holes Flashing Non-combustible veneer support One quarter or 3/8 in. thus rendering the tubes ineffective. Mortar droppings and other debris can lodge at the entrance of the tube. The designer should also be aware that low permeability membranes may allow condensation when applied to the entire structural backup. the ropes or tubes are removed to form clear weep openings. W eatherproof membrane Plastic and rubber-like flashings can perform well when properly designed and installed with care. is increasingly used as a flashing material since it is more economical than sheet metal f lashing and is easy to install. Water in the cavity is absorbed by the material and wicked to the exterior where it evaporates. These layers overlap more resistant flashing at shelf angles and supports.3 Weep hole devices. to /8 in. Use a non-permeable. In such a system. After construction of the veneer is complete. (13. not low permeable. Nylon and hemp are also available for use as weep hole material. (152 mm) and the 2 layers are offset by half the sheet width.4 or 9. The plastic tubes are less noticeable than open head joints. Another type of weep hole is formed with 3/16 to 3/8 in. To prevent clogging. . membrane. Unfortunately. This provides a large surface area for water to be absorbed into the wick despite the possibility of a few mortar droppings. These tubes are installed in the head joints at a slight slope to drain freely. This can be a very slow process.8 to 9. In time.5 mm) inside diameter plastic tubes can be used as weep holes. 7. The void made by the plastic tube will allow free passage of water to the building exterior. 3 FIGURE 7. hemp and nylon wick ropes about 1/4 in. There are many plastic flashing materials available. These wicks should be installed so that at least 6 in. Cotton.5 mm) diameter oiled rope or tube which is installed in the head joints of the veneer. asphalt impregnated flashing is less durable than sheet metal flashing and can tear during installation. but may have a problem of clogging. (6.6 kg) felt are installed over the structural backup so that all seams overlap at least 6 in. (4. durable and resistant to corrosion. Always consult with a reputable manufacturer and obtain test reports on the ultra-violet light resistance and durability of the proposed plastic flashing materials. use plastic flashing materials from 20 to 40 mils thick (0. some contractors place a few inches of pea gravel or a special mortar screen in the cavity between the veneer and the back up. They are resilient. Also.4 to 9. Additionally. (152 mm) of each wick rope penetrates into the cavity. asphalt systems are seldom used as the sole flashing material and instead are typically used in combination with other flashing materials. (6.

Additionally. definitions are given: Wall ties: Used to tie two wythes (widths) of masonry together. Only wall ties and anchors are directly related to anchored veneer construction. Wall ties are commonly manufactured from wire formed into either a square tie or joint reinforcement as shown in Figure 7. Additional veneer tie detail requirements are contained in 2005 MSJC Code. Airspace In no case should the tie be substandard to the most stringent minimum requirement that applies. The 2006 IBC Code Section 1405 provides tie requirements based on the type and application of masonry v eneer.5 CONNECTORS Square ties and horizontal joint reinforcement are the most common wall ties and are used in conjunction with structural masonry backup. An anchor may be a flat-type metal fabrication used to attach to the selected backup system. shelf anchor or foundation. When securing the veneer to the backup system. Fasteners should be installed in strict accordance with local codes and the manufacturer’ s instructions.5. Brick veneer Structural masonry backup 7.5. local practice. The ties are sized and spaced to provide adequate capacity in resisting applied loads. wall ties must be protected to resist corrosion as stated in both the MSJC Code and MSJC Specification. numerous types of connectors are used in masonry construction and the type utilized depends on the particular application. Brick veneer FIGURE 7. . as would be the case with cavity walls. Horizontal joint reinforcement Airspace Fasteners: Used to connect an appliance such as a sign or fixture to masonry.4. requirements and availability. The veneer system must also permit differential movement between the veneer and the backup.4 Typical wall tie systems. Anchors may also be wire fabricated. Structural masonry backup Horizontal joint reinforcement There are three main categories of connectors and since industry terminology is often ambiguous. Samples of anchors are shown in Figure 7. Chapter 6.64 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 7. Airspace Brick veneer Structural masonry backup Anchors: Used to secure veneer masonry to a supporting structure such as a stud backup wall or a structural steel column.1 WALL TIES Horizontal joint reinforcement Wall ties are used to connect two wythes of masonry together and are designed and sized based on prescriptive standards.

latitude should be exercised in the selection of the anchor. . anchors. hot-dip galvanized. sheet metal anchors. and inserts exposed to earth or weather. Manufacturers are helpful in providing selection assistance and product data to ensure that the anchor will provide a quality connection. steel plates and bars. 65 7. Wall ties.5.2 ANCHORS There are different types of anchors available and when properly designed and fabricated. FIGURE 7. or stainless steel for all other cases. and inserts shall be mill galvanized. Unless there are specific design requirements that dictate the type of anchor required.VENEER Wall ties.6 Typical non-seismic ties. FIGURE 7. work efficiently. or exposed to a mean relative humidity exceeding 75 percent shall be stainless steel or protected from corrosion by hot-dip galvanized coating or epoxy coating.5 Typical seismic veneer anchors.

7. .66 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL New Zealand. La Palle’flexible veneer anchor (New Zealand). this tie is excellent for transferring the lateral loads to the backup system while allowing for relative movement in the horizontal and vertical directions with the backup system. An effective and popular brick anchor in that region is the La Palle’ flexible tie connection. FIGURE 7.7 As shown in Figure 7. uses a significant amount of masonry veneer. which is an active seismic region.

It actually does both. O and K. It provides compressive strength. Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. 5. It can provide color and contrast to the wall. stronger is not better. ‘ Softer’ mortar will increase bond.1 SELECTION OF MORTAR T YPES 2.2 are guides for the selection of mortar type. S. Some claim that mortar holds the units apart while others claim it holds the masonry units together. In its most general terms. The performance of masonry is influenced by various mortar properties such as workability. With mortar.1 MORTAR Mortar is a basic component of masonry. N. Historically. It seals irregularities of the masonry unit and provides a weather-tight wall which prevents penetration of wind and water through the wall. it is used infrequently. 9. The historic designation of mortar types recognized five types of mortar which were designated as M. 4. mortar is also used for the following purposes: 1. Types N and O. durability. The types are identified by every other letter of the two word phrase “ MaSoN wOrK” . 6. 3. 8. water retentivity. Selection of the proper mortar type provides the optimum properties for the intended use. ox blood and earth. .1 TYPES OF MORTAR The requirements for mortar are provided in ASTM C 270. Type K is no longer referenced in ASTM C 270. Modern mortar consists of cementitious materials and well-graded sand with sufficient fines to create a plastic mixture that will bind masonry units together. therefore. Some ancient mortar mixtures were plain mud or clay.CHAPTER 8 MORTAR AND GROUT 8. It provides an architectural expression by using various types of joints. Tables 8. and compressive strength. mortar has been made from many different materials. While type “ O”is referenced in the ASTM Standards.1. and sand with lime. In addition to binding the masonry units. Thus there are three mortar types that are commonly specified and used. however are not permitted for use in higher seismic lateral load resisting systems. earth with ashes. 7. mortar is a plastic mixture of materials used to bind masonry units into a structural mass. 8. It bonds the units together. mortar with less cement will provide the better system.1. It is a bedding or seating material for the masonry unit. It allows the masonry unit to be leveled and properly placed. bond strength.1 and 8. Types M. 8. It provides shear strength. Selection of mortar type should also consider all applicable building codes and engineering practice standards.1. S and N. It allows some movement and elasticity between units.

d W hen structural reinforcement is incorporated in masonry cement mortar. interior walls and partitions. Table 8. pavements. = Recommended. 4.2) (12.895 kPa. such as chimney. in accordance with ASTM C 270.4) (5. or earthquakes. Alt. Mortar f or s uc h masonry should be selected with due caution. O Non-loadbearing walls and partitions.2) (2. . Type M or S mortar must be used for the lateral load resisting system in Seismic Design Categories D and E. a This aggregate ratio (measured in damp. (psi) 2500 1800 750 350 2500 1800 750 350 2500 1800 750 350 (17.1. reinforced masonry. Table 8. Type N or S mortar should be used in other cases.3. Masonry Cem ent M S N O M S N O M S N O Avg. Max (%) (%) 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 12 12 c 14 c 14 12 12 c 14 c 14 18 18 20 d 20 d For SI: 1 inch = 25.3 M ortar Properties a Mortar N Type S M or N 3 Cem ent Lim e Mortar Cem ent S or M N This table does not provide for many specialized mortar uses. This requirement provides additional strength and bond in structures located in high seismic risk areas. Based on ASTM C 270.1 Mortar Types-Classes of Construction Mortar Type Construction Suitability Designation M Masonry subjected to high compressive loads. Solid load bearing masonry with an actual compressive strength not exceeding 100 psi (690 kPa) not subject to weathering. 8. Property specifications are used for research so that the physical characteristics of a mortar can be determined and reproduced in subsequent tests.2 Guide for the Selection of Masonry 1.2) (12. Compressive b Strength at 28 days Min. masonry veneer and non-structural masonry partitions.1. Mortar that is to be mixed and used at the jobsite should never be specified by property specifications. Load-bearing wall Non-load bearing wall Parapet wall N 2 O S or M N or S Exterior.2) (2.5 The property requirements for mortar are given in Table 8.4) (17. 1 pound per square inch = 6.68 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 8. Residential basement construction. and compressive strength) of samples of the mortar mixed and tested in the laboratory.1. Masonry exposed to weather in a nominal horizontal surface is extremely vulnerable to weathering.4) (5. Type O mortar is recommended for use where the masonry is unlikely to be frozen when saturated or unlikely to be subjected to high winds or other significant lateral loads. walks and patios 3 S Interior Load bearing wall Non bearing partitions N O Exterior.4 mm. the maximum air content shall not exceed 12 percent. or materials. and acid resistant mortars. retaining wall. severe frost action.1. S Structures requiring high flexural bond strength and subject to compressive and lateral loads. N General use in above grade masonry. loose condition) shall not be less than 21/4 and not more than 3 times the sum of the separate volumes of cementitious materials. Alt.4) (17. Structures below or against grade such as retaining walls. and the properties (water retention.2 SPECIFYING MORTAR Field mortar should always be specified by type based on proportion specif ications.4) Water Air RetenContent tion Min. manholes. hurricane winds. Types N and O mortar are not permitted in the lateral load resisting system in Seismic Design Categories D and E.2.1 PROPERTY SPECIFICATIONS Property specifications are those in which the acceptability of the mortar is based on the properties of the ingredients.2) (12.1. Rec. the maximum air content shall not exceed 18 percent.2) (2.4 Mortars Location 2 3 4 5 Mortar Type 8. Rec. or high lateral loads from earth pressures. Table X1. air content.4) (5. = Alternative. at or below grade Foundation wall. sewers. above grade 1 Building Segment In accordance with the MSJC Code. Property specifications are intended for laboratory prepared mortar. b Average of three 2-inch cubes of laboratory-prepared mortar. c W hen structural reinforcement is incorporated in cement-lime or mortar cement mortars.

(31. The in-place mortar strength can be much higher than the test values. may be adjusted by the mason to provide proper workability under various field conditions. Additionally.4 Compressive Strength of Mortar Mortar 2" dia. because the in-place strength is quite high.5 may be used when laboratory or field tests demonstrate that the mortar.MORTAR AND GROUT Table 8. however. as well as the grout.4 is a comparison of the equivalent strength between cylinders and cube specimens for three types of mortar.3) 1800 (12. x 4" high 2" (50. Lateral compression P P 2 2 FIGURE 8. confine the mortar so that the inplace mortar strength is much higher than the strengths of the test specimens.8 mm) Type (50. m . and the time lapse between spreading mortar and placing the masonry unit should be kept to a minimum since the bond of the mortar will be reduced by a long delay in placing the units. f’ . A lack of bond at the interface of mortar and masonry unit may permit moisture penetration through hairline cracks. the masonry units above and below the mortar joint. the proportions by mortar type must be used as given in 2006 IBC Table 2103. The aspect ratio (h/t) of a mortar joint.5 mm) high to 11/4 in.5) 2500 (17.2) S 1500 (10. This concept is easily understood considering that a type O mortar with a property compressive strength of 1.4) N 625 (4. mortar will perform well even when tests on mortar are less than the specified strength of the mortar specimens.2. In addition to compressive strength requirements. where wind or seismic lateral forces must be considered.700 kPa). rather than a quantification evaluation. Workmanship can also affect bond strength.3) 750 (5. mortar compression is adequate even when the compressive strength of the entire masonry assemblage.000 psi (20.8 mm) wide is so small that a compressive failure mechanism in the mortar joint is difficult. Since the in-place mortar strength exceeds the cube and cylinder test strengths. 69 P 1 Table 8. will achieve the specified compressive strength of the masonry assemblage. When the proportions of ingredients are not specified. Mortars other than those approved in Table 8.1.400 kPa) can be used to construct prism assemblages with a compressive strength of 3. 8.8(1). Additionally. the bond shear strength may be investigated. typically 3/8 in.1 Bond Shear Strength of masonry unit and mortar.1. (9. is higher m than the cylinder and cube strengths.8 x 102 mm) Cube Specimen Cylinder psi (MPa) Specimen psi (MPa) M 2100 (14.800 psi (12. The field strength of mortar should be used only as a quality control test.2 PROPORTION SPECIFICATIONS Proportion specifications limit the amount of the constituent parts by volume. when combined with the masonry units. f’ . Water content. The use of lime in the mortar increases bond bet ween mortar and the masonry unit.2) 1 Lateral compression Lesser periods of time for testing may be used provided the relation between early tested strength and the 28 day strength of the mortar is established.

lime.6 Common Portland Cement-Lime Mortar Mixes Type M mortar: 1 part Portland cement 1 /4 part lime 1 3 /2 parts sand Type S mortar: 1 part Portland cement 1 /2 part lime 1 4 /2 parts sand Type N mortar: 1 part Portland cement 1 part lime 6 parts sand Type O mortar: 1 part Portland cement 2 parts lime 9 parts sand 8. Cement contributes durability.1. This material must meet the requirements of ASTM C 150 Standard Specification for Portland Cement.1.1.2. Lime contributes to workability.2. workability and board life (board life is defined as the time during which mortar is still plastic and workable).8(1) The most common Portland cement-lime mortar proportions by volume are in Table 8. 8. Table 8. high early strength and high compressive strength to mortar. 8. II or III. Portland cement. sand and water each making a unique contribution to a mortar’ s performance.70 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 1 Table 8. IIA or IIIA) is not recommended for masonry mortar because air entrainment can reduce the bond between mortar and the masonry units. Portland cement is the primary adhesive material and based on the water/cement ratio can produce high strength mortars. Both contribute to bond strength. Hydrated lime is used in conjunction with the Portland cement to provide the desired strength. The use of airentraining Portland cement (Type IA. Water is the ingredient which creates a plastic.1 CEMENTS Three types of cement are permitted to be used in mortar. Standard Specification for Mortar Cement and may be used in high seismic applications.2 MASONRY CEMENTS Masonry cement is a proprietary blend of Portland cement and plasticizers such as ground inert fillers and . water retentivity and elasticity. masonry cement and mortar cement.1. Sand acts as a filler and contributes to the strength. the type of Portland cement is limited to Type I.1 PORTLAND CEMENT The basic cementitious ingredient in mortar is Portland cement.2 MORTAR MATERIALS The principal mortar ingredients are cement. In mortar. workable mortar and is required for the hydration of the cement.5 Mortar Proportions for Unit Masonry Proportion by Volume (cementitious materials) Mortar Cementlime Mortar cement Masonry cement 1 Portland Mortar Cement Cement or Type Blended M S N Cement M S N O M M S S N O M M S S N O 1 1 1 1 1 1 /2 1 1 /2 - 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 - Masonry Cement M S N Hydrated Lime or Lime Putty 1 - 1 - 1 1 1 1 /4 1 over /4 to /2 1 1 over /2 to 1 /4 1 1 over 1 /4 to 2 /2 - Aggregate Ratio Measured in Damp Loose Conditions 1 1 1 Not less than 2 /4 and not more than 3 times the sum of the separate volumes of cementitious materials 2006 IBC Table 2103. Mortar cement has been developed as ASTM C 1329. 8.6 below. bond.1.1.2.

200 0 to 5 0 to 10 1 Based on ASTM C 144. Improves the plasticity or workability of the mortar. 50 10 to 35 20 to 40 No. Unlike masonry cement.2. 8. Improves the water tightness of the wall. 2. Sand gradation is most often specified or defined by referring to a standard sieve analysis. .100 2 to 15 10 to 25 No. The use of masonry cement for mortar is not permitted in lateral load-resisting masonry in Seismic Design Categories D and E. N and NA.1. Used in mortar it: 1. workability and water retention of mortar. Sand should be free of injurious amounts of deleterious substances and organic impurities. Standard Specification for Hydrated Lime for Masonry Purposes. Standard Specification for Aggregate for Masonry Mortar. Mortar sand needs at least 5% fines which pass the No.2.3 MORTAR CEMENTS Mortar cement is also a Portland cement based material which meets the requirements of ASTM C 1329. It is characterized by sharp and angular particles producing mortars with workability properties different than mortars made with natural sand which generally have round. 200 sieve to aid plasticity. therefore.7. coarse sand unsuitable for mortar. Improves the water retentivity or board life of the mortar. Hydrated lime is manufactured from calcining limestone (calcium carbonate with the water of crystallization. H2O. Hydrated lime must conform to ASTM C 207.16 70 to 100 70 to 100 No. resulting in quicklime. 8 95 to 100 95 to 100 No. 30 40 to 75 40 to 75 No. therefore.1. 3. CaO. the MSJC Code imposes the seismic restriction. The hydrated lime can then be dried and ground.3 MORTAR SAND 8. 4 100 100 No. S and N mortar. The quicklime can then be slaked by placing it in water thus making hydrated lime. lime putty or slaked lime Ca(OH)2. Types NA and SA limes provide more entrained air in the mortar than allowed by ASTM and therefore may not be used. and the carbon dioxide. 71 Lime in mortar provides cementitious properties to the mortar and is not considered to be an admixture. Additionally. Masonry cement must meet the requirements of ASTM C 91 Standard Specification for Masonry Cement and is available for Types M. Hydrated lime can be used without delay making it more convenient to use than quicklime. Section 4. and is available in Types S. 8. Standard Specification for Mortar Cement. the lateral load-restriction does not apply. 1 Table 8. mortar cement was developed specifically for use in seismic application.1. Concrete sand should not be used in mortar since the maximum grain size is too large. CaCO3H2O). Mortar cement may be used for mortar in all Seismic Design Categories. Additionally. gravel or air-cooled blast-furnace slag. CO2.1. smooth particles. unhydrated oxides are not controlled in Type N or NA limes thus making only Type S hydrated lime suitable for masonry mortar. sand aggregate is required to conform to ASTM C 144. sand is graded within the limits given in Table 8. ASTM C 144 provides guidelines on determining if an aggregate has excessive impurities. The high heat generated in the kiln drives off the water of crystallization. the fine particles which are needed in masonry sand have often been washed out of concrete sand thus creating harsh. Types S and N hydrated limes contain no air entraining admixtures. Masonry cements can be proprietary with specific ingredients not disclosed.7 Sand for Masonry Mortar Percent Passing Sieve Natural Sand Manufactured Size Sand No. Sand used in preparing mortar can be natural or manufactured.MORTAR AND GROUT other additives for workability.2 HYDRATED LIME For masonry mortar. SA. Manufactured sand is obtained by crushing stone. Manufacturers of this material were deliberate in developing a cement that would satisfy the requirements of structural engineers and building officials. producing a white pulverized hydrated lime which is sacked and used in mortar.2. For mortar.

Mixing time of the mortar should be long enough for a uniform.2.2 shows a paddle mixer with a stationary drum. Small amounts of mortar can be hand mixed.1.6 COLOR Mortar colors are normally mineral oxides or carbon black. Commercially prepared colors for mortars also offer a wide variety of colors and shades. the amount of color additive ranges from 0. and cobalt oxide for blue colors. like all mortar ingredients. Iron oxide is used for red.1 MEASUREMENT OF MORTAR MATERIALS The method of measuring materials for mortar must be such that the specified proportions of the mortar materials are controlled and accurately maintained. based on percentage by weight of cement.0% for the mineral oxides with a maximum of 2% for carbon black. chromium oxide for green. manufacturer and amount of each ingredient should remain the same for all colored mortar on a project in an effort to obtain uniform color throughout. delays the set and stiffening of mortar. Dry mixes for mortar which are blended in a factory should be mixed at the job site in a mechanical mixer until workable. 8. should be stored in a level. to 10% mineral oxide pigment and 2% carbon black pigment for Portland cement-lime mortars and 5% mineral oxide pigment and 1% carbon black pigment for masonry cement and mortar cement mortar.2.1. These percentages are based on the weight of cement content and the maximum percentages are far greater than the amounts of color additives usually required. One of these. The amount of color additive depends on the color and intensity desired. lime. clean place. Care should be taken with these admixtures since the bond between the mortar and the masonry units may be affected. The set may be delayed for 36 hours or more if desired. called a retarding set admixture. Additionally the mixing sequence should be the same for each batch. MSJC Specification requires that mortar be mixed between 3 and 5 minutes. These may be an air entraining chemical or pulverized fire clay or bentonite clay to provide workability. 8. The use of any admixtures should be accepted by the architect or engineer and must also be acceptable to the building official. The blades rotate through the mortar materials for thorough mixing. 8. then the cement. and brown colors. Dry preblended mixes are also available. but not more than 5 minutes.5 ADMIXTURES There are numerous admixtures which may be added to mortar to affect its properties. it should be located near the mixer so it can be measured and added with minimum handling and can be kept from contamination by harmful substances. yellow. alkalies or organic materials. Finally.5% to 7. and the remaining water and sand. All materials should mix for three to five minutes in a mechanical mixer with the amount of water required to provide the desired workability.2. Typically. Retempering of colored mortar should be kept to a minimum to reduce the variations in color of the mortar. 8. the source.1. dry.3.1. even color to be obtained and should be the same length of time for every mortar batch.3. About one-half of the water and one quarter of the sand are put into the operating mixer first.4 WATER Water must be clean and free of deleterious amounts of acids. A reasonable method to control the mortar proportions is to use full sacks of cement per batch and to use measuring boxes for the proper amounts of lime and sand. Water containing soluble salts such as potassium and sodium sulfates should be avoided since these salts can contribute to efflorescence.2 JOB SITE MORTAR MIX Mortar mixing is best accomplished in a paddle type mixer. 8. color (if any).3 MIXING 8. Figure 8. colored mortar should not be retempered. MSJC Specification limits the amount of color. For best results. Prepackaged mineral color additives that can be added to the mix based on full sacks of Portland cement will minimize mortar color variation. .72 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Mortar sand. Ideally. There are also admixtures used to replace lime.1.1.

2) 75 18 RS 1800 (12. W hen f actory blended mortar is used. water and an admixture for set control which are measured and mixed at a central location using weight-or-volume-control equipment. Intermediate values may be s pecified in ac cordanc e with projec t requirements . Portland cement-lime. Standard Test Method for Preconstruction and Construction Evaluation of Mortars for Plain and Reinforced Unit Masonry. This type of mixer is used for jobsite mixed grout.1. Type days. RN. FIGURE 8.8 Property Specification 3 Requirements 1 Average Compressive Water Air Mortar 2 Strength at 28 Retention Content. Extended life mortar consists of cementitious materials. while other silo systems discharge the dry mortar mix directly into a conventional mixer. rotates the drum in which the materials are placed. % (MPa).3. manufacturers certification of the type of mortar is recommended. The strength values as shown are the standard values. A drum or barrel mixer. or masonry cement with Portland cements. aggregate. psi Min. the maximum air content shall be 12%. shown in Figure 8. This packaging method can be especially useful in limited working areas.4 Silo mixing system. The materials are carried to the top of the rotation and then drop down to achieve mixing.1.2) 75 18 RO 350 (2.8). Based on ASTM C 1142.MORTAR AND GROUT FIGURE 8. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in mortar. Extended life mortar is selected by type and the length of workable time required.3. FIGURE 8. RS. The consistency based on the mason’ s use should be specified. Pre-blended dry mortar is also available in sacks.4 PRE-BLENDED MORTAR Mortar can also be factory pre-blended and stored at the jobsite in sacks or silos. Table l.2 Plaster or paddle mortar mixer. RM. such as parking garages. % Max. or bond strength test data shall be provided to justify higher air content. 8. This mortar is delivered to a construction site and is usable for a period in excess of 21/2 hours.3 EXTENDED LIFE MORTAR ASTM C 1142. Otherwise the extended life mortar is required to have a cone penetration consistency of 55 + 5 mm as measured by ASTM C 780.4) 75 18 1 2 3 Twenty-eight days old from date of casting.4) 75 18 RN 750 (5. 8. 73 Table 8. .3 Drum or barrel concrete mixer. and RO (Table 8. Standard Specification for Extended Life Mortar for Unit Masonry provides the requirements for this material.3. masonry cement. There are four types of extended life mortar. Cubes RM 2500 (17. Some silo systems introduce water to the dry mortar mix in an auger screw at the base of the silo. These types of mortars can be manufactured with one of the four mortar formulations: Portland cement. which may be beneficial in keeping project debris at a minimum. Min.

Head joint Collar joint c. Bed joint FIGURE 8. The joint emphasizes the masonry unit pattern and conceals small irregularities in laying the unit.5 Basic terms for mortar joints. Mortar joint must be compressed to assure intimate contact with the masonry unit. MSJC Specification requires mortar to be used within two-andone-half hours after the initial water has been added to the dry ingredients at the job site. trowelled.74 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 8. Not recommended for exposed exterior use. Since some joints provide poor weather resistance. Special care is required to make the joint weatherproof. The reason for this is the top ledge of the joint acts as a drip ledge. FIGURE 8. adding water. squeezed. “ V”Joint . Harsh mortar that has begun to stiffen or harden due to hydration should be thrown out. and then reworking the mortar into the water. a. d. Each joint provides a different architectural appearance to the wall.1. Retempering color mortar should be avoided to limit color variations. . Flush Joint –This joint is used where the wall is to be plastered.5 provides basic terms for mortar joints. The tooling works mortar tight into the joint.3. This type of joint is a marginaly acceptable weather-type joint. care must be taken in the selection of the proper type of mortar joint.6 Mortar joint types. compressing the mortar producing a weather joint. while providing a line in center of mortar joint.6 are nine examples of commonly used mortar joints.4 TYPES OF MORTAR JOINTS Figure 8. Concave Joint –It is the most common joint used. Joints with ledges such as weather. b. the surface tension of water will allow water to pool at the drip ledge and the water can migrate back into the mortar. Tooled joints are recommended for exterior applications since tooling compacts the mortar tightly preventing moisture penetration. Splashing water over the top of the mortar is not permissible. or tooled. Shown in Figure 8. The finished bed and head joints are cut. However the “ notch”of the “ V”can be a point of discontinuity and cracks may develop which allow water migration. This should be done on wet mortar boards by forming a basin or hollow in the mortar.5 RETEMPERING Mortar may be retempered with water when needed to maintain workability. 8.Tooling works the mortar tight and provides a weather joint. If the joint is not properly tooled. This joint emphasizes the masonry unit pattern and conceals small irregularities in laying. Weather Joint – The primary purpose is to emphasize horizontal joints. raked and struck joints perform poorly in exterior applications and may allow moisture penetration.1.

Also the top ledge allows for pooling of the water. these two types of grouts differ primarily in the maximum allowable size of aggregates.6 Mortar joint types (Continued). grout provides: 1. aggregates and water mixed to fluid consistency so that it will have a slump of 8 to 11 in. Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry.2. Grout is a mixture of Portland cement. . (279 mm) is permissible. Grapevine Joint . The ASTM C 476 defines two types of grout for masonry construction: fine grout and coarse grout. As their names imply. h. Table 8. f. high texture appearance. 8. g. FIGURE 8. Greater weight thus improving the overturning resistance of retaining walls. theref ore not recommended as water will penetrate on lower ledge. The MSJC Specification states that grout slump of 11 in. Poor weat her joint.7 Grouting a concrete masonry wall. Struck Joint .Special effect. Requirements for grout are given in ASTM C 476.Use to emphasize the horizontal joi nts. Pooling of water can occur at the top ledge (surface tension properties of water) and the bottom ledge.1 TYPES OF GROUT i. Improved energy storage capabilities of a wall. (203 to 279 mm). Poor weather joint and not recommended if exposed to weather unless tooled at bottom of mortar joint. Same limitations as flush joint. Increased fire resistance and improved fire rating of the wall. More cross-sectional area allowing a grouted wall to support greater vertical and lateral shear forces than a non-grouted wall. Squeezed Joint . 5. Grout Proportions by Volume covers the requirements for the mixture of the grout type. Satisfactory indoors and exterior fences. Additionally.9. Grout is placed in the cores or cells of hollow masonry units or between the wythes of solid units to bind the reinforcing steel and the masonry into a structural system.2 GROUT e.Shows a horizontal indentation. 3. Added sound transmission resistance thus reducing the sound passing through the wall. 4. FIGURE 8. Raked Joint . Not recommended for exterior building walls.MORTAR AND GROUT 75 8. The fineness or coarseness of the grout is selected based on the size of grout space and the height of the grout pour.Provides for a rustic. 2.Strongly emphasizes the joints. for no weather resistance is created because the mortar is not compressed back into the joint. poor exterior weather joint due to exposed ledge and not recommended. Beaded Joint .

2. the moist masonry assists in curing the grout. not the initial 10% discharge and not the last 10% discharge.2. When fine grout is used. (38. 4” The normal proportions by volume for fine grout are as follows: 12”Cone 1 part Portland cement 21/2 to 3 parts sand Water for a slump of 8 to 11 in. (38.8).2. One should also be aware that when pumping grout with 3/4 in. 8.1.4 mm) or more between the reinforcing steel and the masonry unit. (203 to 279 mm) 8.2 mm).1 x 76. a concrete pump is required. Water reducing admixtures may be preferred for integral water repellent systems since the excess water does not migrate into the units as with conventional masonry. (9. and the top of the grout.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 8. (12.9. with the cone removed. The grout sample is taken from the middle of a transit mixed load.5 mm). Larger size aggregates take up more volume. fine and coarse. The efficiency of not consolidating and reconsolidating grout without compromising structural integrity makes masonry more economical. [203 mm] or more horizontally). (6.7 mm) between the reinforcing steel and the masonry unit. (19. but must be stable. thus requiring less cement for an equivalent strength mix that uses smaller aggregates. Thus the masonry units should be dry prior to grouting.1 mm) aggregate may be used if the grout space is significantly wide (8 in. narrow or too congested with reinforcing steel. must contain enough water to provide a slump of 8 to 11 inches (203 to 279 mm). Excess water in the grout is immediately absorbed by the masonry units. reducing the apparently high water/cement ratio to the proper levels. (19.8 Slump cone and slump of grout. The difference in height between the top of the cone 8” FIGURE 8.2. and the grout is free to flow to its final resting state. but in spread as depicted in Figure 8.1 FINE GROUT Fine grout is used where the grout space is small.4 SELF-CONSOLIDATING GROUT A new product is currently under development – Self-Consolidating Grout.3 SLUMP Fluidity is measured by a slump cone test. or where the minimum block cell dimension is 11/2 x 3 in. Also self-consolidating grout may allow higher lifts during the grout pour. . This material is not measured in slump. 8. (203 to 279 mm) 8 “to 11”Slump 76 8.1 mm) in width horizontally.1 mm) aggregate. The typical proportions by volume for coarse grout are as follows: 1 part Portland cement 21/4 to 3 parts sand 1 to 2 parts pea gravel Water for a slump of 8 to 11 in. due to the absorption of the masonry units. The fluidity of self-consolidating grout relies on plasticizing admixtures. there must be a clearance of 1/4 in. Although approved aggregates for grout (sand and pea gravel) are limited to a maximum size of 3/8 in.1. and equipment. by placing the grout in the top of the cone and “ rodding” to consolidate.1. there must be a minimum clearance of 1/2 in. The test consists of a 12" cone with openings on both ends. The cone is then lifted straight up. The cone is placed on flat horizontal surface (Figure. Both types of grout. When coarse grout is made with pea gravel.1.2 COARSE GROUT Coarse grout may be used where the grout space for 2 wythe masonry is at least 11/2 in. particularly water reducing admixtures since the hydration process is dependent on the water/cement ratio. The use of admixtures can change the initial water/ cement ratios and affect the final water/cement ratios. Self-consolidating grout has properties that can eliminate the need to mechanically vibrate the grout. The designer should carefully consider the use of admixtures in grout. labor. creating a savings in time. is the slump. a coarse grout using 3/4 in. The cone is filled with grout. Once the masonry units have absorbed the water from the grout.

design mix or from field experience if a satisfactory history of the grout’ s performance is available. 30 No. mortar and masonry units.2. Standard Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Grout. 100 No. 1 2 8 89 Natural Manufactured 100 100 100 85 to 100 90 to 100 95 to 100 100 100 10 to 30 20 to 55 80 to 100 95 to 100 95 to 100 0 to 10 5 to 30 50 to 85 70 to 100 70 to 100 0 to 5 0 to 10 25 to 60 40 to 75 40 to 75 0 to 5 10 to 30 10 to 35 20 to 40 2 to 10 2 to 15 10 to 25 0 to 5 0 to 5 0 to 10 C 404. 16 No. 8. Note that any grout performance history must be based on grout.2.800 kPa) required by ASTM C 476. mixing process to achieve a high slump of 8 to 11 in. which are similar to those intended for use on the new project. 200 1 ASTM 3 Amounts finer than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings). Historic results should be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1314. 8 No. Dry grout mixes which are blended at a factory should be mixed at the job site in accordance with manufacturers instructions or a minimum of 5 minutes if there are no instructions.10. 4 No. Size No. /8-in.2 MIXING GROUT Grout prepared at the job site should be mixed for at least 5 minutes in order to assure thorough blending of all ingredients. Grading Requirements. Grading of the aggregate should comply with Table 8.2. The use of 70% sand and 30% pea gravel requires six sacks of Portland cement per cubic yard and results in a pumpable grout that provides the minimum strength of 2.9 Grout Proportions by Volume Parts by Parts by Volume of Volume of Portland Hydrated Cement or Lime or Blended Lime Putty Cement Type 1 Aggregate Measured in a Damp.12 Table 8. stresses cannot be properly transferred between the various materials. Adequate strength is also needed to assure the embedded anchor bolts will perform adequately.2. Loose Condition Fine Coarse 1 Fine Grout 1 Coarse Grout FIGURE 8. 8. Percent by Weight Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Size No. cement and aggregate which are added to the grout.3 GROUT ADMIXTURES Admixtures are materials other than water. Without adequate bonding.1 AGGREGATES Aggregates for grout must meet the requirements of ASTM C 404. either before or during mixing.10 Grading Requirements Sieve Size ½-in. (203 to 279 mm).9 Self-consolidating grout spread. Size No. Grout must have adequate strength so that the masonry exceeds the design strength values and for sufficient bonding to the reinforcing steel and the masonry units. 8. No.2. 50 No.2.Used to counteract the loss of water and the shrinkage of the cement by creating expansive gases in the grout. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Masonry Prisms or ASTM C 476. Enough water must be used in the 1 1 1 0 to /10 1 0 to /10 2 /4 to 3 times the sum of the volumes of the cementitious materials 1 to 2 times 21/4 to 3 times the sum of the sum of the the volumes volumes of the of the cementitious cementitious materials materials IBC Table 2103. Proportions of the grout ingredients may also be determined by laboratory testing.9. in order to improve the properties of the fresh or hardened grout.000 psi (13. Shrinkage Compensating Admixtures .2. Grout Proportions by Volume. Size No. 8.2 PROPORTIONS Grout ingredient proportions are commonly selected from Table 8. The four most common types of grout admixtures are: 1.77 MORTAR AND GROUT Table 8. . Table 1. Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry.

Admixtures can significantly reduce the compressive and bond strengths of the grout. specimens for continuing quality control should be taken at least once each week.000 psi (13. specimens are made that will represent the cured grout in the wall. and the masonry unit has a compressive strength of 1900 psi (13. 15 to 20% of the Portland cement by weight is replaced with fly ash as long as the strength characteristics are maintained. Under all circumstances.78 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 2. Table 1. Admixtures containing chloride salts and antifreeze liquids may not be used despite the apparent benefits.800 kPa) is needed in order to achieve adequate bond between the grout.1).2.2. the space is lined with permeable paper or a porous separator which allows any excess water to be absorbed into the units.11).000 psi (13.5 T ESTING GROUT STRENGTH In order to determine the compressive strength of grout. historically. Plasticizer Admixtures . care should be taken when using two or more admixtures in a grout mix since the combination of admixtures can produce unexpected results.300 m kPa).Used to decrease the amount of cement in grout without adversely affecting the compressive and bond strengths of the grout. information regarding laboratory and field performance of an admixture should be obtained from the manufacturer prior to use in a grout.500 square feet (232 m2) of wall.500 psi (10. (76. The grout samples are placed in molds. in two layers.2.2.100 kPa). 4. Typically.1. 2. (203 to 279 mm) slump can be achieved. 8. Similarly. Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout. The representative samples of grout are placed in molds which will remain undisturbed for 48 hours (ASTM C 1019. At the start of grouting operations.000 psi (13. The MSJC Specification contains the same intent. Accelerator Admixtures .Used in cold weather construction to reduce the time that the wall must be protected from freezing. or meet the minimum design strength requirements (f’ ). The units are arranged to form a space approximately 3 to 4 in. The tests should consist of three specimens which are made as outlined in Section 8. or for every 2. m IBC Section 2105. f’ .800 kPa) at 28 days. 1. 3.10 and 8. requiring that admixtures must be acceptable. To prevent the grout from bonding to the masonry units. (102 mm) slump grout mix. The specimen is made in a mold consisting of masonry units identical to those being used in construction and at the same moisture condition as those units being laid. ASTM C 476 refers to ASTM C 260 for conformance of air entraining admixtures. puddled and kept damp and . This minimum value is satisfactory for masonry construction in which the specified design strength. whereas.8 MPa) If grout tests are required. but in no case shall the m strength of grout be less than 2. Accelerators also increase the heat of hydration preventing the grout from freezing under most circumstances. Types C and F fly ash are by far the most common cement replacement admixtures. f’ . A paper towel does an excellent job. The compressive strength of the grout in concrete masonry construction should be 1.25 to 1. Section 6.2 to 102 mm) square and twice as high as it is wide (Figures 8.1(3) states that grout used in clay masonry conform to the proportion requirements of ASTM C 476.2. but is somewhat more general. Additionally. Accelerators decrease the setting time of grout and speed up its strength gain. the UBC stated that tests must be conducted for mortar and grout compliance for the admixtures. whichever comes first. take one test per day for the first three days.2. Admixtures that rely on air entrainment are a code concern. 8. the following schedule is suggested.5 and in accordance with ASTM C 1019. the reinforcing steel and the masonry unit.33 times the design strength of the masonry assemblage. By adding a plasticizer to a 4 in. since chlorides cause corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The required minimum compressive strength of 2.Used to obtain the high slump required for grout without the use of excess water. Cement Replacement Admixtures . specimens should be taken more frequently for every 25 cubic yards (19 m3) of grout.2.2. Careful consideration must be given prior to the use of all admixtures since an admixture may adversely affect certain grout properties while improving the intended properties. equals 1. an 8 to 11 in. After the initial three tests.4 GROUT STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS ASTM 476 requires that the minimum grout compressive strength shall be 2.

12).2. cleanout openings are not required. if the wall is built 20 feet (6. homogeneous and satisfactory walls.12 Ties for two wythe walls.1 m).1 GROUT POUR AND LIFT The total height of masonry to be grouted prior to the erection of additional masonry is called a grout pour.67 ft2 (0. Section 10.2.6. . the contractor could place the grout in 4 lifts of 5 feet (1.42 m2) Wire size W1.5 m) each. Line units with an absorbent material Grout test specimen Wooden block FIGURE 8. For this situation. High lift grouting may be used only when cleanout holes are provided at the bottom of the grout pour.6 METHODS OF GROUTING WALLS There are several methods of constructing and grouting masonry walls that will result in strong. The method selected is influenced by the type of masonry.6. Typical arrangement for making a grout specimen for brick.MORTAR AND GROUT Line units with an absorbent material Tape 79 Though lifts may not exceed 5 feet (1. A grout lift is the height of grout placed in a single continuous operation. 8. FIGURE 8.50 ft2 (0.5 m) or less.2. Minimum number of wall ties required One per 2.11 Low lift grouting may be used when the height of a grout pour is 5 feet (1. the area and length of wall.5 m).1 m) high.2. Between 24 and 48 hours the molds should be removed (ASTM C 1019.25 m2) One per 4.5 m). The MSJC Specification gives a requirement for wall ties. the equipment available and the experience of the contractor.2.2” 8. Grout is placed in increments called lifts.2. For example. the terms are still commonly used when referring to grouting methods.2.8 (MW 18) t 8.3 LOW LIFT GROUTING PROCEDURE When the low lift grouting procedure is used. which allows for easy inspection of the walls. masonry walls may be built to a height of 5 feet (1.1) and the samples are to be transported to the lab within 8 hours after mold removal.10 Typical arrangement for making a grout specimen for block.2 LOW LIFT AND HIGH LIFT GROUTING Although the terms low lift and high lift grouting were deleted from Codes in recent years. The height of the masonry wall prior to grouting may exceed 5 feet (1. Grout test specimen Wooden block FIGURE 8. 4” t . the wythes must be tied together with wire ties or joint reinforcement (Figure 8. 8. The wire tying of the wythes prevents the wythes from bulging or blowing out. For multi-wythe grouted walls.7 (MW 11) W2.2.5 m) in height.6. the total grout pour could be the entire 20 feet (6. during the grouting procedure. Because of this limited pour height. undisturbed. a grout pour may consist of several lifts.

3 m). where bond beams occur) Consolidated and reconsolidate the grout after allowing the excess water to be absorbed by the masonry units Cleanouts not required since grout pour height is 5’or less FIGURE 8. (76. Cleanout openings must be provided in walls which are to be grouted using the high lift method. This method allows the mason to continually lay masonry units without waiting for the walls to be grouted. reinforcing steel and embedded anchor bolts are in place to the top of the grout pour. (610 mm). For solid grouted masonry walls. Grout may not be placed until all the masonry units.5 m) if a grout demonstration panel is provided and results are satisfactory to the designer and acceptable to the building official. Hollow unit masonry does not require ties since the cross-webs and end shells support the face shells and resist bulging and blowouts. ties. . or leave out an entire brick unit to satisfy the cleanout requirements. cleanouts may be omitted for grout pours in excess of 5 feet (1. the wall may be partially or fully grouted. next 5’of wall may be constructed and grouted 80 8. High lift grouting procedures must be used when grout pours exceed 5 feet (1. At the top of the wall. (12. grout pours in excess of 12 in. For grout pours 12 in. Alternately. The MSJC Specification requires cleanouts at the bottom course of masonry for each grout pour so that the cells or cavities that are to be grouted can be cleaned and inspected prior to grouting.14). Cleanout holes must be of sufficient size which the MSJC Specification defines as at least 3 in.219 mm) on center. the grout may be consolidated by puddling with a stick such as a 1 in.5 m). For partially grouted walls the maximum spacing of cleanouts must not exceed 48 in. (1. However.8 mm) piece of wood. the grout should be placed flush with the masonry units.2. (25. Where bond beams occur. (305 mm) in Grouting after a wall is constructed to its full height is often quite economical. the joints may be reduced to 1/2 in.2 mm) in any dimension direction. x 2 in. (305 mm) high or less. A common practice is to remove an entire CMU face shell. Low lift grouting-cleanouts not required. After lower section is grouted. height of grout pour is 5’ The maximum horizontal spacing between ties is 36 in. Once these items are in place. In partially grouted masonry. (38.1 mm) below the top of the masonry. this is usually means the vertical cells containing reinforcement. The ties are placed within 12 in. inverted bond beam units will maximize grout contact with the foundation and also make cleaning out the bottom of cells easier. in solid grouted walls. Max. (914 mm) and the maximum vertical spacing is 24 in. The face shell or unit can then be replaced before grouting with minimal evidence of the cleanout.2.4 mm x 50. However. cleanouts must be provided at no more than 32 in. (305 mm) of the opening and have a maximum spacing of 36 in. (914 mm). Additional ties are provided around opening larger than 16 in. (813 mm) on center. (406 mm) in either dimension. Currently the maximum pour height the Building Codes allow is 24 feet (7.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL height must be consolidated by means of a mechanical vibrator.6.7 mm) deep to allow sufficient grout above the horizontal reinforcing steel. even if the reinforcing steel is spaced at greater intervals (Figure 8.4 HIGH LIFT GROUTING PROCEDURE 11/2”minimum key recommended ( 1/ 2” min.13 Horizontal construction joints should be formed between grout pours by stopping the grout pour 11/2 in. The grout must also be reconsolidated after the excess water is absorbed by the units to close any voids due to the water lost.

The mortar droppings and sand are then removed from the grout space by blowing out. FIGURE 8.c. Once the bottom of the grout space has been cleaned and inspected the cleanout holes are sealed with a masonry unit.c.12” o. 48” maximum for partially grouted walls.14 5’ maximum Wall tie #9 wire spaced: Horizontally . At the bottom of the wall the footing may be covered with a layer of loose sand to prevent mortar droppings from sticking to the foundations. Seal prior to grouting but after inspection. . with cleanout openings. If grout pour is 5’ . These barriers.16 High lift method of grouting 2 wythe walls.MORTAR AND GROUT 81 Section AA 1” 32” maximum spacing of cleanout openings for solid grouted walls. 5’ max. typically spaced at 30 feet (9. Stop grout pour (not grout lift) 11/2 below top of masonry units Cleanout opening. FIGURE 8. Control barriers restrict the flow as depicted in Figure 8. An unrestricted double-wythe masonry wall will allow grout to flow horizontally along the cavity and excessive flow may cause materials to segregate. Before the grout loses plasticity.17. Consolidate and reconsolidate the grout after the excess water has been absorbed into the masonry units Provide vertical grout dam every 30’ maximum High lift grouting block wall. Seal prior to grouting but after inspection FIGURE 8. 5’ max. 5’ maximum Cleanout opening at all vertical reinforcing bars. a face shell. the grout should be reconsolidated to close any voids due to water loss. or a form board which is then braced to resist the pressure of the poured grout. or cleaning out by hand. max. Grout lifts must be mechanically consolidated. are constructed by laying masonry units in the grout space for the full height of the wall.15 Reconsolidate the grout after the excess water has been absorbed into the masonry units. Vertically for running bond . Grout in 5’ lifts to top of pour. 1” A A Vertically for stack bond .0” or less then it can be placed in one lift 5’ max.16” o.1 m). washing out. Maximum spacing of cleanout holes. Two wythe masonry walls must be tied together with wire ties or joint reinforcement to prevent blowouts and bulging. Cleanout opening.c.24” o.

18 Consolidating grout in a concrete masonry wall. 8.86 m).3 12 FOOT GROUT LIFTS Under specif ic conditions the 2005 MSJC Specification allows for grout lifts not exceeding 12 feet 8 inches (3. . 30’max. (305 mm) high. 8.2.82 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Long Flow Lines FIGURE 8. (305 mm). and Controlled Placement of Grout with Barriers FIGURE 8. the mechanical vibrator need only be used for a few seconds in any location. As there is only a small volume of grout to be consolidated in a cell or grout space. The need for mechanical vibration to consolidate or to re-consolidate grout does not apply to self-consolidating grout. however.2. These higher lifts may be used when all of the following conditions are met: • the masonry has cured for a minimum of four hours. Consolidation may be performed using a puddle stick if the lifts are not higher than 12 in. Lifts greater than 12 in.2. must be consolidated by mechanical vibrators. • the group slump is maintained between 10 and 11 inches (254 and 279 mm). Consolidation eliminates voids and causes grout to flow around the reinforcement and into small openings or voids.17 Grout barriers.7 CONSOLIDATION Grout must be consolidated just like concrete. • no intermediate reinforced bond beams are placed between the top and the bottom of the pour height. Excessive vibration increases the possibility of blowing out face shells or dislodging masonry units.

California .Engineering Building Unit 2 UC Riverside.

California .Physical Science Building UC Riverside.

Neuroscience Research Bldg.
UCLA, Los Angeles, California

Cupertino Civic Center
Cupertino, California

Redlands East Valley H.S.
Redlands, California

Performing Arts Center
Cal State, Fullerton, California

Congregation Ner Tamid
R. Palos Verdes, California

New Gym-Diablo View M.S.
Clayton, California

Pacifica High School
Oxnard, California

Stanford U. Auxiliary Library III
Livermore, California

Digital Media Center Santa Ana. California .

S. California .New Gym-Kennedy H. Granada Hills.

California .Orange County Fire Authority Irvine.

California .Getty Center Museum Los Angeles.

Community Center and Sports Laguna Hills. California .

California .Center for Wine. Food & Arts Napa.

the MSJC Code formally defines a running bond pattern as: “ The placement of masonry units such that the head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length. brick design and construction will be given in detail. Because of the importance of the running bond pattern to structural integrity. Such topics will include the importance of the brick pattern. or the bond pattern. basic knowledge of the issues and terminology of the engineer is assumed. The running bond is utilized extensively in cavity wall construction and veneered walls of brick. for example. types of loading. They are also. may be used to create patterns in the face of a wall. is a building material of bewildering flexibility. The most visual and important characteristics of brick and brickwork are how it will be assembled and the pattern the layout creates.SECTION 2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CHAPTER 9 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION In chapter one. it may be possible to secure several patterns. as a material. environmental design and structural design. and often in facing tile walls where the bonding may be achieved by extra width stretcher tile. it can create a structure that is both aesthetically appealing and functional. A significant amount of information in this chapter is derived from the Brick Industry Association’ s Technical Notes.1 BRICK MASONRY BOND PATTERNS Bond patterns such as English or Flemish.1. with good design and with attention to color and texture. There are many books and other publications available that give an in-depth discussion of the engineering of brick. The designer is encouraged to use the most current information by using the sources available in the Reference Section. texture or color used in the face. Flemish Bond. but it is extremely important to the structural quality. Also. Pattern refers to the change or varied arrangement of brick. Detailing issues will also be addressed.” . an unlimited number of patterns can be developed through the use of these bonds. or variations of these. With variations of the color and texture of the brick and of the joint types and color. the material is for the non-engineering disciplines of the building industry. and Stack Bond. and is used to solve an infinite number of design problems. clay brick. However. Brick. Using the same structural bond. Running bond is further identified by the length of overlap.1 AESTHETIC DESIGN Brick masonry and shaped stones are possibly the oldest manufactured building materials. Common or American Bond. As mentioned in the preface of this book.The running bond consists of all stretcher units with units overlapping in adjacent courses and is the simplest of the basic bond patterns. English Bond. empirical design. The bond pattern gives a statement to the architectural quality. two of the most beautiful and enduring building elements. When brick is used with imagination and care. thus creating a distinctive wall texture that is not solely dependent upon the texture of the individual brick. Running Bond . 9. In this chapter. 9. when used well. was presented. such as half bond or third bond. patterns may be produced by the method of handling the mortar joint or by projecting or recessing certain units from the plane of the wall. Five essential structural bonds are typically used to create typical patterns: Running Bond.

84 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL All other bond patterns are treated as “ stack bond” . A three-quarter length brick may be required at the corner to maintain the bond on both walls. First course bonding patterns are important to the layout of the wall. the headers may be obtained by using half brick called “ clipped”or “ snap”headers. Typically. 6TH Course Headers FIGURE 9.5. sixth or seventh course. A“ garden wall”bond is known when there are three stretchers alternating with a header. When there are two stretchers between headers. it is known as “ double stretcher garden wall”bond. Where the headers are not used for the structural bonding. Common or American Bond . header courses appear at every fifth.4 Double stretcher garden wall bond with units in diagonal lines. . The headers provide structural bonding.This bond is a variation of running bond with a course of full length headers at regular intervals.2 Common or American bond.3 Flemish bonds. Dutch Corner English Corner 1 /3 Running Bond FIGURE 9. FIGURE 9. Common Bond FIGURE 9. 1 /2 unit length 1 /2 Running Bond 1 /3 unit length Flemish Bond Each brick course in this bond consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately. Also. garden wall bond may be laid with four or even five stretchers between the headers. by stretchers.1 Running bonds. A header is flanked on both sides.4 and 9. Patterns that may be obtained by varying brick color are illustrated in Figures 9. above and below. as well as pattern. Flemish bond may be varied by increasing the number of stretchers between headers in each course.

(102 mm) from the corner. but when 8 in. products and equipment fit together simply and easily with minimum alterations required at the jobsite. English Cross or Dutch Bond This is a variation on the English bond. the ultimate objective of the construction industry was the development of a system of construction in which all materials. (51 mm) or quarter brick closure. English Bond This pattern is made f rom alternating courses of headers and stretchers on each course. (51 mm) closure should always be placed 4 in. In stack bond dimensionally accurate masonry units must be used if the vertical alignment of the head joints is to be maintained. Dutch Corner English bond. the only difference being that the vertical joints between the stretchers in alternate courses do not line up vertically. The 2 in.6 85 Dutch Corner English cross or Dutch bond.5 Garden wall bond with units in dovetail fashion.2 MODULAR BRICK MASONRY Several years ago. components. English Corner FIGURE 9. Wall Texture Another contemporary modification of the traditional bond has been used by projecting and recessing units. and the “ English Corner” uses a 2 in.1. The headers are centered on the stretchers and the joints between the stretchers in all the courses are lined up vertically. These joints center on the stretchers as shown in Figure 9. Stack Bond This is a weak bond. There are two methods used in starting the corners in Flemish and English bonds.7. (203 mm) boundary units are available. Since all vertical joints are aligned there is no overlapping of units. Normally this pattern is bonded to the backing with rigid metal ties.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION English Corner FIGURE 9. All vertical joints are aligned.7 FIGURE 9. and is called a “ Queen Closure” . typically used for decorative effect on veneers. 9. a large percentage of brick is produced in modular sizes consistent wit h est ablished manufacturing policies. Snap headers are used in courses which are not structural bonding courses. . The “ Dutch Corner” uses a three-quarter brick closure.8 Stack bond. and steel joint reinforcement must be installed. or by omitting units to form perforated walls or screens. FIGURE 9. they may be used. Today.

7 mm) mortar joints. whose nominal length is 12 in. horizontally 3 j L Wall Sections W Elevation Section Capital letters indicate nominal dimensions. 9. (9.3 INITIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS A 4 in.2.5 mm) or 1/2 in.10 Coordination of modular unit. however some products. for example.11 shows grid locations of mortar joints in walls constructed with various modular units when the walls are centered between grid lines.4 mm) thick mortar joints. . The standard dimensions of a single unit may vary from the specified dimensions by no more than the permissible tolerances for variation in dimensions included in the applicable ASTM Standard.2.4 GRID LOCATIONS OF MASONRY WALLS Figure 9. 9. Figure 9.8 mm) and 4 in. such as ceramic glazed brick or structural clay facing tile. are designed for 1/4 in.2. Lower case letters indicate actual dimensions. The inside facing of ceramic glazed units are laid in 1/4 in. As indicated in the enlargements.7 mm) thick mortar joints.1. (6. (305 mm) is 111/2 in. nor should any dimension be forced into multiples of 4 in. Also. (295 mm) for 3/8 in. (12.2.1. (6.c. The thickness of the vertical joints between the different types of units is the average of the joint thickness used with each unit. new sizes may be added and less popular sizes discontinued.9 Modular unit dimensions. All grid lines coincide with horizontal mortar joints for the 2 in.9. the dimensions of modular units are “ nominal”and are equal to the specified dimension (i) plus the thickness of the mortar joint (j) with which the unit is designed to be laid. thus minimizing field cutting brick units. (9. not all manufacturers produce all the typical sizes.2 COORDINATION OF MASONRY UNITS 1 As design requirements change. but no part of the plan should be forced to fall on the grid.86 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The exterior face brick are shown with 3/8 in. thus providing 4 in.1 DIMENSIONS OF MODULAR UNITS 9. Face brick are normally laid with either 3/8 in. FIGURE 9. the full coordination between units is apparent. (9. 12” /4” 1/8” H 1 /2 j 1 /2 j w 1 /8” 1 /2 j Cavity i 3 /2 j Plan j /2” 1 /4”1/4” 1 1 w 1 /16” /4” 7 /16” 3 /8” /2 j 3 1 3 /16” /16” Cavity Actual Wall Thickness = t 1 Nominal Wall Thickness = T 1 1 /4” /8” 3 /8” 1 /4”1/4” As illustrated in Figure 9. h /16”wall ties 16”o.1.10 shows the way in which the coordination of different modular masonry units can be achieved.1. Therefore. (12. (102 mm) nominal heights. /2” 9. vertically 36”o. or 115/8 in. (12.5 mm) mortar joints. FIGURE 9. (102 mm). (292 mm) if the units were designed to be installed with 1/2 in.5 mm) joints and are backed up with units. Economics can be realized in construction costs through the use of modular dimensions. the designer should consult current manufacturer or regional catalogs for available sizes in any locality before proceeding with a design. (102 mm) flexibility.4 mm) joints. The specified length of a unit.7 mm) joints. (50.c. such as structural clay tile designed for use with 1/2 in. (102 mm) modular grid should be established as a reference system for the three dimensional elements of plan and structure.

11 Grid locations. Uniform mortar head joints are maintained in alternate courses. 9. 12”stretcher 1 courses = 4”1/2 bond 12”multiple corner to opening 12”stretcher 3 courses = 16”1/2 bond 12”multiple corner to opening FIGURE 9. a symmetrical grid location for walls is preferred to an unsymmetrical position. particularly for lintels.12. Using dimensions of multiples of full brick length will reduce the number of cut brick required when locating corners. (203 mm) high units). This method requires the designer to create details on the basis of length and width of brick. if the dimension to the window was not a whole number of brick lengths. This becomes more critical with shorter horizontal dimensions.7 mm) high brick is used provides a simple rule for determining the location of a grid line with respect to the masonry at any point above or below a given reference grid line. (102 mm) flexibility is required. (102 mm) from the reference line will have the same relative position with respect to the masonry coursing. When laid in one-third bond. vertical joints will occur on grid lines when 4 and 8 in. (102 mm) high supplementary units (or a rowlock header course) may be required to complete even coursing for the given wall height when 4 in.3 BRICK MASONRY DIMENSIONING Brick detailing has become simplified with the advent of modular dimensioned construction. Typically. Cut brick would have to be placed in all courses as shown in Figure 9.7 mm) high units (as well as 8 in. where it is usually desirable that the head of the opening coincides with a horizontal mortar joint. and they will occur at mid-grid points when these walls are centered on grid lines. The correct symmetrical location. Vertical joints in alternate courses will occur on grid lines and be centered between grid lines when these units are laid in center (1/2) bond. A course of 4 in. (102 mm) will have the alternate position. the above conditions are also true for 12 in. (305 mm) nominal length units. This rule greatly simplifies the checking of course heights. returns and openings. 12”stretcher 2 courses = 4”1/3 bond 12”multiple corner to opening For masonry units whose nominal lengths are 8 or 16 in. .BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 87 Grid lines coincide with horizontal joints every 8 in.12. will often be influenced by the length of the masonry units to be used. (203 mm) with 22/3 in. (102 and 203 mm) thick walls are centered between grid lines. (67. 8”stretcher 3 courses = 8”1/2 bond 4”multiple corner to opening The fact that alternate grid lines coincide with the mortar joints when the 22/3 in. (67. while any grid line that is an odd multiple of 4 in. which is centered between grid lines or centered on a grid line. Full brick and half brick in alternate courses around a recessed window opening is shown in Figure 9. (203 or 406 mm).1. Any grid line which is an even multiple of 4 in.

4 COLOR Traditionally. To create different effects.5 TEXTURE In masonry. only the concave. The bricks. Since moisture penetration is not a consideration in interior masonry. raked joints in a non-uniform bond pattern achieves a highly coarse texture. Greater contrast between mortar and brick enhances the separation of the units. scratches or wire cuts may be applied to coarse textures. Color can also be used to create simple patterns or complex murals. Brick masonry is renowned for the textural effects created with corbels. Textural flexibility is given by mortar joints. which is further expanded with imaginative bond patterns and by projecting and recessing brick units. Deeply textured or sand faced units absorb light. Varying hues of the same color may be accomplished due to the materials and manufacturing methods for brick. special shapes have long been used to give added interest to a facade’ s texture. Extruded die skins create smooth velvet surfaces. and weathered joints are recommended for exterior use due to moisture concerns. texture can reach new or can surpass most limits.1. Brick which appear to have little variation in color can be used when a uniform color is desired. more dramatic joint profiles. creating a more ornate surface which appears to contain more texture. Limited only by the imagination of the designer. deep grooves. Color can be used to draw attention and give direction. large uniform glazed units laid in stack bond with thin flush mortar joints can produce sleek surfaces. V-shaped. when laid. rough unit laid with thick. Proper Dimensioning 9. The light reflectance of the masonry is influenced by color.12 Dimensioning layouts. mortar color can be used to contrast or blend with the brick . Although. Improper Dimensioning FIGURE 9. As the viewing distance increases color variation changes. brick masonry was made of natural earth colored brick and either white or gray mortar. Variation of colors can be accomplished by changing the color of the units or mortar. racking and dentils. The brick units can have great textural diversity. Small patterns are lost and larger ones dominate as the area is viewed from farther away. The combination of brick and mortar creates many textures. An irregularly sized. One example is the use of color bands around entances. the facade of the building can easily be altered from ultra-modern to rustic. When thoughtful attention to texture is given. create a variegated pattern of color which cannot be achieved with any other building material. the exposed surface of the units may be glazed or smooth skinned.1. Several manufacturers tumble unfired brick down inclines to increase texture. it is surprising how the use of these joints will modify the appearance of a wall.88 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL By arranging different colors of brick other effects can be accomplished. Sand finish. To reflect light. of course. For example. The size of the joint. such as raked or extruded joints. Modifying the brick unit. Revisions to the manufacturing process and suitable pigments now provide an almost limitless color pallet from which a designer may choose. creating richer colors. can be used to create interesting textures and shadows. Smooth glossy surfaces are produced by glazed units. . 9. the mortar joint and the combination of both makes it feasible to accomplish thousands of textural effects. provides many additional possibilities.

The combination of darker colors and horizontal lines reduces the scale of a building. Based on engineering principles. If the partitions are present. Features such as long slender colonnades. if the partitions are not present. or they may be of longer duration such as the dead loads of machinery and equipment. now classifies this 15 psf wall partition loading as a live load. rational design typically result in a material cost savings over empirical design . Empirical or rational methods can be used in the design of brick masonry structures. seismic forces and earth pressures. Brick is the human-scale building element by tradition. This double classification is brought on by the nature of the wall partition load.2 required a uniformly distributed dead load of 20 psf (0. m ortar. Additionally.1 LOADS Imposed loads govern the sizes of structural members.1. Cross-sections which are straight and form a plane. Also. These vertical and lateral loads may be of short duration such as those from wind or earthquake. rational methods are developed from the analysis of test results. 9. Perhaps this is one of the reasons brick masonry is so popular. before loading. A significant amount of masonry is designed based on the following three principles: 1. wind pressures. Normalize force (stress) and normalized deflection (strain) are directly related to each other by a proportion (Hooke’ s Law). the interaction of elements and the amount of material present to resist those loads. The comparison of the relatively small size of individual units to the large building elements can give the elements an exaggerated large scale. the 2006 International Building Code. The object with brighter lighting will appear larger. but controllable. 2. they are usually in place for a long time and the partitions are positively attached to the structure.e. Comparative objects must be present to give scale since size is relative. To create flat. The caveat . 89 For larger projects. and 3. common horizontal loads are wind. Section 1607. Architects can make use of smaller brick units and mortar joints that can be used to mislead the viewer.96 kN/m2) where wall partitions are to be used. 9. roofs. Furthermore. stretching ranch homes. 9. then the dead load is not present to help hold the building down during wind and seismic events (i. stairways. A rational or engineering design of structures considers the presence of loads. thus becoming a part of the dead load mass for seismic forces and long term creep (deflections). partitions and fixed HVAC or service equipment. but architectural features and materials are important factors. thin brick.5. The use of oversized units modify the learned comparison of scale and makes the element appear smaller. hydrostatic and seismic loads. Building codes and standards traditionally prescribe the value and combinations of loads. Vertical loads are either dead loads or live loads. However.2. interaction of members and load distribution.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 9. such as the dead loads from other materials. The dimension of the building naturally has the greatest influence on scale. the 1997 Uniform Building Code Section 1606. given two equal length lines. and reinf orcement) works t ogether as one homogeneous system. Dead loads are computed from known material weights and their respective sizes. highly ornate areas reduce scale. make even the most modest size building appear large.2. Basic assumptions concerning performance of materials are made. the vertical line appears longer.1 DEAD LOADS Dead loads are long term stationary forces which include the self-weight of the structure and the weight of permanent equipment and machinery.1. Structures and members must be designed to resist the most unfavorable effect of load placement and combination. Frank Lloyd Wright made extensive use of long. The scale of a building is perceived. as it gives a human scale to structures. Based on comparative affirmation it is a judgment of size by the observer. Proper design must consider all possible applied forces along with the interaction of these forces on the structure. such as. Masonry (bri ck.2 DESIGN LOADS All structures must be designed to support their own weight along with any superimposed forces. grout. remain straight and form a plane after loading (no warping). live loads. resist over-turning) and the partition loading should be considered as live loading. one horizontal and one vertical. The successful performance of previously constructed buildings are determined by empirical methods and are often used on smaller projects. walls.6 SCALE The most important architectural aspect of a building is the scale. Studies show that two identical objects have a different perception under different lighting conditions. whereas plain areas increase scale. However. for example.

ASCE 7-05 also requires a minimum design dead load of 15 pounds per square foot (0. Stresses are developed in the material if these movements are restrained. During an earthquake. the IBC uses contour maps of percentage of “ g” .2. Chapter 16. Vertical loads exert a force that is transmitted through the floors. Today. Factors such as height of the structure. All loads are transmitted through the foundation and into the ground in one way or another. exposure. live load. gust factors. should be included in the design for earthquake loads.2 LIVE LOADS Live loads are short duration forces which are variable in magnitude and location.1. 9. columns.1 of the IBC is a comprehensive live load list based on the use and occupancy of the structure.2. the effect of torsion or twisting of the structure must be taken into account.2. 9. Differential (very small) movement between adjacent materials causes stress. The IBC has replaced the familiar ‘ Seismic Zones’ with Seismic Design Categories. In either case.1. seismic zones were given a relative rating of Zone 0 (least seismic activity and wind governs minimum lateral design) thru Zone 4 (most seismic activity that governs minimum lateral design). It also gave the non-engineering professional a “ feel”for whether wind or seismic loading would govern the minimum design. beams or walls and ultimately into the ground.1. The contour map is new and it will take many years for the building industry to become familiar and comfortable with equating a percentage “ g” to a feel if wind or seismic governs the design.90 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL in the code should not be followed blindly and a designer should be given leeway to exercise judgment. Examples of live load items include people.2. rain and snow.5 HYDROSTATIC LOADS Loads due to confined liquids or soils in contact with the member are hydrostatic loads. addresses these live loadings. plastered two sides. . Many factors such as site geology.1.13 Load distribution. The most common example of a hydrostatic load imposed on masonry would be liquid saturated soil behind a retaining wall.2.1. 9. In areas of significant earthquake activity seismic forces are of importance. wind speeds and importance designation of the structure are included in the design for wind loads.74 kN/m2) when partitions are used and the minimum specified live load is less than 80 psf. furniture. Due to non-uniform loading. all structural members are subjected to dynamic forces caused by the resulting ground motions. structural system and mass.4 SEISMIC (EARTHQUAKE) LOADS 9.6 MATERIAL PROPERTY LOADS Due to changes in temperature and moisture content construction materials expand and contract. dead load vs. building shape. The 2006 IBC. 9.3 WIND LOADS Wind loads exert a pressure and a suction on the exposed building surfaces and are particularly important in high-rise construction. In previous codes. Table 1607. both require uniformly distributed dead load of 15 pounds per square foot (0. The percent “ g” contours vary from 0 to 200. The behavior of each material and the interaction of materials must be examined to consider these additional stresses. Wind forces overturning of the structure must also be considered. 9. FIGURE 9.3 LOAD DISTRIBUTION Wind loads and external lateral forces on a wall are horizontal loads which transmit the forces to horizontal and vertical supports.74 kN/m2) for framed partitions using 2 x 4 wood studs. This high gradation blurs the areas (zones) between low and high seismic loading. This relative scale gave the non-engineering professional an immediate and relative understanding of the possibility of seismic activity over the life of a structure.

The quality of workmanship. Compressive force Brick Mortar A rule of thumb is symmetry and center-line to center-line connection of structural members thereby giving structural efficiency to a building.2 FLEXURAL TENSION STRESSES Vertical loads which are not applied at the center of the member. The primary stresses are shear and normal. Normal stresses are described by their direction and by “ how they were created” . it gives the highest value of strength. 9.4. Normal stresses are caused by forces perpendicular to a surface. The strength of the mortar and the grout must also be considered.3 SHEAR STRESSES In brick structures. Brick 9. there are two types of shear. 91 Lateral force Compression FIGURE 9. which can cause vertical cracking. Therefore. This develops tensile stresses in the brick. or tensile (caused by bending or flexure). Mortar is put into tension or compression when an axial load is applied to the assemblage.4 MASONRY STRESSES Masonry is the assemblage of masonry units. the primary types of stresses can be further described as compressive.14 Tensile stresses developed from compressive forces. mortar and grout. will cause the assemblage to bend. The bond between the mortar and the brick transfers the movement to the brick. Each of these strengths is influenced by the properties of materials and the configurations of the assemblages. tensile (caused by direct pulling). Normal stresses are compressive. One side of the wall can be in tension with the opposite side in compression during bending.15 Flexural tensile stress (Out-of- plane load). The strength of a completed masonry wall is based on all three of these working together.16 shows that in the case of a brick shear wall the load is in the plane of the wall and the wall resists this force parallel to its bed joints. empirical and rational design techniques. For each of these stresses there is a corresponding strength property of masonry: compressive strength. member) occurs when the slenderness ratio increases and reaches the Euler buckling phase. When masonry fails in this manner. Shear stress is one type that results from sliding action with the force parallel to the resisting area.4. Load Tension Tension 9. Although the compressive strength of an individual brick may be very high. this strength alone does not dictate the compressive strength of the assemblage. connection of structural elements. tensile or flexural tensile and shear stresses.4. FIGURE 9. .1 COMPRESSIVE STRESS Compressive force Compression There are two primary design methods which must be considered. construction detailing and the component dimensions are also influencing factors. Since these three items must be assembled. Slenderness effects may be estimated from the ratio of the height to the thickness or radius of gyration of the assemblage. There can be compression failure at a lower value and this occurs when buckling is the failure.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Some factors in which forces are distributed to the individual members include configuration. the flexural resistance and rigidity of the wall in both the vertical and horizontal direction and the fixity or restraint at the supports. or out-of-plane loads. Buckling (the bending of a compression 9. called eccentric loads. Figure 9. Stresses develop in the masonry element as it resists the applied loads. how well they are assembled directly affects the strength. flexural bond strength and shear strength. Shear stresses are caused by forces that are parallel to a surface.

Sliding action shear stress.92 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 9. pilasters.5.1 ALLOWABLE STRESSES When bending is present. and a shear stress would develop in the material as depicted in Figure 9.5. Lateral support can be provided by cross walls. columns and walls which are subjected to bending.17 Bending action shear stress. (203 mm). The minimum thickness requirement varies depending on the type of masonry construction. Bearing walls for buildings more than one story require a minimum thickness of 8 in. bearing walls of one-story buildings must have a minimum thickness of 6 in.18 Bending shear stress.18. (152 mm). This type of shear stress is assumed in brick beams. then the empirical design values can be used to design the masonry. These actual stresses must not exceed the permitted compressive stress for the weakest combination of the units and mortar in the masonry assemblage. Empirical design is a very quick design method. Fully grouted bearing walls are limited to a h/t ratio of 20.5 EMPIRICAL DESIGN Empirical Design is contained in Section 2109 of the 2006 IBC. V FIGURE 9. the sheets move relative to each other. Parapet and shear walls must be at least 8 in. No slippage planes would occur if this same beam were made of a single material.5. The majority of the requirements for empirical design are based on limitations to wall dimensions.3 LATERAL SUPPORT Lateral support requirements for walls are given in Chapter 5 of the 2005 MSJC Code. 9. The empirical design method has requirements for the minimum thickness of masonry. The lateral support shall occur at intervals based on the wall length to thickness ratio or the wall height to thickness ratio. If the vertical loading in the masonry is due to vertical dead loads plus live loads (excluding wind or seismic loads). the second type of shear stress occurs. 2005 MSJC Code Chapter 5 lists the permitted compression stresses for masonry assemblages. but only vertical loads are considered in determining stresses. Walls must be laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical direction. Several basic designs are included. Non-bearing exterior walls have a maximum h/t ratio of 18 and nonbearing interior walls have a maximum h/t ratio of 36. Chapter 5. For example. it is not necessarily the most efficient method. 9. This section also references 2005 MSJC Code. where all other types of bearing walls are limited to a h/t ratio of 18. When the limiting distance is measured vertically. 9. buttresses or structural frame members when the limiting distance is measured horizontally. The actual compression stresses in the masonry are determined by dividing the design load by the gross cross-sectional area. (203 mm) thick and their height shall not exceed 3 times the thickness.17 in a cantilever beam made of several sheets of material with a force applied to the end of a beam. As shown in Figure 9.2 MINIMUM THICKNESS FIGURE 9. lateral . FIGURE 9. however.16 Empirical design is based on experience and what has worked in the past.

This increased pressure drives the interior moist air outward from the building through any vapor-porous materials that comprise the walls. 9.This is usually due to moisture originating inside the building. attention to all four factors is necessary. . wetting them. Anchorage of masonry to floors.1 MOISTURE RESISTANCE The successful performance of a masonry wall requires limiting the amount of water penetration and controlling any water that enters the wall system.5. 9. Humidity . bathing. The drainage wall and the barrier wall are two basic wall systems used for this purpose. The materials can also draw moisture from water vapor present in the air. Gained interior moisture content increases interior vapor pressure above exterior vapor pressure. topography and building features. In the cumulative length. Vapor barriers should be placed to stop moist air from reaching places in a wall sufficiently cool to cause condensation. metals to corrode and interior finishes to deteriorate. freezing and thawing may cause cracking. If a wall has water in it.6. contacts building materials. condensation. such as moisture behind retaining walls. Water. metal wall ties or joint reinforcement. Regardless of the quality of the materials or the degree of workmanship. Depending upon one another for lateral support. in the forms of rain and snow. Water in masonry can cause efflorescence to appear on exterior surfaces. Rain . Condensation will occur when vapor comes in contact with wall materials at temperatures below the dew point of moist air. the exposure to which a masonry wall will be subjected is variable.2 SOURCES OF MOISTURE Moisture is present in various forms such as rain. Wind driven rain is also a concern since the wind can blow water into cracks or holes.5 BOND AND ANCHORAGE Multi-wythe walls empirically designed must be bonded with masonry headers. materials.The typical environment contains a certain amount of moisture which affects the moisture content in a brick masonry wall.Rain and other sources.6. steel connectors or joint reinforcement. Ground Water .6.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION support can be provided by floors and roofs acting as diaphragms or structural frame members. Masonry walls must be provided parallel to the direction of the lateral force if the structure depends on masonry walls for lateral stability. no single wall type can be expected to perform equally. spalling and disintegration.Depending on climate. Drainage wall systems have the highest resistance to rain penetration. The vapor barrier must be located on the warm side of the wall insulation. snow. To produce a satisfactorily performing wall. masonry elements that intersect must be anchored or bonded at locations where they meet or are connected by overlapping masonry units.4 LATERAL STABILITY Chapter 5 of the 2005 MSJC Code addresses lateral stability of shear walls and roofs. whereas most sources of moisture are external.3 SELECTION OF WALL TYPE Under various exposures. Therefore. The four important key factors for water resistance of a masonry wall are: design. 9.5. ground water. the wall system must control the moisture once it penetrates the exterior wythe. construction and maintenance. can wick upward into the masonry unless adequate moisture penetrating barriers are present. The lowest cumulative length of shear walls provided in each direction is 0.6 CLAY BRICK DESIGN FOR MOISTURE AND MOVEMENT Many of the problems in masonry walls are due to water penetration.4 times the long dimension of the building. washing and other operations employing water or steam and moisture released by exhalation and perspiration of the occupants. When calculating thickness for these ratios the thickness of the wall is the total wall thickness for solid walls and the thickness of only the loaded width for cavity walls. Water penetration must be controlled since water cannot be completely eliminated. The minimum length of shear wall elements should be the story height. roofs and adjoining structural framing is required. The interior air is humidified by moisture released from cooking. openings are not included. and humidity. a heavy wind-driven rain will penetrate a single wythe of brickwork. Condensation . 9. 93 9. 9.

4 WATER PENETRATION RESISTANCE 9. Chapter 6. Flashing is a thin impervious membrane. For high absorption units. flashing materials are formed from sheet metals. copper and plastic. 2. Flashing is essential in providing water drainage in barrier wall systems. to 60 mil. Highly absorbent clay masonry units will absorb water but do not contribute to the flow of water through the wall. such as metal foil. The Initial Rate of Absorption (IRA) of the clay masonry unit when laid should be less than 30g/min/30 in. it also passes through voids and separations or cracks between the brick units and the mortar. Flashing directly affects how a masonry wall performs and the selection is largely determined by cost and suitability. pre-formed shapes. When water passes through a brick wall. The following is a list of flashing materials with various recommendations. manufacturers’ literature should be consulted.25 mm).5 FLASHING Quality materials used in the construction process will improve water penetration resistance in brick masonry. test data to ensure satisfactory performance because the chemical compositions of plastics vary widely. Stainless steel is an excellent flashing material. Plastic flashings are durable. 1. The minimum thickness should be at least 0.2. To avoid leaking in the brick masonry walls. which are highly resistant to corrosion.6. Using brick with heavily sanded bed surfaces.01 in. Extent of bond is defined as the area of contact between the interface of the brick and the mortar surfaces. it can be easily damaged and in many cases. Typically. superior quality materials should be selected since replacement in the event of failure will be expensive. For the various flashings available. Applying pressure when laying brick units. 4. (0. Many types of materials are available for flashing. Mix ing m ortar f or compatibil ity with workmanship. This means using maximum amounts of water and retempering as necessary. Typical copper flashing is made from 10 to 20 oz. . Extent of bond between the clay masonry unit and mortar selected can be increased by: 2005 MSJC Code. bituminous membranes or plastics. turns brittle and can degrade with time. this may be obtained by prewetting the units. The extent of bond between the brick and the mortar is a key item in resistance to rain penetration in properly built brick masonry. Copper is an excellent flashing material. requires flashing and all construction documents should specify the type of flashing and show its exact location. Under normal conditions and exposures. High bond strength between brick and mortar may not necessarily result in an extent of bond that would provide high resistance to rain penetration. sheet copper. Smooth (die skin) texture of the bed surface. Higher extent of bond results in increased water penetration resistance of brick masonry. glass fiber reinforcement. Performance records of the material should be evaluated and where possible.94 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 9. It is impervious to moisture and resists chemicals well. 3. 3. large amounts of water do not pass directly through the brick and mortar. Combination flashings. not all materials are recommended. however. durable and available in special. cement-lime. 2.6. In brick masonry walls various types of flashing materials may be used. Asp halt-impregnated felt is not recommended as a material to be used for flashing in masonry construction. were developed to utilize different materials to produce a moderately priced flashing with good properties. Effectiveness of bond between the mortar and clay masonry unit may be reduced by: 1. On the other hand. The ability to retemper is based on many f actors including the ambient air temperature. Water that penetrates the exterior wythe gravitates to the base of the wall panel and flashing collects the water and directs the moisture to the exterior through weep holes. Low (< 60%) water retentively of the mortar. resilient materials. bond strength is a measure of the adhesion between the masonry unit and mortar. Increasing the mortar air content beyond 12%. During installation. 5. 4. installed at specific locations in a masonry wall system. The cement content of the mortar should be in the range of 1:1/4 to 1:1. Using Portland cement-lime mortar. Typical thickness of plastic flashing is 20 mil.

Wall ties Flashing Sealant Weep holes Metal anchor Flashing turned up beyond end of sill 15° min. Flashing should be placed under all sills and turned up at the ends to form dams. window sills. 95 Flashing at tops of walls limits the amount of moisture entering the wall. (25 mm) min. The location of flashing is as important as the material.19 Base flashing details. and roofs. The locations noted above are either tops. Flashing at the base of a wall diverts moisture to the outside of the wall. spandrels. tops of walls.20 Flashing Flashing should be installed at the top of all openings. Proper design requires flashing at shelf angles. Weep holes 1 in. Wall ties FIGURE 9. To divert the water to the exterior. Special flashing considerations may be required for soffits and deep reveals. Base flashing prevents water from rising up into the wall system due to capillary action. care should be taken so flashing is not installed below grade. Moisture that enters a wall gradually travels downward. projections. Concrete or stone sill 1 in. continuous flashing must be placed above grade at the base of walls. wall bases. The caustic alkalis present in mortar will attack aluminum. (25 mm) min. The flashing should be placed directly on top of the lintels and turned up at the ends to form dams. heads of openings. .BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Aluminum should not be used as a flashing material in brick masonry construction. Sill flashing details. bottoms or horizontal interruptions of walls. When the designer has determined the elevation for placing base flashing in the wall according to plans. Lead should not be used as a flashing material in brick masonry. Weep holes FIGURE 9. Lead is susceptible to corrosion in mortar. recesses. Flashing Weep holes Wall ties Flashing Sealant Weep holes Wood or steel frame Flashing 15° min.

FIGURE 9. min. steel stud back-up. Flashing must be placed beneath the coping when masonry units.24 Projections and recesses provide a surface to collect water. (102 mm) onto the face of the masonry. Roof penetrations must be designed and installed with great care to avoid moisture penetration. In frame buildings. min. FIGURE 9. Sheathing Purlin anchor Sealant back-up Clear for vertical movement or provide compressible material Joist hanger Ledger with anchor bolts as required for vertical and horizontal forces Bond beam or chord reinforced as required for lateral loads FIGURE 9. air space Flashing Steel angle Weep holes Reinforcing steel Metal ties Flashing Rigid insulation 2 in. for air circulation Insulation FIGURE 9. They should be sloped away from the wall to drain and have flashing as close to the sloped surface as possible. Counterflashing should extend through the outside wythe and overlap the roof flashing a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm). Variation from specified position in plan Adjustable anchor Alternate position of flashing with weep holes shifted upward one brick Weep holes @ 24”o. it should extend 4 in. continuous flashing is necessary at shelf angles supporting brick masonry. air space Sealant Dovetail tie Open head joint @ 4’o.22 Shelf angle anchored to beam or slab. When metal coping is used. Flashing design depends upon the type of roofing used. W aterproof sheathing Ties Elastic sealant Grout Steel stud back-up Flashing Brick veneer 1 in.c. min.96 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Coping 1 in. stone or concrete are used.c. Rowlock coping with dowel rod and anchor pin Flashing and counterflashing Shims Roofing Sealant Face of beam or slab Concrete cap flashing detail.21 Shelf angle at concrete support. .23 The tops of all walls and parapets should have a sloped cap or coping. Metal copings do not require flashing beneath. Masonry cap flashing detail.

flashing must extend through the wall. (9. The change in height of the flashing should be at least 8 in.5 mm) in size will avoid blocking the weep holes and puncturing the flashing. A bed of mortar conforming to the curve of the flashing should be placed under the flashing for extra support of the gravel bed. the static friction coefficient is approximately 0. pieces should be lapped at least 6 in.86 for out-of-plane loads. The pieces of flashing. (203 mm). flashing is not available in one long. to achieve this continuity.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Metal cap Roof membrane Roofing Sheathing Joist anchor to wall a positive connection Joist hanger Ledger with anchor bolts as required for vertical and horizontal forces Bond beam or chord reinforced as required for lateral loads FIGURE 9. these values are reduced by approximately 15%. When plastic flashing is used. Flashing influences the force necessary to cause sliding of masonry on its support. Masonry on steel gives a . 97 All flashing should extend beyond the face of the wall to form a drip. For masonry on concrete.26 End dam detail. the ends of the flashing should be extended beyond the jamb lines on both sides and should be turned up into the head joint at each end to form a dam. which ends behind the exterior face of the wall may allow water to re-enter the wall around and under the flashing. Gravel should not be placed on top of flashing which covers bolted shelf angles without a supporting mortar bed as the weight of the gravel on the flashing may cause tearing or puncturing at the bolt head.25 Metal coping detail. Flashing. Rounded gravel about 3/8 in. As shown in Figure 9.43 in-plane and out-of-plane to 0. Typically.27 Drainage detail using gravel. Therefore. Paper-backed copper flashing lowers the coefficient of static friction to 0. (152 mm) and the laps sealed with mastic or an adhesive compatible with the flashing material. (152 mm) and sealed to conform to the shape of the structure.26. where the flashing is not continuous. may need to be cut. puncture or interrupt the flashing. Flashing Gravel Weep holes End dam Mortar bed FIGURE 9. flashing must be higher on the inside of the wall than the outside. The inside edge should be fixed to the backing or embedded in a reglet in concrete or the mortar joint of the interior masonry wythe. A layer of gravel a few inches deep or material specifically designed to catch mortar droppings on top of flashing in the cavity will aid in preventing mortar droppings from falling directly upon the flashing and clogging the weep holes. such as over and under openings in the wall. In order to direct moisture to the building exterior.59 for in-plane loads and 0. continuous sheet. There are other considerations regarding installation of flashing which the designer must address in addition to specific location information. To ensure that any collected water completely exits the wall system. FIGURE 9.45. Flashing should be sealed when it is necessary to cut. Flashing around corners should be continuous. lapped 6 in.

The vents should be placed at the top and bottom of cavities. Vents spacing should not exceed 24 in. The film forming coatings may trap moisture which may lead to spalling of the brick through successive freeze-thaw cycles or surface efflorescence.6. the second group. On areas already coated. Typically. ASTM E 514. The maximum spacing should be reduced to 16 in. Efflorescence occurs when water-soluble salts in solution are present somewhere in the wall and are brought to the surface of the masonry and deposited there by evaporation. Plastic flashing increases this coefficient by approximately 18% while paper-backed copper flashing reduces this coefficient by approximately 27%. made up of penetrating materials such as silanes and siloxanes. air vents are essential. There is no recognized standard set of tests to evaluate coating suitability for exterior brick masonry. Weep holes can be formed by open head joints.9 EFFLORESCENCE Efflorescence is a white. Frequently this type of examination will identify the source of the problem and prevent further consideration of water repellent coatings and their associated risks.8 mm). This inspection should determine the condition and suitability of caps and copings. The principal issue of efflorescence is the objectionable appearance on the brick surface. 9. Weep holes should be spaced no further apart than 24 in. The salt solution may migrate to the surface of the wall between the mortar and units. . The broadest groups of coatings are those which form a protective skin and those which change the angle of contact of water from suction to repellency. The least dimension of weep holes should be 1/4 in. can be used to compare the effectiveness of a water repellent coating by testing uncoated and coated walls. When moisture tries to move through the coating. (610 mm) on center horizontally even though 2005 MSJC Code allows weep holes to be spaced up to 33 in. polymers and various combinations. clouding or whitening of the coating may occur.8 COATINGS Clear exterior masonry wall coatings. it is not difficult to remove and usually is not harmful to the brick masonry.7 VENTS Two benefits provided by air vents in the exterior wythe of a drainage wall are: air flow across the backside of the brick wythe which aids in the evaporation of moisture and the equalized pressure in the cavity which reduces water sucked into the cavity. siloxanes.6. gives better performance with fewer problems than film forming coatings. resins. Clear water repellents will not eliminate water penetration in all cases and other factors must be considered. non-wicked weep holes may serve as vents. 3. Coatings will not completely stop staining and efflorescence or may cover efflorescence sufficiently to prevent its removal.4 mm). (4. Generally. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration and Leakage Through Masonry. The water vapor permeance of the coating must be close to that of the brickwork for proper performance. At the base of the cavity. or the masonry units. although 2005 MSJC Code permits weep holes as small as 3/16 in. A careful and thorough inspection should be made of the areas involved prior to considering any application to masonry walls. weep holes. successiv e applications of water repellent coatings may not be possible. flashing. Coatings resist water differently and they are often grouped together. Even though an efflorescence problem is complex.6.98 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL static friction coefficient of 0.6. 9. silanes.6 WEEP HOLES Weep holes must be provided immediately above the flashing in order to properly drain water collected on the flashing. these materials are available in two types of solutions: waterbased solutions and solv ent-based solutions. 9. caulking or sealant joints. Environmental considerations severely limit the use of solvent-based solutions. through the mortar. gum waxes. (6. a wick or drainage tube. oils. W hen the exterior wythe is coated with an impermeable surface such as glazed brick. The majority of cracks or incompletely filled joints cannot be closed by coatings. (838 mm) apart. fall into several broad material groups: silicones. a removable rope or rod. (610 mm) on center horizontally. acrylics.58 in-plane and out-of-plane loads. such as: 1. paraffins. 9. which reduce the amount of water entering the wall. 2. powdery deposit of watersoluble salts left on the surface of masonry as the water evaporates. (406 mm) where a wick material is used as the weep hole. mortar joint conditions and general execution of details. rosins.

Mortar and grout can contribute to efflorescence.28 Efflorescence. Various types of sources are admixtures. If sulfates are present in the raw materials. The salt crystals can form within the bodies of the units under certain circumstances. such as caps. Backing . The materials of mortar and grout. These conditions can occur when high vapor resistant coatings are used. concrete masonry. ground water and fertilizers. These materials may contribute to efflorescence on the face of adjacent brickwork. rainwater. concrete. sills. Hydrated Lime . Common sources of soluble salts include mortar. calcium. However. magnesium and aluminum. aggregates. soil runoff. cement and lime must be individually evaluated as sources of efflorescence salts. Brick . A detailed description of some of the most common sources of the salts is given below. The use of mortar and grout in masonry construction provide sufficient water to allow soluble salts to go into solution. FIGURE 9. cast Cement . Trim . Mortar and Grout . There are other outside sources of soluble salts that may contribute to efflorescence in addition to the masonry materials. C 652. 99 stone. Alkalis existing in Portland cement vary.Soluble salts may exist within the brick due to the composition of the raw materials and the high temperatures associated with the brick manufacturing process. cleaning materials or acid rain may cause efflorescence. Sands commonly available and used in mortar should be cleaned and washed. • There must be migration of salt solutions to the surface in an environment which allows evaporation. This contamination may include: sea water. If sufficient water is present to dissolve the salts and pathways are provided for the solution to reach the exterior surface these units may contribute to efflorescence on the face of the wall. Low alkali cement may be specified to reduce efflorescence potential. a cleaning solution containing hydrochloric acid can react with lime to produce soluble calcium chloride which can migrate to the surface. The pressure may cause cracking and distress to the masonry when this occurs. calcium and potassium are the water-soluble alkalis common in cement. brick or other sources. are used to immobilize and render the sulfates insoluble. It is often erroneously assumed to be the fault of the brick since efflorescence appears on the face of the brick. or other similar material. lintels. ground water. additives. calcium chloride used as an accelerator.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION There are certain conditions which must exist in order for efflorescence to occur. The potential for brick units to effloresce may be assessed by the efflorescence test described in ASTM C 67. Condensation within the inner wythe is a common source of water. C 902 and C 1088 require that the ASTM C 67 rating for efflorescence be ‘ not effloresced’ .Sodium.Lime does not generally contribute to efflorescence.Masonry materials used as backing or inner wythes of masonry walls may contain large quantities of soluble salts. The sulfate content of the cement may be as significant as the alkali content in contributing to efflorescence. • Soluble salts must be present within or in contact with the masonry assembly. such as barium carbonate. or from chemical reactions of these materials. . Chemically reacting with masonry ingredients. Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile. ASTM Standards C 216. • There also must be a source of water in contact with the salts for a sufficient length of time to permit the salts to dissolve.Building trim. plant life and decomposed organic compounds.Sands with soluble alkali sulfates will cause efflorescence unless the sulfates are removed. The most common salts found in efflorescence are sulf ate and carbonate compounds of sodium. coping. potassium. or keystones can be natural stone. Sand . precast concrete.

10.10. of clay masonry is 0.10. kt. Long term is measured in years or decades. beams and lintels supporting brick masonry should be limited to a maximum deflection of span length divided by 600 or 0. the brick masonry will not allow the beam or floor above to deflect. Many buildings Joint free of all material except for backer rod and sealant Stop longitudinal wire at all brick expansion joints Exterior face of 4”brick veneer Brick expansion joint Expansion Joint Alternate position of flashing with weep holes shifted upward one brick 9.6. Weep holes 24”o. (3 x 10-4 mm/mm).6 mm). . ke. (7.2 MOISTURE MOVEMENT Many building materials. It is necessary to consider the effects of potential differential movements of the various materials. Thus the brick masonry now has a beam or a floor bearing on top of it. it transfers load directly to the brick masonry. These movements are reversible for several building materials. Since the beam or floor cannot deflect./ºF (7.6.7 x 10-7 per psi (0. 9. footings. 9. According to the 2005 MSJC Code the creep coefficient. or leave out head joint mortar Sealant Sealant back-up 9. T hese mov em ents are theoretically reversible for unrestrained conditions. Building materials expand and contract due to the changes in temperature. under heavy loading.c. Several materials move with changes in moisture content. This event is known as creep.10. for clay masonry as 4 x 10-6 in. This deflection may result in movement of the supporting member. max.5 DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT Historically. Improper detailing of brick masonry can cause a non-bearing wall to become a bearing wall (carry vertical load). fired clay masonry products expand slowly and this expansion is not reversible by drying at atmospheric temperatures. or if no water penetrated the masonry.6. whichever is less. with others they are not. 9.10 MOVEMENT Every material used in the construction of a building is in a constant state of motion. Due to moisture absorption. expand with increases in moisture absorption and contract with moisture dissipation. The practical approach to the elimination of efflorescence is to reduce all contributing factors.3 in.1 x 10-4 per MPa). efflorescence could not occur. Rotation of the support must also be considered. This movement can cause additional stresses to develop in the masonry that the supporting member is carrying.10. 9. kc. All materials change dimension due to stress. Expansion Joint Under Support Angle FIGURE 9. could resist differential movement with little distress.1 T HERMAL MOVEMENT Thermal movements of clay masonry units and other building materials can be estimated from the thermal coefficient of expansion determined by laboratory tests. In order to limit the movement of the supporting member. since different materials are used in today’ s building structures. massive walls in the structure. The 2005 MSJC Code lists the thermal expansion coefficient.2 x 10-6 mm/mm/ºC). possibly causing cracking or collapse. Building elements are subject to loadinduced def lections.6. Movement caused by sustained loads is calculated by the coefficient of creep multiplied by the load-induced stress times the length of the element. Detailing of an opening of deflection gap between the underside of a beam or floor and the top of non-bearing brick masonry can be critical.6.100 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL If masonry could be constructed to contain no water-soluble salts.3 CREEP Clay brick masonry undergoes a long term shortening when subjected to sustained axial load.6. metal excluded. brick buildings were constructed using thick. The 2005 MSJC Code lists the moisture expansion coefficient. of clay masonry as 3 x 10-4 in.4 DEFLECTION Members supporting brick masonry undergo movement due to their physical properties and loads.29 Movement joint detail./in. When brick masonry is built tight to the underside of a beam or floor. some materials tend to flow when subjected to sustained loads./in. These massive walls.

Of course. Movement joints must be installed to accommodate these differential movements. Many experienced architects agree that sealant which matches the color of the brick provides better camouflage.6 m). The exterior brick wythe is often thermally isolated from the interior by insulation creating more thermal movement. FIGURE 9. compressibility of expansion joint materials. Placing vertical expansion joints. 9.6 EXPANSION JOINTS Expansion joints are used to accommodate brick masonry into segments to permit large temperature and moisture movements. especially when expansion joints are of a contrasting color of the masonry. On the other hand. The different properties between the frame and the enclosure walls create greater differential movement. The geometry of the structure affects the placement of vertical expansion joints. A backer rod and elastic sealant are used to prevent moisture penetration. designers specify the color of the sealant in the expansion joint to match the color of the mortar. Spacing of expansion joints in a solid wall without openings should not exceed 25 ft (7. Expansion joints and control joints are two different types of movement joints used in masonry. The actual joint dimension must be twice the anticipated movement if the expansion material can only move 50%. Several typical locations of vertical expansion joints include spacing at 25 ft (7. The expansion joints are open joints filled with a highly compressible material. they may be placed at internal corners or the jambs of windows and doors. at or near offsets and at intersecting walls and corners.6. 9. Recently. temperature at time of installation.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION constructed today are veneer walls with a steel or concrete frame as the structure. The placement of the expansion joints relative to building elements. Factors such as restraint.6.7 EXPANSION JOINT PLACEMENT Expansion joints are both a structural consideration and an aesthetic one. however.6 m to 6. Often. symmetry may be considered a higher priority. can affect the balance of a building’ s facade. When hidden expansion joints are desired. Expansion joint placement is flexible as long as minimum calculated spacing requirements are met. age of masonry and variations in workmanship will reduce the actual movement. Every building should be analyzed to determine the potential movements and provisions should be made to relieve excessive stress which might be expected from such movement. shrinkage and plastic flow of mortar.30 Expansion joint. The majority of expansion joint materials are typically 25% to 50% compressible. Placement of horizontal expansion joints is rather limited since they can only be placed under a working shelf angle. 101 Although this is effective for horizontal joints. .10. it has become increasingly popular to take a different approach to expansion joints.10. Expansion joints are now commonly being accented by contrasting color or a reveal and are used as part of the decorative design of the building. windows and corners. 9. this design approach warrants close attention to the placement of the expansion joints. such as columns.10. Typical spacing of expansion joints is 15 ft to 20 ft (4. This type of joint allows space for clay masonry’ s movement which is principally expansion.6. does allow some freedom although maximum calculated spacing requirements must still be met. The size of the expansion joints will depend on joint spacing and the performance of the sealant.8 LOCATION OF EXPANSION JOINTS There are no suggestions on the positioning and spacing of expansion joints that can be applicable to all structures. vertical expansion joints are not as discrete since they typically break the running bond pattern of the masonry.6 m) in long runs of walls.1 m) apart. Available expansion joint colors are as limitless as the colors of brick and mortar. in an attempt to disguise expansion joints. Variables such as sealant color and location should be largely inf luenced by architectural design.

along with suitable joint reinforcement or bond beam reinforcement. Brick masonry expands while concrete masonry shrinks. The location of horizontal expansion joints must be directly under intermediate supports. buildings can incorporate passive solar design. The shelf angles are a natural interruption of the masonry and thus a logical place for an expansion joint. Through the use of thermal storage materials. but may also be partially filled with a non-compressible material. The heat flow in passive solar heating solar systems is accomplished by natural means. which are attached to the main structure. sufficient overhangs or shading devices to prevent overheating in the summer and interior brick masonry for thermal storage. therefore control joints may be used to control the location of the cracks. Movement between the veneer and the structural frame. Brick masonry is an ideal material for use in passive solar applications since it has a very high capacity to store heat. As a result. The distinction between an expansion joint and a control joint is apparent when this is considered. FIGURE 9. but also experience shrinkage due to initial drying first. Active solar heating systems require mechanical equipment for operation. accent walls and fireplaces are common uses of interior brick masonry for passive solar systems. are difficult to install and may not permit proper functioning of the sealant. Control joints are placed in concrete masonry and are typically vertical. at the jambs of openings or at building grids such as column lines. Expansion joints are placed to accommodate the movement of masonry brick walls due to change in temperature and moisture. control joints are not necessary in brick masonry walls. Passive solar systems collect energy from the sun and store this thermal energy in massive materials which make up the structure. Control joints are placed in concrete or concrete masonry walls. such as brick and by thoughtful placement of windows.9 CONTROL JOINTS One additional consideration is the distinction between control joints and expansion joints. Solar energy is not always utilized. brick masonry needs room to expand and expansion joints are necessary.7 HEAT TRANSFER A large amount of the country’ s fuel is used for heating buildings. Buildings using passive solar energy can have a conventional appearance without a higher initial cost.31 Vertical expansion joint layout example. This becomes obvious when one considers the clay units are manufactured by a firing process which drives off all moisture. to control shrinkage cracking by reducing restraint and accommodating wall movement due to initial drying and long term shrinkage. expansion joints can be placed on a symmetrical basis with respect to openings and elevations. including seismic and wind. reduced glazing on the east.102 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Concrete masonry walls not only experience expansion due to changes in temperature and moisture. Using solar heating systems helps to decrease this consumption of non-renewable energy sources. The only required variations in the Northern Hemisphere are: additional south-facing wall glazing. Shrinkage due to drying is not found in clay masonry construction. The major concern of the nation is the energy conservation and fuel consumption. Active and passive solar energy systems are two types that may be used to heat buildings. Toothed expansion joints. The expansion nature of clay masonry has opposite effect and control joints for cracking are not required. control joints create locations of weakness that controls the location of cracks. 9. joints that follow natural vertical and horizontal mortar lines. such as shelf angles. The vertical growth of the masonry beneath the shelf angle is permitted by the expansion joint. control joints act in both contraction and expansion. occurs at the shelf angles. Due to shrinkage in concrete and concrete masonry.10. The use of mechanical equipment is not necessary in passive solar heating systems. 9. they may be open. Horizontal expansion joints must be placed between the top of brick walls where structural elements are located above. west and north walls. therefore. Typically. .6. The shrinkage of concrete masonry causes the masonry to “ pull apart”during shrinkage. Floors. Similar to expansion joints. however.

9. This entire combination would have a single U-value. c R figures based upon coring and density of supplier using parallel path method. One rule always applies in heat transmission.1 Heat Transmission Coefficients of Building Materialsa Materials Description Masonry Units Face brick Common brick b Hollow brick 4 in.9% solid) 6 in. convection and radiation are the three ways heat energy may be transferred from one place to another.2% solid) 10 in. as opposed to a single material of the wall assembly.19 0.24 0. conduction occurs by replacing hands on a cool surface. A convective loop is formed when air is heated by a warmer surface of an air space and rises until it transfers heat to a cooler surface and begins to fall. non-changing. (61. The sun heats the earth by radiation of heat through waves. the surface is warmer. except as noted. Using standard test methods. It is expressed in BTU’ s per hour per degree of temperature differential for the total heat flow through a square foot of a given assembly. 9.52 1. (62.3% solid) 8 in.12 0. Conduction occurs when two materials are in contact with each other. (60.74 0. Variables including temperature. 103 lieu of an engineered wall system there are two calibrated values used to asses the thermal movement (heat transfer) through a wall R-Value and U-Value. Heat transferred through radiation travels in the form of waves which always travel in straight lines. Vermiculite fill in cores. Unfortunately.g.2% solid) 10 in. For example.25 0.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Conduction. (62. When heat energy from one material is transferred to another material through a gas such as air.93 1.9% solid) Resistance (R) Per Inch For Thickness Thickness Listed 0. Based upon coring given. To produce a steady heat flow through the material. or. climatic conditions. W hen two objects become the same temperature and equilibrium is reached. including surface films.92 2. Insulation configurations of wall .7.24 1. there are too many materials and combinations to practically test all types of wall assemblages. insulation) used in an assembly. The lower the U-value. the higher the insulating value. The U-value of a given material or wall assembly is the rate of heat flow through a unit area of that material assembly. (61. (60.20 0. As a result a representative analysis model is used to predict the heat transfer of a wall.38 a From ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.2 U-VALUE U-values may be used to give a single value to the wall assembly. In FIGURE 9. Table 9.7. For example. heat transfer of wall assemblages can be found by testing a given wall assembly. the chambers have set.06 1.3% solid) 8 in. as more commonly stated. air to air. heat cannot be transferred.9% solid) c Hollow brick vermiculite fill 4 in.27 0.1 R-VALUE R-values are for a single specific material (e.14 0.9% solid) 6 in. created by objects obstructing the wave’ s straight path. are cooler than sunny areas. a brick wall may be constructed with exterior faces of brick and the interior may be grout or insulating fill. (67. R-values are found using a testing apparatus with a separate chamber on either side of the material to be tested. moisture content of air and surrounding materials. wind speed and radiation are all held constant. This is why shadowed areas.20 0. heat is always transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object. (Partial) b Calculated data based upon hollow brick (25% to 40% cored) of one manufacturer.32 sections.10 1. convection occurs.15 0. The U-value is applied to total combination of materials for the complete element. When hands are removed.11 0. (67.

To easily compare partitions. The STC rating system is based on a standard contour. Since actual climatic conditions are dynamic. high frequency sounds attenuate. The measured transmission loss at a frequency of 500 cycles per second on the STC contour is termed the STC rating when the partition’ s contour is fitted to the STC contour.2 TRANSMISSION LOSS The energy loss as sound travels from one side of a partition to another is known as transmission loss. a 6 dB reduction is equivalent to a 30 to 50% noise reduction. This STC contour is compared to a partition’ s contour obtained by plotting the measured transmission loss at the same eleven frequencies. 9. 9. can be reduced from one side of a solid wall to another. 9.104 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The U-value is calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the thermal resistance of each of the assemblage’ s materials. Thus. a partition’ s performance can be fully described. or perceived loudness. The high mass of brick has a slower thermal response when compared to lightweight materials such as vinyl or wood siding. a single number rating system is necessary. much faster than low frequency sounds. Based on a logarithmic scale. The ability of massive materials to absorb and hold heat and the time necessary to transfer heat are reflected in these modifications. or die out. The difference in thermal response will have a significant effect on the wall’ s performance under changing conditions. When the transmission loss for all frequencies is known. The reduction of sound or noise through a wall assemblage is measured as a decrease in decibels. A 1 dB increase corresponds to an increase of 26% in sound intensity. Judged by a typical human. The next morning the sun has to start all over again in trying to change the temperature of the adobe brick from one side to the other. Brick masonry is considered an excellent sound insulator although it is not a good sound barrier. A high transmission loss at one frequency will cancel a low transmission loss at another frequency with a simple average. Reflective materials are very hard and act as a shield to divert sound waves. such as air. the measurement of sound by decibels develops a ratio between two sounds. A partition does not have the same transmission loss for all frequencies of sound.3 SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS The Sound Transmission Class (STC) is commonly used as an accepted single number rating system which is not a simple average. In the air. The U-value analysis model assumes a steady state of heat flow and therefore is not accurate in predicting actual energy loss. the hot brick gives heat back to the cool night air.8. High pitched sounds are associated with high frequencies and low frequencies with low pitched sounds. The amount of heat held is directly proportional to the weight of the material. 9. 9. Damping materials are very heavy and sound waves which do not have enough energy to set the heavy material into motion cannot be transferred. During the evening. Brick is very effective at reflecting and damping sound waves. Massive materials will perform better than the U-value model predictions.8. the adobe brick has high thermal mass. the model must be modified to produce more accurate results. Lightweight materials will come closer to the U-value model prediction. reflection and damping are three ways on which sound energy. A simple average of transmission losses at different frequencies is not a good indicator of a partition’ s performance as a sound barrier. The sound energy is reduced through the numerous collisions.7. The ASHRAE’ s Handbook of Fundamentals explains the modifications to the heat loss and heat gain equations for dynamic performance of walls. This means it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of the adobe masonry from one side (sunny and hot outside) to the other (shady and cool inside). 2 dB is 26% greater in intensity than 1 dB and 40 dB is 26% greater than 39 dB. Absorption. Adobe brick masonry has a low R-value and therefore would not be a candidate for use in the hot desert because it does not insulate well. . The result is a partition with a good average transmission loss but which does not perform acceptably at certain sound frequencies. Common face brick reflect about 95% of incidental sound.1 DECIBELS The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit used to describe the ratio of the signal level. While this is true.3 THERMAL MASS Thermal mass is demonstrated by the use of adobe brick masonry in hot desert regions.8. The decibel is the smallest change in sound energy the human ear can perceive.8 ACOUSTICS Sound waves are vibrations which spreads sound energy through a medium. Absorptive materials are porous and cause the sound waves to collide within the pores. This STC contour represents equal perceived loudness at eleven different frequencies.

when resisting a load. Headers connecting adjacent wythes must be embedded a minimum of 3 in.9. A brick wall depends on the design and construction to determine its resistance to certain factors. such as temperature range or moisture conditions. acts as a single structural element. Grouted Wall (Composite Wall) Attachment between compo- . while the headers. For a barrier wall. Out-of-plane loads are distributed to the wythes in relation to the relative flexural rigidity of the wythes. wind load and seismic forces. and  Structural load considerations. a masonry wall is either a drainage or barrier wall. When considering environmental resistance alone. A rigid connection between the components is necessary for this sharing of load. A separate classification is based on how the masonry wall resists water penetration. Wall structural performance is based on classification as a composite or non-composite wall.1 COMPOSITE/NON-COMPOSITE WALL Masonry Bonded Hollow Wall (Composite Wall) A composite structural wall.9.33 nents.9 BRICK APPLICATIONS 9.9. Stresses are transferred between the connected wythes. any water that penetrates the wall is channeled (drained) toward the exterior.1.2 ATTACHMENT OF COMPONENTS Masonry bonding. measures are taken to prevent water from entering the wall. In a drainage wall. 9. 9. bond the wall transversely. metal ties alone or metal ties with a mortar or grout filled collar joint. The English bond consists of alternating courses of headers and stretchers. When a resisting load is applied to the wall. Metal ties are used to connect the components.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 9.  Climatic conditions. The 2005 MSJC Code requires at least 4% of the wall surface to be composed of headers when used to connect two or more wythes. The rigid connection between wythes in a multiwythe wall can be achieved either with masonry headers or metal ties combined with a filled collar joint.1. such as live load. The Flemish bond is laid with alternating headers and stretchers in alternate courses lining up vertically. In-plane loads are resisted by the individually loaded wythe.1 STRUCTURAL BRICKWORK–WALL TYPES The type of wall best suited for a particular building depends on a number of factors. The stretchers laid with the length of the wall develop longitudinal strength. These include:  The use of the building. The components of a wall may be attached to each other using masonry headers. the wythes act independently. W alls bonded with headers are assumed to act compositely. A non-composite wall always has an air space separating a wythe of brick masonry from other components. when composite action occurs and shear stresses developed between the wythes can be resisted. laid across the width of the wall. Cavity Wall (Non-composite W all) FIGURE 9. (76 mm) in each wythe. metal ties or the adhesion of mortar or grout and metal ties are used to attach the masonry wythes to other wythes or backing systems. 105 Masonry bonded walls are based on variations of the location of stretchers and headers. such as for human occupancy or for storage of materials.

Corrosion resistant ties may be stainless steel or hot-dipped galvanized.106 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Wall ties provide a connection between the masonry wythe and the backing and transfer loads perpendicular to the wall surface from the masonry wythe to the backing. Grout or mortar filled collar joints must be accompanied by metal ties. along with flashing and weep holes. but with careful detailing and quality construction practices. Drainage wall systems are more effective in preventing water penetration than single-wythe walls or multi-wythe barrier wall systems. even though there are many different types of metal ties:  corrugated metal ties. Metal ties should be corrosion resistant and must be made of steel. are not recommended. The joint is intended to act as a barrier and inhibit inward movement when this migrating water reaches the filled collar joint. The combination of mortar and grout with metal ties in a collar joint bond two wythes of masonry developing composite action. and  adjustable joint reinforcement. is usually much thicker than a nominal 4 in. Moisture tries to migrate toward the interior wythes when a winddriven rain penetrates a barrier wall’ s exterior wythe of brick masonry. the moisture migrates inward to the cavity or air space. 9. Joint reinforcement is a combination of reinforcement to restrict in-plane stress and a tie to transmit load. Single-wythe masonry walls can be considered a special case. (102 mm) thick exterior brick wythe.34 Metal ties. Figure 9.  standard joint reinforcement. A tie system must:  be securely embedded in the masonry bed joints of wythes and attached to the backing. Drips or kinks in metal ties. and is directed out of the wall system through the weep holes. as a result. Flashing and weep holes are recommended but not required in a barrier wall system. Corrugated Tie Rectangular Tie Adjustable Joint Reinforcement FIGURE 9.35 shows how water ideally flows back out of the wall system. .1. Solid or hollow units are used in the design of singlewythe brick masonry construction. Collar joints filled with grout have higher allowable shear stresses than collar joints filled with mortar. is collected on the flashing. Adjustable ties are used to allow in-plane differential movement and to adjust for unaligned coursing.9.  have a limited amount of mechanical play. are rated good with respect to water penetration resistance. in single-wythe walls.  be corrosion-resistant and  be easily installed.3 BARRIER AND DRAINAGE WALLS All metal ties fall into one of five categories.  adjustable unit wire ties. a drainage wall system relies on an air space behind the exterior wythe. The key item to be an effective barrier is that the collar joint must be completely filled with grout or mortar.  unit wire ties (rectangular ties). The masonry wythe. and. Detailed and constructed barrier wall systems. Then it gravitates or flows down the back face of the outer brick wythe. Drips do not inhibit moisture migration. Adjustable Tie Joint Reinforcement A barrier wall system requires a full collar joint directly behind the exterior masonry wythe. The drainage wall assumes that water from a wind-driven rain may penetrate the exterior wythe of brick. but significantly reduce the stiffness of the ties and the ability to transfer load. single and multi-wythe walls can perform well. when properly designed. The collar joint must be completely filled in order to achieve assumed structural strengths. which were originally intended to impede moisture flow across the tie in drainage walls.  have sufficient stiffness to transfer loads. To prevent water from entering the structure. When it does. Properly detailed and constructed drainage wall systems are rated excellent with respect to water penetration resistance. the added thickness helps to prevent water from penetrating to the interior of the wall system.

solid masonry walls provide better moisture resistance than masonry bonded or single wythe walls since the masonry unit which extends from the outside to the inside may act as a moisture bridge between the exterior and the interior of the building.9.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION There is also a seismic advantage to a drainage wall system used in a veneer application. The brick wythe is laid with the cells aligned to produce continuous vertical cells. Multiwythe.1.36 Reinforced grouted brick masonry. Multi-wythe reinforced brick masonry walls consist of two or more masonry wythes with reinforcing steel in a fully grouted collar joint. metal tied. 9. 9. laterally. During seismic activity. with little or no damage. 107 Solid masonry walls are fully grouted for single wythe walls and act compositely for multi-wythe walls. In the construction of single wythe reinforced grouted brick masonry walls. All cells with reinforcement must be filled with grout. hollow brick units are used. All solid masonry walls are barrier wall systems. Solid units or hollow units with the cores solidly grouted may be used in the construction of solid masonry walls. The barrier wall system also moves.9. The masonry and steel work together for optimum structural efficiency since reinforcing steel has a high resistance to tension and masonry has a high resistance to compression. The veneer should transmit only lateral loads to the backing through the tie system. Another is the use of single wythe brick bearing walls.35 F IGURE 9. then it is a composite wall. A solid multi-wythe wall must have a full collar joint of either mortar or grout between masonry wythes. Solid masonry walls may be constructed with steel reinforcement included for added structural performance. the incurred damage is significantly greater since it cannot move relative to the backup system. however. the drainage wall veneer system has room to slightly move out-ofplane. One alternative is the use of light-gauge steel framing.5 SINGLE-WYTHE BEARING WALLS A renewed interest in alternative building systems for residential housing is due to the increasing cost of wood framing members. Using brick . If a solid masonry wall has more than one wythe of thickness. Barrier and drainage walls.1. Multi-wythe solid masonry walls may be masonry bonded or metal tied with a collar joint filled with mortar or grout.36 shows the wythes tied together using metal ties. Grout Drainage Wall Reinforcing steel Barrier Wall FIGURE 9. Figure 9.4 SOLID MASONRY WALLS Solid masonry walls may be constructed with one or more wythes of masonry. The use of brick masonry as the load-carrying element of a structure provides several benefits over alternate systems.

R606. where structural backing system (wood stud. steel stud.4 Parapet walls. The following is an excerpt of the 2006 IRC regarding residential masonry construction. load-bearing brick masonry houses may be built with walls less than 6 in.12. The minimum thickness of rough. Alternately. The designer must also consider resistance to moisture penetration and detailing of interior finishes since a brick bearing wall system forms the building envelope. Brick gives a home permanence and beauty. or on townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R606.2 Thickness of masonry. R606. or special units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads from face shells or wythes above to those below. However. the minimum wall thickness and maximum wall height or number of stories allowed for empirical design are contained in the International Building Code.2.2 Rubble stone masonry wall.108 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL as both the building’ s exterior skin and the structure capitalizes on brick masonry’ s strength and other inherent values.1 Minimum thickness. in a single wythe brick bearing wall system. When rationally designed. Vertical steel reinforcing bars are used to resist lateral loads and horizontally reinforced bond beams are used to attach floor and roof members. or D2. empirical and rational are two methods of design. Solid masonry walls of one-story dwelling and garages shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness when not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height.44 kPa) located in Seismic Design Category D0. In areas or categories of high seismicity.2. Unreinforced solid masonry parapet walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick and their height shall not exceed four times their thickness. For load-bearing masonry. Brick homes are more energy efficient than comparably insulated vinyl-sided or wood-sided homes by virtue of thermal mass properties. floor. Brick masonry walls should be designed in accordance with the IBC and related standards. residential masonry walls may be designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code (IRC).3 Change in thickness. and roof materials of traditional wood framed homes.9. The same as other types of wall systems. Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick and their height shall not exceed three times their thickness. random or coursed rubble stone masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm).2.2. D1. According to model building codes. Vertical steel reinforcing bars and horizontal reinforcing bars or wires are generally required in these walls.1 through R606. (152 mm) in nominal thickness. R606. provided that when gable construction is used.2. the limitations of empirical design are not applicable to buildings which have been rationally designed. The interior walls and space of the single wythe wall easily incorporates the wall. a course of solid masonry shall be constructed between the wall below and the thinner wall above. Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals as required by Section R606. The minimum thermal performance requirements and the necessary fire resistance of the wall system are beneficial.2. Additionally. serves as both the structural system and the exterior facing.4. even a rational design will include some prescriptive detailing requirements. or separate masonry wall) is required. The minimum thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 inches (203 mm). IRC SECTION R606 GENERAL MASONRY CONSTRUCTION R606. The nominal thickness of masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections R606. All of these reasons give brick homes a higher resale value. . R606. attractive features such as brick masonry fireplaces and special brick details can be readily incorporated into a brick masonry single wythe bearing wall system. single wythe brick load-bearing walls should include the same design considerations. Masonry parapet walls in areas subject to wind loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1. Typically. the brick masonry. brick homes have lower maintenance costs and often lower insurance rates. Where walls of masonry of hollow units or masonry bonded hollow walls are decreased in thickness. additional reinforcement is required. the MSJC Code and MSJC Specification. Due to fire resistance characteristics. The sizes of the building’ s structural members are dictated by model building codes and associated structural loads. Counter to a veneer system. an additional 6 feet (1829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable.

energy and other performance requirements. Alternately. however. or in the interior frame walls. One concern in homes is air leakage through the building envelope. type. Insulation cannot be placed in grouted cells. Structural and model building code requirements. size and grade of reinforcement. There is no cavity between studs for the placement of piping or conduit. A bituminous. If used. 109 In any exterior wall system water penetration is a primary concern. The joints between the sheets of insulation or gypsum board must be sealed or taped to achieve an impenetrable air barrier. solid units should meet the requirements of ASTM C 216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick. the easiest way to route the mechanical systems is through the ceiling space. When addressing heat gain and loss. To prevent air leakage. Since the bricks will be exposed on the exterior face. Hollow units should meet the requirements of ASTM C 652 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick. Additionally. type and sizes of units used. f’ . Square or shaped furring strips. resistance to water penetration of the brick masonry wythe is important. The use of a clear water repellent coating on the exterior face wall built with quality workmanship and proper details may be appropriate with this type of wall in areas exposed to large amounts of rainfall or severe wind-driven rain. as well as aesthetic appeal. 9. With slab-on-grade construction. Full mortar joints and good extent of bond between units and mortar can help reduce water penetration. Wherever possible. Solid or hollow brick in single wythe bearing wall structures may be used. Alternate approaches to further limit air leakage are the use of either foilfaced rigid board insulation or so-called “ air-tight drywall” . These approaches rely on the air penetration resistance of the paper or other films on the insulation or gypsum board. in the floor or ceiling. Installation of the insulation board in the interior of the brick wythe is coordinated with the interior finish materials and with the flashing and drainage system used to control water penetration. aesthetics. rigid board insulation is often placed on the interior face of the brick wythe and has the advantage of easy installation and provides high insulation values. and it may be inappropriate to place piping or conduit within the brick wythe.9. heating and electrical can be installed between furring strips on the interior face of the brick bearing wall. insulation may be placed in the cells of hollow brick units. the installation of plumbing. building paper or sheet membrane materials are commonly installed over exterior sheathing materials in wood frame construction but these materials are not appropriate for direct application on brick bearing walls. A single brick masonry wythe may not prevent water penetration entirely. shall also be specified. One material property of the brick masonry is the compressive strength of the assembly. it is possible to locate mechanical systems between floor joists.5. The requirements to ensure acceptable thermal performance of the building envelope are contained in model building codes. In a load-bearing brick home. this application is limited to large hollow units commonly used in commercial brick bearing wall buildings. insulation may be required. heating and electrical systems will vary from placement in conventional frame construction.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION The properties of the materials necessary to meet the structural requirements of the design must be specified by the designer of the brick bearing walls. damp-proof coating should be applied to the inside face of the brick bearing wall prior to installation of the insulation and finishes when a drainage cavity is not used. For brick bearing wall homes. Batt insulation is generally placed between the wood studs in all wood frame residential structures. availability and cost will determine the minimum unit compressive strength. In single wythe construction. In brick homes with basement or crawl space foundations. In brick homes there will be some leakage through weep holes and at the top of the brickwork even though the brick wall provides an effective air barrier.1 MATERIALS WALLS FOR SINGLE-WYTHE BEARING The selection of masonry materials for a singlewythe brick bearing wall system should consider structural. Alternately. Mortar and m grout type or properties shall be identified. provide a drainage cavity with flashing and weep holes. . In addition. mechanical fasteners and adhesives are some options for attaching rigid insulation. Material compatibility of the coating with adjacent materials should be considered. such installation is generally not as effective as a continuous layer of insulation placed on the inside face of the single wythe wall due to the discontinuity of the insulation at the webs of the units. joints between different materials and joints around door and window frames should also be sealed. Residential frame wall systems differ from the type and installation of insulation in a single wythe brick bearing wall system.1. The location of interior systems will influence the type of foundation. piping or conduit for the plumbing.

127. Portland cement-lime mortars with air content less than 12% are recommended for their superior bond strength and resistance to water penetration. 102 and 152 mm). the maximum bar size should not exceed the nominal thickness of the wall in inches to ensure proper development of the reinforcement.38 Metal ties Solid brick pilaster. In the design and construction of reinforced loadbearing masonry walls. A load-bearing brick wall often contains vertical steel reinforcement uniformly spaced along the length of the wall and horizontal reinforcement in bond beams. 5. should comply with ASTM A 951 and be hot-dipped galvanized or made from stainless steel to reduce the possibility of corrosion. . compressive strength of the masonry assemblage and cell spacing. To provide resistance to lateral loads. and 203 mm). Nominal 5 and 6 in.37 shows one example of incorporating vertical reinforcing bars in a wall built with solid units. Horizontal joint reinforcement Vertical reinforcement in grout pocket FIGURE 9. Larger vertical bars. are manufactured in nominal widths of 4. (76. A 706. The cell sizes and unit length should be coordinated to provide cells which align vertically for ease of grouting and uniform spacing of reinforcing bars. although Type S is recommended for use in reinforced brick bearing walls. the IBC and MSJC Code restrict the use of Type N mortar for lateral load resisting systems in Seismic Design Categories D and E. Also.37 Solid brick with grout pocket. horizontal reinforcing bars and coarse grout require larger cell sizes. which are less than 75% solid. 4. uniform spacing of vertical reinforcement is important. (127 and 152 mm) wide hollow brick are the most common units used to construct reinforced brick bearing wall homes. Type M or S mortar may be used in loadbearing brick masonry. Vertical reinforcement may also be necessary around openings and at building corners. 8 (M #19) is recommended for nominal 8 in. Size and spacing of reinforcement required are a function of design loads. In addition. A 775 or A 996 depending upon the type of bar used. unit size. Brick bearing walls built with solid units may incorporate pilasters (Figure 9. Both the IBC and the MSJC Code limit the size of reinforcing steel that can be used in masonry. vertical steel reinforcement is often used in brick bearing walls. a maximum reinforcing bar size of No. hollow brick are common because they hav e cells which can accommodate vertical reinforcement and grout.110 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL There are many brick sizes manufactured today. if used. (203 mm) walls. The majority of hollow brick designed to accommodate reinforcing bars have masonry unit lengths equal to twice the masonry unit width so that cells align vertically when the masonry is laid in half running bond. The mortar selection depends on the strength and water penetration resistance requirements of a brick bearing wall. Solid units are commonly manufactured in nominal widths of 3. the maximum allowable reinforcing bar size is a #9 (M #29) bar and with Allowable Stress Design the reinforcing bar size is limited to #11 (M #36). In unreinforced load-bearing masonry. (102.38) to provide the Vertical reinforcement in grout pilaster FIGURE 9. Figure 9. Joint reinforcement. 6 and 8 in. Mortar should meet the proportion requirements of ASTM C 270 Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. Steel reinforcing bars must conform to ASTM Standard A 615. the codes allow flexural stresses which are reduced approximately 50% for assemblies made with masonry cement mortars or Portland cement-lime mortars with air content in excess of 12%. Hollow units. When designing by Strength Design. For example. and 6 in. A 767. The applicable building code dictates the minimum size of cells in hollow units intended to be reinforced. 152. In reinforced brick bearing walls.

40 if the construction incorporates a slab on grade. Basement/crawl space . Special attention. Bond beams are formed by using special U shaped units or by removing part of the cross web of hollow brick.42) or on a ledger joist bolted onto a bond beam (Figure 9. may be necessary to accommodate multiple or hooked reinforcing bars within the confines of the hollow brick cells. the material properties of the masonry and the amount of reinforcement used. The design and detailing of reinforcement should follow the provisions of the governing code. The depth of the bond beam required will depend on the design loads for the structure. Furring with insulation Furring anchor Interior finish Finish floor Brick bearing wall Reinforcement as required Flashing FIGURE 9. Poured concrete.43) if a crawl space or basement is present . The foundation wall may be built as shown in Figure 9.39 Reinforced hollow brick. Bond beams. if located on the interior side of the wall. Hollow brick bearing walls can optimize the wall section by providing the necessary reinforcement within the cells of the unit. The advantage of using pilasters in this manner is that no forms are required.c.111 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION confinement of vertical reinforcement. which are horizontal reinforced grouted elements.40 Slab-on-grade foundation. such as termination or splices of vertical reinforcing bars. (610 mm) o. concrete masonry or brick masonry foundation walls are the supports for brick bearing walls. corbeled brickwork (Figure 9.39 shows masonry walls constructed with hollow units and vertically reinforced within the dimensions of the wall.41 foundation. Weep holes 24 in.c. Floor joist Intermediate blocking W aterproofing below grade Foundation wall F IGURE 9. they may occupy a significant amount of floor space. Figure 9. in some cases. FIGURE 9. Necessary anchor bolts and reinforcement are placed. Vertical reinforcement in grouted cell Interior finish Brick bearing wall Furring anchor Furring with insulation Finish floor Slab on grade Reinforcement as required Flashing Vapor retarder Weep holes 24 in. However. The floor joist system may be supported directly on the foundation wall (Figure 9. and the bond beam is grouted solid. are used to anchor bolts for attaching ledgers and plates and span wall openings.41). (610 mm) o.

The floors above the first story may be anchored to the brick bearing walls or be supported on slightly corbeled brickwork. (76 mm) below the ledger. Rigid insulation Brick bearing wall Vertical reinforcement in grouted cell FIGURE 9. (203 mm) above the ledger and at least 3 in. Also. Figure 9. grouted brick bond beam at the floor support levels are often used in multi-story construction.44 Floor connection.42 Basement/ craw l space foundation corbeled support.c.44 shows a continuous wood ledger is bolted into place.45 Roof connection. Insulation Bituminous coating Interior finish Base trim Floor joist Hat channel screwed to “ z” clip Rigid insulation Brick bearing wall Reinforcement as required Vertical reinforcement as required Interior finish Two-piece flashing insulation and carried below ledger Subflooring Bond beams as required Floor joists Anchor bolts in bond beams Ledger joist FIGURE 9. (610 mm) o. reinforced. . Grouted bond beam Ledger joist Reinforced grouted bond beam Interior Finish Hat channel Foundation wall Waterproofing below grade F IGURE 9. Floor joist Metal ties Intermediate blocking Waterproofing below grade Foundation wall F IGURE 9. The details of support will vary depending upon the size of foundation wall and the width of the brick bearing wall above the foundation. Anchor bolts cast into a continuous. the roof must be anchored to the top of the brick bearing wall to resist Flashing 2 x _____ wood plate with anchor bolts in grouted cell Weep holes 24 in.112 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Insulation Interior finish Finish floor Brick bearing wall Reinforcement as required Flashing Weep holes 24 in. (76 mm) should be provided for floor joists which bear on the foundation wall. A minimum bearing of 3 in. Flashing should extend a minimum of 8 in. The top of the bearing wall supports the roof to minimize eccentric loading.c. and the floor joists are attached to the ledger with joist hangers. Masonry waterproofing should be provided on walls below grade.43 Basement/ craw l space foundation bond beam support. (610 mm) o.

as depicted in Figure 9. The anchor bolts. Flashing and weep holes should be provided over the lintel when steel lintels are used as shown in Figure 9. which is to thread anchor bolts through the core holes of the solid units and attach the bolts to a steel plate embedded in the masonry.45. should extend a minimum of 12 in. Sealant Jamb (Plan View) Double hung wood window Sealant Limestone sill Insulation Flashing Interior finish Sill FIGURE 9. Above many wall openings.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION lateral forces and uplift forces on the roof.c. The support for masonry over openings of windows and doors may be loose steel lintels. a wood plate is attached to the top of the wall.46 presents one alternative for use in unreinforced bearing walls.47. (610 mm) o. reinforced brick masonry lintels or brick masonry arches. One alternative is using horizontally reinforced brick masonry lintels. Figure 9. in this case. load-bearing brick masonry can be self-supporting. 113 Brick wall Insulation Flashing Interior finish Weep holes 24 in. Steel lintel Sealant Lintel Insulation Interior finish Flashing Wood plate Brick bearing wall Furring anchor Furring with insulation Interior finish FIGURE 9. A reinforced concrete bond beam or a reinforced and grouted brick bond beam may be used. As illustrated in Figures 9. Using anchor bolts embedded in a bond beam or masonry below. reinforcement may be incorporated into voids in a soldier course of brick or in a bond beam respectively.48 and 9.47 Window detail with steel lintel. The design of reinforced brick lintels should be in accordance with the governing code. . (305 mm) into the grouted cells in the wall below and finish with a standard hook.46 Brick wall Horizontal reinforcement Anchor bolt with steel plate grouted into core Roof connection.49.

Attaching treated wood or plastic furring strips to wall plugs inserted into mortar joints as shown in Figure 9.50. any material in direct contact with the brick wythe should be corrosion resistant. (12. Through-wall flashing at the base of the wall will be punctured by vertical reinforcing bars if the brick bearing wall is reinforced. such as over window and door openings. With no direct contact at the brick wythe. Interior finish Vertical reinforcement as required Hat channel Rigid insulation Grouted bond beam Bituminous coating Flashing Window or door frame FIGURE 9. To prevent insects and rain from entering the wall. rigid board insulation can be adhered to the wythe. (610 mm) on center when using open head joints or brick vents. Since the insulation and finishes are installed after the masonry is complete. This forms a cavity between the insulation and the interior finish which can be flashed similar to that in brick veneer wall systems. Weep holes should be located above grade and spaced a maximum of 24 in.50 Wall nailing insert.114 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Interior finish Vertical reinforcement as required Hat channel Rigid insulation Grouted soldier course bond beam Bituminous coating Flashing Steel lintel Window or door frame FIGURE 9. Flashing should be turned up a minimum of 8 in.7 mm) cavity is adequate for this wall system. a minimum 1/2 in. Brick vents in head joints at the base and top of each story are recommended if the brick bearing wall is treated with a clear water repellent.48 Soldier course lintel at window. or nailed or stapled to furring strips. Any voids in the mortar should be filled and to provide a clear. bottom Brick bearing wall Wood insert FIGURE 9. For long-term durability. Interior finishes and the attachment of insulation may be achieved in different ways.49 Flashing should always be placed at the base of the cavity and at all interruptions in the wall. The placement of weep holes should be directly above all flashing locations. at the top. Open head joint weep holes are preferred over rope wicks or tubes. The result of flashing location should be considered in the structural design. . or 16 in. The flashing should extend past or be cut flush with exterior face of the brickwork. Splices in flashing must be sealed and discontinuous flashing must have end dams. Flashing should be sealed around all reinforcement with mastic at these locations. (203 mm) and attached with adhesive to the inside surface of the rigid board insulation or outside surface of the gypsum board. and light-gauge (non-bearing) metal stud framing can be attached to floor and ceiling joists. copper screening or stainless steel wool should be placed in open head joints. and any mortar protrusions should be removed. open cavity. vents. (406 mm) on center when using wicks or plastic tubes. Bond beam lintel.

To resist water penetration. Verification of the assembly compressiv e strength may be determined by preconstruction testing of brick masonry prisms.51 the leg of the clip extends beyond the rigid board insulation. inspecti on of masonry and workmanship to assure quality construction. the face shell is replaced.1 mm) studs are adequate for this application. (406 or 610 mm) intervals on center horizontally or vertically. construction of the floor or roof systems follows. The brick masonry is the primary structural element in a load-bearing wall system. In reinforced brick masonry. The cleanouts allow the excessive mortar protrusions to be dislodged and the debris removed at the base of the wall. or 24 in. The primary barrier to water penetration in a single wythe wall is the masonry and quality workmanship directly affects water penetration resistance of the masonry. brick units and mortar may require testing. The prisms are constructed using the same materials that are used on the project. maintaining clear grout space during construction and properly locating the reinforcement are important. Cleanouts are seldom used in single wythe brick construction except with large cell hollow brick or at pilaster locations. Inserting sponges into the cells to be grouted at the beginning of construction is one method of keeping the cells of hollow brick clean. (12. In this method the sponges are pulled upward by a handle. The expected strength of the masonry may not be achiev ed without quality construction. Cleanout holes are sealed prior to grouting. full head joints may be used with hollow units and full head and bed joints are required with solid units. The cut piece is held in position to resist pressure from the grout. To verify compliance with applicable standards. Cleanout holes may be provided by omitting the face shell of a masonry unit. The installation of light-gauge metal framing is accomplished by attaching a track to the floor and ceiling joists at the desired distance from the brick wythe. another method is to provide cleanout openings at the base of the wall at all grout locations. which could serve as a work platform for the . The brick bearing walls are not supported by the framing . One and one-half inch (38. The construction quality of a brick bearing wall is important for a number of reasons. The installation may begin as soon as the foundation is complete and adequately cured. A plane surface for applying the interior gypsum board or other interior finish is provided by the framing. This allows a considerable reduction in the size of the metal framing members. The interior finish is then screwed to the hat channels. The framing is used to form a cavity and to apply insulation and/or finishes in a manner similar to that in brick veneer wall systems. Brick bearing wall Attachment clips Vertical reinforcement as required Interior finish Rigid insulation FIGURE 9. The location of rigid board insulation should be between the metal framing and brick bearing wall. Light-gauge (non-bearing) metal stud framing is another finish attachment alternative. A competent bricklayer possesses the skill to construct a wall without significant mortar droppings and without excessive mortar fins. wire or string as construction progresses. As shown in Figure 9. 115 Building codes contain several provisions regarding mat erial testing. This clip is attached to the brick wythe at 16 in. The primary structural system for the building is the masonry wall which must meet the minimum strength necessary for adequate performance. During construction. and special channels are screwed onto the clip.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION and mid-height of the wall is one of the methods. Flashing and weep holes and other moisture control measures should be properly installed to control water which does penetrate the brick masonry wythe. When sponges are not used. or insulation may be placed between the studs.51 Attachment clip. Wen a story height is complete. The hollow brick cells intended to receive reinforcing bars and grout should be free of mortar protrusions greater than 1/2 in. Prior to grouting.7 mm) and excessive debris. The use of a special attachment clip is another choice. leaving clean cells ready for grouting. The conservative unit strength method in the MSJC Specification and IBC can also verify the assembly compressive strength. the bearing walls should be braced until the floors connecting walls and roof provide lateral support.

42 m2) of wall area when W2.25 m2) of wall area when W1. Brick bearing walls should reach sufficient strength before any temporary or permanent loads are applied. Spacing of ties is not to exceed 36 in. During the masonry construction. One common double wythe wall is the composite wall. one wythe of the wall is built up not more than 16 in. should cure a minimum of three days before supporting floor or roof loads.7 BEARING WALL T YPES In theory.6 DOUBLE-WYTHE GROUTED WALLS Reinforced brick masonry has been used extensively for the construction of lintels. insulation and interior finishes can be installed. walls and slabs and the experience gained from this type of construction is constantly utilized to refine design procedures and construction techniques. (406 mm) ahead of the other wythe in order to accommodate wall ties. Double wythe masonry construction is common for many applications.5 mm) when coarse grout is used. may require longer curing times. Joint reinforcement may also be used to tie the two masonry wythes together.7 (MW 11) wire is used. (19. As soon as the masonry is complete. For this reason.52 Typical grout tie and single curtain positioner in place. including residential. the windows. The designer should determine the brick sizes available in the local geographic area prior to selecting a wall thickness. A minimum cavity of 1 in. 9. beams. The collar joint is often difficult to fill with mortar but may be filled by fine grouting. The floors and roof may be attached once the brick bearing walls are cured. (63. 9.9. since all manufacturers do not produce all of the various sizes. Perhaps the greatest use of reinforced brick masonry in this country during the past sixty years has been on the West Coast where all major structures. (19. These systems are frequently used as exterior walls or other applications when exposed architectural masonry units are required on one or both sides of the wall. both load-bearing and non-loadbearing and for interior and exterior walls. (25.. it is possible to obtain any nominal wall thickness equal to or greater than 3 in. Typically. Such walls are constructed with full collar joints between wythes of masonry. (610 mm) on center vertically. many of the reinforced masonry developments in both design and construction have originated in this area. (76.9. plumbing.8 (MW 18) wire is used and at least one tie every 22/3 square feet (0. reinforcement is a requirement and wider collar joints are necessary to accommodate the reinforcement. .2 mm) with the various sizes of brick produced. The required curing periods of the reinforced brick masonry beams are at least seven days. doors. In high seismic areas. are required to be designed to resist seismic forces. such as exposure to cold temperatures. The masonry walls. Poor curing condi tions.116 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL following masonry work. if sufficient moisture is maintained. Plan View Section View FIGURE 9. in contrast to 3/4 in.1.1 mm) minimum collar joint and brick headers or wall ties. (914 mm) on center horizontally and 24 in. which consists of a clay brick wythe and a concrete masonry wythe with a 3/4 in. Smaller spaces can be used when a fine grout is used or when there is no horizontal reinforcing steel. The 2005 MSJC Specification requires at least one tie for every 41/2 square feet (0. detailing (vertical reinforcement crossing horizontal reinforcement) and minimum clearances. insulation and interior finishes may be incorporated.1 mm) collar joint of the past.4 mm) is recommended for fine grouting. fasteners necessary for attachment of the cabinets. Code requirements dictate the minimum size of grout space. The interior frame walls may be built at the same time with the exterior load-bearing brick walls once the floors have been constructed. electrical and heating systems. The grout space between the masonry wythes should not be less than 21/2 in. Curing conditions will affect the rate of strength gain of load-bearing masonry. columns.1.

53 shows various wall types varying in thickness from 4 in. (305 mm). (102 mm) to 12 in. These configurations will require reinforcement in the higher seismic design categories.Tied 4” 2” 4” 8 10” Reinforced Brick Wall 3” 2” 3” 4 8” Brick Cavity Wall 4” 2” 6” 9 12” Brick Cavity Wall 3” 2” 3” 5 8” Reinforced Brick Wall 4” 4” 4” 10 12” Reinforced Brick Wall . 1 4” 1 4” Brick Wall 8” 6 8” Brick Wall FIGURE 9. / 2” 3” 3 61/2” Brick Wall Metal .117 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Figure 9.53 6” 3” 2 6” Brick Wall 4” 2” 4” 7 10” Brick Cavity Wall Bearing wall types.

3) provides for removing specimens. A detailed knowledge of the material properties is essential when any new material is offered to the construction industry. Fully bedded mortar (applied on all cross webs and face shells) may increase the strength bearing capacity in non-grouted brick walls. 9.9. will provide the designer and Building Official verification that the new material complies with the intent of the building code. Four types of hollow brick are described by ASTM Standard C 652. the special specification and wide use of hollow brick occurred. (102 by 305 mm). if the structural capacity and proper material properties are provided. and others. such as with International Code Council’ s Evaluation Services. with not more than two thirds of the steel in the principal direction.1. (203 mm) nominal in thickness and had face sizes ranging from nominal 21/4 by 12 in. This allows webs to contribute in resisting the axial.2 by 305 mm) to nominal 4 by 12 in. 2 (2006 IBC Section 2105.9 CAVITY WALLS A cavity wall is two wythes of masonry separated by a space varying from 2 in. (102 mm) hollow brick. Dubrick. This standard contains provisions for both double wythe grouted reinforced masonry and for reinforced grouted hollow cell masonry. this method would be used only when compressive masonry strengths have not been satisfactorily determined by Method 1 or Method 2. Typically. Jumbo Brick. Due to its use with reinforced brick masonry as wel l as the adv antages of reduced costs in manufacturing.8 REINFORCED HOLLOW MASONRY WALLS In the United States. There is also a method recognized by the California Division of the State Architect which acknowledges compressive test results from core samples taken from masonry. Masonry prism strength of hollow brick masonry is normally determined at 28 days after prism construction by dividing the test load by the net area of the assemblage. shear and bending loads. 1 (2006 IBC Section 2105. Obviously. They can be used under the masonry provisions in the model building codes and masonry design standards. . Hollow bricks are normally laid with only face shell bedding and unreinforced hollow brick walls may show a reduced masonry strength bearing capacity due to the reduction of the amount of bedding mortar.118 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 9. The space between the wythes of brick may contain insulation for thermal efficiency. hollow bricks are widely available. there are provisions for partially reinforced masonry.2. (50.8 mm) to 41/2 in. Reinforced masonry is required to contain a minimum area of reinforcement. Hollow units of this type were more nearly brick than tile. based on the net area compressive strength of hollow units and the type of mortar used for construction. These units have been used in thousands of buildings since the 1920’ s. Reinforced hollow brick masonry may be designed using the requirements of the MSJC Code. (57.2.1) provides a means of assuming an ultimate compressive strengt h of masonry. consequently. under the same conditions and in stack bond pattern. In addition.2. transportation. The classification by types is related to the appearance characteristics of the units. based on the cross-sectional area of the wall.2. from the constructed wall and testing in accordance with ASTM C 1314. Speedbrick. An economic alternative to double wythe solid construction or solid brick veneer construction is the 4 in. Test prisms are constructed and tested in accordance with ASTM C 1314 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Masonry Prisms. for example. Method No. hollow brick can be used where solid brick are used. and installation. (114 mm). or prisms.9. The proper type is selected by the specifier depending on the project and the intended use. Initial evaluation. 3 (2006 IBC Section 2105.2) provides a means of testing compressive prisms built of similar materials. Method No. They were typically 8 in. These units were made and marketed under several different names. Masonry strength for reinforced hollow brick masonry constructed in accordance with the IBC is determined by one of three methods: Method No. hollow brick were first developed and marketed in the Southeast under a regional specification of “ Jumbo Brick” .1. Hollow bricks are produced with the same outside dimensions as solid brick and show no visual evidence on the face of containing cores in excess of that found in solid brick. This is especially useful when marginal results are obtained from recognized methods and further limited testing for verification of compressive strength of masonry is desirable.1.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Parapet details and movement joints are critical in any masonry system and this is particularly true with cavity walls. such as solid or hollow brick. including the cap as a separate element. The cavity should be continuous to the top of the parapet. extensive testing has been performed revealing a great deal of information on the properties and performance of cavity walls. there is evidence of the British using wrought iron for brick ties. quality materials and adequate workmanship. or possibly concrete. Wall tie Weep holes 24”o. 2”minimum air space Insulation Parapets are normally a cantilever element and this makes parapets subject to cracking and displacement causing a major source of moisture penetration. solid or hollow concrete masonry units.) Flashing FIGURE 9.55 Reinforced parapet wall.54 119 Insulated cavity wall. The cap must be positively anchored and a continuous metal cap will provide the optimum moisture resistance. Evidence can be found in Pergamum. (typ. the final result will render high performance cavity walls. Any expansion joints present in the wall should continue to the top of the parapet. Roofing materials should continue up the parapet to the top to minimize the possibility of water intrusion. (406 mm) on center. but it was not until 1937 that the cavity wall gained widespread recognition by the building officials. When these materials are combined with proper design. For structural stability. The first rule is to make the parapet structurally stable so that the parapet. Since then. does not fall from the building. If the height of the parapet exceeds 3 times the thickness. There is more evidence (circa 1821) with published information on the benefit of cavity wall construction as a means to keep moisture migration from entering a building. In the second half of the 19th century. Metal coping Sealant /16”metal ties 3 The history of cavity walls extends back to ancient Greek and Roman structures. Base flashing Dovetail anchor slot and 1/4” flexible dovetail anchor @ 16” o. designers prefer a precast concrete cap.c. The Unit ed States started designing and constructing cavity walls toward the end of the 19th century. which is acceptable provided that the connection is positive and a through wall flashing is installed immediately below the precast cap. Horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement 2”cavity Counter flashing There is evidence that the British rekindled the cavity wall as historic plans in the early 1800’ s show 2 wythes of brickwork connected by brick headers. located in Western Turkey where a masonry cavity stone wall can be found. additional reinforcement will be required for the dowels.c. Evidence of this appears in professional trade publications around 1899. The wythes are made of masonry materials. This is a type of unreinforced cavity wall that is still constructed. . Often. horizontally Soft compressible material Joint reinforcement FIGURE 9. the parapet wall should be dowelled into the structural roof deck with at least a #3 bar spaced not more than 16 in. excluding the cap.

1 m) maximum for walls without openings. These two different joint types exist for opposite reasons. For a 10 ft (3. One requirement is that any movement joint in the foundation should follow through the wall. On the other hand. The movement joints should meet. There may be compressible material in the expansion joint which would allow for the wall to expand into the void space. therefore a weakened joint in the plane of the wall will maximize the probability that the crack will occur in that weakened joint.0 m) high concrete masonry wall. Movement joints should be considered for all buildings. not be offset. an expansion joint must be free of any incompressible material in order to be effective. A control joint allows for material contraction. Control joints are normally spaced in concrete masonry walls at about 25 ft (7. . as offset movement joints have been historically problematic. control joints should be spaced at 15 ft (4. Premolded compressible fillers and sealant Horizontal joint reinforcement (discontinuous) Backer rod and caulking between CMU Plan View FIGURE 9.56 Brick Concrete block Outer Face Parapet coping detail. The spacing of vertical expansion joints is typically 30 ft (9. Since cavity walls are an integral and large spanning building element.120 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Sloped coping with drips both sides Dowel rod and anchor pin Raked joint and sealant (optional) Raked joint and sealant (optional) Raked joint and sealant (optional) Flashing Flashing Brick Horizontal joint reinforcement Weatherproof membrane Horizontal joint reinforcement Brick Inner Face Outer Face FIGURE 9.6 m).57 Movement joints at corner.6 m) or a panel ratio not exceeding 11/2 times the height. Control joints are placed in concrete masonry walls whereas expansion joints are placed in clay brick walls. A movement joint may be a control joint or an expansion joint. A control joint may also be a joint void of any incompressible material since the shrinkage stresses will also be relieved. there are movement joints associated with these walls.58 Tab tie Movement joint. Horizontal joint reinforcement Premolded compressible filler and sealer Rake mortar back 3/4”to form control joint and apply sealant Horizontal joint reinforcement (discontinuous) Plan View FIGURE 9.

vertically Plan View FIGURE 9.10 MASONRY CAVITY BEARING WALLs Cavity walls have been used primarily in one and two story buildings of load bearing design. observations have shown that differential movements in the foundation of more than 1/2 in.60 Cavity wall movement joints.6 m) could occur and yet the walls remain with no cracks.c. (12.59 Movement joints.4 mm) in 15 ft (4.9. vertically 3 121 Elastic joint sealant Elastic joint sealant and premolded compressible filler Bond break material Shear key is not mortared Premolded compressible filler /16”wall ties @16”o. Quite often.6 m) has been considered sufficient to cause cracking. certain details can usually be found that will increase the performance of masonry walls by resisting cracking. In masonry walls. vertically 3 Elastic joint sealant and premolded compressible filler Joint reinforcement Elastic joint sealant an premolded compressible filler /16”wall ties @16”o.c. On masonry cavity walls. . Plan View FIGURE 9. Buildings taller than two stories may also use cavity walls. Particular requirements must meet all structures and be detailed accordingly.c. efflorescence. vertically Elastic joint sealant and premolded compressible filler Metal ties @ 16”o. vertically 3 Anchors @16”o.c. and water penetration. the greater demand on the loadbearing walls will require reinforced grouted masonry walls. vertically Elastic joint sealant an premolded compressible filler Continuous single wire reinforcement around corners each wythe @ 16”o. differential movement of 1/4 in. Details that are acceptable on one structure may not work on another. Differential movements of elements supporting cavity walls must be kept to a minimum or serious distress may result.1. (6.c.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION /16”wall ties @16”o.c. however.7 mm) in 15 ft (4. 9.

When properly coordinated. The design professional must be aware that detailing requirements will vary from building to building.64 shows a properly detailed cavity wall base which includes continuous . the brick cavity wall is 100% dependable in fire resistance. schools. Floor planks should always be installed prior to erection of additional masonry above the floor line. the concrete masonry backup carries a greater share of the lateral load. Excellent thermal properties. The cavity wall will provide both the building finish and the structural support. Mortar under the plank will also accommodate any camber that exists. Horizontal joint reinforcement at 16”o. This characteristic makes brick cavity walls one of the safest fire protection elements available. the building may be constructed at a full story each week which may be more economical than other building systems. Plank should be set in fresh mortar to accommodate any irregularities in the concrete masonry wall. Note that this is not a positive connection and that the lateral resistance is limited. Unlike systems that depend on mechanical engagement.2 mm) deep units will provide a 4 hour fire rating as listed in 2006 IBC Table 720. Base flashing should always be designed and properly installed.62.c. multi-unit family housing. For moisture protection. This type of resistance is an excellent application for buildings such as hospitals. Cavity wall construction is a series of building one story walls on top of each other. Two of the three examples show the plank partially bearing on the masonry wall and the bearing surface should be at least 4 in.1(2). flashing is installed above the lintel with the ends of flashing extending beyond the opening and the ends of the flashing turned up.63. In this application. (102 mm). The concrete masonry backup is relatively stiff and provides rigidity to the wall system.61 Polyisosyanurated rigid board insulation Bearing wall section. Ideally. providing for superior performance of the cavity wall. The project schedule may allow for the masonry and planking to rotate back and forth a half floor at a time thereby keeping the continuity of both trades. The cavity wall is intentionally gathering moisture and allowing that moisture to gravitate to the base. The combination of floors and shear walls provide necessary resistance to lateral forces. The concrete masonry wythe of the cavity wall may support concrete plank floors as detailed in Figure 9. A double wythe cavity wall using 3 in. Concrete masonry provides an excellent backup to a masonry cavity wall. such as fire sprinklers. The exterior wythe will likely be supported with a steel lintel as illustrated in Figure 9. The fire resistance ratings for brick cavity walls are unequaled.122 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Primary reasons for the popularity of cavity walls include: Concrete block Drywall     Superior resistance to rain penetration. such as wind and seismic. and Exceptional resistance to fire.61. Figure 9. (76. the window size and spacing will be complementary with the masonry bond. Concrete planks may bear on masonry walls in a number of ways as shown in Figure 9. motels and hotels. vertically Drywall channel Required bearing pad Continuous bond beam #3 reinforcing bar in grout key grout core at reinforcement Brick 1”minimum air space Precast concrete plank FIGURE 9. the walls and floors are connected by using a #3 bar turning into both the wall and floor. High resistance to sound transmission. thereby limiting cuts and making the system aesthetically pleasing. In turn. A superior design will generate details that may apply to a number of different buildings and may eliminate possible damage to the building when subjected to unusual lateral loads. A bond beam may be used for the concrete block masonry at a window head in lieu of a steel lintel.

62 (3) Non-bearing wall details.63 Window head detail. The raised elevation of the cavity wall minimizes moisture infiltration due to capillary action. thermal bridging is reduced making a more energy efficient building. (50. 9. weep holes at 24 in. These structures may be designed with the concrete slabs exposed on the building exterior.123 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Brick Flashing Continuous bond beam or precast concrete lintel 1”minimum air space Polyisosyanurated rigid board insulation Concrete block Concrete topping Weep holes 24”o. Continuous bond beam Sealant Shelf angle Concrete plank Bearing plate and mortar bed as required (1) FIGURE 9.9. Although the MSJC Code does not require shelf angles for concrete backed systems. that is. WITH CONCRETE Concrete frame structures of mid-rise and highrise are natural applications for masonry cavity walls. The advantage of a continuous exterior wythe is that the cavity will also be continuous and less susceptible to moisture penetration to the interior of the building. flashing. vertically Concrete topping (if required) Brick Concrete block Concrete plank Bearing plate and mortar bed as required Continuous bond beam (2) Flashing membrane all ends and joints lapped and sealed Concrete block with cores grouted Weep holes Deformed bars or steel strap 2”minimum above grade Concrete topping if required FIGURE 9. The weep holes must be kept clear during the construction and landscaping processes.11 MASONRY CAVITY WALLS FRAME Concrete block filler Continuous bond beam FIGURE 9.1. the slab is supported by both wythes of the cavity wall.c. the designer may elect to consider the . (610 m) on center and placement of the bottom of cavity wall at least 2 in. Shelf angles may be required.8 mm) above surrounding finish grade.c.64 Base flashing. Also. Concrete block Rigid insulation Concrete block filler Horizontal joint reinforcement at 16”o. or may be supported by the inner wythe only with the exterior wythe continuous.

Structural steel lintels may be used at window heads for support. .3 in. Dovetail slot Drywall Brick Flexible anchors set into dovetail slots 1”minimum air space Wedge anchor if required Rigid insulation Concrete block back-up Concrete frame FIGURE 9.67 Ties for lateral support.65 Typical wall section. Concrete block Horizontal joint reinforcement at 16” o. since the spacings listed in the MSJC Code are maximum dimensions. the lintel may be coordinated with the concrete floor so that the lintel may be bolted to the concrete. vertically Concrete slab The given illustration shows a concrete masonry infill system. This is accomplished with a dovetail tie system into the concrete. thereby reducing thermal bridging. For openings with shorter spans. yet rigid enough to support the concrete masonry wall.c.124 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL differential material properties between clay and concrete and elect to isolate the brick into panels. Shelf angle rotation and deflection must also be considered. Sealant Wedge insert with 3/4”bolt Precompressed expanding foam filler (optional) FIGURE 9. maximum) are not exceeded. The backup system must meet deflection criteria and be able to support and transmit any imposed lateral loads from the veneer. but the anchors should be flexible enough to accommodate the inevitable movement.65 shows the concrete floor supported by one wythe of the cavity wall. There are other methods to achieve this anchorage. For wide openings. or the designer may prefer to decrease the spacing between ties.66 /2”compressible filler with adhesive surface 1 Shelf angle detail. FIGURE 9.c. Perimeter connections may also follow this rule. Modular layout has also been considered allowing for full units immediately below the concrete slab. which is tied into the concrete frame. Brick Concrete block Flashing Taper back insulation 5 x 5 x 5/16 shelf angle Weep holes 24”o. lintels may span the openings provided the deflection limits (l/600 or 0. The design illustrated in Figure 9. Properly designed hollow unit masonry walls may also serve as the veneer backup system.

70. Balcony section. In detailing the structure. this bond break may not be acceptable for load-bearing structures.c. a positive attachment must be provided for the safety of the occupants. The curling of the concrete slab has been known to pick up the brick wall below. Flashing Existing shelf angle (zinc coated) Weep hole In seismic design areas. With respect to the wall. The slab is thickened into a beam over the interior wythe to help stiffen the slab and reduced curling.9. In this case. The bond. Lateral restraint can be provided by clips or channels at the top of the masonry wall.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 125 together and distribute any strain over a longer length of wall.69. Reinforcement to the interior wythe is an excellent means of providing the positive attachment and is illustrated in Figure 9. When the actual cause is the expansion or curling of the concrete slabs bearing on the walls. cavity walls may also be part of the balcony design. in this case.71. Sealant Required shelf angle FIGURE 9.69 Weep holes @ 24”o. These procedures will contain any vertical cracks that may begin at the bottom of the wall. When masonry cavity walls are utilized in hotels or multi-family housing. the bond is broken between the concrete slab and the brick wall by building paper. Further. This can also be achieved by a closer spacing of the horizontal joint reinforcement in both wythes at the bottom of the wall. Once again. This will attach the inner and outer wythes of masonry Foundation detail. A typical detail that will relieve this condition is shown in Figure 9. In this design. a bond beam or tie beam can be formed at the bottom of the wall. thermal strains or other movements are frequently cited for cracking in masonry walls. this detail may not be seismically compatible due to lateral restraint requirements. this behavior of concrete is often overlooked by the designer.68 Window head detail.70 Weep hole 24”o. Provisions must be made for insulation under certain climatic conditions. is broken between the base of the cavity wall and the top of the concrete beam by flashing.c. Horizontal joint reinforcement 16”o. Coat concrete with asphaltic material Grout below upper flashing Flashing Insulation Reinforcing dowel drilled in place Weep holes to be kept clear of mortar at slab surface Flashing FIGURE 9. by placing reinforcing bars and filling the cavity with grout.1. this allows the slab to have some freedom of movement. it permits the longitudinal thermal and moisture movements to occur without distress. Furthermore.c. In the foundation the transfer of movement to the wall is reduced. . 9. Bond breaks also permit differential thermal and moisture movements without distress to either the brick wall or the concrete foundation. Sealant Sealant Flashing FIGURE 9.12 CAVITY WALL CONNECTIONS A typical foundation detail is shown in Figure 9.

Joists anchors at every 4th joist . maximum /16”wall ties at first course below joists 3 FIGURE 9. 2”typical cavity FIGURE 9.c.73 Anchored wood floor to cavity wall. Lubricating the bearing surfaces and providing slotted holes in the seats of the steel members can improve this design.72. (76 mm) on the interior wythe of a cavity wall.126 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Lubricated bearing surface and slotted holes in bearing seats of steel joists Concrete slab over steel decking and steel joists Bond break materials Metal ties FIGURE 9.73. Standard practice has been to positively anchor the joists or steel into the masonry. The floor is considered to provide lateral support for the walls as shown in Figure 9. The building codes require joists to be anchored to masonry walls at specified intervals in an approved way.4 m) where the joists are parallel to a wall. Anchors engage 3 joists at intervals not exceeding 8 ft (2. Wood floor joists must bear at least 3 in.71 Metal ties Concrete roof slab detail. Joists can form a ledge which may create a moisture bridge across the cavity if the ends project into the cavity. (203 mm) of joist bearing level.72 Steel joist structural floor assembly. A structural system using steel joists bearing on masonry wall is shown in Figure 9. Cavity wall ties are usually required within 8 in. Solid bridging at anchor Lateral support metal anchors @ 8’o.

74 Angle welded to beam Anchor of wood roof framing to cavity wall. anchor bolts are grouted into the hollow cells. To provide positive anchorage. Plan FIGURE 9. 127 Care must be taken when masonry walls are used to enclose steel-frame structures. (406 mm). Wood plate /4”anchor 1 Brick header course 4”hollow brick or CMU Steel anchor bolt grouted into core Plan /16”diameter metal ties Section 3 /4”anchor 1 2”typical cavity FIGURE 9. Steel-frames are more flexible than brick walls and will undergo greater deflections. Anchor bolts holding roof plates should extend into the masonry a minimum of 16 in. Section Cavity wall anchorage at steel .74 shows two of several methods to anchor wood roofs to cavity walls. which is usually about six standard size brick courses. One method shows a means to anchor to both wythes of brick while the other method anchors the roof to grouted cells of hollow units in one of the wythes. /4”anchor 1 /4”anchor 1 Wood plate Compressible filler Section Plan Dovetail slot /16”diameter metal ties 3 Steel anchor bolt with steel plate /4”anchor 1 2”typical cavity Plan Section F IGURE 9. regardless of the method.75 Cavity wall anchorage at concrete beams. The masonry should be anchored to the steel frame in such a manner to permit each to move relative to the other.76 beam.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Figure 9. The nut should be hand-tightened after the wood plate is installed. The frame and enclosing wall differ in the reaction to moisture and in the magnitude of thermal movement.

78 Wall anchorage to steel columns.77 FIGURE 9. Typical methods for anchoring masonry walls to columns and beams with corrosion-resistant metal ties are shown in Figures 9.79 Anchorage detail.80 corner. FIGURE 9.80. but not shear. This flexibility permits differential movement between the frame and the wall with no cracking distress. Wall anchorage at concrete /4”anchor @16”o. 1 Horizontal joint reinforcement continuous around corners where required Wall ties /4”anchor 1 1”minimum clearance between columns and outer wythe /4”anchor rod Rod offset 1 Section Plan /16”metal wire tie 3 /4”anchor rod welded to column 1 Reinforced concrete column /4”anchor 1 Plan Section FIGURE 9. resisting tension and compression to tie walls to the structural frame to provide lateral support.c.128 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Anchors should be flexible.75 through 9. /4”anchor 1 Dovetail slot Compressible material /4”anchor 1 Brick and concrete block cavity wall Steel angle metal tie holder 1 /4”metal tie Plan Section Dovetail slot Brick cavity wall /4”anchor 1 Plan /16”wall tie 3 Section FIGURE 9. vertically columns. These anchorage methods allow horizontal and vertical differential movements. Concrete column and cavity wall .

9.9. In cavity walls.81 Wall ties Double hung wood window. corrosion of metal accessories in the exterior cladding. Wood or steel casings must be used to adapt non-modular steel casement windows to modular cavity walls. staining. The appearance of brick masonry wall systems can be affected by water penetration. Several methods have been used to prevent water penetration of walls with some more effective than others. . For steel windows. and damage to interior finishes.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Stock sizes of window and door frames should be used in cavity walls. (305 mm) from the opening.1.83 Commercial metal window. Brick veneer and cavity walls are examples of drainage walls and provide Jamb Caulking Caulking Weep holes Flashing Sill FIGURE 9.13 BRICK MASONRY RAIN SCREEN WALLS The building envelope can be damaged by rain penetration through walls.82 Metal casement window. Cavity wall ties spaced at 3 ft (914 mm) or less should be placed around all openings not more than 12 in. Single wythe barrier walls rely on heavy mass to inhibit moisture penetration. 129 Flashing Weep holes Reinforced brick lintel Caulking Head Wall ties Flashing Reinforced CMU lintel Steel angle lintels Weep holes Flashing Jamb Caulking Caulking Head Caulking Wall ties Flashing Sill Jamb Flashing Caulking FIGURE 9. Some examples of the problems related to moisture penetration are: efflorescence of the masonry. the jambs must be partially solid to accept most standard jamb anchors. Caulking Flashing Weep holes Flashing Steel angle lintels Weep holes Caulking Sill Head Flashing FIGURE 9. solid masonry jambs at windows and doors should be avoided.

As shown in Figure 9. This is accomplish by applying an air retarder at some location on the backing or inner wythe. The inner layer of the wall assembly must be airtight to affect this air pressure transfer. The major difference between a rain screen wall and a drainage wall is the pressure equalization in the cavity behind the exterior wythe. The best way of resisting water penetration is provided by a pressure equalized rain screen wall. The idea of drainage type walls has been around for many years. such as wind and earthquake forces. A restricted cavity behind the rain screen in which air pressure is basically the same as the external air pressure. This is the phenomenon of pressure equalization design. A pressure difference between the exterior wythe and the cavity space is created when wind loads are imposed on the wall assembly. An interior wall or barrier which will significantly limit the passage of air and water vapor and is able to withstand all required design loads. the air barrier seal should last longer since it is not exposed to the exterior elements. The question frequently comes up of whether the wall system utilizes the rain screen principle when the causes of rain leakage problems are discussed. An exterior rain screen with protected openings which allows the passage of air but not water. means of resisting water penetration should be used on projects located in areas which receive high volumes of wind-driven rain. The pressure in the cavity increases until it equals the pressure resulting from the wind load being applied. “Pressure equalized rain screen wall” is a term that should be used. rain penetration through the exterior cladding . Stack effect and mechanical ventilation generated inside the building are effectively controlled with the interior wall airtight. Exterior pressure excellent moisture penetration resistance. Air space Exterior cladding FIGURE 9. Penetration of air and moisture can be through the units. When resistance to water penetration is of major concern. As the pressure difference on the exterior cladding which drives rain into cavity is reduced. hairline cracks. This pressure difference forces water on the surface of the exterior cladding to penetrate any openings. The cavity between the exterior wythe and the interior wythe provides drainage of moisture which has entered the wall. At this location. mortar joints. This accentuates the difference from the common drainage type wall. The backing of an anchored brick veneer wall or the inner wythe of a cavity wall is the interior wall or inner layer. The exterior wythe cannot be made watertight.84. Insulation fixed to the outer face of the interior wall system.130 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Interior pressure Vent area Cavity pressure Using the rain screen principle can provide moisture penetration resistance for exterior brick walls. however. poorly bonded surfaces and other openings that exist or develop over the life of the structure. Anchored brick veneers and cavity walls are drainage wall types which provide a space for drainage of moisture that has penetrated the exterior wythe and are often confused with rain screen walls. 2. a rain screen wall is composed of two layers of materials separated by a cavity. Requirements for interior drainage are needed for these wall systems to successfully work as intended.84 Air retarder on interior wall Brick rain screen wall principle. This idea is to introduce air into the cavity of common drainage type walls to provide pressure equalization so that the cavity works in resisting wind-driven moisture penetration. The primary functions of the rain screen principle include: 1. 4. if provided in design and. The major force which causes infiltration of air and water on windward facades is the difference in air pressure across the exterior cladding. the basic concept of the rain screen principle is to control all forces that can drive moisture through the wall system. 3.

The changes in temperature change the dimension of all building materials. particularly at the mortar joints or openings. materials will deform elastically. The resultant wind load will be imposed on the air barrier and interior wall. the backing system may become a single stage which can lead to failure. problems can happen.85 shows a typical brick masonry rain screen wall.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION should be reduced as well. The level to which the exterior cladding can be relied upon to serve these functions is variable and the exterior cladding is not considered to be the only air or moisture barrier in the wall system. An airtight system will also decrease moisture penetration. Some difficulties in obtaining a waterproof exterior wythe include the use of dissimilar materials. The rain screen principle works efficiently when water which penetrates the exterior brick wythe travels down the interior side and is collected on flashing and discharged to the exterior through weep holes. When subjected to loads. Figure 9. The exterior wythe is the first stage and the second stage is the backing assembly or the inner wythe. Capillary action is absorbed by some moisture in contact with the exterior wythe. The successful performance of the pressure equalized rain screen wall is due to the adequate allowance for deformation of materials and building movements. Exterior cladding limits the passage of water and wind and can also function as part of a thermal barrier. Air leakage can then draw this moisture into and through the backing or inner wythe. Brick rain screen wall. if the cavity space is in equilibrium with the exterior air pressure. When naturally occurring mov ements are not recognized and accommodated for in the initial design.85 Moisture may pass through weep holes and vents. the presence of mortar joints and the variations of workmanship. For moisture penetration resistance. If excess water penetrates the exterior brick wythe. whether it be material generated mov ements or the building movement as a whole. The backing or inner wythe should not permit air leakage to occur. The air and vapor retarders must not be disrupted by building movements. The moisture will be forced into the brick work if wind pressure is applied to the face of the exterior brick wythe. 131 The first stage of the rain screen principle is the exterior brick wythe with rain water running down the face of the brickwork. Some moisture will penetrate the brick wythe and infiltrate into the cavity space. the only moisture which will reach the cavity space is due to gravity flow and capillary action. Tests have shown that high air leakage through the backing or inner wythe can cause moisture to climb up and extend the area of wall wetness. Exterior brick wythe Sealant Vent Full mortar bed Rigid insulation Potential internal suction Inner wythe Air and vapor retarders Sealant Wind Metal tie Air space Flashing Vent Sealant and backer rod Shelf angle FIGURE 9. The air movement within the cavity can transfer moisture to the interior wall and distribute it throughout the wall area. Pressurization of the cavity and the provision for an airtight barrier are important for the second stage to work efficiently. thus vents will not have to be oversized which could permit excess rain penetration. As a result of air flow through vent openings and weep holes. Several building materials change dimension with moisture content. Some materials with cement matrices will deform plastically (creep) when loaded. . rain screen walls using a brick veneer or cavity wall system should be designed as a two-stage barrier. The exterior brick wythe should be detailed and constructed to provide moisture resistance so that the second stage is not continually tested. The extent to which the cavity can be pressurized will reduce the amount of moisture carried through the exterior wythe by wind.

132

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

To prevent the passage of water and air without
limiting differential movement, sealing of movement
joints is required. The principal resistance to the
passage of water through joints in exterior elements
is the sealant. A backing material and/or filler is needed
for all movement joints.
In a brick veneer or a cavity wall system, the rain
screen wall equlized pressure will be subject to axial
and lateral loads. For the rain screen wall to perform
as intended, imposed loads must be taken into account
in the design of these new wall systems. Moisture
leakage, thermal and air retarder performance must
also be considered in other environmental loads. The
pressure equalized rain screen principle may be
affected by several parameters. These parameters,
which are often interrelated, include:




Rate of applied wind load,
Magnitude of applied wind load,
Cavity volume,
Stiffness of the interior wall and the exterior
cladding,
• Compartmentation of the cavity wall and
• Leakage areas of the air retarder and the
exterior cladding.
In theory, no wind load should be imposed on the
exterior cladding, which is an advantage of the pressure
equalized rain screen wall, however, wind is dynamic
and variable so that the pressures applied to the wall
are constantly changing. The perfect rain screen wall
would pressure equalize immediately. A pressure
difference occurs across the exterior cladding due to a
time lag between the imposed wind load and the
pressure equalization in the cavity.
In buildings, pressure differences from two main
sources have been encountered. The first is frequently
known as a stack effect which is created by temperature
differences between the exterior and the interior of the
building. The wind forces that are imposed on the
building envelope is the second. The pressure
differences across a wall system at the top and sides
may be a combination of both and is not the same for
all parts of the building envelope.
The movement of air into the cavity causes pressure
in the cavity to increase and match the external pressure
applied when positive pressure is applied to the exterior
cladding. Depending on the volume of the cavity is the
volume of air required to achieve pressure equalization.
When the cavity volume increases, the vent openings
in the exterior brick wythe must be increased in order
to permit more rapid pressure equalization. The
pressure equalization. The pressure difference across

the exterior cladding is the driving force causing air to
enter the cavity. This pressure difference decreases
as the air enters the cavity. The flow rate is proportional
to the pressure difference and when the air flows into
the cavity, the flow decreases.
As shown in Figure 9.86, the wind pressure flowing
around a building creates a distribution of positive and
negative pressures over the building exterior cladding.
The lateral flow of air in the cavity will occur if the cavity
of the rain screen wall is continuous, horizontally or
vertically. The pressure equalization will not occur if air
is permitted to flow laterally in the cavity. Moisture
penetration into the wall assembly might not be reduced
when this occurs.
The cavity must be compartmented to prevent lateral
airflow. The size of the compartments should
be based on the pressure differences across the exterior
cladding. The greatest pressure differences are
experienced at the corners and tops of buildings,
consequently, the compartments located in these areas
should be small. The compartments can be larger where
pressure differences are small, such as near the center
of the exterior cladding.
Recommendations by designers are that these
compartments should be no more than 4 ft (1.2 m)
parallel to tops and corners of the facade for a 20 ft
(6.1 m) wide perimeter zone as shown in Figure 9.87.
There must be a series of openings to connect each
cavity space to the exterior of the wall system to provide
pressure equalization in the rain screen wall. The
openings should be placed at the top and bottom of
each compartment. To avoid airflow loops in the cavity,
all openings at the top and bottom should be placed at
the same height.
No specific guidelines exist for the required amount
of openings for each compartment. The area of openings
depends on the airtightness of other components of
the cavity, such as the air retarder system and the cavity
closures. The recommendation, if completely sealed
compartment closures are used, is a 10:1 ratio for
cladding air leakage to air retarder leakage.
The cavity closures will not form an airtight seal of
the individual compartments. Therefore, the required
opening area should be larger. A proportion of 25 to 40
times more air flow volume through the openings in the
exterior brick wythe than air leakage through the interior
wall is recommended by some studies. Consequently,
the less the area of openings in the exterior cladding
required for pressure equalization of the cavity, the
tighter the compartment. Testing of a mock-up wall
compartment may be required to obtain the airtightness

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

133

Positive pressure on windward face
Opening
Exterior brick wythe
Cavity (Partially pressurized)

Interior wall

Potential leakage of water carried by
air leaking from pressurized cavity
Internal suction

Open cavity at corner defeats rain screen

Positive pressure on windward face
Cavity blocked with closed-cell compressible filler bonded to outer wythe
Openings should be kept away
from corners of buildings

Dry air leak if air leak
is sufficiently small
Internal suction

Cavity with corner blocking; rain screen functions properly

FIGURE 9.86

Moisture movement caused by wind.

20 ft. perimeter zone at
rain screen compartments
@ every 4 ft.

20 ft. perimeter zone at rain
screen compartments @
every 4 ft. (typ.)

20 ft. perimeter zone at rain
screen compartments @ every
4 ft. (typ.)
Compartments every 10
ft. to 20 ft. from center
of facade in both
directions

Compartments every 10
ft. to 20 ft. from center of
facade in both directions

FIGURE 9.87

Compartmentation of rain screen walls.

134

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

value of the interior wall construction since little
information on the range of airtightness of several fieldapplied air retarder components is available. The
openings in the exterior cladding should be established
to fit the recommended ratio after having evaluated the
airtightness of the interior wall.
9.9.1.14 VAPOR AND AIR BARRIERS
In the building industry, there has been a great deal
of confusion about the functions of vapor and air
retarders. Vapor retarders control transmission of water
vapor through building materials. A vapor retarder always
serves as an air retarder. The amount of air flow through
wall assemblies is limited by the air retarders. An air
retarder may or may not serve as a vapor retarder.
Polyethylene film is commonly used as a vapor retarder
but will also act to resist the passage of air. Many
types of sheathing used as air retarders allow the
passage of water vapor. This can result in a common
problem wherein the wall system may have a two-stage
setup of retarders.
In the wall assembly of actual construction,
moisture may become trapped between the air and vapor
retarder installations if both are provided at different
locations. The duration of wetness and the amount of
moisture of certain important elements may make the
wall design vulnerable to premature deterioration and
distress. There is potential for corrosion of metal
accessories, deterioration of sheathing materials and
decrease in insulation capacity within the wall system.
When installing retarders, most difficulties occur
at wall openings. Several materials inserted in one
area can be complicated. Subsequent trades working
in the area may break or puncture vapor retarders.
Openings must permit field construction tolerances
which must be accommodated by field-fitting and sealing
of the retarders. Furthermore, attention to details of
the air and vapor retarders can help reduce direct heat
loss and other negative effects due to infiltration of air
movement within the wall system. The possibilities of
exfiltrating air in wall construction are shown in Figure
9.88. Air can circulate through spaces between studs
and cells of masonry units and exit a leakage path to
the exterior. A separate vapor retarder is not usually
required where the components of a building assembly
can be completely sealed to prevent air leakage and
the interior finish material provides the vapor resistance
needed.
Successful joint seal performance over the life of
the structure depends on the capacity of the material to
adhere to the surfaces and to deform without tearing,
delaminating or peeling under repeated cycles of
expansion and contraction. The air bubbles in the

W indow

Continuous sealant
around window
Electrical boxes
and other recesses
in interior wall must
be properly sealed

Condensation

Flashing should be set
in mortar on both sides
to prevent air leakage

Adhesive (also relied
upon as vapor retarder)

FIGURE 9.88 Sources of exfiltrating air movement.
sealant or air voids between the sealant and adjacent
materials must be avoided. For proper installation, sealant manufacturer’
s information should be followed.
The exterior cladding and air retarder applied to the
interior wall will deflect under applied loads. Stiffness
of these elements will influence the volume of the cavity. This situation is very complex since these deflections also vary as the pressure differences vary.
The airtightness of the exterior cladding with respect
to that of the air retarder applied to the interior walls is
vital for the cavity to equalize pressure with the exterior
wind pressure. The pressure differences will not change
if the two layers have similar air leakage characteristics.
Each layer will transmit the same volume of air.
9.9.1.15 T HERMAL INSULATION
The components of the wall affect thermal
resistance of the assembly and contribute to the overall
R-value. Insulation provides a significant amount of
thermal resistance for masonry wall systems. The level
of insulation required must be chosen by the designer
as part of the tot al wall design with special
consideration given to geographical location and code
requirements.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
Insulation type and location have an impact on the
design and installation of the air and vapor retarders.
Possible locations for insulation include:

• In the cavity,
• In the interior wall and
• On either face of the interior wall.
Types of insulation used in drainage type walls
include rigid board insulation, fiberglass (batt)
insulation or loose fill.
Gaps between the insulation and the floor or ceiling
must be eliminated. The insulation should be
continued above the ceiling to the bottom of structural
slabs, with suspended ceilings or ceilings attached to
the bottom chord of joist construction. Air retarders
must be continued to the floor or roof above the
suspended ceilings for the pressure equalization to
occur. The insulation may separate from the backing
wall by air infiltration pressure if the retarder is not
continued. Proper abutment of the edges of the
insulation must be considered to minimize air circulation
from the interior of the building.

Insulation

135

The brick arch is an example of form following
function. The artistic application lies in many forms in
which it can be used to express balance, proportion,
scale and character. The structural advantage results
from the fact that under uniform loading, the induced
stresses are compressive. Since brick masonry has
greater resistance to compression stresses (as opposed
to tension stresses) the most efficient structural element
to span openings is often the masonry arch.
Terminology for masonry arches is unique, but
well-defined. Methods of selecting the type and
configuration of brick masonry arches most applicable
are presented with recommended material selection
and construction techniques.
9.9.2.1 T ERMINOLOGY
During centuries of use, many arch forms have been
developed, ranging from the Jack arch through the
Circular, Elliptical and Parabolic to the Gothic arch.
An arch is normally classified by the curve of its intrados
and functions, shape or architectural style.
Jack, Segmental, Semicircular and Multicentered
arches are the most common types used for building
arches. Figure 9.91 illustrates some of the many
different brick masonry arch types. Semicircular arches
are often used due to the natural structural efficiency
for very long spans and bridges.
Arches have developed a unique terminology
primarily due to the variety of components and elements.
Following is a glossary of arch terminology:

Vapor and air
leakage through
gaps

Suspended ceiling
Air retarder

FIGURE 9.89

Leakage above suspended

Abutment - The supporting wall or pier that receives
the thrust of an arch.
Arch - A curved or flat compressive structural member,
spanning openings or recesses.
Back - A concealed arch carrying the backing of a
wall where the exterior facing is carried by a lintel.
Blind - An arch whose opening is filled with
masonry.

ceilings.
Bullseye - An arch whose intrados is a full circle.

9.9.2 BRICK MASONRY ARCHES
In the late 19th century, an arch constructed about
the year 1400 B.C., was discovered in the ruins of
Babylon. This arch, built of brick and laid with clay
mortar, is perhaps the oldest known to man. Before
the Christian era, the Chinese, Egyptians and others
also made use of the arch. In the Middle ages (1000
A.D. - 1500 A.D.), more elaborate arches, vaults and
domes with complicated forms and intersections were
constructed by Roman builders.

Elliptical - An arch with two centers and continually
changing radii.
Fixed - Masonry arches are fixed arches by nature
of their construction.
Gothic - An arch with relatively large rise-to-span
ratio, whose sides consist of arcs of circles, the
centers of which are at the level of the spring line.

136

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL
Camber - The relatively small arch rise of a Jack arch.
Centering - Temporary formwork for the support of
masonry arches or lintels during construction.
Crown - The apex of the arch’
s extrados.
symmetrical arches, the crown is the midspan.

In

Depth - The dimension of the arch at the skewback
which is perpendicular to the arch axis, except that the
depth of a Jack arch is taken to be the vertical dimension
of the arch at the springing.
Extrados - The curve which bounds the upper edge of
the arch.

FIGURE 9.90

Structural brick arches.

Horseshoe - An arch whose intrados is greater than
a semicircle and less than a full circle.
Jack - An arch having horizontal or nearly horizontal
upper and lower surfaces.
Major - An arch with spans greater than six feet.
Typical forms are Tudor arch, Semicircular arch,
Gothic arch, or Parabolic arch.

Intrados - The curve which bounds the lower edge of
the arch. The distinction between soffit and intrados is
that the intrados is a line, while the soffit is a surface.
Keystone - Wedge-shaped unit at the center or summit
of an arch or vault, binding the structure actually or
symbolically.
Label Course - A ring of projecting brickwork that forms
the extrados of the arch.

Minor - Arch with maximum span of six feet. Typical
f orms are Jack arch, Segmental arch, or
Multicentered arch.

Rise - The distance at the middle of an arch between
the spring line and intrados or soffit.

Multicentered - An arch whose curve consists of
several arcs of circles which are normally tangent
at their intersections.

Skewback - The incline surface on which the arch joins
the supporting wall.

Relieving - An arch built over a lintel, flat arch, or
smaller arch to divert loads, thus relieving the lower
member from excessive loading.
Segmental - An arch whose intrados is circular but
less than a half circle.
Semicircular - An arch whose intrados is a half
circle.
Slanted - A flat arch which is constructed with a
key stone whose sides are sloped at the same
angle as the skewback and uniform width brick and
mortar joints.
Triangular - An arch formed by two straight inclined
sides.
Tudor - A pointed, four-centered arch of medium
rise-to-span ratio whose four centers are all beneath
the extrados of the arch.

Skewback Angle - The angle made by the skewback
from horizontal.
Soffit - The exposed lower surface of any overhead
component of a building such as a lintel, vault, cornice,
or an arch or entablature.
Span - The horizontal clear dimension between
abutments.
Spandrel - A flat vertical face in an arcade bounded by
the adjacent curves of two arches and the horizontal
tangent of their crowns.
Springing - The upper and inner edge of the line of
skewback on an abutment.
Springer - The first voussoir from a skewback.
Spring Line - A horizontal line which intersects the
springing.
Voussoir - One masonry unit of an arch.

Venetian - An arch formed by a combination of Jack
arch at the ends and Semicircular arch at the
middle.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

Jack

Bullseye

Venetian

Triangular

FIGURE 9.91

Arch types.

Segmental

Semicircular

Horseshoe

Multicentered

Tudor

Gothic

137

138

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Extrados

Crown

Rise

Depth

Spring line
Intrados
Springing
Voussoir

Keystone

Skewback angle
Skewback
Abutment

Span

FIGURE 9.92

Arch terms.

9.9.2.2 STRUCTURAL FUNCTION

The arch will require support when it is not possible
for an arch to perform structurally. One method of
supporti ng brick m asonry arches i n modern
construction is provided by a steel angle. The steel
angle is bent to the curvature of the intrados of the
arch. To form a continuous support, curved sections
of steel angle are then welded to horizontal steel angles.
The angle is attached to a structural member or bears
on the brickwork abutments behind the wall. When an
arch is supported by a steel angle, the angle is designed
to support the entire weight of brick masonry loading
the arch and the structural resistance of the arch is
neglected. Figure 9.93 illustrates an arch supported
by a curved steel angle.

Flashing
Building paper overlapping
flashing

The structural function of an arch is to carry a load
by putting the material of the arch into compression.
Masonry is excellent in compression. As a result,
masonry arches have been constructed for centuries.
In many different applications, the brick masonry
arch has been used to span openings of considerable
length. Structural efficiency is natural to the curving of
the arch which transfers vertical loads laterally along
the arch to the abutments at each end. Transferring
vertical forces gives rise to both horizontal and vertical
reactions at the abutments. The cause of a
combination of flexural stress and axial compression
is the curvature of the arch and the restraint of the
arch by the abutments. Rise and configuration can be
manipulated by the arch depth to keep stresses
compressive. Brick masonry arches can support
considerable loads because brick masonry is very
strong in compression.
Arches have historically been constructed with
unreinforced masonry. Brick masonry arches continue
to be built with unreinforced masonry while very long
span arches and arches with a small rise may require
steel reinforcement to resist tensile stresses. Also,
reduction in the supporting wall and the thickness of
the arch may require incorporation of reinforcement
for sufficient load resistance. Complicated arches may
be prefabricated to avoid the complexity of on-site
shoring. Prefabricated brick masonry arches are
usually reinforced. These arches are built off site and
transported to the job or built at the site. Cranes may
be used to lift the arch into place in the wall. The
fabrication, transportation and handling should be
considered in the structural design of the arch.

Soldier brick

Adjustable
steel angle
Arch span center line

Two-soldier course in
a short span arch

FIGURE 9.93

Arch supported by curved steel

angle.
9.9.2.3 WEATHER RESISTANCE
In most applications of the building arch, water
penetration resistance is a concern. In the past, the
mass of a multi-wythe brick masonry arch was enough
to resist water penetration. Wall sections that are
thinner are now used to minimize material use for
economy and efficiency. The arch should provide an
efficient weather resistant facade. Several arch
applications do not require provisions for water
penetration and insulation. For example, arch arcades
and arches supported by porch columns typically do
not contain a direct path for water migration to the
interior of the building. If this is the case, provisions
for weather resistance need not be included in the arch
design and detailing.

139

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
Preventing water intrusion at an arch in an exterior
building wall is just as important as at any other wall
opening. Resistance to water penetration can be
provided by using a barrier wall system or a drainage
wall system. A drainage wall system, such as a brick
veneer or cavity wall, is the most common brick
masonry wall system used today. In a cavity wall or in
brick veneer, the arch should be flashed with weep
holes provided above all flashing locations.
9.9.2.3.1 PROVIDING FLASHING

AND

Weep hole

Flashing

Masonry backup
End dam

WEEP HOLES

Installation flashing and weep holes around an arch
can be difficult. It is easy to install flashing with jack
arches due to the flat or nearly flat configuration.
Flashing should be installed below the arch and above
the window framing or steel angle lintel. Flashing
should extend a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) beyond
the wall opening at either end and should be turned
up to form end dams. Weep holes should be provided
at both ends of the flashing and should be placed at a
maximum spacing of 24 in. (610 mm) on center along
the arch span, or 16 in. (406 mm) if rope wicks are
used.

Stud at jamb

Flashing

Building paper
overlapping
flashing
Interior
sheathing
Exterior
sheathing &
building paper

Window trim
Weep hole at each
end of tray flashing

FIGURE 9.95

Flashing may be bent along the curve of the arch
with overlapping sections if the arch spans are greater
than 3 ft (0.9 m). Figure 9.96 shows a combination of
stepped and typical flashing that can be used. To form
a step, the end nearest the arch should be turned up
to form an end dam, while the opposite end is laid flat.
A minimum of No. 15 building paper or equivalent
moisture resistant protection should be installed on
the exterior face of the backing over the full height of
the arch and abutments. The building paper or
equivalent must overlap the arch flashing.

4 in.
min.

Building paper overlapping flashing

End dam

FIGURE 9.94

Short span arches.

Tray flashing
Mini
mum
1
/3 sp
an

Step flashing

Flashing a Jack arch.

Flashing and weep holes can be placed in the first
masonry course above the arch if it is constructed with
reinforced brick masonry.
Installation of flashing with other arch types, such
as Segmental and Semicircular arches can be more
difficult. This is because most rigid flashing materials
are hard to bend around an arch with tight curvature.
One section of flashing can be placed in the first
horizontal mortar joint above the keystone if the arch
span is less than 3 ft (0.9 m), as shown in Figure 9.95.

Flashing

Arch span
center line
Weep holes at regular
spacing & at ends
Weep hole at end (typical)
Exterior sheathing & building paper

FIGURE 9.96

Long span arches.

These brick are tapered in the appropriate manner to obtain mortar joints of uniform thickness along the arch depth. . are all different. For any successful arch design.4 DETAILING CONSIDERATIONS The purpose of the brick masonry arch is to serve as a structural element and also provide an attractive architectural element to complement the surrounding structure. the voussoirs of a Semicircular arch are all the same size and shape. rectangular brick. 8 in. proper configuration of the abutments and location of expansion joints must be taken into account. however.9. 16 in. A different variation is to project or recess rings of multiple-ring arches to provide shadow lines or a ‘ label course’ . Figure 9. shapes and bonding patterns. If uniform mortar joint thickness is desired some arch types require more unique shapes and sizes of brick. The arch.97 Typical arch configurations. traditional Jack arch or Elliptical arch. (406 mm) arch An arch that is typically laid in radial orientation using brick of similar size and color to the surrounding brickwork is the Arch voussoirs. Arch types with a sufficient quantity of brick shapes and sizes should be special ordered from the brick manufacturer rather than cut in the field. The mortar joints are tapered to obtain the desired arch curvature when rectangular brick are used. from the abutment to the keystone in a Three course Jack arch Four or five course Jack arch FIGURE 9. One example will be the slanted arch which is formed with a tapered keystone and rectangular brick. (203 mm) arch 9. Installation of flashing at the abutments will affect the structural resistance of the abutment and should also be considered.1 ARCH DETAILING There are a variety of arch depths. The loading on the arch will likely be increased.9.140 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL W hen designing a structural masonry arch. (305 mm) arch 9. A combination of units is used in a few cases. consideration of the effect of flashing on the strength of the arch should be included.2. Tapered or rectangular brick selection can be determined by the arch type. 12 in. The slanted arch is similar to a Jack arch. Flashing acts as a bond break. but it is more economical since it only requires one special-shaped brick.2. Careful consideration should be given to the options available for the arch.97 shows some of the more common arch configurations. The arch is usually composed of an odd number of units for artistic purposes. can be formed with brick which are thinner or wider than the surrounding brickwork and of a different color for variation. Arches are constructed with two different types of brick masonry units. and the structural resistance of the arch will be reduced if flashing is installed above the arch. The first is tapered or wedgeshaped brick. brick sizes.4. The second type of unit is the uncut. soffit and skewback. arch dimensions and by the appearance desired. The brick sizes and shapes. On the other hand.

with most arch types. Radius of Arch (height by width) to Intrados ft. depending upon the course height. in. The possible location of the first crack when the arch fails.2.6 x 67.2 Minimum Radius for Uncut Brick Nominal Face Minimum Dimensions Permissible of Arch Brick.3 (3. Uniform thickness of mortar joints is more aesthetically appealing if tapered brick are used.2 x 67. (19 mm). whichever is greater. . Usually. Also. Determination of the minimum Segmental and Semicircular arch radii permitted for rectangular brick and tapered mortar joints is shown in Table 9.4.9.1 mm) and a minimum of 1/8 in. the depth of a Jack arch will equal the height of 3.3) 16 x 3 /5 (406.6) 15.0 (3.4 x 101.0) 2 4 x 4 (101.7 (2.3) 1 12. Any arch depth may be used if the arch is supported by a lintel. (6 mm) mortar joint width at the intrados and 1 /2 in.3) 1 Based on /4 in. divide minimum radius value by 2. (102 mm) plus 1 in. For short arch spans.0 (2.8 x 67. (m) (mm) 2 4 x 2 /3 (101. (305 mm) for jack arches. (102 mm).0 (3.7) 1 4. the arch depth should equal or exceed 4 in. The use of a large keystone at this point moves the first mortar joint further from the midspan and increases the resistance to cracking at this midspan point.6) 20. Several bonding patterns and designs can be used to form the arch soffit. whichever is greater. Small units are more likely to slip when the arch settles under load. the arch span should also be addressed.4 mm) for every foot (305 mm) of arch span or 8 in. The use of a large keystone may have basis in purpose and visual effect.9) 12 x 3 /5 (304. (6.2 mm). multiple brick.7) 16 x 2 /3 (406.0 (4. 9. The springing and the extrados of the Jack arch should coincide with horizontal mortar joints in the adjacent brick masonry.3 (4. The Jack arch depth will also be a function of the coursing of the adjacent brick masonry. precast concrete or terra cotta.1) 12 x 2 /3 (304. (25.7) 10. or the use of gauged brickwork when using mortar joints thinner than 1/4 in. When the keystone is formed with more than one masonry unit.7 (6.5 (4. (19.1) 2 13. Consideration should be given to the use of very uniform brick that meet the dimensional tolerance limits of ASTM C 216. Mortar joint thickness between arch brick should be a maximum of 3/4 in.2 SOFFIT DETAILING One attractive feature of a structural brick masonry arch is the brick masonry soffit. A mini mum arch depth f or st ructural arches is determined from the structural requirements.4) 4 x 3 /5 (101.3) 8 x 3 /5 (203. In Jack arches. there are no hard rules for proportion. The arch depth should increase with increasing arch span to provide proper visual balance and scale.6) 5. The keystone may be a single brick.4 x 67. tapered brick are recommended to avoid wide mortar joints at the extrados . the minimum arch depth for an 8 ft (2. avoid placing the smaller unit at the bottom.6) 10. however. Type FBX.4 x 81.2 x 101. The depth of the arch will depend upon the size and orientation of the brick used to form the arch. Avoid using a keystone which is much taller than the adjacent voussoirs. The arch depth designed f or Segmental and Semicircular arches should equal or exceed 1 in.2) 1 8.6 x 81.7) 1 16. A large keystone aesthetically adds variation of scale and can introduce other masonry materials in the facade for additional color and texture.2 (1.3) 1 6.0 (1. As a rule-of-thumb the keystone should not extend above adjacent arch brick by more than one-third of the arch depth. The arch depth should be a multiple of the brick’ s width. is at the mortar joint nearest to the midspan of the arch.7) 16 x 4 (406. 1 Table 9.6 x 101.7) 3.0) 2 8 x 2 /3 (203.4 mm). Since 141 aesthetics of an arch is subjective.4 m) span should be 8 in. (13 mm) mortar joint width at the extrados. Deep soffits are common on building arcades or arched entranceways. stone.2.6) 8 x 4 (203.2 x 81. If the mortar joint thickness at the extrados is 3/4 in. the arch crown (the top of the keystone) should coincide with a horizontal mortar joint in the surrounding brickwork to give the arch a cleaner appearance. (25. (3. Larger span arches require less taper of the voussoirs and can be formed with rectangular brick and tapered mortar joints.8 x 81. Based on the scale of the arch in relation to the scale of the building and surrounding brickwork the depth of the arch should also be detailed.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION When selecting the arch brick. For example. The following rules-of-thumb.8 x 101.3 (1. (203 mm) for segmental arches and 12 in. (203 mm).4 mm) for every foot (305 mm) of arch span or 4 in.1) 12 x 4 (304. 4 or 5 courses of the surrounding brickwork. will help provide an arch with proper scale.

Skewback. A vertical line between arches should be avoided. along arch ring or as required Cant brick Segmental Arch Skewback Brick masonry FIGURE 9. (600 mm) max. producing more accurate alignment of the arch.2. For other arch types. corrosion resistant box or metal wire ties should be placed along the arch span at a maximum spacing of 24 in.4. A special shape brick can mesh the two arches properly. Deeper soffits may require an increase in arch depth. Arches on either wall face should be bonded to the brick masonry forming the soffit. (610 mm) on center.99 FIGURE 9.98 Structural arch soffit. such as with a two-bay garage or building arcades. The abutment at the springing should be cut or be a special cant-shaped brick.100 Intersecting arches. This allows vertical alignment with the brick beneath. Special brick Arch brick FIGURE 9. The exterior wall face and the interior wall face of the arch should be structurally evaluated at sections through the soffit.3 SKEWBACK DETAILING The most desirable spring line location coincides with a bed joint in the abutment for flat arches and arch types that have horizontal skewbacks.9.142 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Building paper & exterior sheathing Wall tie Inside face of wall Weep hole Tray flashing at arch crown Jack Arch Skewback Semicircular Arch Skewback Keystone Wall tie Keystone Regular mortar joint thickness Metal tie @ 24 in. The intersection of the arches may occur at the skewback when two arches are adjacent. such as Jack and Semicircular arches. . 9. Connection of the brick masonry forming the soffit to interior framing members with wall ties or connectors may not be required if the arch is structural. If metal ties are used to bond the masonry. A bonding pattern or metal ties should be used to tie the brick masonry forming the soffit together structurally and to tie the arches on either wall face to the soffit. the spring line should pass about midway through a brick course in the abutment to avoid a thick mortar joint at the springing.

The arch should have sufficient resistance to out-of-plane loads or lateral bracing should be provided. or combination of wall and shelf angle.2. The location of an expansion joint at the arch crown is not preferred because it disrupts the traditional view of the arch as a structural element.2. Do not place vertical expansion joint within shaded region Horizontal expansion joint or top of wall Expansion joint spacing. arches which are not laterally braced may require increased masonry thickness or reinforcement. This area of masonry is in compression. Optional vertical expansion joint at crown of arch .4.101 Expansion joints. Thrust develops in all arches and the thrust force is greater for flatter arches. Care should be taken not to affect the integrity of the arch by detailing expansion joints too close to the arch and its abutments when the arch is structural.9. gravity and outof-plane loads should be considered.5 LATERAL STABILITY When designing a masonry arch. The differential movement of abutments can cause cracking and downward displacement of brick in the masonry arch and surrounding masonry if an insufficient number of expansion joints are provided. Vertical expansion joint Steel angle Vertical expansion joint Horizontal expansion joint beneath steel angle Minimum distances determined by sliding resistance along steel angle Non-Structural Arch FIGURE 9.102 Expansion joints. Failure of an abutment occurs from excessive lateral movement of the abutment or exceeding the flexural. The expansion joint will reduce the effective width of the abutment and its ability to resist horizontal thrust from the arch. Corrugated metal ties should not be used in this application since they do not provide adequate axial stiffness. To carry loads perpendicular to the arch plane in addition to vertical loads. Expansion joints minimize cracking of the brickwork and also reduce the size of wall sections. Rigidity of the non-masonry structural member and rigidity of the ties are important if the abutment is formed by a combination of brickwork and a non-masonry structural member.4. compressive or shear strength of the abutment. 9.4 ABUTMENTS An arch abutment may consist of a column. Lateral bracing is provided by the backing through the use of wall ties in veneer construction. For suggested expansion joint locations for structural and non-structural arches see Figures 9. so an expansion joint will cause displacement when centering is removed. typ. The state of stress in a structural brick arch and the surrounding masonry is sensitive to the relative movements of the abutments.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 9. 143 joints.2. The lateral movement of the abutment is due to the horizontal thrust of the arch. may be at the arch crown and also at a sufficient distance away from the springline to avoid sliding. if the arch is non-structural. The thrust should be resisted so that lateral movement of the abutment does not cause failure in the arch. Adjustable ties. Vertical expansion joints should not be placed in close proximity to the springline. Location of expansion Minimum distances determined by abutment resistance to arch thrust Base of wall Structural Arch FIGURE 9. Horizontal expansion joint or top of wall Do not place vertical expansion joint within shaded area Vertical expansion joint Vertical expansion joint Abutments 9.4. Vertical expansion joints should not be placed in the masonry directly above a structural arch.101 and 9.9.9. wall.6 EXPANSION JOINTS The use of expansion joints control the thermal and moisture movements of brick masonry. single or double wire ties are recommended.102. Reduction of wall size has an important effect upon the performance of structural brick masonry arches.

for the particular case of multiple arches closely spaced.9. or permanent supports. Several brick manufacturers produce tapered arch brick for the more common arch types as part of their regular stock of special shapes.144 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The design of expansion joints can be difficult with very long span arches or runs of multiple arches along an arcade. Immediately after placement the keystone a very slight downward displacement of the centering. The term “ centering”is used because the shoring is marked for proper positioning of the brick forming the arch and usually centering is provided by wood construction. such as structural steel angles. termed easing. Expansion joints for long arcades should also be placed along the centerline of abutments between arches. mortar and other materials should account for these properties in the design. can be entirely self-supporting. The arch structural analysis should consider the location of expansion joints.1 T EMPORARY SHORING Structural and non-structural arches should be properly supported throughout construction. Easing helps to avoid separation cracks in the arch. Brick masonry arches may be constructed with the aid of temporary shoring. brick col or and texture desi red bef ore specif ying manufactured special arch shapes.9. Solid brick should comply with the requirements of ASTM C 216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick.2. Early removal of the centering may result in collapse of the arch. should be detailed at a sufficient distance away from the end arches so that horizontal arch thrusts are adequately resisted by the abutments to avoid overturning of the abutments. In some cases.6. 9. which results in uneven mortar joints and unsymmetrical arches. The designer should determine the availability of special shapes for the arch type. hollow or solid clay units may be used for the arch and surrounding brickwork. Many applications of the masonry arch require proper shoring and bracing during const ruct ion. The compressive strength of masonry is related to the compressive strength of the brick. such as an uneven number of brick to either side of the keystone. The effective abutment length should be halved and the overturning of each half of the abutment should be checked so that horizontal thrusts from adjacent arches will not be counteracting. production of special shapes may require a color matching process and adequate lead time for the manufacturer. 9. Selection of brick. but also proper methods of construction and workmanship. even during construction.5.6 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKMANSHIP The performance of a masonry arch relies not only on quality materials.2.2 MORTAR Mortar used to construct brick masonry arches must meet the requirements of ASTM C 270 Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. howev er. .2. Vertical expansion joints. The strength of an arch depends upon the compressive strength and the flexural tensile strength of the masonry. The design of the arch prior to construction will help avoid poor spacing of voussoirs. such as barrel vaults and domes. 9.2. sev eral arch applications. The flexural tensile strength of the masonry will affect the load resistance of the arch and the abutments. 9. The manufacturer’ s lead time may be as long as several months. Special arch masonry units can be cut from rectangular units at the job site or specially ordered from the manufacturer. Hollow brick should comply with the requirements of ASTM C 652 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick. Brick should be sel ected wit h consideration of the requi red compressive strength of masonry for structural arches.5 MATERIAL SELECTION The arch must be constructed with durable materials to provide a weather resistant barrier and maintain structural resistance.9. The designer should also be aware of mortar limitations in more critical Seismic Design Categories.9. Centering should not be removed until it is certain that the masonry is capable of carrying all imposed loads. The flexural tensile strength of the masonry should be considered when selecting the mortar for structural arches.1 BRICK As with any brick system.9. termed centering. the mortar type and the applicable grout strength.2. The compressive strength capacity of the brick masonry will not limit the arch design. Careful construction of the centering will ensure a more pleasing arch appearance and avoid layout problems.5. Centering carries the weight of a brick masonry arch and the loads being supported by the arch until the arch has gained sufficient strength. 9. can be performed to cause the arch voussoirs to press against one another and compress the mortar joints between the brick.

There is also a suspended diaphragm base used for structural roof and floor assemblies of buildings.2 WORKMANSHIP In an arch. Brick paving is classified by the type of base and the method of installation. . longer curing periods may be required. all mortar joints should be completely filled. Before removing the centering it may be necessary to wait until the brickwork above the arch has also cured.9. Brick Pavers should conform to ASTM C 902 Standard Specification for Pedestrian and Light Traffic Paving Brick or ASTM C 1272 Standard Specification for Heavy Vehicular Paving Brick. All face shells and end webs must be completely filled with mortar if hollow brick are used to form the arch. particularly the brick masonry within spandrel areas. When the arch is constructed in cold weather conditions or when required for structural reasons.103 Brick masonry arch. The structural resistance of the arch and the arch loading will depend upon the amount of brick surrounding the arch. Either mortared or mortarless brick paving can be laid on this base. The correct time of removal of centering for a structural arch should be determined with consideration of the assumptions made in the structural analysis of the arch.9. The use of two or more rings of arch brick laid in rowlock orientation can help ensure full mortar joints.6.104 Brick paving at Lombard Street in San Francisco. 9. Brick masonry arches may be constructed with the units laid in a soldier orientation.2. FIGURE 9.3 BRICK PAVING DESIGN The flexibility of brick paving ranges from a typical flat walk approaching a single family residence to an application of the steep. but not impossible.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Centering should remain in place for at least seven days after construction of the arch. A rigid base uses a reinforced or unreinforced concrete slab on grade (Figure 9. FIGURE 9. 145 9. semi-rigid and flexible. To lay units in a soldier position and also obtain completely filled mortar joints may be difficult. There are three primary types of bases: rigid. most crooked street in the United States.105). Lombard Street in San Francisco.

1 T RAFFIC FIGURE 9. porches. gazebos and pool areas. Brick pavers for flexible base should be at least 25/8 in. Large exterior paved areas for malls and vehicular parking lots require .106 Flexible base paving.106).3. felt 3 /8 in. Heavy traffic . Vehicular traffic may impart horizontal thrust to the paving assembly from braking.Commercial vehicular traffic. to 1 in. On this type of base only mortarless brick paving should be used and may be used for pedestrians areas such as malls or medium to heavy vehicular traffic. walkways. Areas containing poor sub-base material should be removed and refilled with suitable material which is properly compacted. including: • • • • • • • site traffic drainage brick material bond pattern other materials subgrade A brick paving assembly must support vertical traffic loads (live load) plus its own weight (dead load). (67 mm) thick to reach a good interlock if used in heavy vehicular traffic.9. (3 mm) providing an even gap for the jointing sand. or a mixture of sand and cement (Figure 9.105 Rigid base paving assembly. concrete slab /2 in.9. mortar setting bed Flexible brick paving Rigid brick paving Compacted soil Compacted base FIGURE 9. such as on patios. to 1/2 in. acceleration and turning action of wheels. Successful installations will depend upon proper subgrade design and preparation. sand bed Bond break 15 lb. (4.3 DRAINAGE Surface and subsurface drainage are significant. Compacted soil 9. A flexible base consists of compacted earth covered with gravel and sand. such as on streets and commercial parking lots. which should not exceed 3/16 in. Light traffic . 4 in. During compaction of the pavers the lugs keep the paver edges from touching each other reducing the chippage of the pavers. This thickness is ideal for any chamfers or rounded edges. When the pavers are subjected to heavy vehicular traffic. The lugs are typically 1/8 in. lugs are necessary. shopping malls and light residential vehicular traffic.Commercial pedestrian traffic. such as on city walkways. such as residential driveways and parking lots. Three classifications of traffic are light.Residential pedestrian traffic.8 mm) in depth or width. per foot (10 to 20 mm per meter). Resistance is provided by the inter-locking bond pattern of the pav ing assembly. Remove all vegetation and organic materials from the area to be paved. The brick paving must resist abrasion from traffic. medium and heavy. entranceways. A semi-rigid base would typically consist of continuous asphalt. There are a number of issues that must be addressed in brick paving design.3. Exterior brick paving should be sloped at least 1/8 to 1/4 in. Some brick pavers are made with spacers or lugs.2 SITE The site may range from a small residential patio to a major urban renewal project. 9. 9.9. compacted gravel 1 Min. Medium traffic .3.146 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Reinforcement (if required) 4 in.

such as a layer of gravel. particularly in areas with high water tables. The joints should also be tooled to a concave finish.7 mm). For durability. 9. Landscaping timbers or railroads ties may serve as an edging material. the units must be protected to facilitate cleaning since grout will smear the units. such as geotextile fabric. can separate the two materials.5 INSTALLATION There are three basic methods for installing brick paving with mortar joints.5 to 12. The dry grout mixture is swept between the paving units. building felt 1 /2 in.4 EDGING Top soil Pave edge Spike A method of containment must be provided around the entire perimeter of the paved area to prevent horizontal movement of mortarless brick paving units and the base over which they are installed.7 mm) open space between the units. building or retaining wall may also be used. When grout is poured into the joints. An existing concrete curb. The second method involves placing each brick unit on a mortar leveling bed with a 3/8 to 1/2 in. Sand will sift into the voids of the larger granular material when drainage occurs. This may be a brick soldier curb set in concrete or mortar. with type M used in locations subject to freezing. All paving should be sloped away from buildings. A capillary break should be used.3. Compacted subgrade FIGURE 9. Turf Paver 1”sand Compacted aggregate base 9. Regions with relatively impervious soils. capable of surface water retention. The long dimension of the mortar joints should parallel runoff. A significant moisture problem is upward capillary action rather than the downward drainage. to prevent this upward flow of moisture.9.9.107 Edge drainage. An impervious membrane. The space is filled by pouring a fluid mixture of 1 part Portland cement and 3 parts of sand between the units. This is easily accomplished by placing mortar using a grout bag. Mortar joints are less durable than the brick units and standing water should be avoided.5 to 12. The pavement should be maintained in a damp condition for a period of two to three days. . or immediately cleaned using sponges and ample clean water. sand bed Expansion joint Weep holes @ 16 in. The joints between the units should be completely filled to maximize moisture penetration resistance.c. type S or M mortars are recommended for use in brick paving. The width of the mortar joints is typically 3 /8 to 1/2 in. (9.147 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION a greater slope.3. Joints should then be tooled with a concave jointer when mortar becomes thumbprint hard. may require subsurface drainage systems. Gravel perimeter drainage Flexible brick paving Compacted earth Soldier course edging embedded in concrete footing FIGURE 9. The first method is by the conventional use of troweled mortar. Brick pavers are installed on a damp cement and sand cushion with open joints between the units. Mortarless pav ing requires bot h surf ace and subsurface drainage. Brick pavers are buttered with mortar and pushed into a leveling bed of mortar. The third method uses a dry mixture of 1 part Portland cement and three parts sand. the paving is sprayed with a fine mist of water until the joints are saturated. Sand should not be placed directly over gravel. to 1 in. 4 in. After sweeping excess material from the paving surface. or a special edging manufactured specifically for the purpose of brick paving.108 Paver restraint system. retaining walls and other elements capable of collecting surface water. o. (9. compacted gravel base 2 layers of 15 lb. Mortar joints should be tooled.

The pea gravel percolation layer will permit rapid drainage. mortar.9.6. A slip plane between pavers and a waterproofing membrane may be placed to avoid disruption to the membrane. the dead weight of brick pavers should be considered when combined with other materials and design conditions. The position of roof insulation is important relative to the temperature variation of each element in a paved roof assembly.3. such as concrete or wood systems. (57.1 SUSPENDED DIAPHRAGM BASES 9.5 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The structural design of the suspended base should follow normal design procedures. durable and economical to install. it may consist of a porous gravel cushion. aesthetically appealing. Built-up bituminous membranes may have non-elastic properties. vibration and impact from traffic. like all materials. The dead weight of mortared or mortarless brick pavers may be taken at approximately 10 psf per inch of thickness for structural design purposes.2 MOISTURE To assure an effective moisture-resistant system. thus preventing possible damage from freeze-thaw cycles of trapped water. As with any solid masonry. These support bases may consist of reinforced brick masonry slabs.3. 9.148 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 9. Roof deck insulation should be a non-rotting. Liquid waterproofing membrane 1 /8”protection board 2”pea gravel Closed cell polystyrene insulation Brick pavers Consideration should be given to horizontal differential movement between structural concrete slabs and the waterproofing membrane.6. moisture resistant. asphalt impregnated protection board or other material capable of withstanding both horizontal abrasive movement and vertical traffic loading.3. weighting approximately 16 to 22 psf (766 to 1054 N/m2).9. proper design and installation of a horizontal membrane is essential. FIGURE 9. The assembly in Figure 9.109 is suitable for exterior pedestrian traffic. Insulation may be placed directly over a membrane. closed-cell type of material capable of retaining thermal resistance in the presence of water.6.9.4 BRICK PAVING DESIGN ASSEMBLIES Certain special design factors must be used to minimize the risk of deterioration and to assure long term performance on a roof deck or suspended plaza. that is.9. The most popular pavers are 15/8 in.3 mm) to 21/4 in. or work in harmony with other elements. Seamless liquid waterproofing and rubber sheet membranes are typically elastic in behavior and are capable of adjusting to differential movement that may occur in the supporting base. 9.6 STUCTURAL BRICK FLOORS Brick may also be used in self-spanning floor systems by using some form of reinforcement. and wood framing. Brick pavers are available in various thickness so their total weight will vary.6.3. (41. change dimensionally with changes in temperature. Bri ck pav ers.109 Brick drain. reinforced concrete slabs. grout and reinforcement. All level drain 9. Adequate drainage is important to prevent damage to or displacement of pavers due to water and/or frost action. Sloping membranes in conjunction with porous base layers permit water to percolate or run freely to drains.2 mm) thick. The following illustrations show how brick paving can be adapted to suspended diaphragm bases of various types. respectively. steel decking. For example.3.3 T HERMAL CONSIDERATIONS The thermal aspects of roof terraces are similar to those of normal roofs. Special all-level drains are available which will handle both pavement surface and subsurface water. 9.6.3.9. . The system may stand alone. such as live loads. A roof deck plaza application must be structurally sound.9. use brick. Traffic loading may be supported on insulation materials in a deck assembly provided the insulation material is structurally adequate.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Diaphragm action becomes important in order to maintain the integrity of mortar joints for mortared paving. 31/2” d = 2.9.1 m) using the same size hollow brick and the same mortar.8 m).6. as shown in Figure 9. The result of higher bonding characteristics between the mortar and brick unit causes this advantage. For pedestrian and vehicular traffic the reinforced brick masonry slabs may be capable of of satisfying design loading.7 BRICK ON SHEET STEEL FORMS Reinforced brick paving can be used to span an open space or over a fill which has the potential of uneven settlement.9.5” #4 gage transverse wires @ 41/2”o.4 kN/m2) live load. Turning a unit on edge to increase the slab’ s thickness.4 to 4. can support a wide range of live load conditions. particularly over relatively short spans.112 shows an assembly suitable for exterior pedestrian traffic and utilizes a bituminous leveling bed.3.c. 9.6. spanning about 6 ft (1. A corrugated sheet steel as a base is utilized as a variation of reinforced brick construction.8 HIGH-BOND MORTARED PAVEMENT FIGURE 9. most ranging from 50 to 100 psf (2.111 Corrugated sheet steelreinforced brick masonry slab assembly.1 lists distributed and concentrated live loads. Figure 9.9. Steel is placed near the top of the pavement in grouted mortar joints for continuous spans.6. Brick are placed on a bed of mortar and vertical joints are filled with mortar or grout. Reinforcement in the masonry can eliminate the necessity for a separate reinforced concrete slab or other rigid base. .110. the design load capacity can be doubled (100 psf [4.6 REINFORCED CONSTRUCTION 9. 149 designed to support a 50 psf (2. (57.1 mm) thick hollow brick slab may be Installing rigid brick paving with high-bond mortar may be more resistant to water penetration than paving with conventional mortars. 41/2” 21/4” 1/2” 21/4 x 33/4 x 8 brick (actual size) /4”clear 3 #2 @ each joint 51/2” /4”clear 12” Top of mortar bed 31/2” d = 2. The span for mortared paving should be limited to a deflection of l/600 for mortared paving and l/360 for flexible paving. Reinforcement of masonry can provide an economical solution to the problem of constructing brick floors over open spans while the steel serves as a form. A 21/4 in.8 kN/m2]) and the span increased to over 7 ft (2. 12” A F IGURE 9.3.110 Reinforced brick masonry slabs. #4 @ each cell 9.8 kN/ m2).75” 1 Section A-A A #3 @ each cell 71/2” d = 5. Reinforced brick masonry slabs are practical.3. 2006 IBC Table 1607.75” Various types of reinforced brick masonry slabs.

The assembly depicted in Figure 9.115 Brick paving on wood framing assembly. 2 x _ solid bridging Structural slab Wood joists Plywood subfloor Cut back asphalt primer 2 layers 15 lb.113 Brick paving on reinforced concrete slab.114 Brick paving on steel deck base. The type of construction that may be designed as a non-rated or rated fire resistive assembly is illustrated in Figure 9. utilizing conventional built-up roofing. The assembly in Figure 9. felt embedded in hot asphalt /4”bituminous leveling bed with 2% neoprene tack coat 3 Closed cell polstyrene insulation Brick pavers Expansion joint FIGURE 9.113. FIGURE 9. The designer must consider the deflection of the wood frame support and the impact on brick paving. Brick paving on reinforced concrete slab. Figure 9.115 portrays an assembly suitable for mortarless pav ing used in residential f rame construction.114 which shows only the general material composition.116 is also suitable for mortared paving used in residential frame construction. can be easily adapted to flexible brick paving suitable for outdoor pedestrian traffic.150 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Waterproofing membrane Steel decking Rigid insulation /4”asphalt impregnated protection boards 1 Gypsum or wood fiber board Multilayered 15 lb. roofing felt or waterproof membrane 4 layers 15 lb roofing felt with 43 lb. coating felt Brick pavers Brick pavers FIGURE 9.112 Brick pavers FIGURE 9. .

Rigid or mortared paving should be allowed to set in an undisturbed condition for a period of at least 3 days.6.13 MAINTENANCE High-bond and latex modified Portland cement mortars may vary among manufacturers.6. such as non-slippery water repellent sealants.3. Spread damp sand in thin layers and permit the sand to dry before sweeping sand into the joints.3.3.3. For interior brick there are a few aspects to be considered before applying any type of coating. 9. A common historic practice of applying a sealer on brick paving prior to waxing has been satisfactory. The insulation must also be capable of withstanding the temperatures transferred through the protection board from the application of hot bitumen. 9. Mortarless installations should require a minimum amount of attention. cleaning should be done as soon as possible after the mortar joints have been allowed to cure. Until the masonry has adequately cured full service of the pavement should be avoided.116 Brick paving on wood framing assembly. as they may cause an extremely slippery surface when wet during cleaning or in a rainfall. During the installation process burlap bags may be used to remove excess mortar. Sealers typically have two purposes: Steam cleaning is eff ective in melting any protective paraffin coating and lifting excess mortar. Sand must be clean and free of clay to avoid surface “ scumming”of the finished paving. Protect from staining and light impact loads through the use of large sheets of plywood or hardboard. A surface applied bond breaker may be applied to the brick prior to mortar application to assist in the cleaning process. No curing time for flexible brick pavement is required. coatings to maintain surface appearance are not normally required.9 DRAINS AND WATERPROOFING All level drains and waterproofing membranes should be installed in strict accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and specifications for suspended decks where control of surface drainage is required. Mortar joints should be properly tooled when the mortar is thumb print hard. 9. Use a cleaning solution if dry cleaning or hosing with water fails to flush the surface clean. Provide sufficient ventilation to dilute the harmful effects of acid fumes when applied in confined spaces.112 depicts insulation required to support a specific design live load.3. 9. may be beneficial for exterior applications. therefore. A visual inspection after cleaning may reveal problem areas that require scraping or light brushing with a stiff bristle brush. 1. These acids may also cause “ acid burn”discoloration on the brick paving. and To provide a protective finish.6. Coatings and waxes may be desirable on interior brick floors to enhance the appearance and make the surfaces easier to clean. 2. Drains should be protected from clogging during the cleaning process.9. The use of strong acid solutions should be avoided whenever possible.9. . the instructions for installation should be carefully followed.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 2 x _ solid bridging Plywood subfloor 15 lb.6. Strong acids can dissolve mortar from the joints and kill grass and shrubbery.9.9. To lock loose sand in the cracks. sealer and wax must be checked for compatibility prior to final application. Certain coatings on exterior brick pavement are not recommended.12 CLEANING When cleaning high-bond mortared pavement. therefore. however. 151 When care is exercised during brick installation and mortar grouting. roofing felt (waterproof membrane) lapped 6” /2”to 3/4”mortar bed 1 Brick pavers FIGURE 9.9.10 INSULATION Figure 9. Other coatings.6. Usually brick floors and pavements are abrasion resistant and hard wearing. Do not use wire brushes when cleaning masonry.11 MORTAR 9. cleaning can be avoided or held to a minimum.

9. Avoid the use of chemicals and “ rock”salt that aid in melting ice. must be judged on its own merit. whether it be with a sealer and wax or a synthetic sealer-finish material (spry-buffing process). To determine the most economical and effective means for maintaining a brick floor. it should be tested on a small area and evaluated before full application.117 In landscape architecture brick plays an evergrowing role. Brick paving patterns. Needless chipping of the edges of the brick should be avoided regardless of the method used.9. The floor surface should be dry before a coating is applied. Since it is made of natural earth materials and available in a multitude of colors that are harmonious with nature. preferably a water emulsion type which is recommended for brick floors. brick is an ideal landscape material. to the masonry and may be a source of efflorescence. A compatible wax should be selected. Using these materials will introduce soluble salts Running bond Basket weave or parquet Stack bond Stack bond FIGURE 9.117 illustrates a few basic patterns. Figure 9. Use clean sand on the affected area to render icy surfaces passable. the blade should be rubber tipped or mounted on small rollers and the blade edge should be adjusted to a clearance height suitable to the pavement surface. each maintenance situation. Diagonal herringbone Herringbone Diagonal running bond Octagon and dot Roman cobble . Where a metal snow plow blade is used to remove snow.4 LANDSCAPING Removing snow on large or small areas of brick pavement should not present any particular problem. The designer is not limited in creativity when using bond patterns of brick in an imaginative way.152 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL When a sealer is used. To preserve the character of the brick there are precautionary measures that can be taken.

The most important is to reduce or eliminate the saturation of brick particularly during freezing weather.4.1 STEPS The flexibility of small brick units often provides solutions to difficulties when constructing brick steps on a slope. The individual brick units permit flexibility of design. .5 FOUNTAINS FIGURE 9. designers avoid the use of brick in combination with water for fear of deterioration of the masonry. FIGURE 9. 9.119 Planter boxes. Manuf acturers may stock brick speci f ically manufactured for steps.118 Brick steps.9. FIGURE 9.4. There are. Garden walls. all brick surfaces must be sloped. 9. A succesful fountain will contain some key design features.3 SCREEN WALLS Brick screen walls offer beauty as well as privacy without loss of light or air. and t he construction of curv es. such as adjustments of tread and riser dim ensions.120 Screen wall.9.4 GARDEN WALLS Several types of brick garden walls with new variations are constantly being created. Often. They protect decorative plants from animals and facilitate elevated gardening. To drain rain or melting snow.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 153 9. are typically used to separate areas and are commonly used to define boundaries. however.9. A brick screen wall may be used to conceal undesirable views and items and can provide a handsome separation between areas. many examples of successful brick projects with water including waterfalls and fountains.2 PLANTER BOXES Interior or exterior brick planters may be constructed in a wide variety of designs.4. The fountains or pools must be drained of water during cold weather. 9. 9. FIGURE 9.121 Garden wall. like screen walls.4.9.4.9.

Fireplaces also serve as social gathering points for friends and families. FIGURE 9. opposite. Portland cement-lime mortar with a latex additive is more durable and aids in bonding the brick which minimizes moisture penetration. FIGURE 9. Fire offers warmth in cold weather. and provides light in darkness. There are several types of fireplaces used in residential construction. This is a fireplace in which the firebox faces the room and is in the same plane as the wall. the fireplace in the home is a central feature around which to entertain friends and enjoy good times. Fireplaces and chimneys are important elements in the design and construction of a home. a well designed home needs a fireplace and chimney that are aesthetically and architecturally pleasing as well as effective and energy efficient. Recent performance tests indicate that the heat projected in the room from a Rumford fireplace is very high.123 Chimneys. The most frequently used is the single face fireplace.124 Rumford fireplace.154 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Normally. but also adds interest while in use. The chimney can be a dominant.5 FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYS For thousand of years fire has been a focal point of human existence. 9. FIGURE 9.122 Fountains. mortar will deteriorate first in a brick wall. a shallow back and a high opening. A variation of the traditional fireplace is the Rumford fireplace which is a single-face fireplace. featuring widely splayed sides. As such. . interesting architectural feature on the exterior of a home. The well-designed fireplace not only adds to the beauty of a home. cooks food.9. Multi-face fireplaces may have adjacent. Quite frequently rooms lend themselves to locating fireplaces in a corner to enhance a particular room. three or even all faces open to one or two rooms. Whether in the living room or recreation room.

126 See-thru or double view fireplace.128 Fireplace opening with an arch.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION FIGURE 9. short sides). The application of veneer material to the fireplace or chimney must follow applicable building code requirements. brick. A functional fireplace makes a house into a home. as it is difficult to imagine warming up to a forced air outlet or a clanking radiator in the same manner as cozying up to the amiable warmth of the hearth.127 155 Corner fireplace.125 Three face fireplace (long front. FIGURE 9. marble or other selected material. . FIGURE 9. FIGURE 9. Many chimneys and fireplaces are built with common brick or block and are given a special architectural appearance with a veneer stone.

4. They can give added visual height to the building or may hide HVAC units or elevator service enclosures. 2 10 13 4 9 8 12 7 6 5 1 1.156 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 9. they should be constructed of reinforced masonry only. increase or decrease wall thickness or create a structural support.7 PARAPETS Parapets are walls built up higher than the roof line. Stud walls should not form the parapet support for a brick facia. 3. 6. Structural limitations set by the building codes must be met and designers must ensure that the corbel does not exceed certain limitations. There are many different styles.9. Moisture penetration problems may occur if corbelling or racking allows cores or cells to be exposed in the masonry.9. The principles used in a masonry heater differ from an open fireplace where heat escapes through the chimney and only a small amount of heat is radiated into the room. usually named for the country of origin. 9. 9. Noncored units are often specif ied so that cores . 10. Masonry heaters use the same burning material as a fireplace. wood is burned in a combustion chamber. Masonry heaters differ from an open face fireplace. anchoring and moisture penetration require special design consideration. evenly distributes it throughout its mass by means of the flowing combustion gases through the winding flues that absorbs much of the heat energy before the combustion gases are released to the chimney. 12. Finnish and German. The primary difference is that the hot FIGURE 9. that is.6 MASONRY HEATERS For centuries. Smoke Chamber Firebox Firebox Door Heat Exchange Area Shut-Off Damper Grate Expansion Joint Finnish or contra-flow brick masonry heater. 11.9. masonry heaters have been used to heat rooms. are projecting and recessing successive courses of masonry. such as Russian.129 7. 9. If parapets are required on masonry walls. The heated mass is an efficient heat sink that absorbs the heat energy. 3 11 13 Brick parapet walls are usually not suggested since problems associated with differential movement.130 Parapet. 13. Ashbox Bypass Damper Capping Slab Chimney Clean-Out Combustion Air FIGURE 9. throughout Europe and in nearly every region of the world. 5. 2. Both may be used to accomplish a desired aesthetic effect. gases circulate through a maze of brick units before being sent up the chimney. parapets are required in some code jurisdictions to separate roof sections. 8. In the event of fire.8 CORBELS AND RACKS Corbeling and racking respectively.

sizes and textures. will not be exposed. since face sizes are normally the same as conventional brick. The color for thin brick units are as unlimited as those for other fired clay brick. FIGURE 9. thin brick units may be adhered directly to concrete block masonry or concrete. (67. such as: • • • • Thin brick veneer.131 Corbeling. Intensity of firing Duration of firing Composition of raw materials Introduced additives Thin brick texture depends on methods used by the manufacture and the surface treatment used prior to firing. The appearance of a thin brick wall is that of a conventional brick masonry wall. For example. 9. (Note that solid units are defined as at least 75% solid in the plane of the bearing surface.9. The color of kiln-fired brick depends on several factors. The materials used to form thin bricks are shale and clay and are kiln-fired. Architects often prefer a raked joint for aesthetic appeal. by 8 in. as shown in Figure 9. (12.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 157 There are a variety of methods of installing thin brick units.7 mm by 203 mm). 9.500 years ago. but virtually the same aesthetic qualities as conventional brick masonry. Thin brick functions as an architectural wall covering and also provides protection to the material over which it is applied. One of the most attractive attributes is that brick sculpture acts as a harmonious . warmth and rich colors.10 BRICK SCULPTURE Egyptian artisans experimented with brick sculpture more than 5. may cause bond failure of the thin brick.9.000 years ago and the Babylonians mastered it more than 2.132 FIGURE 9. Glazed thin brick units can also be provided by some manufacturers. structural strength. Ancient brick sculptures have also been found in China and Mexico. human dimension to images due to its texture. and subsequently.9 THIN BRICK VENEER Thin brick veneer units are approximately 1/2 to 11/4 in. The brick used in brick sculptures add a touchable.8 mm) thick and similar in appearance to face brick. the system performance is usually marginal since water has direct access to the bond between the thin brick and substrate. Thin brick has less fire resistance.132. This will accent the individual brick and at the same time substantially increase the moisture barrier. thermal mass and insulation properties.7 to 31. An alternate method that performs extremely well is to apply a colored concave tooled mortar joint between the thin brick. Thin brick are produced in various colors. Another procedure involves bonding thin brick to a concrete block masonry or concrete with surface preparation. therefore a defined ‘ solid’ unit may be cored). sound resistance. brick’ s permanence assures the durability of the work. Even in exterior and high traffic environments. The most typical face size is the standard modular with nominal dimensions of 22/3 in. Although this method accents the brick.

The use of brick in this application provides a human scale not found in other materials. such as height and mass of the wall. The brick is coded for reassembly at the jobsite after the carving is completed. or several ideas.11 SOUND BARRIER WALLS Public awareness of noise pollution mandated some modification of highway boundaries. .9. The brick shrinks an amount approximately equal to one mortar joint during the firing. and the building becomes part of the art to make a project stand out. The method of firing used in the carved brick is the same used in the other brick. which is far younger than European historic masonry.133 Brick sculpture. The design process starts with an idea. Technology continues to advance the cleaning agents offering different products for the various colors and textures of brick masonry. 9. can be returned to the pristine.158 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL extension of the brick buildings on which they appear. new look using specialized masonry cleaning solutions. Each idea is studied. The sculptor then carves the design into the unfired clay brick. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 9.134 Sound barrier wall. 9. Historic masonry. then the architect and sculptor work together to create a final design. The final appearance of new masonry is highly dependent on how clean the brick is maintained during construction and the efficiency by which the brick is cleaned after construction.10 CLEANING There are two prominent methods of cleaning both new and old masonry. and perform an excellent job cleaning masonry. The reassembly of the units with mortar joints without distortion of the design is allowed by this shrinkage. They are very sophisticated with equipment and workmanship. but there is always some mortar debris left on the brickwork that should be cleaned. Used in conjunction with fine architectural detail the art becomes part of the building. • into a transmitted path through the barrier • over a reflected path away from the residential or commercial area Sound can be reduced to tolerable levels by changing different parameters. one is chosen and developed into a working design. brick sound barrier walls reduce noise. When strategically located between the traffic noise and the adjacent residential or commercial properties. the mason will clean the brick as the work progresses. and after a process of elimination. sound barrier walls effectively distribute noise: • into different paths • into a diffracted path over the top of the barrier The American method prefers using cleaning agents as a basis for cleaning masonry. One is using an abrasive blasting technique commonly called sandblasting. Brick aids in the reduction of the noise since it is a massive material. The design is the first step in creating a brick sculpture. This method is popular for Europeans who prefer to maintain a historic look on their buildings. Ideally. Sound barrier walls are part of the solution with brick sound barrier walls contributing a share Providing an aesthetically pleasing appearance.

a diligent mason will use the trowel to capture protruding mortar and finish the joints in the appropriate manner. Abrasives other than sand are available. If necessary. water alone is the preferred cleaning method. the project may require a general cleaning. t he brick manufacturer should be consulted for recommendations on materials and methods effective in cleaning the brick.3 Cleaning Guide for Brick Masonry Brick Category Cleaning Method Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush) Red/Red Flashed High Pressure Water Blasting Abrasive Blasting Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush) Light Colored Units (White. Tan. Muriatic acids solutions may cause stains in brick with manganese and vanadium. but not less than seven days. polish with soft cloth. Clean daily with sponge and ample clean water. Abrasives other than sand are available. a simple washing with a garden hose and a fiber brush shortly after the end of the workday is a highly effective method of keeping the completed brick clean. This assures that the cleaning agents will be effective in the cleaning process. Light colored brick are susceptible to acid burn and staining. The contractor may be able to construct the scaffold far enough away from the wall to mitigate the mortar droppings that attach to the wall. Bef ore cleani ng the brickwork. Specialty detergents are available for specific application. . 159 When the brick construction is complete.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Although not practical on many commercial projects. Abrasive blasting is not recommended. Using a sponge with clean water on a very dense brick may be an effective cleaning method. Pink) High Pressure Water Blasting Abrasive Blasting Light Colored Units with Sand Finish Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush) Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush) Glazed Units Pressure Water Blasting Comments Water is the preferred method of cleaning. Water is the preferred method of cleaning. Hot weather cleaning may require additional personnel to keep water on the wall during the cleaning process. Table 9. Abrasive blasting can permanently alter texture. The cleaning agents should never dry on the brick masonry surface. Cleaning should be done when the temperature is at least 50°F (10°C). inconspicuous panel before the overall cleaning process. or coordination of cleaning in small or shady areas. the bricklayer will make an effort to clean major mortar stains and droppings as the work progresses. the brick should be cleaned as soon as practical. Abrasive blasting can permanently alter texture. After the joints are tooled. May also be cleaned using water blasting using care not to clean at high pressures that will permanently damage the texture.3. Buff. Consult manufacturer’ s data for appropriate application of cleaning agents. Specialty detergents are available for specific application. Protection at the base of the wall will also keep the mud and mortar spatter to a minimum and attention must be given to the rainy season. Water blasting will normally remove these minor droppings in an effective manner. This is an issue that is particularly important in hot weather. excess mortar can be cut away with a trowel or brushed away with a non-metallic brush. Typically. where rain splatters will spray the debris on the base of walls if unprotected. When this is necessary. When possible. Use clean water and non-metallic brush. Stubborn stains may require a specialty cleaning solution. Gray. Scaffold plank should be kept reasonably clean to minimize the mortar debris that will potentially come in contact with the wall. after the brickwork is finished. Consult manufacturer’ s data for appropriate application of cleaning agents. When the brick are laid. Always test the cleaning process on a small. The method of cleaning and the cleaning agents should be the least required to minimize the potential of irreversible texture and color impact on the brick. Taller brick walls will accumulate mortar droppings as the work progresses and these are cleaned at the end of the project. Such consultation will help in refining the general methods and recommendations given in Table 9.

a ‘ brush sandblast’ . Metals are sensitive to acids and must be protected. After one month mortar Structural brick masonry structures in seismic regions must be reinforced to withstand lateral forces during seismic activity. Reinforcing steel improves the ductility and toughness of the masonry system and holds a building together. however. One issue that occurs on many projects is the coordination of cleaning the brickwork. then there are significant issues of protection. cleaning. With proper design and construction.  Remove larger mortar debris prior to general cleaning. which is less aggressive than a light sandblast should be utilized. designers believe that a ‘ light’sandblast is appropriate for brick masonry. Wait at least seven days for the mortar to sufficiently cure and clean within one month of the completed brickwork. the reinforcement will transmit forces to adjacent elements that will carry the forces to the ground. work together as a single structural unit. grout. Avoid the use of metal tools. FIGURE 9.  Determine the appropriate cleaning agent and test on a sample panel. Reinforced masonry has high dampening and energy absorption characteristics. reinforced masonry performs well because the materials. Abrasive cleaning may have permanent effects on the texture and color of the brick and is not recommended. Naturally. Most cleaning agents require the wall to be wet prior to application and thoroughly flushed to rinse the agent from the wall. 9. Avoid the use of muriatic acid which may cause staining and acid burning. Thus. although scraping mortar debris off with a masons trowel is acceptable. The temperature coefficients for steel. disruptive stresses are not generated by temperature changes which would destroy the bond and force transfer between the reinforcing steel and the grout. abrasive blasting may be preferred and should only be performed by an individual with adequate experience and skill to perform the work. . steel. Also. Additionally. mortar.136 Power washing brick.  Use sufficient water for the job. the primary contractor prefers to wait as long as possible before cleaning the brick so that it will be pristine when the project is complete.160 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL splatters and smears become increasingly difficult to remove.135 Brick masonry restored by  Protect other materials and vegetation. If the cleaning is performed after the landscaping is in place. masonry. The cleaning procedure should consider the following:  Coordinate the schedule for cleaning. Waiting too long can cause major difficulties since a cleaning agent containing acid may be required. Infrequently.11 REINFORCED GROUTED BRICK MASONRY FIGURE 9. Cleaning should always be performed when the protection requirements are minimal. Often. and mortar. soft abrasives should be considered. grout and masonry units are similar allowing the different component materials to act together through normal temperature ranges.

.138 Continuous footing. exterior wall slab on grade (L shape). Finish grade 24” 12” 24” 6” Slab on grade 2 .#5’ s continuous typ. ev en after major earthquakes.#5 continuous typ. Vertical reinforcement Metal ties Foundation dowels Wire mesh or reinforcement 1 6” 5 /2” Slab on grade Finish grade 2 . exterior wall slab on grade with a curb (Rectangular shape). Vertical reinforcement Metal ties Brick wall Foundation dowels Vertical reinforcement Metal ties Wire mesh or reinforcement 6” Slab on grade Brick wall Finish grade Foundation dowels Wire mesh or reinforcement 12” 12” 24” Typical dimensions FIGURE 9.161 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Additionally. 6” 12” 6” 24” Typical dimensions FIGURE 9. 3”clear 3”clear 2 . Following are typical reinforced grouted brick masonry wall details: 12” Typical dimensions FIGURE 9. 3”clear Details of reinforcing bar size and spacing is dependent on engineering requirements.137 Continuous footing. All connections must be satisfactory to transmit the forces due to the lateral and vertical loads.139 Continuous footing.#5’ s continuous typ. The elements must be sufficiently tied together to act as a unit. This mechanism is developed through the grout. Brick wall 12” The design and construction of any building with seismic exposure must take into consideration connections to adjacent structural systems. reinforced masonry materials work together as a unit because the reinforcing steel is locked into the masonry system. exterior wall slab on grade (T shape). If connections hold together and make the structure perform as a total system the structure will not only surv iv e but also f unct ion.

interior wall slab on grade (Rectangular shape). 1 .#4 nosing bar 12” 1” 4” 71/2” FIGURE 9.141 Concrete steps on grade masonry side walls.#5 continuous typ. 16” Typical dimensions FIGURE 9. Wire mesh or reinforcement .140 Continuous footing.162 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Vertical reinforcement Metal ties Brick wall Foundation dowels Wire mesh or reinforcement 16” Slab on grade 3”clear 2 .

142 Concrete steps on grade masonry side walls.163 BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Concrete steps #4 nosing bar bend 18”into wall Brick wall 12” Finished grade 3”clear 2 . Concrete slab on grade 2 x 4 plate Lightweight concrete /8”plywood 5 2 x 12 floor joist 2 x 12 blocking @ 48 “o. w/13/4” diameter bolt each leg Metal ties Barrier membrane Anchor bolt Vertical reinforcement Brick wall Barrier membrane 6 x 65/16”@ 48” o.c. w/13/4” diameter bolt each leg Metal ties Anchor bolt Vertical reinforcement Brick wall Typical dimensions Typical dimensions FIGURE 9. 16d @ 4”o.#5’ s continuous typ.c. Concrete slab on grade Typical dimensions 2 x 4 plate Lightweight concrete /8”plywood 5 2 x 4 @ 16”o. FIGURE 9.144 Masonry wall and wood floor connection at grade (Joist parallel). 2 x 4 @ 16”o.c. 16d @ 4”o.c.143 Masonry wall and wood floor connection at grade (Joist perpendicular). 6 x 65/16”@ 48” o.c. 16” FIGURE 9.c.c. .

146 Brick masonry wall and concrete column steel (Plan sections).c.6” Brick wall 1’ . x 6’. 6 vertical bars 16”square brick column Vertical reinforcement C Typical dimensions FIGURE 9. stagger weld bars to column Isolate steel column from grout Typical dimensions /8”diam.c.c. . F IGURE 9. anchor bolts @ 48”stagger 5 Brick wall #3 ties @ 16”o.145 Brick masonry pilaster and columns (Plan sections). 2 sets of #3 ties @ 16”o.164 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Brick wall Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Brick pilaster Horizontal reinforcement #3 ties @ 16”o.c. 1’ . Vertical reinforcement C w8 x steel column Vertical reinforcement 16”square brick column Typical dimensions Brick wall #5’ s @ 24”o.c.0”typ.8” w5 x steel column C Vertical reinforcement #5 dowels x 30” long @ 48”o.

c.148 Exterior wall. 2 x _ blocking Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Metal strap Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16”@ 48”o. 4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4” anchor bolts @ 48”o. jo ist perpendicular to wall 4 x _ ledger. rafters perpendicular to wall. no lightweight concrete. Brick wall FIGURE 9. 2x_@ 16”o.152 Exterior wall. no lightweight concrete. bolt each leg Anchor bolt Vertical reinforcement 2x_@ 16”o.c.c. 2 x _ @ 16”o. Metal ties Brick wall 2 x _ @ 16”o.147 Exteri or w all. bolt each leg Metal strap Anchor bolt Vertical reinforcement 2 x _ blocking @ 48”o. no lightweight concrete. metal tie straps.c.c. w/ 3/4” diam. Joist hanger 4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4” anchor bolts @ 48”o. F IGURE 9.149 I nterior wall . Brick wall Joist hanger 4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4”bolts @ 48”o.c. metal tie straps.c.c. joist parallel to wall 4 x _ ledger. Brick wall FIGURE 9. roof overhang clip angle rafters to wall. FIGURE 9. Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16” @ 48”o. joists parallel to wall 4 x _ ledger.150 Interior wall.c. . metal tie strap. rafters parallel to wall. F IGURE 9.c. joi st perpendicular to wall 4 x _ledger. Anchor bolt 4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4”bolts @ 48”o.c. metal tie straps.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 165 Metal ties Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Metal strap Metal strap 2 x _ @ 16”o. Metal ties Brick wall Brick wall F IGURE 9. w/ 3/4” diam. Anchor bolt 2 x _ blocking @ 48”o.c.c.c. no lightweight concrete. roof overhang clip angle rafters to wall.151 Exterior wal l. 2 x _ continuous blocking 2 x _ @ 16”o.

24” 36” FIGURE 9.c. 2 x _ @ 16”o. decking supported by steel beams.156 Exterior wall. 2 x _ blocking Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16” @ 48”o. Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16”@ 48”o.c. perpendicular metal decking to wall. Lightweight concrete Anchor bolt Brick wall Vertical reinforcement Metal ties Metal decking Brick wall Interior wall. 2 x _ blocking W __ x steel beam Plate embedded in masonry FIGURE 9.c. rafters parallel #5 dowels @ 24”o. rafters perpendicular to wall sloped roof. FIGURE 9. decking supported by steel beams. 24” 36” F IGURE 9. 2 x _ @ 16”o. bolt each leg FIGURE 9.153 Exterior wal l.166 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 2 x _ continuous blocking Metal ties 2 x _ rafters Vertical reinforcement Metal decking Lightweight concrete Anchor bolt Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16” @ 48”o.c.158 parallel to wall. bolt each leg Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Brick wall Brick wall #5 dowels @ 24”o. w/ 3/4” diam.c. 24” 36” W __ x steel beam Plate embedded in masonry F IGURE 9.c. Light metal steel joist Plate embedded in masonry Exterior wall. metal decking parallel to wall.155 to wall.154 Interior wal l. rafters perpendicular to wall. metal decking . w/ 3/4” diam. bolt each leg Metal decking Lightweight concrete Anchor bolt Brick wall Vertical reinforcement Metal ties Brick wall #5 dowels @ 24”o. w/ 3/4” diam.157 Exterior wall.c.c.

Metal ties /2”diam.c. Metal ties Metal decking Vertical reinforcement Lightweight concrete Brick wall Brick wall #5 dowels @ 24”o. #5 dowels @ 24”o.159 Exterior wall.163 Exterior wall. 24” 36” FIGURE 9. FIGURE 9. metal decking . 24” 36” #5 dowels @ 24”o. @ 24”o. L 31/2”x 31/2”x 3/8” w/ 3/4”anchor bolts @ 32”o.c. 24” 36” FIGURE 9.c.c.c. 24” 36” FIGURE 9.162 Plate embedded in masonry Exterior wall.164 parallel to wall. metal decking perpendicular to wall. 24” 36” Plate embedded in masonry Plate embedded in masonry Exterior wall.c.160 #5 dowels @ 24”o. metal decking parallel to wall. metal decking perpendicular to wall. 24” 36” FIGURE 9. metal decking perpendicular to wall.c. 1 Metal ties Metal decking Lightweight concrete Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Brick wall Metal decking Lightweight concrete Brick wall #5 dowels @ 24”o.c. metal decking parallel to wall.161 Plate embedded in masonry Exterior wall. Metal ties Metal decking Lightweight concrete Vertical reinforcement FIGURE 9.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Metal ties Metal ties Vertical reinforcement Metal decking Lightweight concrete 167 Metal decking Vertical reinforcement Lightweight concrete Brick wall Brick wall #5 dowels @ 24”o. Interior wall.

169 Brick wall. 24” 36” L 31/2”x 31/2”x 3/8” w/ 3/4”anchor bolts @ 32”o.c. Vertical reinforcement Metal ties FIGURE 9. 1 Vertical reinforcement Concrete slab Metal decking Lightweight concrete Brick wall #5 dowels @ 24”o.168 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Metal ties /2”diam.166 Brick wall.0” w/ 3/4”anchor bolts @ 48”o. end connect-steel angles and plates to concrete slab. Brick wall Concrete floor FIGURE 9. interior connectsteel angles and plates to concrete slab. Brick wall #5 vertical FIGURE 9. Concrete slab Bond beam reinforcement Brick masonry wall L 6”x 4”x 5/16” w/ 3/4”anchor bolts @ 48”o.c.168 Brick wall.c. L 6”x 4”x 5/16” w/ 3/4”anchor bolts @ 48”o. and bond beam Vertical reinforcement Metal ties corner. slot bolt holes in vertical legs L 4”x 5/16”x 1’.c.167 a concrete slab. each leg and stagger vertical slot holes in vertical legs FIGURE 9. slot bolt to masonry wall Vertical reinforcement Metal ties FIGURE 9. interior support of . @ 24”o. Brick wall Brick wall.c. metal decking perpendicular to wall.c.165 Interior wall.

169 .171 Brick wall.170 intersection.BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Horizontal steel Horizontal steel #3 vertical 1”metal strap Bond beam reinforcement Brick wall Brick wall F IGURE 9. Brick wall. intersection. bon d beam FIGURE 9.

California. UC Irvine. California.170 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Humanities Instructional Building. Culver City. California. UC Riverside Entomology Building. California. California. . Thousand Oaks. Watseka Parking Structure. Riverside. Sherwood Country Club. Norwalk. Hospital Facility.

Concrete block’ s texture. Since concrete block masonry uses small standard-sized units to form an ultimately large structure. It is chosen for the unique colors. relatively inexpensive. Examples include the massive pyramids of Egypt and Mexico. Buildings are designed with masonry for many reasons. and for energy efficiency. concrete block masonry is ideal for walls incorporating steps. concrete masonry does not burn and does not need to be painted. f ire resistance. ground-face finish to the stone-like facets of split-face units. Concrete block masonry walls can be designed to meet security. some of which are:      to be durable. Masonry construction dates from prehistoric times. the inspirational elegance of the Parthenon in Greece. compliance with building code requirements and economic advantages. brick cottages and walled gardens.1 GENERAL From the beginning of the concept of construction. engineered. One of concrete masonry’ s biggest adv antages is aesthetic v alue. to be attractive and comfortable. curves and relief. very cold. As a unit of design. and enhanced to meet design requirements and at the same time satisfy construction economics. to colored and glazed block. visual and acoustical requirements. to keep out wind and rain. Compared to steel construction. the lofty European cathedrals as well as the more familiar fireplaces. to mitigate noise. water or vandalism. or very wet weather.CHAPTER 10 CONCRETE BLOCK 10. The masonry construction process is carried out with small. Combining concrete masonry unit walls with other materials for floors or . and patterns. another is the adaptability to any design. Both new and old masonry structures reflect the scale of the human hand and the boundless power of that hand to create. Masonry creates a high performance enclosed structure in a single operation by one trade. masonry does share the necessity of special precautions that must be implemented to avoid delays during periods of very hot. tools and machines on the construction site. The structural integrity of concrete block is ideal for retaining walls and provides resistance to damage from wind. masonry has been the medium from which the most carefully crafted and highly prized buildings have been created. textures. Concrete masonry units are available as precision block or with architectural finishes that range from a smooth. Compared to castin-place concrete. extensive fabrication and extensive site preparation is not required. patterns and integral color contribute to distinctive design compatible with both building finishes and the natural environment. bypassing the diff iculties of ten encountered managing the numerous trades and subcontractors needed to erect a comparable building of multiple wall materials. masonry typically does not require a large and expensively equipped shop operation to process major materials prior to erection. Concrete block masonry is frequently chosen as a material of construction for its association with qualities of permanence and solidity. Unlike wood. but has been continually improved.

2. This chapter presents a limited number of generic design approaches considered to be the most typical. One way of reducing the amount of labor is using dimensions that are based on the length of a concrete block (a module). There are many design solutions for the installation of concrete block masonry. the number of stated block units will always measure 3/8 in. particularly in long or high walls.5 mm) less than the given in the table. This eliminates the labor and time of field cutting and custom fitting any concrete blocks to fit non-modular dimensions. cell aligment must be coordinated for the required continuity of structural members. 10. The wall surface and unit module must match the 10.1 MODULAR CONSIDERATIONS A significant cost in masonry construction is labor. If these few general approaches are used. it slowly absorbs and releases heating or cooling energy. Using this infomation as a foundation. detailing.2 MODULAR DIMENSIONS Table 10. Further. the quality in concrete masonry construction is obtained when modular consideration is given to details and layout. Concrete masonry can provide additional heating or cooling hours in which the HVAC system does not need to be utilized. Concrete masonry’ s inherent thermal mass makes it the ideal choice for creating a more energy-efficient building. Modular dimensioning allows for whole units to be placed. .2. This is known as modular dimensioning.1 Actual dimensions that form modular lengths. the designer is encouraged to develop details using the basic concepts of dimensioning. like stone. For absolute precision. concrete masonry is easily integrated into a total living environment.1 shows the number of block units required for certain lengths and heights. the designer can be further assured that the mason can efficiently implement the installation and any design can be constructed with efficiency.172 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL ceilings is a favorite approach of many architects. Left exposed.1 shows how the actual height dimension of the concrete masonry unit and the height of the mortar joint combined to form a modular dimension. and interfacing with other materials. This dimension can be adjusted by the mason during construction. Concrete masonry is easily insulated and has a high thermal mass. Figure 10.2 LAYOUT AND ASSEMBLY building dimensions and the cell layout must be able to accommodate required structural members. 155/8” /8” 3 155/8” 33/8”for 4”block 75/8””for 8”block /8” 3 FIGURE 10. (9. 10. As a relatively heavy material. In addition to the assurance of economy.

Example of vertical modular .1 Modular Dimensions (English Units) 3 Table 10.4” 3'-4" 3'-8" 4'-0" 4'-4" 4'-8" 5'-0" 5'-4" 5'-8" 6'-0" 6'-4" 6'-8" 7'-0 7'-4" 7'-8" 8'-0" 8'-4" 8'-8" 9'-0" 9'-4" 9'-8" 10'-0" 10'-4" 10'-8" 11'-0" 11'-4" 11'-8" 12'-0" 12'-4" 12'-8" 13'-0" 13'-4" 13'-8" 14'-0" 14'-4" 14'-8" 15'-0" 15'-4" 15'-8" 16'-0" 16'-4" 16'-8" 17'-0" 17'-4" 17'-8" 18'-0" 18'-4" 18'-8" 19'-0" 19'-4" 19'-8" 20'-0" 20'-8" Table 10.3 are examples of how the modular dimension develops into the ov erall dimension. 8”total unit height /8”(5) + 75/8”(5) = 3’.2 height.CONCRETE BLOCK 3 1 3 /2 4 1 4 /2 5 51/2 6 61/2 7 1 7 /2 8 1 8 /2 9 1 9 /2 10 101/2 11 111/2 12 1 12 /2 13 1 13 /2 14 141/2 15 151/2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 62 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 4 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Length Height Dim ensions 16" Unit 4" Unit 8" Unit 16 16 1/2 17 17 1/2 18 18 1/2 19 19 1/2 20 20 1/2 21 21 1/2 22 22 1/2 23 23 1/2 24 24 1/2 30 37 1/2 45 52 1/2 60 67 1/2 75 150 225 300 63 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 600 900 1200 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 300 450 600 21'-0" 22'-0" 22'-8" 23'-4" 24'-0" 24'-8" 25'-4" 26'-0" 26'-8" 27'-4" 28'-0" 28'-8" 29'-4" 30'-0" 30'-8" 31'-4" 32'-0" 32'-8" 40'-0" 50'-0" 60'0" 70'-0" 80'-0" 90'-0" 100'-0" 200'-0" 300'-0" 400'-0" Figures 10.2 and 10.1 Modular Dimensions (English Units) Length Height Dimensions 16" Unit 4" Unit 8" Unit 173 75/8”block /8” 3 FIGURE 10.

(9. (2'-8". (203 mm).Block sizes are 3/8 in.0” . and 8 in.5 for Section 955/8”or 7’. Dimensions are in 4 in. * /8”difference can be adjusted with mortar joints.115/8” 563/8”or 4’.43/8” 155/8” 403/8” 2’. (102 and 203 mm) multiples.  Multiples of 8 in. See Figure 10.3 Modular length dimensions. (203 mm x 203 mm x 406 mm) Concrete Masonry Units (CMU). 6'-8").3 See Figure 10. Inside dimensions and opening are 3/ 8 in. (9.0” * Note: Actual dimensions based on 8”nominal units.83/8” 803/8”or 6’. or in even feet plus 8 in.Outside dimensions and distances between openings are 3/8 in.6 for Section FIGURE 10.  Modular Dimensions . 16” 16” 75/8” The mason can make up the 3/8” short dimension in the mortar joints FIGURE 10. or in odd feet plus 4 in.75/8” 3’.5 mm) over the given dimensions. 3 FIGURE 10.3 WALL AND OPENING DIMENSIONS Using the modular layout for 8 in.174 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL As the figures are reviewed.43/8” 16’. 8” 243/8” 2’.115/8” 403/8” 3’.  Actual Dimensions .4 Elevation of a running bond CMU wall with opening dimensions. 6'-0").5 mm) less in all dimensions so the addition of the mortar joint will make multiples of 8 in. 4'-0". (9.5 Cross-section plan view of opening dimensions. 3'-4". note the following: 10. the following figures show how the sizes of openi ngs and reinf orcement spacing are determined. 5'-4"). 4'-8". will always be in even feet (2'-0". x 8 in.03/8” 235/8” 9’ .5 mm) under the given dimension.83/8” 483/8”minus height of half course See Figure 10. 24” 2’. (1'-4". x 16 in.

10. the dowels from foundation must be of sufficient length. Proper planning also means the designer has provided conceptual details that clearly describe the materials and layout required for construction.8” 4” Typical Dimensions FIGURE 10.8 Exterior wall with slab floor. material. In considering construction efficiency.6 8” 32” 16” 8” 24” 24” 24” 175 37/16” Cross-section plan view of opening dimensions at “Starter Course” . 10” 4” Typical Dimensions FIGURE 10.4 FOUNDATION DETAILS For an effective and efficient design (space. Alternately.CONCRETE BLOCK 37/16” FIGURE 10. Minimum placement motion prior to the actual setting of the unit will improve the installation quality. Proper planning does not simply mean that CMU have been engineered and the work is ready f or construction. but it does mean that the designer has considered details and dimensions that allow for efficiency. and costs). the mason must lift each block unit over the dowel and set the unit. The foundation with vertical dowels will be placed prior to the concrete block installation. 8”concrete block 8”concrete block Dowel Concrete slab Dowel from foundation allows for short distance threading the CMU over reinforcement Waterproof membrane 3”clear Continuous reinforcement 8”(typ. This section provides a few typical details (masonry to foundation) of construction that would assist a designer in prov iding the proper initial design for CMU construction.7 Exterior wall with slab floor.) 1’. but not excessively tall.) Fill Continuous reinforcement 1’. open-end units may be used. The details presented intentionally show a minimum distance above the foundation to enable the mason to easily place the initial courses of CMU. if the reinforcing dowels protruding from the footing are excessively tall.0” 12”(typ. Reinforcing dowels are hooked around foundation reinforcement to prov ide additional continuity. proper planning is required. When open-end block are not used. .

12 3”min. (typ.) FIGURE 10.) 18”min.9 Exterior wall on slab floor.11 1’.) Dowel 1’ .8”(typ.10 Exterior wall with raised floor. 6”min. FIGURE 10.) FIGURE 10.0”min.) 4” FIGURE 10. 8” (typ. .) 1’. (typ.0” 16”(typ.) Continuous reinforcement 3”min.8”(typ. 8”concrete block Continuous horizontal reinforcement Dowel Solid blocking Vertical reinforcement Floor joist Continuous horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Dowel Continuous reinforcement 18”(typ.) Interior wall with slab floor.8”(typ.) 12”min. (typ.176 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 8”concrete block 8”concrete block Continuous horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Continuous horizontal reinforcement Dowel Vertical reinforcement Continuous reinforcement 3”clear Continuous reinforcement 1’. (typ.) Exterior wall with raised slab floor. 1’.

.16 Interior wall with raised floor.CONCRETE BLOCK 8”concrete block Dowel Continuous horizontal reinforcement 177 Solid blocking Dowel Vertical reinforcement Waterproof membrane (typ. similar to the metal straps on a barrel. The nomenclature of concrete masonry is best described in a wall assembly diagram. (typ.) Compacted gravel or stone fill Wood plates with bolts 18”min.17 is an isometric drawing of a typical CMU wall system. The bond beam may also collect outof-plane lateral loads and transfer them to support walls through bending (beam loading) action. FIGURE 10. The bond beam also acts as collector.15 Exterior wall with raised floor. The bond beam has the same function as the “ double top plate” in light timber f raming. Figure 10.) 18”(typ.) 12” 4” 4” 4” 4”concrete slab (typ.Bearing partition. At the top of the wall is the bond beam.2 story min. The bond beam is a CONTINUOUS reinforced beam at the level where the roof or floor frames into the wall. The corners of openings can be points of larger stresses and the edge reinforcement helps mitigate corner cracking.) FIGURE 10. (typ) FIGURE 10. 2”x 6”foundation grade redwood or treated mud sill Foundation reinforcement dowel 9”min. Vertical reinforcement Continuous horizontal reinforcement 10.1 story 15”.) 12”.14 8” 4” 4” Waterproof membrane Typical dimensions Interior wall . Surrounding all openings is reinforcement. Studs Blocking Floor joists Finished grade 12”. The reinforcement also limits cracking that may occur at the edges of the opening due to temperature differences.Non-bearing partition. Reinforcement around the perimeter of openings acts to hold the individual masonry units together.13 Interior wall .1 story 15”.5 CONCRETE MASONRY WALL ASSEMBLY DETAIL Dowel Gravel or stone fill 16” FIGURE 10. It may collect in-place lateral forces and transfer them to a shear wall through strut (axial loading) action.2 story min. (typ) 4”min.) 16” Typical dimensions 12”masonry foundation wall grouted solid 8”(typ. (typ. The bond beam acts to give continuity to the building.

bond beam Typical steel door frame Horizontal bond beam at 4’. Tie .0”on centers 16”x 16”pilaster FIGURE 10.178 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Bond beam Vertical steel Parapet wall Sheet metal cap Combined lintel and bond beam Horizontal steel in lintel Beam units Vertical steel each side of opening Vertical steel Sash units Sill units Horiz.17 Typical concrete masonry wall assembly.

20 The moment causes the wood section to bend. Wood beam to CMU wall. Crossgrain bending creates tension forces perpendicular to the fibers of the timber member.18 Cross grain bending on a timber cross-section without strap (not recommended). In Figures 10. Cross-grain bending has such little strength that the National Design Specification (NDS) for timber design does not give stress values. Without this tension strap at the top. as shown in Figure 10. The bending develops tension forces perpendicular to the fibers FIGURE 10.6.19 Wood beam to CMU wall with cricket. Hanger FIGURE 10. in which timber is extremely weak (Figure 10.18). cross grain bending could occur.25 the moment.6 FLOOR AND ROOF CONNECTION DETAILS 179 Cricket (sloped section) for water drainage Ledger 10.CONCRETE BLOCK 10. The force at the top of the cross-section is given a load path directly into the masonry wall through the tension strap.1 TIMBER CONNECTIONS Tension straps connected directly from wood beam to CMU wall One of the most important issues to avoid in timber framing to masonry walls is cross-grain bending on the timber ledger. is never allowed to develop in the wood member. . Wood or masonry Diaphragm nailing Ledger F Hanger Force diaphragm pulls the top of the ledger away F Anchor bolt into masonry resists the force in the diaphragm F Tension straps connected directly from wood beam to CMU wall A moment (equal and opposite forces applied at a distance apart) creates cross grain bending F FIGURE 10.19 through 10. which causes weak axis bending in the wood ledger.18.

8”concrete block Horizontal reinforcement 8”concrete block FIGURE 10.26 Wood rafter to CMU parapet wall (rafter perpendicular to wall). Perimeter nailing Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Ledger Perimeter Tension strap connected from wood nailing beam directly to CMU wall Strap @ 48”o.c.c.180 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Vertical reinforcement Ledger Perimeter Tension strap connected from wood nailing girder directly to CMU wall /8”plywood 5 Perimeter nailing Tension tie Vertical reinforcement 5 /8”plywood Horiz.) 8”concrete block Joist hanger Pre-manufactured girder and hanger Horizontal reinforcement 8”concrete block FIGURE 10. (typ. Perimeter nailing Perimeter nailing Tension tie Vertical reinforcement /8”plywood 5 Horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Strap @ 48”o.c. alt. 2 x 14 @ 16”o. Wood beam to CMU wall with 2 x roof rafters (typ. (typ.) Joist hanger 2 x blocking @ 48”o.) /2”plywood 1 8”concrete block wall 8”concrete block 2 x 14 @ 16”o.) Horizontal reinf.) Joist hanger FIGURE 10. reinf. Pre-manufactured wood girder to CMU wall.22 Wood I-beam to CMU wall.21 FIGURE 10.24 Wood beam to CMU wall with drag strut (2 sides).c. (typ.25 Wood beam to CMU wall (2 sides).23 drag strut.) Horizontal reinforcement Joist hanger FIGURE 10. (typ.c. (typ. each side /8”plywood 5 /8”plywood 5 2 x 14 @ 16” o. FIGURE 10. .c.

Vertical reinforcement 10.) 1 Horizontal reinforcement Metal decking Slab reinforcement 16” 18” 3”CLR.2 STEEL CONNECTIONS Steel beams can be integrated with concrete slabs and the system acts as a horizontal diaphragm to transfer horizontal shear loads to vertical shear walls.) Steel beam (double angle conn.) 1 Horizontal reinforcement Metal decking Slab reinforcement Concrete slab 2 x roof rafters (typ.c. footing dowel (typ.29 Steel beam (double angle conn.6.) Joist hanger #5 dowels @ 24”o.) Steel beam Full wall section –one story with parapet. (typ. @ 24”o. (typ.c.) and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam perpendicular and deck flutes parallel to wall). The shear loads are transferred to the vertical walls through connections.c. (typ. 12” Concrete slab 8”concrete block wall Typical dimensions FIGURE 10. (typ. The connections may be a wall attachment.c.28 Horizontal reinforcement #5 @ 16”o.c. .CONCRETE BLOCK 181 Perimeter nailing Strap @ 48”o. @ 24”o. /2”dia.c. (typ. such as a bolted or welded plate connection or may be a beam pocket in the wall with a positive connection.27 #5 dowels @ 24”o.) 1 /2”plywood /2”dia. FIGURE 10.) and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam and deck flutes perpendicular to wall).) 8”concrete block wall Steel beam 8”concrete block wall Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement FIGURE 10.

(typ.c.c.) #5 dowels @ 24”o.c. (typ.31 Pre-manufactured steel truss and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam and deck flutes perpendicular to wall).) #5 dowels @ 24”o.33 Concrete deck to CMU wall (deck flutes perpendicular to wall).) Light metal joists Bar joist FIGURE 10. (typ. Plate embedded in masonry FIGURE 10. . Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Horizontal reinforcement 8”concrte block wall Horizontal reinforcement Metal decking Slab reinforcement 8”concrete block wall Metal decking Slab reinforcement Concrete slab Concrete slab #5 dowels @ 16”o.32 Pre-manufactured steel truss and concrete deck to CMU wall (b eam perpendicular and deck flutes parallel to wall).30 Steel beam and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam parallel and deck flutes perpendicular to wall). FIGURE 10.) Bar joist FIGURE 10. (typ.182 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Horizontal reinforcement Horizontal reinforcement 8”concrete block wall Metal decking 8”concrete block wall Metal decking Slab reinforcement Slab reinforcement Concrete slab Concrete slab #5 dowels @ 16”o.c.

36 FIGURE 10.) Horizontal reinforcement 8”concrete block wall Metal decking Metal decking Slab reinforcement Concrete slab Slab reinforcement Concrete slab #5 dowels @ 24”o. (typ.41. This section provides some examples of how the modular dimensions can be maintained at the corner details. (302 mm) width is half the unit length of 16 in. Pre-manufactured steel truss and concrete deck (2 sides) to CMU wall (beam perpendicular and deck flutes parallel to wall). (203 mm) wide unit turns a corner with ease since the 8 in. Other wall widths are a more difficult challenge in turning a corner.7 CORNER PATTERNS While maintaining the modular dimensions and patterns on a straight wall can be accomplished with relative ease.) Metal decking Slab reinforcement Concrete slab Bar joist Horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement FIGURE 10.) Bar joist Plate embedded in masonry Horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement 12”Concrete block wall FIGURE 10. (typ. (406 mm). This simple configuration is shown in Figure 10.c.) 1 Vertical reinforcement #5 dowels @ 16”o.c.34 Concrete deck to CMU wall (deck flutes parallel to wall). this challenge can be overcome (Figures 10. An 8 in. @ 24”o. 10.c. and 10.42.43. /2”dia.44).) 1 #5 dowels @ 16”o. but with the correct unit and placement.c.c. some issues can arise when transitioning around corners. .35 12”Concrete block wall Pre-manufactured steel truss and concrete deck (2 sides) to CMU wall (beam and deck flutes perpendicular to wall).37 through 10. (typ.183 CONCRETE BLOCK /2”dia. (typ. (typ. @ 24”o. 10.

40 mm) wall.38 mm) wall.37 8 16” o ”M Mo d 16” 14” +4 ” le du o M 8” ule 4" (102 mm) wall to 4" (102 mm) wall. FIGURE 10.184 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 4” 4” 16” 8” Mo du le of 8” ” 4 + le du Mo Mo du le of 8” 6” 16” 4” 16” 16” 16” du le 6” 8” 16” 4” 16” 6” 14” 6” 4” 16” 16” 4” Mo du le of 8” 16” 8” 16” 4” 8” Mo du le 16” 8” FIGURE 10. 16” 4" (102 mm) wall to 4" (102 FIGURE 10.39 2” 6" (152 mm) wall to 6" (152 mm) wall. 6" (152 mm) wall to 6" (152 . 4” 16” 6” 16” 4” 12” 16” 4” 16” 16” 6” 16” 8” 6” 8” 16” 16” 12” 8” 16” 8” FIGURE 10.

43 8" (203 mm) wall to 12" (304 mm) wall. 16” 8” 8” of e l du Mo 12" (304 mm) wall to 12" (304 . 16” Mo du le of 8” 8” 8” of le u d Mo FIGURE 10.41 ” +6 6" (152 mm) wall to 8" (203 mm) wall.185 CONCRETE BLOCK Mo du le of 8” 6” 16” 8 Mo du le of 8” e l u d o ”M 8” 16” 16” 8” 8” 16” 16” 16” 8” 16” 14” 8” 8” 8” 16” 8” 16” 16” 16” 16” 16” 16” 6” ule od M 8” FIGURE 10. 16” 16” 8” Mo du le of 8” 8” of e l du Mo 8" (203 mm) wall to 8" (203 FIGURE 10.44 mm) wall. 16” 8 Mo du le of 8” e ul od ”M 8” Mo du le of 8” f o le du Mo + 4” 8” 8” 16” 16” 8” 16” 8” 8” 16” 16” 8” 16” 8” 16” 16” 16” 16” 16” Mo du le of 8” FIGURE 10.42 mm) wall.

186 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10. One consideration of specifying and using open-end units is the confinement of grout in partially grouted masonry walls.32" (813 mm) and 40" (1016 mm) spacing.47 Four No.45 and 10. 6 and two No. 40 ”c en ter s 16 ”c en ter s FIGURE 10.8 VERTICAL STEEL PLACEMENT 32 ”c en ter s One method of economically installing masonry units is the use of open end units where reinforcement occurs.16" (406 mm) and 24" (610 mm) spacing. 8” x 8” x 16” FIGURE 10.46 Arrangement of steel and open end units . 5 bars detailed 28" x 16" (711 x 406 mm) standard pilaster in 12" (305 mm) wall.52 provide details of typical CMU pilasters. The open end unit allows the CMU to be “slid” into place as opposed to having the CMU lifted over the vertical reinforcement.9 PILASTER DETAILS 24 ”c en ter s FIGURE 10.45 Arrangement of steel and open end units . Figures 10.46 show typical details. There is no single detail or method of constructing pilasters.49 through 10. Pilasters are columns built in a concrete masonry wall. . 10. Figures 10.

4”x 8”x 16” Four No.51 12" x 16" (305 x 406 mm) pilaster. 5 bars detailed FIGURE 10.48 FIGURE 10.50 16" x 16" (406 x 406 mm) pilaster. 8”x 8”x 16” Four No. 5 bars detailed FIGURE 10. 24" x 16" (610 x 406 mm) open center-centered. 5 bars detailed.52 16" x 24" (406 x 610 mm) pilaster.49 8”x 8”x 16” standard 16" x 16" (406 x 406 mm) centered. FIGURE 10. 5 bars detailed Six No.CONCRETE BLOCK 16”pilaster alternate unit 187 12”x 8”x 16” Four No. . FIGURE 10.

.55 Metal strap anchorage and grout reinforcement bonding at wall intersection.53 Exploded isometric view of reinforcing steel for intersecting walls. Figures 10. FIGURE 10.56 give typical layout of providing continuous reinforcement at CMU wall intersections. FIGURE 10. If connections hold together and allow the structure to perform as a total system there is an excellent chance for the structure to survive even great earthquakes.1 in2/ft (211 mm2/m) Grout and Reinforcement Bonding FIGURE 10.22 m) o. vertical maximum As = 0.54 Typical wall connections. Providing a continuous load path assists in holding connections together.c.188 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10. 2 11/2”(38 mm) Flange mm 10 6 ( 4” ) Metal strap Metal straps at 4’.22 m) o.0”(1.0” (1.10 WALL TO WALL CONNECTIONS A significant issue for masonry constructed in higher Seismic Design Categories is connection of the elements. vertical 2”(51”mm) Shear wall Grouted cells Metal Strap Anchorage Bond beam at 4’.c.53 through 10. Details of structural reinforcing bar size and spacing are dependent on engineering requirements.

Lintel units FIGURE 10. typically a window or doorway. This movement can occur from a number of sources: 1.0”lap Bar in grout space Continuous horizontal reinforcement Bond beam units Lintel reinf.12 CONTROL JOINTS As with all construction.Plan of joint reinforcement showing intersection and alternate lapping. 2. and 5. Foundation movement.57 Masonry beam spanning an opening. Loading conditions. 10.56 Typical wall connections . Reinforced CMU is an easy and cost effective way to create lintels. One of the key components in detailing a lintel is to extend the lintel reinforcement past the edge of the opening and into the wall. The design professional will determine the exact distance of the rereinforcement extension past the opening edge. Differential movement of the various materials in a building . Change in moisture conditions.58 Lintel and bond beam detail. 10. Vertical steel 2’. it is vitally necessary to accommodate the possibility of movement in a concrete masonry building.11 LINTEL AND BOND BEAM CONNECTION A lintel is a beam that spans over an opening. Temperature changes. 3. 4.CONCRETE BLOCK 189 4” Cut joint reinforcement and add lapping wire or use welded intersections FIGURE 10. FIGURE 10.

Control joints in masonry are vertical and spaced at intervals so that when shortening occurs the resulting cracks will be at the location of the control joints. Concrete masonry units are no different and will also crack under movement. At control joints in the foundation. similar to the rubber band. must align with any joints that are built into the roof system. Control joints are considered joints that will accommodate shortening.4 mm) and interrupting the non-chord horizontal steel at least every other spacing of reinforcement. the floor system. the spacing of the control joints to accommodate shortening of the wall can be adjusted accordingly.190 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Concrete will crack when movement occurs. 5. In order to keep the wall system waterproof. shrinkage. either in bond beams or in the mortar bed with joint reinforcement. masonry can be designed and constructed to maximize the probability of forcing cracks into specific locations. Manufacturer’ s recommendations should always be followed. the control joint should be caulked. floor and roof. the spandrel beams or other elements that are intended to accommodate movement of the building. Primary structural reinforcing steel. Figure 10. At major changes in the wall height. such as perimeter chord steel. dowels may be installed across the joint provided one end is encased in a plastic sleeve or pipe. These joints are known as control joints. When horizontal reinforcing steel is used in the wall. while expansion joints will accommodate both expansion and contraction of the wall or increases and decreases in length. The vertical joints are weakened improving the probability of cracking at the desired location.2 provides maximum recommendation for empirical spacing of control joints.60 shows two typical methods of detailing control joints. At changes in the wall thickness. The usual practice is to place the caulking so the depth of sealant is only half the width. Joints in the wall. whether they are control joints or expansion joints. raking back the mortar at least one inch (25. and/or reduction in the length of the wall. Backer rod is placed in the cut joint before caulking. . 2. Control joints are not expansion joints. Vertical control joints should be located in concrete masonry walls at the following locations: 1. Sealant depth is controlled by using a compatible backup rod. and 6. At wall openings. 4. must not be cut. Table 10. At wall intersections Adjacent to opening At wall intersections At changes in wall height Adjacent to opening Maximum distance of 50% joint spacing FIGURE 10. Typical caulking compounds can stretch best when the width of the joint is greater than the depth of the sealant. At determined intervals and spacing for the length of the wall. Rather than letting the concrete masonry crack in a random pattern. Solid grouted walls crack at the control joint and provide aggregate interlock which prevents displacement and slip.59 At pilaster Typical control joint locations. 3. This prevents the undesirable condition of 3sided contact of the caulking material and concrete masonry. Vertical joints are installed at predetermined locations with limited and specific spacing. Control joints may be constructed with vertical head joints. To prevent the wall from displacing perpendicular to the plane of the wall.

each side Masonry wall Plan View of Control Joint in CMU Wall /2”typ.62 m) 1 NCMA TEK Note 10-2B /2”maximum control joint width 1 For Ratings Up to and Including 4 Hours FIGURE 10. Caulking Ceramic fiber blanket Backer rod FIGURE 10.2 CMU Control Joint Spacing1. Criteria applies to all concrete masonry units. bars each side of joint except at chord bars Caulking Gasket Backer rod Backer rod 1-vertical bar each side of joint Caulking sealant cont.191 CONCRETE BLOCK Flanged neoprene control joint continuous vertically /8” 3 /2”both sides 1 Stop horiz. Typical fire rated CMU wall . Table 1 ./ft.62) Notes: 1. This criteria is based on experience over a wide geographical area. 1 /8”typ. (7.60 Typical CMU wall control joint.025 in. 3. 2.61 control joints. (52.9 mm/m) of height to keep unplanned cracks closed. Table 10. 3 Backer rod /2”maximum control joint width 1 For Ratings Up to and Including 2 Hours Sealant Plan View of Control Joint in CMU Wall Intersecting Concrete Wall. Table values are based on the use of horizontal reinforcement having an equivalent area of not less than 0.Recommended Control Joint Spacing for Above Grade Exposed Concrete Masonry Walls Distance between joints should not exceed the lesser of: Length to height ratio ft (m) or 11/2 25 (7. Control joints spacing should be adjusted up or down where local experience justifies but no farther than 25 ft.

13 DOOR JAMB DETAILS The details of this section provide suggestions for attaching the doors to the concrete masonry. Interior door jamb (6" CMU) - . Stop Sealant FIGURE 10.192 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 24 ga galvanized formed division strip Concrete block wall Caulking w/ urethane foam backing (each face).Butt FIGURE 10. Door 11/2”rough buck Shim space /4”frame 3 FIGURE 10.62 CMU wall control joint with reinforcement passing through the joint. use bond beam block at both jambs or cut ends of block open to allow grout to fill voids in steel frame when pouring grout.63 method. Caulking color shall match mortar being used for adjacent wall. If no embedded devices are shown in a detail. 11/2”rough buck Shim space /4”frame 3 10. FIGURE 10.66 No plaster.65 Exterior door jamb (8”CMU) No plaster.64 Exterior door jamb . Exterior door jamb . Details show embedded mechanical devices required for attachment. Masonry opening Door opening For all door frames. #5 bar vertical each side of joint and doweled into footing All horizontal wall and added reinforcement shown on sections or structural wall elevations For all door frames use bond beam block at both jambs or cut ends of block open to allow grout to fill voids in steel frame when pouring grout FIGURE 10.Wraparound method. expansion bolts may be used. Masonry opening Slacked control joint from top of footing to top of wall (typ) Door opening Door Note: For control joints in head section over openings install division strips in 8”sections with alternating key each side of joint.

Plaster Door FIGURE 10.CONCRETE BLOCK 193 Plaster Door Door FIGURE 10. Frame installed before block work Sealant Shim space FIGURE 10.69 Masonry opening Interior door jamb (6" CMU) Metal frame wrap around type No plaster.73 mortar joint. Interior door jamb (6" CMU) - Metal frame with tee anchor in . Plaster Door Door 11/2”frame Tee anchor (or wire anchor) in mortar joint. Door Masonry opening Door opening Door Plaster FIGURE 10. /4”frame 3 FIGURE 10.70 Plaster one side.68 Interior door jamb (6" CMU) - Plaster No plaster.67 Interior door jamb (6" CMU) - No plaster.71 Interior door jamb (6" CMU) - Plaster both sides. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 10.72 Interior door jamb (6" CMU) with Shim space plaster.

FIGURE 10. textures. .74 Exterior wood door head (6" CMU).76 Window jamb. Rough header Masonry opening Shim space /4”frame Door opening 3 Stop Door Caulking FIGURE 10.78 Window head. colors. styles. A logical construction sequence is for the mason to provide the openings of the proper size and location with the windows installed at a later time.194 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Caulking Rough header Flashing Aluminum frame Masonry opening Shim space 1 /2”frame Door opening FIGURE 10. Aluminum frame Caulking FIGURE 10. consult the manufacturer.79 Window sill. Aluminum frame Caulking For specific details of types.77 Window jamb.75 Interior wood door head (6" CMU). 1 Door FIGURE 10. 10. Aluminum and wood sash windows are commonly used in buildings. opening arrangements and other product information.14 WINDOW DETAILS Aluminum frame FIGURE 10.

and the use of cleanouts at the foundation level. Concrete masonry cannot rot and is not food source for vermin or mold. One advantage is the high thermal mass properties which is a sought after characteristic in passive solar design.80 shows how a wood stud wall (dashed green line) will start passing the heat from the outside to the inside within 2 hours of the days heat (solid blue line). concrete masonry can still offer economy by forming the foundation wall to the wood framing. Therefore. lag Studs: 2 hr. LEGEND Finally concrete masonry significantly reduces the cost of long-term maintenance. Wood siding must be periodically painted and the threats of termite damage or dry-rot damage are real issues. By the time the concrete masonry heats up and is passing the outside heat to the inside. the location of reinforcing steel at all edges of openings. the heat of the day never makes it through the concrete masonry to the inside of the building. 10.81 through 10. Concrete masonry does not require the formwork that a concrete wall requires. (NCMA TEK Note 6-3).15 RESIDENTIAL DESIGN Concrete masonry has many advantages for the home.15.1 RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION ISOMETRIC WITH DIAPHRAGM ROOF Figures 10.80 195 Masonry vs wood stud thermal lag time. Masonry construction may be a factor in determining home insurance premiums. In addition to thermal mass. lag Wood Stud Wall Outdoor Temperature D a m p i n g Heat Gain Heat Losses Concrete Masonry Wall 3 am 6 am 9 am Noon 3 pm 6 pm Time FIGURE 10. If concrete masonry is not chosen as the actual wall material. Masonry: 6 hr. Some insurance companies specifically ask if a home is wood stud construction or masonry construction. concrete masonry offers excellent noise abatement and fire resistance.CONCRETE BLOCK 10. Some notable items are the plywood shear wall gable extending from the roof to the concrete masonry wall. Figure 10.93 are provided to show how the elements of residential construction come together to form and give support to the building. The concrete masonry (thick solid red line) takes 6 hours before outside temperatures are felt inside. 9 pm . the day is over and the direction of heat movement reverses to cooler nightime temperatures.

reinforced as required Reinforced grout filled cell at 48” o.81 Compacted free draining blanket of clean gravel or crushed stone Splices in reinforcement to be staggered and lapped per code Residential construction with diaphragm roof. when required Continuous bars in foundation 8” Concrete slab 12” 8” 4” Waterproof membrane 2” 18” um nim ions i s ”m en 12 dim l a pic Ty 10” 4” Ty p 12 18” ”m ini ica mu ld m im en sio ns FIGURE 10. maximum Cleanouts. Window opening Door opening Bond beam units form continuous concrete sill.c.196 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Bond beam units form continuous grouted bond beam. . reinforced as required.

15.CONCRETE BLOCK 197 10.82 Compacted free draining blanket of clean gravel or crushed stone Splices in all reinforcement shall be staggered and lapped per code Residential construction without diaphragm roof.2 RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION ISOMETRIC WITHOUT ROOF DIAPHRAGM Anchor bolts Continuous 16” grout filled bond beam formed with two bond beam units reinforced as required Door opening Continuous grout filled bond beam Grout filled cells reinforced as required Cleanouts. 18” um nim ons i si ”m en 12 dim l a pic Ty . when required 8” Reinforcing bars continuous in foundation Concrete slab 12” 8” 4” Waterproof membrane 2” 10” 4” Ty p 12 18” ”m inim ica um ld im en sio ns FIGURE 10.

83 Residential wall sections.198 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10. . 18” 12”minimum 12”minimum Typical dimensions Typical dimensions FIGURE 10.3 RESIDENTIAL WALL SECTION Wood frame roof Wood frame roof 2”x 8”plate and anchor bolts as required 2”x 8”plate and anchor bolts as required Grouted bond beam over all openings reinforced as required Grouted bond beam over all openings reinforced as required 8”units 8”units W indow W indow Grouted reinforced bond beam as required Grouted reinforced bond beam as required Wood frame floor Concrete slab floor 18”minimum 12” Waterproof membrane Fill 10” 4” 4” Reinforced as required 8”min. 18” Reinforced as required 8”min.15.

12”min. #4 cont.4 RAISED WOOD FLOOR CONNECTION FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION 2”x 6”foundation grade redwood or treated sill Min. Typical dimensions Typical CMU foundation wall parallel to floor joists. 12” minimum FIGURE 10. #4 cont. 12” minimum Typical dimensions FIGURE 10.84 Typical CMU foundation wall perpendicular to floor joists.87 parallel to joists.bolts as required for horizontal loads Plywood Floor joists Floor joists 12”min. Grade #4 cont. Plywood Floor joists Joist hangers FIGURE 10. Vertical and horizontal reinforcement as required by design 2”x 6”foundation grade redwood or treated sill #4 cont. Typical dimensions Typical intermediate CMU wall . 3 x ledger bolts as required by design 8”min.15. 12”minimum Grout fill all cells Grout all cells in blocks below floor line Grade 6’ ”min. #4 cont. 12”min. #4 cont. 18”minimum 6’ ”min. Solid blocking w/bolts #4 cont. Blocking Min. lap per code Studs 12” minimum Typical dimensions 18”min.86 Typical CMU foundation wall perpendicular to joists. 12” minimum Grade 18”min. 8”min.199 CONCRETE BLOCK 10. lap per code Studs Vertical and horizontal reinforcement as required by design Solid blocking .85 Grout fill all cells 6’ ”min. 12”minimum Grout fill all cells Solid blocking bolts as required for horizontal loads Floor joists 18”minimum 6’ ”min. FIGURE 10.

10”min. lap per code Expansion joint filler and sealant if no dowels in slab Dowels from slab to wall may be omitted where design permits #4 cont.89 Typical exterior wall . . FIGURE 10.Slab floor. Grade #4 cont. lap per code Min. top and bottom 18”minimum Dowel Grade Vertical and horizontal reinforcement as required by design Min. Grout fill all cells in blocks below floor line 6’ ”min.200 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10.Slab floor. Typical dimensions #4 cont.88 Typical exterior wall . Dowel 18”minimum #4 cont. top and bottom Typical dimensions 12”minimum Typical dimensions 12”minimum FIGURE 10.5 FOUNDATION DETAILS FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION Vertical and horizontal reinforcement as required by design If over 36”special design required Min. slab floor. lap per code Vertical and horizontal reinforcement as required by design 12”min.15.90 Typical interior wall .Bearing partition. 12”min. min. 12”minimum FIGURE 10.

bolt at 48”o.93 Wood tie beam. FIGURE 10.15.c. Saw block to match roof pitch Cripples for gable Gable end or interior wall extend to roof Brace 2”x 6” Wall plate at 48”o.c. .6 ROOF CONNECTION DETAILS FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION Nails to blocking Wood lintel beam continuous .94 Typical wood frame gable.bolts must be designed for horizontal loads Joist Horizontal reinforcement Block at angle Horizontal bars may act as bond beam and lintel reinforcement Vertical wall bars in grout filled core Bars continuous between openings and at sill 8”concrete block Vertical reinforcement 8”concrete block Horizontal reinforcement FIGURE 10. FIGURE 10.92 Typical masonry gable.91 Typical joist parallel to wall. Plate 2”x 4”. Horizontal reinforcement Ceiling joists 2 x _ ledger Horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Vertical reinforcement 8”concrete block 8”concrete block FIGURE 10.CONCRETE BLOCK 201 10.

c. Structural clay brick may also be used for garden fences. loose sand. 21/2 parts sand and 31/2 parts gravel with a maximum 71/2 gallons of water per sack of cement.0”max.1. 3 parts sand to which a maximum of 2 parts pea gravel may be added. Designs are the common types used.500 psi (13. All cells containing reinforcement shall be solidly grouted (vertical and horizontal reinforcement).c.4. Block fence to be placed at center of “ I”type foundation and at either edge of “ L”type foundation. When joint reinforcement is used. (203 mm). Footings should be level.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10.c. 9. 2. Mortar for laying concrete block shall be Type S for SDC D and above.95 6 in. based on volume of Portland cement. 10.#4 horiz.96 6 in. and spread footing. 7.6” Alternate bend FIGURE 10. in foundation 1’. spacing of joint reinforcement shall not exceed 16 in. grade beam. in foundation Finished grade 2”min. (406 mm) on center.1 GENERAL This section provides typical designs for masonry residential garden fences using concrete block. 6. 1-#4 horizontal at top Joint reinforcement or 1-#4 horizontal at midheight 24”lap length 202 10. 10. The walls are designed for lateral pressure of not less than 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa) in accordance with the minimum requirements stated in ASCE 7-05. (610 mm). Center vertical reinforcement in the concrete block cell. 5. #4 vertical reinforcement @48”o.9 c MPa) minimum at 28 days or optional 1 part Portland cement. Lap joint reinforcement 6 in. . 4. 3. Concrete block units shall be laid in running bond.2 GENERAL NOTES #4 vertical dowels @ 48”o. 1’. #4 vertical reinforcement @48”o.0” FIGURE 10. Designs are not to be used for retaining walls and are based on the following criteria: 1 . in foundation Finished grade 2”min. (152 mm). The grout may contain up to 1/10 part lime.2. 6’. 1.16 GARDEN FENCES 8. grade 40 or grade 60.1.16.0” 3”CLR. Concrete block cells to have vertical continuity of the cells. Details are for typical free standing fence walls not more than 6 ft (1.8 m) in height. Section 6. (102 mm) or 8 in. Concrete block units shall conform to ASTM C 90.#4 horizontal in foundation 1’. 1-#4 horizontal at top Joint reinforcement or 1-#4 horizontal at midheight 24”lap length Concrete for footing to be f’ = 2.c. typically 4 in. 2 . 2’. Use step footings for uneven terrain with each step a height to fit the masonry module. Grout for concrete block wall to be 1 part Portland cement. Reinforcing Steel to be deformed and conform to ASTM A 615. A ten pound per square foot (479 Pa) wind pressure is equivalent to the pressure caused by a wind speed of approximately 70 mph (113 km/hr). 1 /2 part lime and 41/2 parts damp. Minimum lap length shall be 24 in. 6’.0” 3”CLR. Suff icient water to be added to make consistency for pouring without segregation. concrete masonry block wall fence with “ L”type foundation. #4 vertical dowels @ 48” o. Type S mortar mix by volume may be 1 part Portland cement.0”max.16. concrete masonry block wall fence with “ I”type foundation.

17 RETAINING WALLS The popular use of masonry in retaining walls is a result of the ease of construction combined with the inherent visual beauty. that will channel the water out and away from the wall. 10. whichever is greater. In Figure 10. an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. In order to reduce lateral pressure loads on a retaining wall. The soil pressure is usually highest under the toe (front bottom edge of footing) and should not exceed the bearing capacity of the soil which it rests upon. IBC Section 1609. 203 The designs given for continuous footing walls typically satisfy the design criteria for Exposure C.3 CONTINUOUS FOOTING WALLS Continuous footing designs are based on the applicable Exposure Category as defined in IBC Section 1609. A key at the bottom of the footing can provide additional resistance to sliding. Exposure C.3 Exposure categories.4. They have the capacity to resist overturning and sliding forces.4. Exposure D. 13. Overturning is resisted by the weight (vertical loading) of the wall.500 feet (457 m). Foundat ion m ust be pl aced agai nst undisturbed soil with no appreciable slope of side walls on all types of foundations. Exposure B shall apply where the ground surface roughness condition. the upwind distance is permitted to be reduced to 1. as defined by Surface Roughness D. a pre-manufactured and proprietary geo-filter mesh is used to direct the water down to a gravel channel. the code requires a 1. Two common methods of drainage to relieve hydrostatic pressure are shown in the figures below. prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 2. hydrostatic pressure must be considered. drainage for water behind the wall should be provided. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features. Exposure D shall extend inland from the shoreline for a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the height of the building. first inspection to be after trenches are ready for concrete foundation and all required steel is tied in place.4 1609. masonry retaining walls also provide high structural integrity.97 gravel is used to direct water into a plastic tube. This drainage prevents excessive hydrostatic pressure from developing. prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 5. Because overturning and sliding can lead to catastrophic failure. Exception: For buildings whose mean roof height is less than or equal to 30 feet (9144 mm). The wall must also be strong enough to prevent failure at any point in its height due to the force of the retained material.5 safety factor (2006 IBC Section 1806. as defined by Surface Roughness B. 10.600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height of the building. which is resisted by the reinforcing steel in the masonry wall. Sliding is resisted by the friction between the footing and the soil. An exposure category shall be determined in accordance with the following: Exposure B. The second inspection shall be when the vertical and horizontal steel is in place. For each wind direction considered. with perforations on top. When inspection is required. 12.CONCRETE BLOCK 11. If drainage is not provided.98. and soil resting on the footing. based on the type of soil. Table 1804. The hydrostatic pressure could double or triple the soil pressure. but not grouted. With proper engineering and reinforcing steel. . Retaining walls are built to restrain a mass of earth or other material.2 lists allowable values for lateral bearing pressure and the coefficient of friction. Exposure C shall apply for all cases where Exposures B or D do not apply.4 Exposure category.1). footing. Exposure D shall apply where the ground surface roughness.16. 1609. whichever is greater. In the 2006 IBC.000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the building. plus the pressure of any earth in front of the wall. In Figure 10. whichever is greater. Water is then directed through the base of the wall by weep holes or weep joints. Height of fences shall comply with all provisions of the local building code.

These partially reinforced walls are considered as semi-gravity walls. the assistance of an engineer is essential in design. use and economics of materials and construction. There are six basic types of retaining walls: gravity walls. any fill material may be used that increases the gross-unit weight of the masonry. and may be a better choice where poor soils with low bearing resistance are encountered. the maximum footing pressure on the soil at the front edge of the base (toe) will be twice the average pressure on the soil. When the eccentricity (e) is equal to one-sixth the base width exactly. The stability of a gravity retaining wall depends on the weight of the wall and the weight of soil bearing on the footing. and the base thickness must also increase. such as silt or quicksand. mortar for gravity retaining walls must be carefully considered. 10. There are many locations where a simple gravity retaining wall is the most satisfactory and economical choice. Uplift pressure at the back of the wall (the heel) is avoided by designing the gravity retaining wall thick enough at the base so that the resultant of all forces (overturning force and vertical loads) falls within the middle one-third of the base.204 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Gravel Perforated pipe (Top half only) to channel water around the wall A designer familiar with local conditions can assist in the choice of retaining wall type. The material used as cell-fill should be granular. in areas subject to freezing. or the amount of retained soil increases. or where piling is required under a retaining wall. In some instances. Gravity walls are of mass masonry designed so that no tension stresses developed in the wall under most loading conditions. therefore. On the other hand. gravity retaining walls have greater resistance to sliding because of greater weight. soil conditions. supported walls. low tension stresses are permi tted by prov iding reinforcement in the wall. Proprietary geo-filter mesh Gravel channel with weep holes in vertical joints only The gravity type wall is simple in design and construction and a good choice for small projects. high to moderate strength mortars are preferred. cantilever walls. Mortar must also be durable.1 GRAVITY WALLS Shear key as required FIGURE 10. namely gravel or rock. When used. segmental walls.97 Cantilever retaining wall with gravel and perforated pipe drainage. Selection of the particular type of wall will depend on the site. loads. In warm climates. .17.98 Cantilever retaining wall with geo-filter and gravel channel to weep holes. FIGURE 10. The eccentricity of the resultant force is equal to or less than one-sixth of the base width. size of wall. and geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining walls. Cantilever retaining walls are designed with slightly lower toe pressures than the gravity walls. counterfort or buttressed walls. Mortar will provide shear resistance to withstand forces exerted by the retained soil. As the height of the retaining wall increases. and where unfavorable soil conditions occur. It is thicker at the base than cantilever walls and could cost more to construct on the larger projects. Pilings are columns placed under ground to extend or connect the bottom of a foundation to “ better”soil conditions or bedrock deeper in the ground.

it is not necessary to place reinforcement in the footing. they are called buttresses and are compression members (Figure 10.4 m) spacing) along the base of the wall should be sufficient. If the vertical supports are behind the wall and buried in the earth backfill.2 to 2. If the vertical supports are exposed in front of the wall.100 Counterfort retaining wall. Gravel backfill and weep holes (located at a 4 to 8 ft (1. Principal wall reinforcement is horizontal Compression buttress or brace Depends on weight for stability Cross-Section FIGURE 10.17. seepage. 10.6 m).101 Buttress retaining wall. Principal wall reinforcement is horizontal Hearth backfill Compression buttress or brace Plan View FIGURE 10. In areas where freezing temperatures are expected.2 COUNTERFORT OR BUTTRESSED WALLS Counterfort or buttressed walls span horizontally between vertical support members.101). In either case. undisturbed soil. If the soil under the footing consists of soft or silty clay. Water allowed to accumulate causes increased pressure. (102 to 152 mm) base of well-compacted sand under the footing before pouring the concrete. Tensile tie counterfort 205 Principal wall reinforcement is horizontal Care should be taken to avoid exerting large construction impact forces on the wall. Counterfort and buttressed retaining walls have been used to retain fills up to 25 ft (7. place the base of the footing below the frost line. FIGURE 10.100). place 4 to 6 in. the main wall is considered as a continuous member supported at each cross wall.CONCRETE BLOCK Concrete footings for gravity retaining walls should be placed on firm. and in areas subject to frost action. they are called counterfort and are tension members (Figure 10. Since the retaining wall is non-reinforced gravity construction. an expansive force of considerable magnitude near the top of the wall.99 Gravity retaining wall. Provisions should be made to prevent the accumulation of water behind a gravity retaining wall. .

heavy equipment should not approach closer to the top of the wall than a distance equal to the height of the wall.4 mm) footing extension to allow for construction tolerances.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10.103). Retaining walls must be designed to safely resist overturning and sliding due to the forces imposed by the retained backfill. there will be no resisting soil mass and thus the wall foundation may be large and heavy. These slabs help resist sliding forces and contribute to reducing soil bearing pressure and overturning forces. The base resists sliding.0 and the factor of safety against sliding not less than 1. undisturbed soil. When there is no footing heel on a property wall.17. (b) Retaining wall adjacent to property line with foundation tied into floor slab to increase the sliding resistance. Cantilever retaining wall footings must be placed on firm.3 CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS The most common type of retaining wall is the cantilever retaining wall (Figures 10.5.103(b)) reducing the need for a large foundation. FIGURE 10. Property line 206 Stem Toe Heel Tension face Property line (a) Retaining wall adjacent to property line Reinforcing steel Compression face Heel Foundation Toe Adjacent slab Shear key (as required) FIGURE 10. * Provide at least a 2" (50.102 and 10. which is useful in limited space areas such as near property lines and existing utility lines (Figure 10. Adjacent slabs are often tied into the foundation (Figure 10. During backfilling. In addition. These walls require special attention to assure they can resist the lateral earth forces and overturning moment through their own weight and strength. or should provide a factor of safety of at least three over the ultimate bearing capacity.103 Property line type retaining walls. .103). overturning and rotating due to the lateral loading and must also be large enough to assure that the bearing capacity of the soil is adequate. The tension stresses which develop in the wall are resisted by reinforcing steel placed in the wall and off center toward the soil side (tension face) of the wall. In areas exposed to freezing temperatures the base of the footing should be placed below the frost line. Backfilling against retaining walls should be delayed for at least 7 days after placement of grout. the bearing pressure under the footing or bottom of the retaining wall should not exceed the allowable soil bearing pressure. The factor of safety against overturning should ideally be at least 2.102 Heel Cantilever retaining wall. Toe Cantilever retaining walls can be designed with a minimum length of heel or toe.

CONCRETE BLOCK Care should also be taken to avoid exerting large impact forces on the wall. backfill should be placed in 12 to 24 in. and type of construction determine the need for waterproofing the back face of retaining walls. Figure 10. The heel dominate retaining wall has the majority of the foundation extending into the retained earth. Climate.000 psi Grade 60 Surcharge loading Horizontal reinforcement 2”clear Vertical reinforcement CMU H Drainage system typically gravel and perforated pipe Vertical reinforcement Continuous #4 reinforcement (typ. Prov isi ons m ust be made to prev ent the accumulation of water behind the face of the wall and to reduce the possible effects of frost action. Surcharge loading f’ = 1. surcharge 16”for no surcharge 24”for 100 psf surcharge 12”for no surcharge 18”for 100 psf surcharge Bottom reinforcement B Heel Dominate Cantilever Retaining Wall FIGURE 10.) D B Bottom reinforcement 3” clr. The toe dominate retaining wall has the majority of the foundation extending into the non-retained side of the wall. Where heavy prolonged rains are anticipated. and when the backfill material is relatively impermeable. The top of masonry retaining walls should be capped or otherwise protected to prevent water entry into hollow cores. Toe Dominate Cantilever Retaining Wall . Design lateral pressures are for 30 psf per foot of depth and for 45 psf per foot of depth.Heel Dominate and Toe Dominate. Concrete masonry units.) Top reinforcement H 12” (typ. such as dumping a large mass of earth against the wall.4 m) apart along the base of the wall are sufficient.2 to 2. a continuous longitudinal drain along the back of the wall may be used in lieu of weep holes. The design criteria for the tables is based on the following material assumptions: Masonry design strength. D 3” 16”for no surcharge 24”for 100 psf clr. weep holes spaced 4 to 8 ft (1. Grout strength.104 provides two typical types of cantilever retaining walls . Waterproofing is recommended in areas subject to severe frost action. In most cases.000 psi 3. (305 to 610 mm) increments. with each lift being compacted by hand equipment. 207 To give an indication of the material and size of a retaining wall.500 psi m ASTM C 90 3.) Top reinforcement 12” (typ.) Continuous #4 reinforcement (typ. The design tables for the cantilever retaining walls are for retained soil with no slope (level soil at the top of the retaining wall). soil conditions. Ideally.104 Cantilever retaining wall. Reinforcement. Footing concrete strength. in areas of heavy rainfalls.

35 Rankine value of 0. Lateral Bearing = 200 psf with an increase of 100% per foot of depth.Reinforcement ment 8'-0" #6 @ 8" 7'-4" 6'-8" B Toe Dominate Vertical ReinforceD ment B Heel Dominate Vertical ReinforceD ment #5 @ 8" 5'-3" 1'-0" #6 @ 16" 6'-3" 1'-0" #6 @ 16" #5 @ 8" #4 @ 8" 4'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 16" 5'-9" 1'-0" #5 @ 16" #5 @ 8" #5 @ 16" 4'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 24" 5'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 24" 6'-0" #4 @ 8" #4 @ 16" 3'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 24" 4'-6" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 5'-4" #5 @ 16" #4 @ 32" 3'-0" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 3'-9" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 4'-8" #4 @ 16" #4 @ 32" 2-6" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 3'-0" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 4'-0" #4 @ 32" #4 @ 32" 2'-0" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 2'-3" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 8'-0" #5 @ 8" #5 @ 16" 4'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 16" 4'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 24" 7'-4" #4 @ 8" #5 @ 16" 4'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 24" 3'-6" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 6'-8" #5 @ 16" #4 @ 16" 3'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 24" 3'-3" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 6'-0" #5 @ 16" #5 @ 32" 3'-0" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 3'-0" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 5'-4" #4 @ 16" #4 @ 32" 2'-6" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 2'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 2'-0" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 1'-6" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 4'-8" #4 @ 32" #4 @ 32" 2'-3" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 4'-0" #4 @ 32" #4 @ 32" 2'-0" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" Allowable values: Bearing = 3000 psf.208 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 10. Lateral Bearing = 200 psf with an increase of 100% per foot of depth. Coefficient of Friction = 0.3b Reinforcement Requirements for Typical Cantilever Retaining Wall 1 2 Design Details and Steel Requirements –100 psf Vertical Surcharge Loading CMU Width Lateral Pressure 45 psf Lateral Pressure 30 psf 1 2 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 10” 10” 10” 10” 8” 8” 8” H Foundation Foundation Top Bottom Reinforce.3a Reinforcement Requirements for Typical Cantilever Retaining Wall 1 Design Details and Steel Requirements –No Surcharge Loading CMU Width Lateral Pressure 45 psf Lateral Pressure 30 psf 1 10” 10” 10” 10” 8” 8” 8” 10” 10” 10” 10” 8” 8” 8” H Foundation Foundation Top Bottom Reinforce.Reinforcement ment B Toe Dominate Vertical ReinforceD ment B Heel Dominate Vertical ReinforceD ment 8'-0" #6 @ 8" #5 @ 8" 5'-6" 1'-6" #6 @ 16" 6'-9" 1'-3" #6 @ 16" 7'-4" #5 @ 8" #4 @ 8" 5'-0" 1'-6" #5 @ 16" 6'-3" 1'-3" #6 @ 16" 6'-8" #5 @ 8" #5 @ 16" 4'-6" 1'-6" #6 @ 24" 5'-6" 1'-3" #6 @ 24" 6'-0" #4 @ 8" #4 @ 16" 4'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 5'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 5'-4" #5 @ 16" #4 @ 32" 3'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 4'-6" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 4'-8" #4 @ 16" #4 @ 32" 3’ -0" 1'-0" #5 @ 32" 3'-9" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 4'-0" #4 @ 32" #4 @ 32" 2'-6" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 3'-0" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 8'-0" #5 @ 8" #5 @ 16" 4'-9" 1'-0" #6 @ 16" 4'-9" 1'-0" #6 @ 16" 7'-4" #4 @ 8" #5 @ 16" 4'-3" 1'-0" #5 @ 16" 4'-3" 1'-0" #5 @ 16" 6'-8" #5 @ 16" #4 @ 16" 3'-9" 1'-0" #6 @ 24" 4'-0" 1'-0" #6 @ 24" 6'-0" #5 @ 16" #5 @ 32" 3'-3" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 3'-6" 1'-0" #6 @ 32" 5'-4" #4 @ 16" #4 @ 32" 3'-0" 1'-0" #5 @ 24" 3'-0" 1'-0" #5 @ 24" 4'-8" #4 @ 32" #4 @ 32" 2'-6" 1'-0" #4 @ 24" 2'-6" 1'-0" #4 @ 24" 4'-0" #4 @ 32" #4 @ 32" 2'-3" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" 2'-3" 1'-0" #4 @ 32" Allowable values: Bearing = 3000 psf. Coefficient of Friction = 0.36 applied to the 100 psf vertical surcharge .35 Table 10.

therefore. vertical load plus lateral load. a supported wall could be considered having either a fixed top and bottom. This type of retaining wall is considered a flexible structure. (a) (b) (c) (a) Simply supported top and bottom (b) Simply supported top: fixed at bottom (c) Fixed at top and bottom FIGURE 10. 10.4 SUPPORTED WALLS 209 Load Depending on the type of support provided by the floor and foundation systems. The units may also be used in combination with horizontal layers of soil reinforcement extending into the backfill to increase the effective width and weight of the gravity mass.106). and durability. a fixed base with simply supported top or a simply supported top and bottom (Figure 10.105 Supported retaining walls with various end conditions. The system consists of concrete masonry units which are placed without the use of mortar and depends on a combination of mechanical interlock and mass to FIGURE 10. prevent overturning and sliding. must be considered in the design.5 SEGMENTAL WALLS An innovative type of wall for the purpose of retaining earth is the segmental retaining wall. strength. Note that the location of reinforcement may be on the opposite face of a cantilevered retaining wall for maximum efficiency.105). Units used for segmental retaining walls conform to the requirements of ASTM C 1372 Standard Specification for Dry-Cast Segmental Retaining Wall Units to assure that units delivered to a project are uniform in weight.CONCRETE BLOCK 10. Each wall type must be designed and reinforced accordingly.17. Basement or subterranean garage walls are often subjected to both vertical and lateral loads since these perimeter walls support the building above as well as resist the earth pressure (Figure 10. features not necessarily provided in site cast materials. Load Supported retaining wall.106 Compression face Basement walls and subterranean garages are often laterally supported at the top by floor systems. Tension face FIGURE 10. dimensional tolerances.107 Segmental retaining wall units.17. the footing does not need to be placed below the frost line provided there is enough foundation bearing capacity. Continuity of the connections at the top and the bottom must be developed by proper reinforcement in order to provide the required degree of fixity. The combined wall loading. . Segmental retaining walls are gravity retaining walls depending primarily on self-weight for stability.

shape. Thus. taller segmental retaining walls can be achieved. The force of gravity on the heavy units resists lateral soil pressure to form a functional retaining wall. Manuf acturer recommendations should be followed for design information. Uniform surcharge loading Wall embedment depth (a) Single Depth Wall (b) Multiple Depth and Battered Segmental Wall FIGURE 10. This is provided by the frictional resistance between segmental reinforced wall units in the form of keys or leading/training lips.5. The conventional segmental retaining wall structure must have enough mass to prevent both sliding at the base and overturning about When using multiple depth walls. A diagram of this system is shown in Figure 10. the structural capacity of the segmental retaining wall system will v ary. Exc avation boundarie s Exposed height of wall Total height of wall Geosynthetic reinforcement Wall embedment depth F IGURE 10. it effectively helps to hold the wall back into the earth.5. It is flatly laid into the wall and the earth behind the wall in predetermined layers and dimensions. since the system consists of individual units dry stacked upon each other. design flexibility.1 CONVENTIONAL OR GRAVITY Conventional or gravity segmental retaining walls can be constructed with either single or multiple depths of units (Figure 10. Shear capacity provides a means of transferring lateral forces from each course to the adjacent course.108 Conventional or gravity segmental retaining wall.109. economics. The design of segmental retaining walls can be conventional (gravity).17. performance and durability. .108). which include aesthetics. Shear capacity is an important component to assure that the units act together as a coherent mass.17. These walls increase the weight of the wall system and provide a steady base and greater resistance to soil pressures.109 So il-rein forced or geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall. The conventional or gravity retaining wall is usually battered so that the wall steps back into the hillside. ease of installation.210 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The segmental retaining walls offer many design advantages. the toe of the structure for stability. soil-reinforced or geosynthetic. batter. The reinforcement consists of a high density polyethylene or polyester manufactured in a grid-like pattern. Due to the concrete unit size.2 SOIL-REINFORCED OR GEOSYNTHETIC Exposed height of wall Total height of wall Uniform surcharge loading Soil-reinforced or geosynthetic segmental retaining walls are not constructed with traditional steel reinforcement surrounded by grout. and other conditions. 10. 10.

A designer who has technical knowledge of soil and structural mechanics should prepare the typical designs and specifications for segmental retaining walls. including landscaping. Building codes give high fire ratings to concrete masonry walls.4 NATURAL LIGHTING Windows and window wells of a variety of shapes and sizes can easily be accommodated with the modular nature of concrete masonry. To achieve specific patterns. such as enclosure walls around excavated areas or as both supporting and enclosure walls. paint or wallboard on furring strips. 10. wing walls and parking area support. Attractive finishes to the interior walls of a basement can be achieved with architectural units. 10. durability.5 ENERGY EFFICIENCY The consistent temperatures in basements are due to the thermal mass of concrete masonry. The manufacturer for each segmental retaining wall unit can provide prescriptive design information related to that product which will specify the wall heights.3 TEXTURES AND INTERIOR FINISHES The needs of the designer. providing basements with warm. and fluted block. smoke and heat. . 10. stream channelization. wall units. termite resistance and fire resistance. Concrete masonry is excellent for basement and foundation wall construction due to economy.18. The design flexibility of segmental retaining wall systems means that these walls can be used in a number of applications.18 CONCRETE MASONRY BASEMENTS Building walls below grade are known as foundation walls. Properly designed and constructed concrete masonry buildings have continually withstood disasters such as earthquakes. Glass block units can be incorporated into the walls in lieu of traditional glass windows for additional security and privacy. The installation success of any segmental retaining wall is based on complete and accurate field information. the use of specified materials.18. the builder and the owner are met with the wide variety of colors and textures of concrete masonry units. Where desired. tunnel access walls. Some additional options to standard precision block surfaces are split faced. making efficient fire walls for hotels. 10. color tinted units can be used in the entire wall or in specific patterns or sections. consequently providing a more comfortable area. 10. and when a segmental retaining wall should be designed by a qualified engineer. These concrete masonry attributes are excellent for basements to safeguard against the spread of electrical and mechanical fires. design conditions. Competing wall systems lack the precision of hand crafted masonry walls.6 FIRE RESISTANCE Concrete masonry successfully resists the passage of flames. careful planning and scheduling. structural walls for changes in grade. These walls may serve as support for above grade walls or other structural members. strength. noise insulation. leveling pad. hurricanes and explosions. In cases where the 211 basement walls are to be finished. architectural concrete masonry units provide an attractive and inexpensive finished wall surface.18. water-front structures. retained soil and drainage fill are basic elements of the segmental retaining wall system. The geosynthetic reinforcement is the additional element for soil-reinforced segmental retaining walls. These attributes justify the widespread use of concrete block masonry for foundation walls and basements.CONCRETE BLOCK The foundation. apartments and other structures. 10.18.18. bridge abutments. The durability of concrete masonry makes it perfect for foundation basements and above grade construction. natural lighting.18. burnished. Basements are typically built with standard gray block which can be unfinished or used as a base for other finish treatments such as plaster. scored. this is particularly true since square and plumb masonry walls are easily furred out for gypsum wallboard finish. proper construction procedures and inspection. Large windows wells and walk-out basement doors may also contribute to heat by allowing solar energy into basements.2 STRENGTH AND DURABILITY Concrete masonry can be easily and economically reinforced making the system ideal for resisting soil pressure imposed on below grade walls. 10.1 MAINTENANCE AND LOW COST One of the advantages of concrete masonry construction is the high quality and performance which makes the concrete masonry units competitive with other construction materials.

10. These walls must be designed to transmit any imposed loads from the above grade structure into the surrounding soil and resist the pressure exerted by the soil.111).110 Typical basement wall. which include curtain walls and possible pier footings. Residential basement walls may act more as a cantilevered retaining wall if there is a large. By contrast crawl space walls.) Stem walls are foundation walls that typically do not support unbalanced backfill loads (Figure 10. First.c. 212 Typical Dimensions and Detailing FIGURE 10. horizontal 10.18. crawl space.8 NOISE CONTROL 2 x 4 mudsill 5/8”dia. However. and stem walls are laterally supported at the top by a first floor diaphragm.113). Typically. crawl space walls may step down to become basement walls.c.c. 8”concrete masonry wall #5’ s @ 48”o. 24” 31/2”slab on grade w/ 24” 6 x 6 .18.c.#5’ s Concrete masonry is a superior noise control material in two ways. the connection at the top of the wall may need careful detailing (Figure 10. 36”36” 2 . anchor bolts @ 48”o. The basement. 36” 12” #4 dowels @ 32”o.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10.7 AREAS OF REFUGE 2 x 4 @ 16”o.110). The load path at the bottom of a basement wall can be transmitted through soil load bearing and through passive or frictional resistance of the footing with the soil.#5’ s 12” 18” 18” 3”Clr. As a subterranean level.#5’ s 2 . 2 .) FIGURE 10. Likewise. #5 dowels @ 16”o. concrete masonry walls work as barriers which block sound transmission over a wide range of frequencies. Bond beam Pier Infill wall between piers #5’ s @ 48”o. Second.c.9 BASEMENT DESIGN Basement walls are either partially or fully below grade which encloses habitable or potentially habitable space (Figure 10. vertical (typ. Crawl space walls and curtain walls frequently fall into this large stem wall definition. basement walls are designed to span vertically between the basement slab or footing and the first floor system. basements are naturally protected from the flying debris associated with hurricanes and high winds.c.c. . concrete masonry can be an efficient sound absorption material for absorbing noise produced within a room. (Crawl space walls are shorter than basement walls and are not supported by a slab at the base.111 Crawl space wall. do not enclose habitable space (Figure 10.112).c. This sheltered location provides a natural refuge as recognized by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the FEMA requirements for ‘ safe’rooms during natural disasters. 11” #5 dowels @ 16”o. open adjacent stairway.10/10 reinf. vertical #5’ s @ 48”o.18.

Drainage is provided to direct surface and roof water away from the basement. Calculations may show that sill plates and anchor bolts may lack the capacity to carry the expected reaction from the soil loads. Joist anchor Floor diaphragm Blocking Floor joist Joist hanger Basement wall reinforcement Also.113 Typical connection at the top of residential basement wall. Dampproofing or waterproofing systems are applied to the masonry walls. 3. although wood sill plate connection details have historically performed well. Beam Vertical reinforcement 10. 2.18. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 10. such as cast-in-place concrete. Anchor strap Uplift pressure during strong winds Plywood diaphragm Floor joist Vertical loads (dead and live loads) Blocking Toe nailing Joists Joist hanger Sill plate Anchor bolt Ledger beam Basement wall reinforcement FIGURE 10. vertical Footing FIGURE 10. Stem wall.CONCRETE BLOCK 213 Masonry wall s must be connected to all intersecting walls that provide support.c. To mitigate below grade water problems.115 Alternate connection at top of residential basement wall. This can be achieved by bonding the walls together horizontally with metal straps or reinforced bond beams.10 WATER PENETRATION RESISTANCE Stem wall Basement walls must resist water penetration in order to prevent water damage to adjoining storage and habitable spaces. A surface drainage system to collect and direct water away from the foundation is installed. floor connections can be made using ledger beams and straps or with sill plates and hanging the joists to the sill plates. . can carry the soil load reaction with mechanical connections or typical reinforcement.114 Ledger beam connection at top of residential basement wall.112 1. Masonry basement wall connections to other floor systems. three techniques are commonly and collectively employed: #5’ s @ 48”o.

1 m) of the building. ” ” -0 8’ 2 x 10 plank 2x4 cleat 2 x 10 brace 2 x 4 strut brace Two 2 x 6 stakes driven into firm soil at least 12” FIGURE 10.116.116 Typical bracing scheme for concrete masonry basement walls. concrete masonry units must comply with ASTM C 90 Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units. water from downspouts should be directed onto splash blocks or carried away using plastic tubing. (152 mm) within 10 ft (3. however. One bracing scheme which has been used for residential basement walls is shown in Figure 10. . there are a variety of units which facilitate reinforced masonry construction. Greater indoor humidity levels require smaller temperature differentials to cause condensation. Considerably more bracing may be required for high walls or large backfill pressures. To provide a finished interior to the basement specific colors and textures may be specified. rely on the quality construction in accordance with the structural design and the project specif ications f or successf ul performance. The finished grade should be sloped away from the foundation at least 6 in. balconies. thereby reducing the complexity and cost of construction. For basement wall construction. Condensation may form on the cooler wall surface when the indoor air temperature is greater than the wall surf ace temperature. To prevent infiltration of surface water. and porches the soil that surrounds the foundation may be protected from the direct exposure of rain.18. Basement walls. This may be achieved in many ways. A shallow trench or swale can be provided to intercept the water and divert it if the topography of the ground is such that the natural slope is toward the building.11 CONSTRUCTION Basement walls can be constructed in a variety of ways using different materials. When the wall temperature is significantly below the air temperature.214 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Moisture presence on the inside surface of basement walls is frequently attributed to moisture penetration through the walls when this moisture may actually be due to condensation. planting of shrubbery or the placement of a thin layer of impermeable soil over the backfill immediately adjacent to the foundation wall will further help. When necessary. -0 8’ 10. Backfilling is one of the most critical operations in basement construction. There are several types of concrete masonry units av ailabl e to prov ide an ext ensiv e v ariety of appearances. Proper backfilling will prevent or minimize wall cracking during the construction process. Also. Minimizing the accumulation of surface water by diverting it away from the foundation is the first line of defense in creating a moisture free basement. Gutters and downspouts will collect water from the roof of the building and deposit it away from the foundation. condensation may occur any time. With the use of roof overhangs. Walls designed to be supported at the top may crack or even fail if not properly braced until the lateral supports at the top of the walls are provided. techniques and methods.

1 GENERAL The development of reinforced masonry parallels the development of reinforced concrete. is excellent when used to resist tension forces but it can be subject to buckling when placed under compression loads. Reinforcing steel. Seismic events create loading on a structure that reverses direction. The principles of reinforced masonry design given in the 2005 MSJC Code. is ideal for resisting compressive forces but is relatively weak in tension. Both systems are heterogeneous. mortar.2).2 (f). this means only the steel reinforcement is considered for carrying and resisting the tensile forces. Section 2. The qual ity of resisting bot h tensile and compressive loading is ideal for areas of high seismic activity. state the tensile strength of the masonry (unit.3. reinforced masonry provides high dynamic properties such as high dampening and energy absorption. but the system of materials is treated as homogeneous (one material). Thus. compression forces develop on the concave side (inside of curve) and tension forces develop on the convex side (outside of curve). . The forces are transmitted through the masonry. In addition to the high tensile and compressive strength characteristics. a structural member that is in compression one second can go into tension during the next second.CHAPTER 11 REINFORCING STEEL 11. Masonry (for compression) and steel (for tension) combine to produce a structure capable of resisting high compressive and tensile loads.3. Unreinforced masonry. The reinforcing steel also improves the ductility and toughness of the masonry system and holds a building together through continuity of connections between elements. like concrete.1 & 3. Masonry structures must be reinforced in order to provide the necessary capacity to resist the load reversals and extreme stress excursions that occur during earthquakes. In the structural analysis. into the grout and then through the grout into the reinforcing steel (Figure 11. When a wall. meaning made up of more than one material which have different properties. Nevada. FIGURE 11. beam or column is loaded and deflects in a curved form. and grout) shall be neglected for tensile stresses. on the other hand.1 28 Story Excalibur Hotel/CasinoLas Vegas.

For buildings subjected to wind forces. to obtain the maximum structural efficiency. Grout Grout Concrete masonry Brick In Figure 11. While the masonry on the left side of the wall is being squeezed in compression. FIGURE 11.3 is squeezing together in the center.4 Cantilever retaining wall supporting lateral earth pressure. “ d”distance Whenever a beam curves. the reinforcing steel on the right side of the wall. is pulling apart in the center. the most economically reasonable location of the reinforcement is in the center of the wall. however.4 depicts a cantilever retaining wall in flexure (note the curve of the deformed shape). When the limited tension capacity of the masonry is exceeded.4. The reinforcing steel must be placed on the tensi on side of the curv e. however. note how the reinforcement is placed closer to the tension side than the compression side. (305 mm) and greater in thickness may contain two layers of reinforcing steel. Vertical load on beam Tension Tension Compression Compression Tension Compression Flexural cracks Flexural reinforcing steel FIGURE 11.2. closest to the earth. shows the forces created on a building due to wind loading. This combination of steel reinforcement and masonry extends the application and use of masonry for structures. Figure 11. Tension side 11. Because tension can occur on either side of the wall. one near each wall face.216 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Tension Reinforcing steel Lateral Force Reinforcing steel Compression Tension Lateral Force Compression 11. This configuration will place reinforcement directly in the tension zone regardless of the direction of lateral force. the load can be applied on either side. Compression side The top of the beam shown in Figure 11.2.5. a tension side and compression side develop.2 WALL WITH LATERAL LOAD Figure 11. The wind direction can switch and thus the tension side on the wall will switch (there will still be uplift on the roof). Walls 10 in. is being pulled into tension. 12 in. This location is advantageous in a retaining wall application since the load is always causing tension on the right and compression on the left. putting it in tension.1 BEAM WITH VERTICAL LOAD Lateral earth pressure 11.3 Beam supporting vertical load.2 Forces transmitted through masonry and grout to steel. placing the masonry into compression. lapping reinforcement bars is acceptable when field conditions dictate. (254 mm). Direct wind forces push on a building while wind suction forces pull on the opposite side of the structure. .2 TENSION STRESSES F IGURE 11. The bottom of the beam. The earth behind the wall exerts forces that pushes the wall to the left. Continuous reinforcement is preferred to lapping bars of reinforcement. masonry cracks and the steel reinforcement resists the tension force.

FIGURE 11. In order to prevent the vertical column bars from buckling. The actual stress in the steel will be much greater because the masonry tends to move from under the load. or move outward from the center.4 GPa) to 4. 2. The modulus of elasticity of steel.000 psi (3. Section 2.000 psi (27.9 GPa).REINFORCING STEEL Uplift Joist to masonry wall connection d W in Roof to joist must resist uplift Joist to masonry wall connection W in d Roof to joist must resist uplift For the wind direc tion shown. The importance of lateral ties is seen in the code. (6.5 of the 2005 MSJC Code gives the following general requirements for tie spacing in columns.000. B and C.1. B.6. the steel may act in compression along with the compressive capabilities of masonry. Because of the higher modulus of elasticity of the steel. shifting the load to the reinforcing steel. they must be encased with horizontal steel ties. ES = 29. tension is on right side of each wall Positive wind pressure 217 Negative wind pressure (suction) For the wind direction shown. For Seismic Design Categories A. and C. is much higher than the modulus of elasticity of the masonry which ranges from Em = 500. For Seismic Design Categories A. spacing of column ties shall not exceed the more restrictive of: a. the minimum diameter of column ties shall be at least 1 /4 in.5 Wind loading on a building. This is called creep or plastic flow.6 Reinforced brick column Properly tied vertical reinforcing steel assists in carrying compressive loads.6 GPa).4 mm) in diameter. 11.3 COMPRESSION STRESSES Reinforcing steel can also be used to increase the compressive capability of masonry columns. the steel can be stressed at least “ n”(Modular ratio n = ES/Em) times the stress of the masonry. 16 diameters of the longitudinal (vertical) reinforcement. 1.000.000 psi (199. tension is on right side of each wall Wall to foundation connection Wall to foundation connection Concrete slab FIGURE 11. Vertical load Vertical reinforcing steel Horizontal ties In columns. . Unsupported reinforcing steel bars in compression may buckle.

3.) applies.5. spacing of column ties shall not exceed 8 in. (407 mm) square column were #5’ s (5/8 in. (1219 mm) on center. Shear wall or shear reinforced . the minimum diameter of a column ties shall be at least 3/8 in.8 Beam reinforced for shear. The actual maximum distance is a little less than one-half the beam depth (MSJC Code.9 pier.218 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Ties Vertical reinforcement tied to dowels projecting from footing As a rule of thumb. 4. diameter [15. For Seismic Design Categories D and above. FIGURE 11. (9. (203 mm) for the full column height. Load Reinforced concrete footing d/2 Shear cracks FIGURE 11. 11.9 mm]) encased by 1/4 in. Reinforced concrete masonry column. Most Restrictive (10 in. 48 tie diameters. In Seismic Design Categories D and above.  Horizontal Reinforcement (1/4) x 48 = 12 in. Shear forc e f rom wind or earthquake Diagonal tension shear cracks 3. d Least cross-sectional dimension of the column.2 mm) or 48 in. The shear reinforcing steel is placed in the same direction as the load causing the shear stress. (6. d/4 max.7 Allowable shear stress exceeds actual stress. shear reinforcement is spaced at a maximum distance of one-half the overall depth of the beam minus 3 in. Shear reinforcement spaced as required but spaced not more the d/2 so that every potential shear crack is crossed. When this occurs. Hook design requirements FIGURE 11. As an example. Section 2.5 mm). c. (76. these forces in beams and walls are often large enough to exceed the shear capacity of the masonry. if vertical reinforcement of a 16 in.1). b. Reinforcement to resist overturning tension and compression forces Horizontal shear reinforcement d d/2 or 48” max. the beam or shear wall must be reinforced with steel to resist these high shear forces. then the maximum spacing of the column ties would be the most restrictive of the following:  Vertical Reinforcement (5/8) x 16 = 10 in.4 SHEAR STRESSES Although masonry has the capability to resist shear forces.3.  Least Column Dimension 16 in. Shear reinforcement not required.4 mm) ties.

In the next second. Therefore there is need for continuous rei nf orcement and in addit ion t o continuous reinforcement.6 SEISMIC FORCES In high seismic risk areas. Concrete block masonry walls shrink due to moisture loss and hydration of the cement.5 SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE STRESSES tension. the picture is only a snapshot in time during a seismic event. Figure 11. FIGURE 11. Joint reinf orcement and def ormed reinforcement may be used in combination to reinforce the masonry system. 11.REINFORCING STEEL 219 11.10 depicts the deformed shape of a structure during a significant earthquake. Accordingly. Section 1613 of the 2006 IBC develop seismic design requirements for buildings.11 Uniform Building Code Seismic Zone Map.10 earthquake forces. This shrinkage causes tension stresses to develop and the masonry may easily crack if reinforcement and/or control joints are not provided. Masonry walls may also crack from expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes. The high gradation of the ground motion maps (scale of 0 to 300). This is known as confinement of the masonry. any required ties must be spaced closer together. masonry structures must be reinforced to provide adequate strength as the structures undergo the reversal of stresses caused during an earthquake. Joint reinforcement and deformed reinforcing steel control cracking and may allow wider spacing of movement control joints. do not provide the immediate global insight gained from viewing the seismic zones. The close spacing of ties acts as a cage to hold masonry together. the building could curve in the opposite directions where all tension sides become compression and compression sides become F IGURE 11.12) of the IBC. The new ground motion maps (Figure 11. The formulation is based on the concept of Seismic Design Categories (SDC’ s) in lieu of the familiar Seismic Zones contained in previous model codes. However. The relative scale of seismic activity (0 minimal and 4 severe) of Seismic Zones (Figure 11. Buil ding su bjected to .11) has been replaced with SDC’ s. blurs the areas between low and high seismic loading. horizontal reinforcing steel or joint reinforcement is used to accommodate shrinkage stresses and reduce vertical cracking. The placement of tension steel would be on the convex side of the curved beams and columns.

.5(2)) FIGURE 11.0 sec Spectral Acceleration (5% critical damping). Site Class B (2006 IBC Figure 1613. –0.S.12 Seismic ground accelerations.220 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Maximum Ground Motion for the Continental U. –1.5(1)) Maximum Ground Motion for the Continental U.2 sec Spectral Acceleration (5% critical damping). Site Class B (2006 IBC Figure 1613.S.

Further. Reinforcing steel of 3/8 in. (203 mm) of the ends of the wall. This code section states minimum vertical reinforcement of one #4 bar at 48 in. columns require ties with a minimum of two ties within the top 5 in. SDC A and B.REINFORCING STEEL 11. Horizontal reinforcement has the same requirement as vertical minimum reinforcement or two W1. (minimum each way at spacing shown) 0.20 in.7 (MW11) wire joint reinforcement at 16 in. The required area of 0.1 MINIMUM STEEL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW SEISMIC EXPOSURE The categories with virtually no seismic risk. within 16 in. (6. (406 mm) on center maximum for walls thicker than 4 in.(3. (9. without grout. at top and bottom of wall openings and within 16 in.1 m) on center.1 MINIMUM AREA OF STEEL To assure adequate reinforcement in masonry. In addition to the above. 2 Top of roof 0. When masonry walls are not part of the lateral resisting system.20 in2 (129 mm2) in crosssectional area for bond beams spaced at 10 ft (3. such as positive anchorage at all connections and limits in lateral deflection. and hence. In addition to the requirements of SDC’ s A and B. The reinforcement shall extend at least 24 in. (406 mm) on center.7 (MW11) wires spaced not more than 16 in. (406 mm) of openings and within 8 in.20 in.20 in reinforcement area.2 (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area and shall be provided at corners.7.3.13 10’ -0”max. at base of wall or in top footing . 11. simple provisions of the IBC and MSJC Code are followed. at top of wall & at roof and floor levels Top of parapet 24”minimum but not less than 40 bar diameters 10’ -0”maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement FIGURE 11. SDC C contains specific seismic provisions contained in 2005 MSJC Code. (127 mm) of the column. equates to one #4 bar.2. the Uniform Building Code has historically stated and the MSJC Code strongly implies that plain bars larger than 1/4 in. (102 mm).2 (129 mm2). spacing of horizontal reinforcement Minimum lateral force-resisting reinforcement for SDC’ s A and B. or deformed reinforcement of at least 0.5.1 m) on center maximum. (406 mm) of the top of the wall.14.2 (129 mm2) in crosssectional area. contain no special provisions for reinforcement in masonry. (610 mm) or at least 40 bar diameters past openings. (1219 mm) on center maximum.20 in2 reinforcement area (minimum around openings) 221 0.5 mm) and larger must be deformed bars.7 MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS 11. Section 1. Lateral force-resisting walls in SDC’ s A and B shall have minimum reinforcement of 0.20 in2 reinforcement area min.20 in. the MSJC Code specifically states minimum reinforcing steel spacing and amount based on Seismic Design Categories. which is 0.14. (203 mm) of movement joints and the ends of the walls.2. Masonry may then be constructed without reinforcing steel.2. and also within 8 in. If SDC A walls are part of the lateral force-resisting system (shear walls). When the seismic risk is increased additional reinforcing steel is required for the performance of masonry.7.1.20 in2 reinforcement area min. Minimum horizontal reinforcement shall consist of horizontal joint reinforcement of at least two W1. The maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement is 10 ft. walls may be designed empirically in accordance with 2005 MSJC Code Section 1.4 mm) are not to be used in masonry. 0.

Type N mortar and masonry cement are not to be used for the lateral force resisting walls in SDC D and E.0”o. Vertical reinforcement in grouted cells spaced 4’.222 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 0. (12. . Dowel to match vertical reinforcement.14 4’ -0”maximum spacing of horizontal reinforcement 0.20 in2 reinforcement area min. #4 bar at base of wall or at the top of footing. of #4 bars @ 4’. 11.20 in2 reinforcement area min. (minimum each way at spacing shown) Top of parapet Top of roof 4’ -0”maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement FIGURE 11. the head joints must be fully mortared. max. (610 mm) on center.20 in2 reinforcement area (minimum around openings) 24”minimum but not less than 40 bar diameters 0. B and C.20 in2 reinforcement area.0”o. may also be provided.1. the maximum spacing of reinforcement for stack bond masonry is 24 in. Stack bond masonry must be fully grouted using open-end units or hollow units with full head joints. at top of wall & at roof and floor levels 0. at base of wall or in top footing Minimum reinforcement for SDC’ s D and E. Wall height #4 bar @ roof level. Provide #4 reinforcement at the top of wall and at all floor and roof levels.2 MINIMUM STEEL REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH SEISMIC EXPOSURE Parapet as required Seismic Design Categories D and E contain provisions in addition to those required in SDC’ s A. (406 mm) for horizontal and 24 in. direction. Bolts in grouted units as required. SDC E. When using solid units for stack bond masonry. Seismic Design Category D requires that the minimum amount of reinforcement in a wall be calculated on the gross cross sectional area of the wall and be uniformly distributed. Stack bond masonry should be constructed with open end units so that the void in the head joint is eliminated. (610 mm) for vertical using 1/2 in. usually horizontal. Bond beam units are ideal to facilitate the flow of grout and spacing of reinforcement should not exceed 16 in. Horizontal joint reinforcement shown but a min.7 mm) reinforcement for the lateral force resisting system.15 Typical block wall section.c.7. Additionally. contains additional requirements for stack bond masonry. The minimum amount of reinforcement must be at least 0.c.002 times the gross cross sectional area with at least one-third of the reinforcement spanning the weak. FIGURE 11.

165 square inches per foot 2-#4 at 32" on center = 0.17 Two rows of steel placed for maximum “d”distance.c.155 square inches per foot 1-#6 at 32" on center = 0.c.150 square inches per foot No. The “ d” d d FIGURE 11. The result was an absolute minimal amount of failure of these tall cantilev er walls during the 1994 Northri dge Earthquake.001bt As = 0. the reinforcing steel should be placed in the center so that when the wall receives lateral loads.150 square inches per foot 1-#7 at 48" on center = 0.c. #4 @ 32" o.c. #5 @ 24" o.3 Minimum Steel Ratios. (254 mm) or wider) two layers of reinforcement can substantially increase the maximum “ d”distance and increase structural efficiency. #5 @ 40" o.1 Weight of Reinforcement Bar Size Lbs/ft Lbs/20 ft. distance is defined as the distance from center of reinforcement to the compression (typically furthest) side of the masonry as shown in Figure 11.c.1 #6 1.688 53.500 30.055 21.8 REINFORCEMENT SPACING Consideration must also be giv en to the economical spacing of reinforcement. Walls are subjected to lateral forces from either direction (wind and earthquake). #5 @ 48”o. 11.1 LOCATION OF REINFORCEMENT “d” DISTANCE For walls primarily receiving loads from only one direction (such as retaining walls).8. (203 mm) wide concrete masonry wall using minimum reinforcing steel coefficient is given in Table 11. Size and Spacing for 8 inch CMU (SDC D and E) As = 0.c.0013bt #3 @ 16" o. If the wall is thick enough (10 in.c.17.2 Equivalent Spacing of Reinforcement 1-#3 at 8" on center = 0. t Table 11. #4 @ 24" o.680 13.165 square inches per foot 1-#4 at 16" on center = 0. Size and spacing of steel for an 8 in. .8 #8 2. field fabrication and placement becomes difficult or impossible due to congestion.c.REINFORCING STEEL 11. #6 @ 40”o.0 #7 2. bar #3 0.0007bt As = 0. Reinforcing steel spaced closely together will slow construction and be costly.c. the distance “ d” is the same for both sides of the wall. Using #5 vertical bars at 24 in.2 lists steel size and spacing based on approximately the same area of steel per foot. (610 mm) on center is more economical. (203 mm) on center would make masonry construction difficult and expensive. reinforcement placed in the tension face is advantageous.042 40.150 square inches per foot 1-#5 at 24" on center = 0. For #6 and larger bars.3 below. Therefore.16 Steel placed in the middle of wall. #5 and smaller bars can be readily handled on the construction site. The California Department of Transportation normally designs freeway sound barrier walls using the double steel configuration. As a rule of thumb.6 #5 1.8 Table 11. Table 11. t Table 11.5 #4 0. 3 vertical bars at 8 in. #4 @ 16" o.375 7. Larger bars spaced at greater intervals are more economical than smaller bars spaced close together. 223 d d FIGURE 11. #6 @ 48”o.

00 9' . Table 11. 11. is allowed a tolerance of + 2 in.4 and shown in Figure 11.6" #7 . . typically vertical reinforcement in a masonry wall.375 3' .9" #10 1. particularly during the grouting process.5 Historic Intervals for Securing Reinforcing Steel Bar Bar Secured Secured No.5" #6 .4" #5 .10" 12' .19 Maximum slope for bending dowel into position (ACI 318.4 B.18.4" 16' .2.0" 12' .2 TOLERANCES FOR PLACEMENT OF REINFORCEMENT For reinforced masonry to perform as designed.2" 22' .11" Table 11.8.1. SDC E 1997 UBC.3" #4 .8. beams and columns. Diameter Intervals Intervals 112 x Bar 200 x Bar 1 2 Diameters Diameters #3 .750 7' .6" 6' . Principal steel should be properly located and secured in position to resist the forces for which it was designed.224 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 11. 6” FIGURE 11. d. Table 11.8" 8' . reinforcing steel must be placed in the proper location.4 Reinforcement Placement Tolerances Distance.5" 18' .6.18 Tolerances for steel placement. Section 2104. These allowable tolerances are listed in Table 11.1). from face of Allowable masonry to the center of tolerance reinforcing steel 1 d < 8" ± /2" 8" < d < 24" 24" < d ±1 1 ± 1 / 4" 1 d distance d distance 2 2000 IBC. This tolerance is not meant to be cumulative since a condition of obstruction of reinforcement by the webs in the masonry unit would be created.5 1 CMU Beam Brick Beam 6 SECTION VIEW Tolerance see Table 11. (51 mm).625 5' . Longitudinal reinforcement. Max. Article 3. The 2005 MSJC Code and 2006 IBC merely state that reinforcement shall be secured to prevent movement of reinforcement. Section 2106.5 provides historic requirements for maximum intervals of securing steel reinforcement.3 PLACEMENT OF STEEL The placement of reinforcing bars in masonry should conform to the recommended practice of placing reinforcing bars in concrete. This is particularly important in cantilever retaining walls.10" 20' .41 13' .10" #11 1.12 10' .875 8' –2" 14' .8.8" #9 1.500 4' .7" #8 1.2. Section 7.4 d distance Specified spacing Tolerance + 2” PLAN VIEW OF A WALL FIGURE 11. The proper placement of reinforcing steel is stated in MSJC Specification.27 11' .

Vertical reinforcing steel Horizontal reinforcing steel Style: 8-1V-1H Style: 8-2V-2H used as 8-2V-1H Style: 8-2V-2H D/A 815 D/A 817 Common gradle positioner styles and configurations FIGURE 11. (6. vertical bars must be secured against displacement. Vertical reinforcement can transmit forces to the dowels even when the two bars are not in direct contact.21 show typical bar positioners that can be used to locate and hold vertical and horizontal steel in place.REINFORCING STEEL 225 When footing dowels are not properly aligned. anchor shields. .20 and 11.4 REINFORCING BAR POSITIONERS To assure that the reinforcing bars are in the specified locations. 11. Installing expansion anchors.7 mm).20 brick masonry. The first positioner is optimally located just above the foundation dowel bars. the dowels may be bent to a maximum 6:1 slope as shown in Figure 11.8.4 mm) of grout between the steel and the masonry when fine grout is used. This assures proper bond so that stresses are transferred between the steel and the masonry. When coarse (pea gravel) grout is used. Reinforcing steel must have a minimum of 1/4 in. 11. or some other positive connection may also be used to anchor dowels into the foundation. Article 3.8.4 B. cinch anchors. Reinforcement positioners for The effectiveness of reinforcing steel depends on the amount of grout surrounding the reinforcement.5. (12.5 CLEARANCES 11. Dowels can be installed by several methods including drilling over-sized holes and securing the dowels with grout or epoxy.1 CLEARANCE BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT AND MASONRY UNITS Horizontal reinforcing steel PLAN Grout space SECTION Typical double curtain positioner FIGURE 11.8. the clearance between the steel and the masonry units must be at least 1/2 in.19. Wire positioners or some other device may be used. Horizontal reinforcing steel Grout space PLAN SECTION Typical single curtain positioner Vertical reinforcing steel Horizontal reinforcing steel Positioners must be lined up vertically in a wall so the steel can be dropped through the proper slot in the positioner after the wall has been built.21 Reinforcement positioners for concrete masonry. Style: 6-1V-1H New dowels can be installed into the foundation if dowels are not supplied or if they are improperly located. Figures 11. Code requirements are contained in 2005 MSJC Specification.

Reinforcing steel clearances. 11. for course grout 1 1 1”or db min.1 mm) or 1. for course grout 1 1 db = Bar diameter Alternate configuration F IGURE 11.3.13. (38.4 mm). whichever is greater.8.25 Mi nimu m cl earance of reinforcement in a multiwythe brick wall. (25. or in the case of #9 through #11 bars.5 times the reinforcement diameter. for course grout 1 1 Spliced bars 1”or db min. /4”min. for fine grout /2”min.1 requires that the clear distance between parallel bars be at least 1 in. .22 1”or db min. FIGURE 11.3. /4”min. 1”or db min. for fine grout /2”min. the bar diameter.2).2 CLEAR SPACING BETWEEN REINFORCING BARS 2005 MSJC Code Section 1.226 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL /4”min. For columns (2005 MSJC Code Section 1. F IGURE 11. the clear distance increases to 11/2 in.13. FIGURE 11.5.24 Minimum clearance of horizontal reinforcement in a concrete masonry. for fine grout /2”min.23 Minimum clearance of vertical wall reinforcement in cell.

(38.4.9 ANCHORAGE OF REINFORCING STEEL IN MASONRY In order to develop reinforcing steel in masonry. sufficient embedment must be provided.8 mm) for reinforcing bars larger than #5 and 11/2 in. exterior exposure /2” min. When the masonry is exposed to the exterior (earth or weather) MSJC Code requires a minimum protective cover of 2 in.9 mm) of mortar cov erage f rom the joint reinforcement to the exposed surface.8. into the masonry.27 steel. and the reinforcement is only embedded 1/4 in.4). The term “ develop” means providing holding power by the masonry. Where masonry is not exposed to earth or weather.1 mm) when the bar size does not exceed #5.1. Minimum cover of reinforcing must be extended an adequate distance or development length. Min. /8” min. 11.8. a minimum cover of 11/2 in. The tension force was not developed in the masonry. or when sufficient length is not possible. (6. ld. if the reinforcement has a tension (pulling out of the masonry) of 1000 lbs. (50. which is typically the mortar joint (Figure 11. failure would occur with less than 1000 lbs.26 Minimum clearance between reinforcement in a column.1 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF STRAIGHT REINFORCEMENT To develop a reinforcing bar tension force. (12.1 mm) is sufficient (2005 MSJC Code Section 1. This can be accomplished by using a bar of sufficient length.9. FIGURE 11. spacing 11/2 or 11/2 db in columns FIGURE 11.2 JOINT REINFORCEMENT AND T IES Joint reinforcing steel can be used in mortar joints that are at l east twice as thick as t he joint reinforcement.6 REINFORCEMENT COVER 11. interior exposure 5 1 11. the bar FIGURE 11. hooks may be used.28).8. For example. (38.4 mm) into the masonry.REINFORCING STEEL 227 11.6.9. of force. There must be a minimum of 5/8 in. (15.7 mm) if the masonry is not exposed to earth or weather.1 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH 11. 11/2” recommended 2”for bars larger than #5.6. 11.2 reduces this minimum to 1/2 in.13.28 db Cover of joint reinforcement. 2005 MSJC Code Section 1. 11/2”for #5 bars and smaller when exposed to earth or weather 11/2”interior 2db min. .13.1 DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT Reinforcing steel must be completely embedded in mortar or grout with a minimum cover to assure protection.

6. A 180-degree turn plus extension of at least 4 bar diameters but not less than 21/2 in.13.13. 8 60 6 bar diameters No. 3 thru No. and the sum to be developed in the steel bar. J (in) D (in) A (in) D (in) 40 5 2 /8 7 1 /8 1 5 /2 1 /8 40 3 /2 1 2 /2 1 7 /4 1 2 /2 #5 40 3 4 /8 1 3 /8 9 3 /8 #6 40 5 /4 1 3 /4 3 10 /4 3 3 /4 #7 40 6 /8 1 4 /8 3 12 /2 1 4 /8 1 7 1 1 3 3 1 #3 50/60 3 2 /4 6 2 /4 #4 50/60 4 3 8 3 3 3 #5 50/60 5 3 /4 10 3 /4 #6 50/60 6 4 /2 1 12 4 /2 #7 50/60 7 5 /4 1 14 5 /4 #8 50/60 8 6 16 6 #9 50/60 11 /4 3 9 /2 1 19 9 /2 #10 50/60 13 /4 1 10 /4 3 22 10 /4 1 24 12 According to 2005 MSJC Code Section 1. Grade 50/60 180° D D1 d ° 5 13 4 db or 21/2”min. 11 60 8 bar diameters db 90° A FIGURE 11.6 The diameter of bend measured on the inside of the bar. or FIGURE 11.10.31 Standard 135° hook Detailing dimension 1 Table 11. (63. A 90-degree turn plus an extension of at least 12 bar diameters at free end of bar. 1 MSJC Code Section 1. (305 mm) and 6 in. A hook has the benefit of developing stress within a very short distance. the bar diameter.1. plus an extension of at least 6 bar diameters. Grade 50/60 D = 8db for #9 through #11. (152 mm) for wire.5 mm) at free end of bar D = 5db for #3 through #7.30 12 db Standard 90° hook. 228 FIGURE 11. shall be not less than values specified in Table 11. a ‘ standard hook’ is defined as one of the following: #11 50/60 3 14 /4 11 /2 1 1 1 3 3.9.2 requires embedment length as: Table 11. .0015dbFs for bars in tension The minimum embedment for reinforcement is 12 in. At least 6d but not less than 21/2 inches 2. Grade 40 D = 6db for # 3 through #8. For stirrup and tie anchorage only. 7 40 5 bar diameters No. 2005 MSJC Code Section 2. 45 ° max .5.MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The development length is based on the allowable bond stress.29 Standard 180° hook.7 Minimum Diameters of Bend Bar Size Grade Minimum Diameter No.6 Standard Hook and Bend db = bar diameter D = Finished inside bend diameter Dimensions of Standard 180 Hooks ld = 0. either a 90degree or a 135-degree turn.2 HOOKS 1.1. 9 thru No. Bar Size #3 The term “ hook”or “ standard hook”used for tie anchorage in SDC’ s D and E means a minimum turn of 135 degrees or 180 degrees. including stirrups and ties. Detailing dimension db J Dimensions of Standard 90 Hooks Grade #4 11. 3 thru No.

ledger beams and large signs. The following formula applies: 0. Any mechanical device capable of developing the strength of the bar without damage to the masonry may be used in lieu of a hook. 11. 11. Data should be presented to show the adequacy of such devices. Anchor bolts are commonly embedded at: ld = 0. clear spacing between adjacent bars nor 5 times db.13d b 2 f y  l de  K f 'm 1. psi (MPa) Strength design provisions are somewhat more complex for determining reinforcement lap splices.9. For these shorter lengths of reinforcement to function as continuous they must be connected in some fashion. Hooks are not eff ectiv e in adding to the compressive resistance of bars.3 LAP SPLICES FOR REINFORCING STEEL Often. The usual method is to lap (also known as lap splices) the bars a specified length. floors.002dbfs (Equation 21-2) where: ld = embedment length of lap of straight reinforcement db = diameter of reinforcement. it is not practical to build a reinforced masonry wall using a single continuous length of reinforcing steel.2. Embedded anchor bolts which are placed and grouted during construction. and 3.10 ANCHOR BOLTS 11.  = 1. Some examples for the use of anchor bolts are the connections between masonry walls and roofs. 11. The top of columns—for anchoring steel bearing plates onto the columns. 2006 IBC Section 2107.1 GENERAL Anchor bolts are used to connect masonry to structural supports and to transfer loads from masonry attachments such as ledgers and sill plates.5 requires that tension or compression lap splices for Allowable Stress Design be a minimum of 12 in.9. The reinforcement may be placed using bars that have been cut to manageable lengths. Anchor bolts can be divided into two categories: 1.0 for #3 thru #5 bars = 1.5 for #8 thru #9 bars Further requirements of the MSJC Code include a 50% splice length increase when epoxy coated bars are used and noncontact splice bars are to be separated by no more than 8 in. Splices may be made only at certain locations and in such manner that the structural strength of the member will not be reduced. 2. and 2. Welded or mechanical connections shall develop 125 percent of the specified yield strength of the bar in tension.9.8 mm) or in accordance with the following formula: 229 where: K shall not exceed the lesser of the masonry cover. inches (mm) fs = computed stress in reinforcement due to design loads.3 for #6 thru #7 bars = 1. Conv entional embedded anchor bolts are commonly specified as bent bar anchor bolts.REINFORCING STEEL Hooks should not be placed in the tension portion of any beam. (304.1. The surface of walls—for connecting relief angles and wood or steel ledger beams to the walls. The top of walls—for attaching sill plates and base plates to the walls. Drilled-in anchors which are placed after construction of the masonry.10. Hooks should not be assumed to carry a load which would produce a tensile stress in the bar greater than 7500 psi (51. (203 mm) or one fifth the required lap length.7 MPa). plate anchor bolts and headed anchor bolts. They are available in standard sizes (diameters and lengths) or can be f abri cated to meet specif ic proj ect requirements. standard hooks for lateral ties are defined as either a 135 degree standard hook or a 180 degree standard hook. Other hooks must conform to hooks as listed in Section 11.2 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR HIGHER SEISMIC RISK In SDC D and above. except at the ends of simple or cantilever beams or at the freely supported end of continuous or restrained beams. .

beams. The 2005 MSJC requires a minimum embedment of 2 in. and column bars Column ties Bend bar anchor bolt Vertical column reinforcing steel Diameter of bend = 3 db *** db FIGURE 11. lb. Although columns can be designed to support lateral loads they are primarily compression members supporting girders. and lb for bent bar anchors is the length of embedment measured perpendicular from the surface of the masonry to the bearing surface of the bent end minus one anchor bolt diameter. trusses or similar structural elements. reinforcement is assumed not to carry vertical compressive loads. 1/2” for coarse (pea gravel) grout *** 1/2” Min.10.3.14. extension = 1. such as gravity loads.2 TIES AT ANCHOR BOLTS IN COLUMNS Section 1.32 Anchor bolt detail. differential movements and dynamic vibrations. Anchor bolts are placed within at least 2 No. for #5 and smaller bars.33 lb* *** ** db ** Min. The Uniform Building Code required that bent bar anchor bolt must have a hook with a 90-degree bend and an inside diameter of three bolt diameters. ** 1/4” for fine grout. (50. The magnitudes of these loads can vary significantly. the reinforcing steel will participate in carrying vertical loads. Nevertheless.11. 2” for bars larger than #5 The effective embedment length.230 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Anchor bolts are subjected to shear and tension forces resulting from loads. if vertical reinforcement is not restrained against buckling by ties. 11.1 GENERAL db ** Headed anchor bolt A column is a vertical member at least three times as high as the least horizontal dimension. Minimum cover 11/2 in. 5” Ties must surround anchor bolts. (127 mm) of the column.5. whichever is greater. In walls. . db 11. earthquakes.1 of the 2005 MSJC Code requires confinement of anchor bolts at the top of columns for SDC C and above. for plate or headed anchor bolts is the length of embedment measured perpendicular from the surface of the masonry to the bearing surface of the plate or head of the anchorage. 4 lateral ties. lb* Grout * Minimum embedment lenght lb = 4db but lb may not be less than 2” (51 mm). plus an extension of 11/2 bolt diameters at the free end. wind forces.11 COLUMNS Plate anchor bolt lb * *** Anchor bolt ties at top of column. thus providing an added factor of safety in wall design.8 mm) or 4 bolt diameters. with the ties located within the top 5 in. strength design FIGURE 11.5 db 11.

projecting from a wall (pilaster). Reinforcing tie details. for #5 bars and smaller 2 in.36.0025 bt Min.1 COLUMN T IE REQUIREMENTS All longitudinal bars for columns shall be enclosed by lateral ties.2 COLUMN TIES . that is. 16” Nominal 8”CMU 75/8”square actual Column Ties 4-#3 bars 24” Column ties 231 12-#10 bars FIGURE 11. for bars larger than #5 11.11. min. At least four vertical bars are required in each column. The least dimension of columns by 2005 MSJC Code definition is 8 in. Columns may be categorized by location. 6 ” max. area = . Alternate longitudinal bars shall have such lateral support provided by ties and no bar shall be farther than 6 inches from such laterally supported bar as shown in Figure 11. area = . and not more than 0.2. or flush in a wall (buried). whichever is greater 11/2 in.11.1). The required area of vertical column reinforcement is at least 0. size #9 (SD) FIGURE 11.36 Tie anchorage 6d min.1. min.6.4 and 3. Column reinforcement Max.3.04 times the net cross sectional area of the column (2005 MSJC Code Sections 2. Lateral support is provided to the longitu-dinal bars by the corner of a complete tie having a 90° or 135° turn plus an extension of 6 bar diameters. however. size #3 Max. they may be isolated (free standing). FIGURE 11. The corner bars shall have such support provided by a complete tie enclosing the longitudinal bars.4. Min.4. vertical reinforcing steel significantly contributes to the load carrying capacity of the member when ties prevent the compression reinforcement from buckling. size #11(ASD) Max.04 bt Min. s pacing between vertical bars is 11/2 bar diameters or 11/2 in.REINFORCING STEEL In the design of columns. .35 Maximum amount of steel in a 16" x 24" column.34 Minimum column size and reinforcement.0025 times the net cross sectional area of the column. max 45° 11. (203 mm).

38 standard hollow unit. Space ties not more than 16 longitudinal bar diameters.3 TIE SPACING FOR ELEMENTS THAT ARE PART OF THE LATERAL SYSTEM Alternate courses 11.2 T YPICAL LAYOUT OF T IES AND MASONRY UNITS FOR COLUMNS Alternate courses FIGURE 11.11.11. 48 tie diameters or the least dimension of the column.37 Masonry columns using pilaster Lateral ties of at least 1/4 in.4 mm) should encase the longitudinal bars or be placed in the horizontal bed joints provided the ties are not more than half the height of the mortar joint. Figure 11. 48 tie diameters. whichever is less.11. units.232 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 11.2. FIGURE 11. 11. B and C.40 illustrates the general column tie requirements for SDC A.3. or least dimension of column. Tie spacing Alternate courses Maximum tie spacing in columns with lower seismic risk. Masonry columns using . Alternate courses FIGURE 11. diameter (6.39 Typical brick columns.1 T IE SPACING FOR LOWER SEISMIC RISK FIGURE 11.40 Ties at 16 bar diameters.

44 Non-projecting wall concrete masonry wall columns. . (203 mm) maximum. Wall ties Wall ties FIGURE 11. FIGURE 11.3.4 NON-PROJECTING WALL COLUMNS Table 11. (mm) 3 6 (152) 4 8 (203) 5 10 (254) 6 12 (304) 7 14 (355) 8 16 (406) 9 18 (457) 10 20 (508) 11 22 (559) Table 11. Ties in grout space Stagger ties FIGURE 11. Additionally.42 Non-projecting wall brick columns with ties in mortar joint.2 T IE SPACING FOR HIGHER SEISMIC RISK Ties at 8 in.11. in.9 Tie Spacing –48 tie diameters Maximum Tie Tie Bar.11. inches (mm) 2 12 (304) 3 18 (457) 4 24 (610) Columns that are contained within a masonry wall may benefit both the owner and the contractor.8 Tie Spacing –16 bar diameters Longitudinal Maximum Tie Bar. Tie spacing Maximum tie spacing for SDC D and above is 8 in.41 Maximum tie spacing in columns with higher seismic risk. the ties must be embedded in grout. No.REINFORCING STEEL 233 11. Wallcontained columns permit faster construction since there are no projections from the wall and no special units are required. with a minimum size of #3 tie for reinforcement. The reinforcing steel must be tied in accordance with the code requirements. (203 mm) and the ties must be at least 3/8 in.43 Non-projecting wall brick columns with ties in grout space. Spacing. FIGURE 11.5 mm) in diameter. (9. Spacing. 12”minimum overlap Tie in mortar joint 135° bend on tie 11. No.

Heavily loaded girders which frame into a wall may require substantial base plates in the column. The wall between pilasters can then be designed to span horizontally allowing very high walls to be built using only nominal masonry thickness. Reinforcement for masonry column. In order to provide a convenient girder seat and adequate Projecting pilasters also serve to stiffen the wall if adequately supported at the top and bottom.11.45 Construction of reinforced concrete masonry pilaster with continuous bond beams. columns called pilasters are often built projecting from the face of the wall.234 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 11. Reinforcement in curved masonry wall. . Vertical reinforcement Lateral ties Webs of pilaster units partially removed to permit placing of horizontal reinforcement Horizontal bond beam reinforcement Place metal lath or wire screen under and above bond beam in partially grouted wall FIGURE 11.5 PROJECTING WALL COLUMNS OR PILASTERS column capacity.

2 TYPES OF STONE Natural stone has been in extensive use for many centuries as one of the most widely accessible building materials available. In describing the appearance of field stone. 12.  Sedimentary rocks (sandstone.  Metamorphic rocks (marble and slate). Stone may also be purely an architectural function. Through the years. stair treads. This is known as a stone curtain wall. In today’ s modern construction. The most common types of stone for construction are:  Igneous rock (granite). . Both rubble and ashlar masonry may be laid as coursed stone masonry which has continuous horizontal joint lines or as uncoursed or random which does not. Over long periods of time its properties. marble. arches. This use may be structural or architectural. and vaults. Stone may be laid in mortar. Since the beginning of civilization. but small. applications. which is made up of squared pieces. exterior and interior finish and various types of trim pieces in masonry construction. like brick or concrete block. mechanically attached in large sheets as a thin facing over the structural frame and walls of a building. This is a material made from various types of naturally occurring rock. stone is used in thin slabs for countertops. and travertine).1 RUBBLE AND ASHLAR STONE In buildings and residential construction. stone has been used as a structural material and a finish material. Stone offers the architect a wide variety of applications and unlimited combinations of textures and colors. slate and sandstone.2. sedimentary. flooring. Stone is the primary building material of the earth’ s crust. Solid stone is rarely used for structural purposes due to the increased cost of stone and installation labor. The improvement in quarrying and finishing stone has made this building material recuperate popularity among architects. Rock is a geologic term that means solid and unconsolidated material in the earth’ s crust. pyramids and obelisks of early cultures reached ast onishing perf ection both in excel lence of workmanship and in technique of stone transport.1 GENERAL 12. stone has stimulated the artistic sense and has appealed to man’ s most primitive needs. stone can be used in two different ways. to make walls. quarried pieces of rock are called stone.1 lists the most common uses for granite. limestone. there are two simple distinctions useful in classifying patterns of stone masonry:  Rubble masonry. Table 12. which is composed of unsquared pieces of stone and  Ashlar masonry. constitute a story that is unbelievably complex. limestone. Extraordinary stone sculptures. and metamorphic. There are three classifications of rock: igneous. Stone requires considerable thickness.CHAPTER 12 NATURAL STONE 12. and behavior.

ashlar stonework has unique problems. Also. Ashlar is a highly shaped stone. Stone application may be restricted in regions where the air is heavily polluted. particularly marble and limestone.2 STONE COURSING The coursing of stone is dependent on the type of stone. Stonework should be cleaned with mild soap. mortar joints in ashlar work are usually raked out after setting the stones. broken range (semi-coursed) and random (uncoursed). and a soft brush. the work should be covered as much as possible. Unlike clay brick. During construction. special care should be taken to keep stonework clean. such as attaching a hoisting rope to the sides or top of the stone block avoiding interference with the mortar joint. the masons return to point the wall by filling the joints out to the face with mortar and tooling to the desired profile.236 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 12. After the mortar in a wall has cured. High standards of workmanship should be implemented and nonstaining mortars should be used.1 Stone Application Stone Type Uses Exterior wall panels Granite Marble Limestone Slate Sandstone Interior finish panels Thresholds. Stone coursing in random masonry does not exist. Rubble stone is used with little or no shaping. The stones must be lined and placed by a hoist when they are too heavy to lift manually. Stones are coursed for short distances in broken range masonry. To avoid any uneven positioning of the stone due to the quicker drying and hardening of mortar at the face of the wall. flooring and stair treads Base and trim Tabletops Toilet partitions Hearths Window sills Sculpture Chips for terrazzo Coping Lintels Sculptured trim Flooring and stair treads Countertops Roofing Exterior panels Exterior paving Flooring The meaning of the terms are very general and there can be some variation in usage even among those experienced in the field of stone masonry.2 and 12. 12. ashlar may consists of thick pieces of stone and therefore be referred to as cut stone. The irregular shapes and sizes of the rubble stone require the mason to select each stone carefully to fit the available space. Also. therefore there are no aligned vertical joints. and occasionally to trim a stone.2. Figures 12. . Several types of devices are commonly used for this purpose. Stone is stronger and more weather resistant in the horizontal direction so rubble or ashlar masonry should be laid with the quarry bed or grain of the stone running in the horizontal direction. 12. There are several methods used to place stones in a wall. using acid for stone cleaning may not be a viable option.1. flooring and stair treads Base and trim Countertops Water courses Lintels Window sills Hearths Sculpture Chips for terrazzo Exterior wall panels Interior finish panels Thresholds. normally with a mason’ s hammer. Some building stone. These methods are classified into range (coursed). Squared stone is a stone with slightly shaped edges resulting in vertical joints. When stones are placed in uniform courses for the entire length of the wall it is called range masonry. Masonry flashing must be nonstaining metal or plastic.3 show some common stone wall patterns. Similar in many ways to brickwork. water. deteriorate rapidly in the presence of acid.

2.2 SPLIT STONE MASONRY PATTERNS Three-Height Pattern FIGURE 12.2.2. granite and limestone are summarized in Table 12. The selection of stone f inishes should be appropriate for the conditions under which they will be used. There are a wide variety of available finishes for the different types of stone used in construction.1 RUBBLE STONE MASONRY PATTERNS 237 12.2. Surfaces highly polished.3 SPLIT STONE MASONRY HEIGHT PATTERN Uncoursed Fieldstone One-Height Pattern (Single Rise) Uncoursed Ledge Rock Two-Height Pattern Uncoursed Roughly Square FIGURE 12. for example. 12.2 Split stone masonry patterns. does a “ shot-ground”finish apply or give the same finish as a “ shot-sawed” ? The nomenclature of marble.2.NATURAL STONE 12.2.3 STONE FINISHES Coursed Ashlar-Running Bond Random Coursed Ashlar Random Broken Coursed Ashlar FIGURE 12.1 Rubble stone patterns. For example. Each type of stone has its own nomenclature. are not appropriate for flooring or stairs where a small amount of water will make the surface very slippery. rough finishes may not be appropriate for exterior walls.2.2. 12. . In an environment where dirt and pollution may collect and be difficult to clean.3 Split stone height patterns.

concave-convex finish produced by splitting action. fine stipple Sandblasted. and other nonslip surfaces Smooth surface suitable for stair treads and other nonslip surfaces Machine finish producing a uniform honed finish.219 mm) long. 6. available in ashlar or similar stone veneer only Similar to split face except that the face of the stone has been dressed by machine or by hand to produced bold convex projection along the face of the stone . without reflections Smooth and free from scratches. pebbled surface that closely resembles the appearance of sandblasting. limits stone sizes to 1'-4" (406 mm) high 4'-0" (1. with scorings 3/32 inch (2. with occasional slight trails or scratches Coarse plane surface produced by blasting with an abrasive. surface coarseness varies. (Not recommended for floor finishes) Satin-smooth surface with little or no gloss (Recommended for commercial floors) Matte-textured surface with no gloss (Recommended for exterior use) Flat. depending upon grain structure of granite Plane surface.4 mm) in depth. rotary or circular saws make circular scorings. uses only select grade or standard grade Rough texture produced by rough planning the surface of the stone Finish made by cutting parallel. sometimes contains shallow saw marks or parallel scores. roughly parallel grooves. with texture ranging from wire sawn (a close approximation of rubbed finish) to shot sawn. no sheen Plane surface with occasional slight trails or scratches Plane surface with pronounced circular markings or trails having no regular pattern Plane surface with flame finish applied by mechanically controlled means to ensure uniformity.238 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 12.6 mm) Coarse. coarse stipple Sawn Marble Finishes Polished Honed Sandblasted Abrasive Wet-sand Limestone Finishes Smooth finish Plucked Machine tooled Chat-sawed Shot-sawed Split face Rock face Mirror gloss.2 Stone Finishes Granite Finishes Polished Honed Fine-rubbed Rubbed Shot-ground Thermal (Flame) Sandblasted. shot-sawn surfaces are sandblasted to remove all rust stains and iron particles Glossy surface which brings out the full color and character of the marble. concave grooves in stone with 4. stair treads. gang saws produce parallel scorings. or 8 grooves to the inch.8 to 1. nonreflective surface suitable for exterior use. uneven. depth of the grooves range from 1/32 to 1/16 inch (0. steel shot used during gang-sawing rusts during process. direction of score or saw marks will be vertical and/or horizontal in the wall unless the direction is specified Coarse. coarseness varies with type of preparatory finish and grain structure of granite Relatively plane surface. uneven finish ranging from a pebbled surface to one rippled with irregular. adding permanent brown tones to the natural color variations Rough. with sharp reflections Dull sheen. slightly pebbled.

Some common methods of anchoring and forming corner joints are show in Figures 12. For example. Understanding the application of stone to the backup system as veneer will facilitate a practical design. and band courses are types of stone work that use cut stone.NATURAL STONE 239 12. Typical installation of stone veneer at the parapet on a concrete frame building at the roof line is shown in Figure 12. Non-staining and non-shrinking portland cement mortar should be used to fill the joints of the stone. The attaching of cut stone and stone veneer to masonry.1 to 32. trim. gypsum plaster is not appropriate.6. to 1 /4 in. coping. regularly called dimension stone. a masonry or concrete wall could be the structural support system and the stone veneer is applied to the wall with mastic.4.2. and 12. The space around the anchoring device between the back of the stone and the structural wall should be surrounded with plaster to hold the stone away from the wall. Corner joints.2 mm) thick can be used as cladding over a structural support system. (19.5 mm) thick.4 STONE CONSTRUCTION Stone veneer supplied in thin slabs from 3/4 in. 3/4 R ” Shim Corner Cove Stainless steel expansion bolt Corrosion resistant angle Steel stud structural support Corrosion resistant dowel Stone veneer Corner Block Stone veneer Steel stud structural support Two way cramp strap anchor FIGURE 12. Improved cutting and fabricating methods can be used to make very thin slabs approximately 3/8 in.5. For exterior use.5 Cement spot FIGURE 12. concrete and steel construction should be with metal clamps and anchors.4 Anchoring details. . 1 Mortar Butt Joint Typical wire anchor Steps. (9.

Granite is an excellent choice for building exteriors and interiors due to its natural properties.3. The moisture absorbed during fabrication gives the granite a different color than in its dry state and occasionally.1 GRANITE Granite is an igneous rock and is made up of sev eral diff erent minerals such as f eldspars. travertine and sandstone. Glaciers scraped off layers of dirt. Once dry. Building designs can be affected by the distinctive physical characteristics of every stone. Also. 12. in particular. Granite will return to its true color after drying. Weathering and airborne chemicals are not normally issues of concern for granite. Granite is cut with a slurry of water and abrasive material. in general. stone has been present in our building culture. although capable of absorbing moisture. The crust of the earth has changed with seismic activity.3. To create stone pieces exactly sized for the project. each having a different hardness. posses non-porous characteristics providing superior weather resistance when compared to other building materials. it is the strongest natural resource that withstands centuries. and granite. rich textures and amazing visual depth that can enhance any of their designed buildings. sand and rock to expose granite formations. In poli shed granite surf aces. Usually the amount of change is minor and not problematic. the chemical composition of granite is comparable to lava.1 CHARACTERISTICS Expansion Granite stone expands and contracts with temperature change. 12.3 DIFFERENCES IN STONE Since the beginning of civilization. 12. However. f reeze/thaw weathering is unusual. For this reason. architects and engineers must work closely with design craftsmen and stone setters. solid material used for shelter. . limestone. granite is shipped before it is completely dried. durable. Thermal finishes of granites are slightly permeable and granite could suffer minor freeze/thaw weathering in the top quarter-inch (6.2 BUILDING APPLICATIONS The requirements for each construction project are different and unique. amphiboles. These properties make granite one of the most durable building materials. is significantly less porous than other building stones. rain and humidity will not normally penetrate the stone. Modern quarrying and fabrication techniques applied by stone producers have given architects a wide variety of alternatives to consider when designing with granite. and last longer than other natural building materials. Permeability Granite. The most common types of building stones are granite.1. granite owes its hardness and density to the fact that it has been solidified deep within the earth under extreme pressure. marble. Weathering Stone. Stone is a permanent. Nonabsorbent and stain-resistant granite requires low maintenance.6 Parapet detail. forcing veins of granite to the surface. Designers and architects can enjoy the design freedom with deep colors.4 mm) of finish. 12.3. biotites and other mineral combinations.1.240 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Coping anchor Stone coping Grout Drip Counter flashing Lateral anchor between panels Dovetail slot cast in concrete Flashing Stone veneer panel Flashing set in reglet Weep holes Concrete insert FIGURE 12.

1. counters and vanities. Courtyards and gardens can be enhanced with granite paving. Lobbies and atriums are open spaces where granite is used extremely well. Sealers can change the texture and surface of thermal-finished stone. fountains. Stylish bathrooms are created with beautiful. Also. such as high-traffic areas may require a stronger cleaner. when applying an impregnator. As usual. such as planters.7 Exterior granite landscape. During freeze/ thaw cycles. Prior to its general application. The recommendation for cleaning granite surfaces is to use a neutral detergent and water. Landscaping Granite is popular in exterior landscape design due to its durability and beauty. 241 The imagination of landscape architects to make exterior settings. The use of granite in lobbies. FIGURE 12. a sample area of the granite should be tested to assure that there will be no detrimental affect to the color or texture. A mild solution of soap and water is enough to clean dirt from the granite surface. Each building structure should be created by designers that work directly with stone experts. A polished preserver/restorer may be used for polished and honed floors subject to heavy commercial traffic. Locations subjected to tracking of outside dirt and grime. this condition may lead to surface cracks and a blurring appearance. can be shaped to the designer’ s requirements. Elaborate elements contain idividual pieces numbered in the manufacturing process enabling correct field assembly. Also. benches fountains and planters. The architect or designer can have pieces of granite virtually any size or shape fabricated particularly for the required building. A list of granite maintenance tips is given in Table 12. limestones and sandstones. Granite desks and coffee tables make executive offices and boardrooms distinctive and elegant.3. executive offices and stylish bathrooms is unlimited.3. Depending on the project and application. Landscape structures may be built with concrete or masonry backup and use granite as a veneer.NATURAL STONE Exterior Enhancing the appearance with beautiful and durable granite cladding is one of the best ways to showcase a building. however. benches and pilasters. for interior design. if subjected to staining agents. Acid rain and modern air pollution combined with freeze/thaw cycles are eroding and staining marbles. Granite is known to be the hardest and most moisture-resistant of all building stones and most resistant to these destructive forces. In exterior applications. The natural beauty of structures can be damaged by these forces and the structural integrity compromized. an appropri ate impregnator should be used to enhance stain resistance. When thermal-finished granite is expected to be in regular contact with stai ning agent s. specific anchoring systems may be recommended by granite producers. Stain resistance can be increased with the use of sealers. The application of a granite cladding system with striking exteriors is a distinctive process to each building. any sealer should be pre-tested on the granite stone in a variety of conditions. benches. sealers can create layeres that build up on the surface and are less durable than the granite. Even granite.3 MAINTENANCE Interior Granite. The high density of natural granite resists absorption of staining materials and in many situations granite surfaces are best left untreated with impregnating or sealing agents. sealers are not recommended since they can catch moisture within the top layer of stone. Designers may choose from a wide range of granite cladding systems. . 12. can lose luster due to dirt and other normal forces in high-traffic areas. The surface texture or color of the granite should not be altered by the impregnators. inviting and useful as well as beautiful is unlimited. maintenance-f ree granite walls. terraces and fountains. the use of granite makes unique fountains.

Rub thoroughly with stiff brush. Rub on thoroughly with rag. Wash thoroughly with water and wipe dry.1. Remove and wash with detergent and water. Apply with rag.3. These details serve as typical examples from which drawings may be developed for specific projects.4 DETAILS This section provides basic details and elevations for a variety of exterior and interior granite applications. however. Mix hydrogen peroxide and plaster 1 and apply in thick ( /2" +) patch. Stone .3 Granite Maintenance Tips Condition Cleaning Agent General Construction Detergent and water Mortar Stains Phosphoric acid (Caution: etches metal) Paint Paint & varnish remover New Oil and Grease Stains Muriatic Acid Rust and Metal Stains Detergent and water for Minor stains. 12.8 Steps. Add residue Rub on thoroughly with rag or sponge. Naphtha gas or pyrene for major stains Neutralize with caustic soda Phosphoric acid compound Old Oil & Grease Stains Hydrogen peroxide & Plaster of Paris Tar and Pitch Naphtha gas or pyrene Application Method Sponge or wipe on with rag.9 Coping. the designer must consider issues for the specific application. Wash off with detergent and water. Wipe dry. Let cure for three hours. Wipe dry. Wipe dry. Rub in thoroughly with sponge or rag. Rub thoroughly with fiber brush. Wash thoroughly with clear water. Stone coping Dowel Concrete or masonry Anchor Dowels Anchor Stone Stone Stone coping (sloped for drain) Dowel Concrete or masonry Anchor Stone FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12. Wipe dry. Wash with detergent and water.242 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Table 12. Apply with rag. Wash off with detergent and water.

.12 Paving.NATURAL STONE Split edge grout joint Grout joint Mortar bed Mortar bed Anchor Grout joint Anchor 243 Grout joint Stone Stone Grout joint Level surface Mortar bed Stone Sealant Dowel Sloped slab Pedestal Mortar bed FIGURE 12. Steel truss system.13 Stone FIGURE 12.10 Base. FIGURE 12.11 Columns. Anchor Steel truss Anchor Anchor Clip angle Face of granite Stone Concrete Anchor Concrete Strap anchor Clip angle Steel truss FIGURE 12.

17 Granite faced precast. FIGURE 12.15 Curtain wall system. Steel clip system.244 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Clip angle Anchor Shim Anchor Anchor Clip angle Leveling bolt Face of granite Dowel Face of granite Support structure Anchor bolt Clip angle Clip angle FIGURE 12.14 Clip system. Granite sill Bond breaker Anchor bolt Self taping metal screws Face of granite Face of granite Precast concrete Masonry or concrete Kerf Granite soffit Continuous kerf FIGURE 12. .16 FIGURE 12.

Limited only by the imagination of the designer who wants the artistic features and permanence of the stone building.3.NATURAL STONE 245 12. such as State Departments. color.18 Anchor bolt Granite faced soffit. Face of granite Dowel Support structure Anchor bolt Clip angle Marble. a stone of high standing is axiomatic.2 MARBLE Clip angle Anchor bolt Throughout the years. other buildings may require use of marble in vast quantities. The choice of marble for an exterior application is made on the basis of three fundamental criteria: durability.2.19 Stainless steel anchors. for public buildings. All calcareous rocks as well as some dolomitic and serpentine rocks that are able to be polished are commercially called marbles. First and foremost are commercial buildings. railway stations of important cities. airports and other highly visible public facilities. textures. Therefore. The wide variety of colors. hospitals. In addition to dwellings. marble expresses status and great distinction which attracts the social elite. For all of these buildings.1 APPLICATION Granite soffit FIGURE 12. This stone is also imperative. size may become a limiting factor to consider. Marble has been successfully applied as an exterior veneer on various types of buildings. 12. with hundreds of varieties available and each possessing varying physical characteristics. buildings with stone have been used for artistic expression. is a product of nature. patterns. there is nothing that can be done to change or modify the conditions in which nature presents these varieties. no other material is more appropriate than marble. With hotels. and surface finish. In the selection of marble. premises of important industrial companies and prominent hotels. Marble is particularly suitable for outside walls in order to achieve the goal desired. these features are obtained through the assemblage of essential pieces into a magnificent sculpture of a building. . Shim The crystalization of limestones or dolomites form a metamorphic rock commonly called marble. For these buildings. such as banks. churches.3. FIGURE 12. even though less stringent. and sizes provides a costeffective way for the designer to achieve a unique character to the structure.

more highly reflective surfaces require more finishing and consequently more time.246 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL FIGURE 12. The strength of a marble. Marble should be tested to determine the strength. some changes in color may not materially affect the integrity of the marble but may be desirable for architectural or aesthetic effects. The desired finish bears relationship to final cost as the smoother. show bright reflecting surfaces. depends on many factors such as: . the grains are elongated in one direction by the folding and applications of the beds. all material must ultimately decompose or disintegrate. FIGURE 12. The main component of most marbles are grains of crystalline calcite with definite cleavage planes which.2 CHARACTERISTICS Durability Durability is a characteristic of the material to withstand climatological effects. varies in strength from quarry to quarry and even within a quarry. Texture The term texture. Color Color is a particularly important feature in architectural design. Surface Finishes The marble surface may be finished in a number of ways. relates to the size. when broken. A local contractor may also be consulted to determine the availability of certain colors and types of building stone in the area. like many natural stones. When exposed to the processes of weathering.3. which is a measure of ability to resist stresses. whereas rough finishes subdue the veining of markings. Smooth finishes emphasize color and veining. as applied to marble. degree of uniformity and arrangement of constituent minerals. For example. and endure attacks from pollutants. resist atmospheric agents. however. giving an appearance of age. 12. A distinction should be made between weathering and decay of marble. Strength Marble.20 Marble entry. In most marbles. Not all changes by weathering agents are necessarily undesirable or harmful since they do not always destroy or materially alter the natural integrity of the marble within a given length of time. Selection of color can be aided by contacting the marble or stone suppliers as the most reliable source of information.2. The most economical finish for exterior use is the abrasive finish.21 Marble colors (salmon walls and white entrance).

The quarries can provide information for thermal characteristics of any specific marble. the light transmission is reduced. codes and physical conditions of the structure. there are many features that can be achieved depending on the type of material. Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Stone Subjected to Foot Traffic. Heat travels through marbles quite rapidly due to thermal conductivity. This attribute is not possessed by all marble varieties. In the architectural application of stone veneer. This consderation is due to the marble use with different materials when forming large units that are firmly attached. Translucency One of the most interesting characterisctics of marble stone is translucency. Color .2. The natural folds and veins found in marble create a distinctive marking trend throughout the stone block that is necessary for a pattern. 12. The size of anchors depends upon materials. such as stainless steel.3 INTERIOR VENEER With interior veneer applications. For example. which usually increases the installed cost of the marble or stone veneer. Any deflections in a marble system must be minor or the deflections must occur at the joints. Fire Resistance Marbles. and two for each additional 8 square feet (0. All anchor ties must be made of corrosion-resistant metal. In addition marble can be heavy (dependent on thickness) which could induce higher seismic forces.Marbles are more translucent with white and lighter colors. and •the nature of any cementing materials present Thermal Expansion The thermal expansion of marble is an important consideration since its coefficient varies from one variety to another. Marble is a very brittle material and cannot withstand large deflections. wind load. anchors should be engineered separately for each project. particularly when the Ha (abrasion hardness valve) is 10 or more.7 m2). Formal patterns require selectivity. 12.When the thickness of the marble stone increases. due to wearing quality when exposed to pedestrian traffic.1 m2) of surface area. are fire resistant. The type of marble may dictate other anchor requirements. Veneer Patterns Abrasion Resistance Marbles are recommended for floors and stairs.3. back-up material.3. colored and veined marbles are usually used since they present many decorative features.Marbles containing certain crystal structure are able to transmit light. the aesthetic factor is significantly important. Translucency depends on the following factors: Crystal Structure . The fire resistance of marble can be improved with the use of insulating material. trade practices provide for a minimum of four anchors per piece of marble up to 12 square feet (1. therefore.2. •the interlocking of the crystals. bronze and brass straps and copper. One features is the pattern of panel placement. Surface Finish .Translucency is more visible in smooth finishes than in rough finishes. The method for determining Ha is contained in ASTM C 241. Seismic Considerations •the rift and cleavage of the crystals. .NATURAL STONE 247 •the degree of consistency. Seismic considerations require engineering based on specific factors for each project such as panel weight. structural flexure and seismic conditions.4 INSTALLATION Anchors Based on specific factors. Marble will lend i tself t o speci f ic pat tern arrangements. Thickness . as any stone. such as side slip pattern and end slip pattern.

changes are needed to accommodate other trades and design revisions. . The progress of the job can be maintained when repairs are allowed to be made on site thus aiding in the successful completion of the work. Additionally.248 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL “ U”Cramp Strap Dovetail Strap Gripstay “ L”Strap “ U”Bar Wire Tieback (with Dowel) “ Z”Cramp Strap Dovetail Twisted Two Way Strap Dovetail L-Strap Dovetail Dowel Strap Gripstay Two Way Strap “ L”Bar or Hooked Bolt “ Z”Bar Wire Tieback Lewis Key (Plug Anchor) “ L”Strap with Dowel Twp Way Cramp Strap Twisted Strap Dovetail Two Way Strap Dovetail Strap (with dowel) Gripstay Strap (with Dowel) Eye Rod and Dowel Ring Lead Cinch Anchor bolt Tee Bar Strap (with Dowel) Sleeve Type Expansion Anchor Bolt Plain Threaded Bent Rod FIGURE 12. Relieving Angles All openings need relieving angles to support the stone above. Field Repair During construction of any structure. Angles must have the capacity to safely support the load of the stone veneer.1 m) vertical spacing. Repairs done at the site by qualified marble craftsmen will not change the desired appearance or strength of the completed installation. relieving angles should be placed at each story height or at a maximum of 20 ft (6. Materials on site or during transportation can be broken and repair or patching of marbles may be necessary.22 Spring Clip (with Collar) Relieving Angle Clip Shim Dowels Typical standard anchors. These changes may require field fabrication and finishing of marble that can be executed by qualified marble craftsmen.

Joints can be divided into normal joints and expansion/contraction joints.249 NATURAL STONE Colored Grouts Backing Rods There are a wide variety of colored grouting materials offered by many suppliers.24 Flush wall joint.26). since some marbles are more porous than others.23 Expansion and control joints. Face of stone Backing rod Waterproof caulking Sealant Filler strip or backing rod Compressed Joint Sealant Filler strip or backing rod Expanded Joint FIGURE 12. Modern construction practice uses backing rods placed between the marble veneer units with a caulking sealant applied into the joint from the face side of the veneer (see Figures 12. A normal joint may be capable of performing as an expansion joint. FIGURE 12. Typical Joint Designs and Caulking Face of stone Joints between stone panels are a factor in the design of successful building stone systems. but this quality only acts as a redundancy in the system and is not to substitute for the actual expansion joint. 12. At the same time it must also furnish a weather-tight seal to prevent water leakage through the joints. Face of stone . Testing should be done to determine the acceptability between the colored joint filler and the stone before proceeding.24. whereas expansion/contraction joints have the specific duty of absorbing the expansion and contraction movements of the structure of the building. Normal joints are the ordinary joints between stone panels. Waterproof caulking Backing rod FIGURE 12. The pigments contained in the colored grout should not stain the stone. This detail is important since it must prevent stress accumulation and provide relief of the stresses due to movement of the stone or the backup system.25 Butt joint. When portland cement mortar is used to seal joints. it should be placed as late as possible in the construction process and after the joints have been scraped clean and generously moistened.25 and 12.

(9. and in some cases. These are typically highly plastic compounds. Waterproof caulking Face of stone 6. To avoid possible smears in critical areas. slight pressure will compress the gasket for efficient water protection. It must provide resistance. when used as joint fillers. No caulked joint should be deeper than the joint width. FIGURE 12. Gaskets.4 mm) wide. Caulking The best sealing is obtained with special caulking materials called sealants. sealing the back and front of the joint (double sealing) is recommended. An important feature in the determination of the joint sealant is the selection of the filler. are usually extruded or pre-formed for joint. such as interior marble veneer. It should be plastic and not crack and should maintain plasticity through time. 7. usually silicon or (poly)urethene. Particular care must be taken to assure clean joints for proper adhesion. 5. Typical joints are 1/4 in. The backing rods can be porous. The sealant compound must be compatible with all other units to perform correctly. or backing rod. 2. (3. or the backing rod can be non-porous. .2 mm) wide. It should not be affected by chemical agents which would normally be found in buildings. Proper caulking of the joints prevents moisture penetration and avoids the development of high stress from any movement of the marble veneer. only 1/8 in. air and dust-proof (impermeable). performs three functions: it controls the depth of the caulking sealant. called closed cell. If stone thickness and setting conditions allow. Adhesion and stain tests are recommended. Sealant application must be in accordance with manufacturer’ s recommendations. It should neither stain nor corrode the stone or adjacent material. Caulked joints in marble veneer are usually smaller than those found in regular brick or concrete block masonry. The joint filler. It should be water. The depth of the caulking material in the joint should be between 1/8 in. tape can be used along the joint edges. if provides support for the caulking sealant when compressed during tooling. all kerfs or holes on the surface of the marble to which the sealant will be applied must be filled with a high-quality nonstaining compatible sealant. such as mortar and cement alkalinity. Before applying the caulking sealant. Face of stone Backing rod 4.2 mm) and 3/8 in. (6.250 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 3. or approximately half the joint width. It must give constant adherence to the materials to which it is applied. (3.5 mm) deep. 8.26 Mitred joint. and it acts as a bond breaker for the sealant to prevent three-sided adhesion (three-sided adhesion can result in failure of the sealant). 9. Caulked waterproof joints are applied over joints that have backing rods inserted. The caulking or sealant application of marble stone veneer is one of the final steps in cladding construction. to atm ospheric agents wi thout marked alterations of physical and chemical qualities. It should be compatible with other fillers used in the same joint. through time. A good sealant should sati sf y t he f ollowing requirements: 1. called open cell. Primers may be required. or maintenance substances. and are typically made of polyetilene or polysteryne rope.

Areas with dark. Lining kerfs with epoxy or polyurethane or applying a hydrophobic sealer or the use of a material that can prevent water being transmitted from the kerf edge to the face of the stone is effective in eliminating the damp appearance problem.joint (Tooled) FIGURE 12. (4.27 for typical portland cement mortar joints. Flashing should be placed over all openings. This ensures that the mortar will fail first. the aggregate should be carefully washed and free of clay. The darker area is the result of moisture in the stone. damp appearance of moisture may occur on the face of thin stone. Also. Flashing Caulked joint FIGURE 12. (610 mm) along the flashing. water may penetrate stone veneer more rapidly than normally expected. Flashing Condensation also produces moisture. Commonly used flashing materials are waterproof. iron and salt.28. Cement used in mortar should not contain noxious components. one end higher against the structure and turned with the other end lower in the stone joint as shown in Figure 12. Flashing can be flexible material installed between the stone panel and the structure. Concave (Tooled) Flush Masonry or concrete backup Reglet V . (6. even though the 2005 MSJC Code allows for 3/16 in. . thus allowing time to correct and repair the cause of the failure before the marble can be damaged. The compressive strength of the mortar used for joint sealing must be less than the compressive strength of the marble. 251 Moisture flows through the natural faults and voids in the stone at different rates. The problem can be aggravated by kerfs in the edge of the stone. (838 mm) on center. Epoxy Fill Since the advent of thinner building stone. blocked off in some areas. rubberized fabric. evaporating as it reaches the face of the stone. See Figure 12.28 Continuous waterproof flashing (typical detail for concrete or masonry backup). lintels and continuous support angles with 1/4 in.NATURAL STONE Mortar and Sealant Joints Preventing the formation of stains on exterior veneered stone will assist in maintaining the aesthetic appeal of marble veneer. such as blast furnace cements or a high alkaline portland cement. therefore water must be permitted to drain from the setting space behind the stone by using properly designed weep holes and flashing.8 mm) diameter weep holes spaced at 33 in. flowing readily through others. thin gauge stainless steel or copper flashings.4 mm) weep holes spaced every 24 in.27 Raked (Tooled) Typical portland cement mortared joints. The visual effect of lining and sealing material on the behavior of the entire veneer should be evaluated prior to its use. polyethylene or soft neoprene sheets or soft.

cramp #8 wire anchor Face of veneer Cement spot FIGURE 12. or stailess steel wire Drip (3/8”min. By considering different stone slabs and how they are going to perform as a unit.29 Molded marble coping (typical detail for concrete or masonry backup).29). Many designers use copings for this purpose. All wire anchors must be embedded in portland cement spots. In this system. Cement spot Face of veneer Masonry or concrete U . Mitred joint corner. code requirements must be met.31 Corner detail. Install second Masonry or concrete Cement spot Drip (3/8”min. the designer can create an appealing and durable structure. When developing anchor details. All anchor ties must be made of non-ferrous or stainless steel corrosion-resistant metal. Anchor Details FIGURE 12. A common type of anchor system is known as “ wire tied” . 2 per stone Install first #8 brass. Gypsum casting plaster can be used for interior installation only. both ways) Full mortar bed Sealant Continuous metal flashing Masonry or concrete Impervious felt Masonry or concrete Cement spot FIGURE 12. both ways) /4” 1 Stainless steel pins. A coping is usually a stone slab laid over the top of a wall and designed to prevent water from entering the wall system (see Figure 12. Aluminum wire is not acceptable.252 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Copings Drilled undercut anchor hole Moisture must be prevented from entering the top of a stone wall. .30 Careful detailing of the anchoring system is important.cramp #8 wire anchor Cement spot /4”to 3/8” 1 Face of veneer Caulk Masonry or concrete Face of veneer Cement spot U . The wire ties resist the tension loads and the portland cement spots transfer compression loads. copper. the marble veneer is attached to a structural support system through a combination of wire ties and portland cement spots.

34 Channel mount to face of sheathing L-strap anchor with dowel and liners. Veneer can also be mechanically installed directly to the building frame without using backup mortar or plaster as illustrated in Figures 12.32 Face of stone In addition to the wire tied system.33 Shim Stone veneer on steel studs. .NATURAL STONE Non-ferrous 9 gauge wire (must be encased with mortar or plaster) Steel stud Stone liner 253 Cement spot Face of stone Shim Masonry or concrete Screw the channel at each stud Stone FIGURE 12. Stone veneer can be mechanically installed to backup masonry or concrete with cement mortar or casting plaster around the anchors. as shown in Figures 12. Masonry or concrete Masonry or concrete Cement spot L-strap anchor with dowel. slab marble stone veneer can be anchored in a variety of methods.33 and 12. Lstrap L-strap anchor clip with dowel. Masonry or concrete Anchor bolt Dowel FIGURE 12.35. Rigid back-up board FIGURE 12.34.35 Cement spot FIGURE 12.

Wood studs Shim Face of stone #9 gauge copper wire Screw at each stud Screw at each stud Wire reinforced lathing Channel mount to face of sheathing Wire reinforced lathing Wood studs Face of stone Anchored stone veneer on wood studs with wire reinforced lathing system using a channel mount to face of sheathing with #9 gauge copper wire anchor. thin slab marble stone veneer can also be installed using woven wire mesh and paper backup on steel frames or wood studs. Wire reinforced lathing 1”min.36 Anchoring veneer to cement plaster. air space . Steel studs Face of stone Self tapping metal screw Self tapping metal screw Wire reinforced lathing Wire reinforced lathing Steel studs Face of stone Anchored stone veneer on steel studs with wire reinforced lathing system using metal strap and dowel anchor and grout spot Concrete screw Face of stone Masonry or concrete backup Concrete screw Masonry or concrete backup Wire reinforced lathing Face of stone Anchored stone veneer on concrete with wire reinforced lathing system using steel strap and dowel system FIGURE 12.36 illustrates.254 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL As Figure 12.

38 Attachment of marble veneer to metal stud and plaster walls and soffits. 255 Figures 12.46 illustrate various other methods of anchoring marble stone veneer. 2”to 21/2” Head support Marble veneer #8 non-ferrous wire Attaching clip Steel strut Face of marble slab Horizontal Head Support Blindside with gooseneck anchor Attaching clip Veneer joint Bearing tape Marble veneer Intermediate support Horizontal Intermediate Support Face of marble veneer Metal lath and scratch and brown plaster coat. .NATURAL STONE Marble stone panels can be mechanically anchored to a grid system as shown in Figure 12. For interior.38 through 12.37. Soffit FIGURE 12.37 Mechanical grid mounted Cement mortar spots system. 5 /8”drywall acceptable Marble liner glued to back of marble Metal dowel Attaching clip Marble veneer Steel strut Soffit Quirk corner Marble veneer Bearing tape Soffit furring channels 18”o.c. Horizontal Base Support FIGURE 12.

cramp strap type anchor U . Soffit panel fastened to concrete insert Marble liner epoxied and dowelled to marbled slab FIGURE 12.40 Disk soffit anchor. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12. Soffit furring channel Cement spot Marble liner Shelf angle Masonry or concrete U .45 soffit anchor.256 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Soffit furring channel Soffit furring channel #8 non-ferrous wire anchor FIGURE 12.44 Soffit panel with marble liner.39 Intermediate lace tie anchor for overhead installation.42 /16”diam. hole 3 Bar strap with dowel soffit anchor. U-cramp strap and marble liner .41 Eye rod and dowel soffit anchor.cramp #8 wire anchor /4”minimum 1 FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12. non-ferrous wire Marble liner epoxied and doweled to marble slab Non-ferrous dowel Clip angle attached to furring channel or equivalent FIGURE 12.43 Wire soffit anchor and liner.

NATURAL STONE

257

Marble liner

Masonry or
concrete

Gypsum wallboard
(interior only)

Shelf angle

FIGURE 12.46

Gypsum plaster
spot (interior only)
or cement mortar

L-bar or hooked bolt soffit

anchor.
The “
spot and tie”method is usually the preferred
method used to install interior stone slab veneer. The
spot and tie method employs non-corrosive wire
anchors of brass or copper spaced a maximum of 24
in. (610 mm) on center around the perimeter of the
individual stone slabs. One end wire anchor is grouted
into a hole drilled in the edge of the stone and the
other end is bent and inserted into an inverted bellshaped hole in the backup wall. To ensure permanent
anchorage and alignment, cement mortar is used to
encase the anchor wires and at intermittent spots
between the back of the slab and the backup wall
(Figures 12.47 through 12.50).

FIGURE 12.49 Anchoring marble to wood stud
(interior detail).

Masonry or
concrete

Masonry or
concrete

Blind edge
anchor

Open edge anchor

Cement mortar spot

FIGURE 12.47

Intermediate lace or belly tie

FIGURE 12.50

anchor.

Connection of blind edge with

open edge.

Masonry or
concrete

Marble stone may be attached using frames. A
framing system is nothing more than a rigid support
for more than one piece of slab stone that is then
attached to the building.
The variety of possible approaches to assembling
a framing system is so large that it is impossible to
fully describe, therefore, some typical framing systems
are shown with the following typical anchoring details.
Cement mortar spot

FIGURE 12.48

Open edge anchor detail.

258

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Shim

Steel tube
frame
Steel plate,
welded (or
bolted) to steel
tube
Marble veneer

Marble liner
Dowel
Resilient
bearing tape
Caulked
joint

Steel
tube

Continuous
aluminum
extrusion

Not serrated using
screw attached @
each stud

Face of
stone

Extruded
aluminum
head
support

Special serrated
locking washer

Frame with contin uous

Caulked
joint

Intermediate
support

aluminum anchors.
Neoprene shim
Steel plate, welded
(or bolted) to steel
tube

Extruded aluminum offset

anchor.

Steel
channel
stud

Alternate

F IGURE 12.51

FIGURE 12.53

Marble face

Resilient
bearing
tape

Marble face
Resilient
bearing
tape
Caulked joint

Base
support

Resilient bearing tape
Extruded aluminum anchor

FIGURE 12.52 Extruded aluminum anchor with
bearing point.

FIGURE 12.54

Continuous extruded aluminum
anchors in continuous slots cut in the stone.

NATURAL STONE
Relieving angle (attached to
structure, frame, or studs by bolting
or welding)

259

Depth of concrete varies according to required strength
8-gage stainless steel
wire

Resilient bearing
tape (both sides)

Impervious
plastic or
membrane

Varies

Extruded
aluminum
intermediate
anchor
Non-continuous
slot

FIGURE 12.55

11/2”- 2”typical

Concrete

Intermediate anchor in non-

continuous slot.
Stone liner (epoxied and
doweled to stone slab)

Face of
stone

Face of stone
veneer

/16”ø x 1”drilled
holes
3

FIGURE 12.57

Pre-cast concrete liner with
stone veneer facing.

Masonry or
concrete
Anchor bolt

Base support

Relieving angle

FIGURE 12.56

Non-continuous extruded
aluminum base support.
Another method of attaching marble stone slab
veneer is with concrete liners. This is simply a poured
concrete liner on the back of marble stone with No. 8
non-ferrous wire anchors or specialty stone anchors
connecting the concrete to the stone (Figure 12.57).
The advantage of this system is the use of thinner
marble stone slabs.
12.3.2.5 MAINTENANCE
Construction of any structure can be messy and
usually leaves residues of mortar, grout, dirt and other
contaminants on the newly installed marble. Marble,
like any other stone, needs regular maintenance
cleaning and since marble is expensive, one should
never risk damage by using homemade cleaners or
cleaners designed for other purposes.

FIGURE 12.58

Typical pre-cast concrete stone
anchors (sizes vary).
Polished Interior Marble
Polished marble has a glossy surface that
accentuates color and reflects light. Newly installed
marble needs cleaning to remove excess grout and grout
smears. When colored grout is used, the pigments
contained in the grout can stain the marble. The excess
grout should be removed immediately after grouting with
soft towels, sponges or cheesecloth and using clean
water. A mild proprietary detergent cleaner such as,
pH neutral, or slightly alkaline, should be used for driedon grout films. For construction dirt and other residues
a mild degreaser approved for marble is the best option.

260

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Frequent mopping of floors and sponge washing
of countertops is beneficial for keeping the polished
appearance in marble. Exercise caution when using
a scrubbing machine to avoid scratching the marble
surface. Normal cleaning products and acids are not
recommended for marble.
Typically, prev ention sav es time spent on
treatments and remedies, particularly since damage
to marble is irreversible.
Honed Interior Marble
Honed marble has a satin surface with relatively
little light reflection. Maintenance of honed interior
marble follows the guidance for polished interior
marble.
When honed marble is used as an exterior veneer,
excess mortar must be removed to provide the
appearance of a finish product. Specialty cleaners can
remove mortar and other contaminants without an
adverse effect on the stone. Care should be taken when
using honed marble as traffic surfaces, since the
accumulation of liquids or other materials would result
safety hazards and staining. Raw acids on marble
stones are not recommended, therefore, use cleaners
specifically designed for this purpose. When further
cleaning is needed, a professional should be consulted.
Floor Marble
Typically, the same practice of maintenance used
for polished and honed surfaces apply. Specific
questions or information on cleaning procedures
should be referred to professionals.
Floor marble subjected to traffic such as honed
finish floors, treads, and thresholds should be regularly
mopped or scrubbed in a manner that will not leave a
hazardous, slippery film.

First, wet marble surfaces with hot, clean water. A
mild household cleanser may be lightly sprinkled over
the wet stone. Then, mop and rinse the marble surfaces
thoroughly with clean hot water using a scrubbing
motion and dry with mop or cloth.
In many cases, special interior floor marble areas
should be protected where a polished finish is not
practical. Sealers, in this case, should be applied after
the floor marble has been cleaned to reduce
maintenance. Also, sealers prevent staining around
toilets and in food preparation areas such as
countertops.
For application the manufacturer’
s directions
should be followed and sealers should only be applied
to clean interior floor marble.
Exterior Marble
Exterior marble is exposed to the ravages of the
environment elements and polluted water is perhaps
the greatest enemy of marble stone. Marble is
susceptible to biological staining that occurs in moist
conditions.
The cleaning of exterior marble should be performed
by a qualified professional with equipment, resources
and technical expertise to execute the cleaning work.
The use of a mild proprietary detergent cleaner that is
pH neutral or slightly alkaline is the best option.
12.3.2.6 DETAILS
This section provides basic details and elevations
for a variety of exterior and interior marble applications.
These details serve as examples from which drawings
may be developed for specific projects.

NATURAL STONE

Marble paver

Mortar or elastic
sealant joint

Cramp
Concrete slab

Mortar bed
Flashing

Drip

Full Mortar Bed Bonded

Filler strip

Elastic sealant filled
control joint

Marble paver

Mortar bed

Vapor barrier

Concrete slab

Full mortar
bed

Expansion material

Flashing

Full Mortar Bed - Control Joint

Mortar spots

Open joints for drainage
Bricks or
plastic pods

Marble paver

Dowel and
eye bolt

Bricks or
plastic pods

Concrete slab
Vapor barrier

Full mortar
bed

Drip

Flashing

Corner Spots

FIGURE 12.59

Paving details.

FIGURE 12.60

Coping details.

261

262

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Shim
Bolt to steel
framing,
concrete inserts
or to face of
concrete

Bolt to steel framing, beams, clip
angles, concrete inserts, etc.

/4”min.

/4”min.

1

1

Flat Strap Hangers

Shim

Angle attached to furring
channel or equivalent

Spacer

/4”min.

1

Joint sealant

Plug and Wedge Type Hangers

L-Type angle

/4”min.

1

Spline Type Hangers

FIGURE 12.61

Soffit details.

Support angle

NATURAL STONE

Marble liner epoxied
and doweled to
marble veneer

Shim

Bend and shape
if required

Bolt to steel or
concrete inserts

Sealant and
backer rod

/4”min.

1

Edge Type Hangers

Marble liner epoxied
and doweled to
marble veneer
Soffit panel fastened
to concrete insert

Shim

Sealant and
backer rod

Soffit Panels with Marble Liners

FIGURE 12.62

Soffit details.

/4”min.

1

263

264

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Insert

Shim
/4”x 3/4”bar welded
to clip angle (typ.)
1

Rod welded to clip angle
Insert
Shim

L - strap dovetail in
vertical joint

Insert

Joint min. 1/4”

Joint min. 1/4”

Dovetail anchor inside
of marble veneer

Concrete
dovetail
slot

L - strap dovetail anchor

Cement spot

Insert

Rod welded to clip angle

Clip angle

Joint min. 1/4”
Shim

Shim
L - strap dovetail in
vertical joint

/4”min.

1

Drip

L - strap dovetail in
vertical joint

Insert
/4”x 3/4”bar welded
to clip angle
1

Shim

Insert

Clip angle across
vertical joint

Joint min. 1/4”
Shim
L-strap dovetail anchor
Cement spot

Drip

FIGURE 12.63

Anchorage details.

64 Anchorage details.NATURAL STONE 265 Cement spot L-strap with dowel Cement spot U cramp bar anchor Cement spot Straps. . or wire anchor Straps or wire anchor Marble liner epoxied and doweled to marble vener Bent strap anchor Clip angle Wire anchor Cement spot Cement spot Cement spot Cement spot Twisted strap anchor Two way cramps strap anchor Cement spot FIGURE 12.

266 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Dovetail L .65 Anchorage details.strap anchor inside of marble veneer Clip angle Shim Insert Cement spot Two way dovetail strap anchor Dovetail L .strap Dovetail L .strap anchor Cement spot Dovetail L .strap anchors inside of marble veneer Dovetail L .strap anchor inside of marble veneer Cement spot Clip angle with dowel Shim Expansion shield Cement spot FIGURE 12.strap anchor Dovetail strap with dowel Clip angle Shim Insert Cement spot Dovetail L . Cement spot .

. 1 /16”min.66 Veneer details.strap anchored to marble veneer with expansion shield and bolt Masonry or concrete Standard Reglet U cramp strap anchor Note: Stagger anchors to clear each other 11/2” Marble veneer Quirk Joint /2” 1 Standard Reglet Masonry or concrete Backer rod Backer rod U bar cramp in horizontal joints /4”min.NATURAL STONE 267 /2” 1 Bent strap anchored to marble veneer with expansion shield and bolt Masonry or concrete /2” 1 Drip /4” 3 Marble veneer Butt Joint /4” 3 L . 1 /4”min. 3 Quirk Joint Masonry or concrete Sealant Compressed Joint Bent two way strap anchor in vertical joint. U cramp also required at horizontal joints Sealant Expanded Joint Marble veneer Quirk Joint FIGURE 12.

.268 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Masonry or concrete Wire tie back anchors Masonry or concrete Wire tie back anchors Cement spot Cement spot Moulding plaster spots Masonry or concrete Masonry or concrete Wire tie back anchors Wire tie back anchors Cement spot Cement spot Masonry or concrete Masonry or concrete Metal feature strip Drywall partition Epoxy to base Wire anchor Thin set cement Solid grout FIGURE 12.67 Base details.

70 Stair tread details.69 Threshold details.269 NATURAL STONE Flooring Door Marble threshold Stainless steel dowel Masonry or concrete Flooring Cement mortar setting bed Mortar Set Method Vent tube (plastic tube not recommended) Marble flooring Marble threshold Door Isolation joint Flooring Shim 1 /4”min.68 Flooring Marble threshold Thin bed cement Flooring Thin Set Method Cavity venting detail. Abrasive (non-slip) inserts Marble treads Marble treads Dowel Anchor clip Mortar setting bed FIGURE 12. Vent tube in vertical joint at intersection of panels Mortar setting bed over concrete Sealant Full Mortar Bed Method Backer rod Door Relieving angle FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12. .

Structurally sound wood subfloor .270 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Marble tile Marble tile Marble tile Mortar bed Dry set cement Mortar bed Sub slab Reinforcement Membrane Sub slab Marble tile Marble tile Marble tile Adhesive Adhesive Mortar bed Sub slab Reinforcement Membrane Setting Methods FIGURE 12.71 Flooring details.

The color of this stone can be strongly affected by the amount of foreign ingredients. Rustic Grade . rainwater. pit holes.3. Efflorescence Grade Limestone is formed by nature. which include f ossils or shell formations.1 CLASSIFICATIONS Based on granular texture and other natural characteristics. 271 Select Grade .A mixture of selected. or moisture from soil. Variegated Grade . thus. Stain and efflorescent are similar in many ways even though the components are different. The stain that appears at the surface of the stone is related to the moisture moving through the stone and dissolves small pieces of organic matter.3. smooth and sawn. To avoid these conditions. floors or finish grade (soil) can be sources of akali. Many limestones can be finished in a number of ways such as polished. reedy formations. powdery scum that can appear on the stone’ s surface after construction and depending on the type of salts can also be brown green or yellow. iron and potassium. Efflorescence is the white. through the natural process of weathering. pinks and reds while blues. Color Buff color ranges from a light cream shade to a brown tinted buff.3 LIMESTONE Limestone is considered clastic sedimentary stone. 12. grays and blacks contain carbonaceous derivatives of organic matter. will either disappear or become less noticeable. standard and rustic grades permitting buff and gray colors. iron spots. moisture evaporates and the alkali and organic matter left at the surface of the stone appears in the form of stain. The iron oxides make the yellows. there are several factors which may create stains. Stain cannot be produced by moisture absorbed through the stone’ s exterior face. A common problem in any new work is staining or discoloration on limestone and may occur when certain conditions exist. magnesium.NATURAL STONE 12. Also. 12. calcium. Stains have no structural effect on the stone and often. Limestone is a natural stone that contains several noticeable calcite streaks or spots. The potential chemical activity must be considered when determining the compatibility of interfacing material.2 DISCOLORATION Alkali Stain In all types of buildings.3. travertinelike formations and grain formation changes. proper design and installation procedures should be implemented. Gray color ranges from a light silver gray to shades of blue tinted gray. honed.3. Some limestones are almost white in color and are nearly pure calcium carbonate. Standard Grade . The moisture may be excess water in mortar. efflorescence producing salts found in masonry are sulfates of sodium.3. Textures vary from f ine to rough and f ossilif erous due to natural characteristics. Concrete walls. This moisture picks up water-soluble free alkali from various sources as it migrates to an evaporation surface at the stone’ s face above grade. limestone’ s quality of endurance is well known and respected. . fossils or shell formations. Typically. however. spots.Fine to moderate large-grained stone permitti ng an av erage amount of t he abov e characteristics. One exception is when the ground moisture is absorbed by the stone’ s face below grade. the limestone classifications are based on the degree of fineness grain particles and other natural characteristics. On the stone’ s visible surfaces. Specification of limestone should identify the required color and grade as well as the surface finish to be applied to the stone.Fine to very coarse-grained stone permitting an above-average amount of the above characteristics. honeycomb formations. honeycomb formations and grain formation changes. the resistance to damage from the common accumulation of dirt and soil carried in city environments has been proven through more than a century of use. limestone is classified in two colors and four grades. When this material moves to the face of the stone. This alkali stain is caused by alkali-charged moisture which penetrates the limestone from the back or bottom of the stone.Fine to average-grained stone containing a controlled minimum of the above characteristics. open texture streaks.

1 part hydrated lime. In addition to anchors. Prior to the application of the joint sealant. care should be taken to prevent smoke under the covering. 12. tarpaulin. The common one-part systems are the moisture-cure and air-cure systems.3. Omitting the backer rod from the system may contribute to premature failure. The setting of mortar can be considered similar to curing. Cold weather provisions for masonry construction are contained in Article 1. A backer rod is placed in the joint to a predetermined depth. or polyethylene. The sealant should not adhere to the backer rod. is a nonstructural element.3. Limestone may be covered with felt paper. 6 parts sand aggregate. Efflorescence can cause stresses on walls. All supports f or l imestone shoul d be manufactured from type A36 steel. 12. . When using salamanders. particularly when using colored mortars.3. The premolded filler should be adequately compressible to allow for structural and thermal differential movement flexible enough to return to the original shape. bond strength (ability to resist eccentric or lateral loads). Two-part systems use a catalyst or chemical to cure. 12. will provide adequate compressive strength (ability to support vertical loads). or other non-corrosive metal. which give lateral support to the limestone veneer. mix. 12. and durability (weather resistance). Units may be protected in a tent-like environment. Caulking or compressible sealant should be completely elastic and should be tooled to ensure maximum adhesion to the contact surfaces. Masonry veneer. which would allow auxiliary heating. but to the parallel surfaces only. Mortar is used for many purposes such as: •Bonding the units together •Setting material •Leveling the units •Providing shear and compressive strength •Sealing irrugularities of the stone A typical mortar mix of 1 part portland cement. admixtures or anti-freezes should never be used to lower the freezing point of mortar. by definition. 12. which can cause flaking or exfoliation.3. Any movement of the building can place excessive stress on the edges of the stone and cause chipping or spalling at the joints if a high compressive strength mortar is used. Dampproofing treatments such as bituminous or cementitious coatings can act as a moisture barrier against groundwater and control or prev ent efflorescence.3. therefore it is easier to remove. Efflorescence problems can occur when water penetrates the lower part of the material surface. Appropriate tooling compacts the mortar against the sides of the stone and will improve the bond between the mortar and the stone units. one-part and two-part.5 COLD WEATHER PROTECTION Protection of limestone during construction is necessary if the outside temperature is 40º F or below. Sealants are normally supported by a backer rod. Mortar used in pointing should be a soft. not strong. 304 or 316 stainless steel or other corrosion resistant metal.272 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Efflorescence is more soluble in water than stain. supports provide the bearing surface for the dead weight of the stone. There are two types of sealant systems. In limestone.3. Limestone should not be place on a snow or icecovered bed. sealants must be handled differently since they are not intended to support weight. Add only enough water to make the mix workable. or a preblended mix.6 SEALANT SYSTEMS Sealants provide a moisture protective barrier similar to mortar systems. but in the construction process. Under this conditions bond cannot be developed between the mortar bed and the frozen supporting surfaces. the manufacturer may recommend a primer which must be applied to the interior surfaces of the joint to assure adhesion.3. sealant or other non-expansive. Mortar should be tested on limestone prior to construction to assure that it will not bleed into the stone. Proper materials and details along with quality construction also help to prevent eflorescence.3.3.7 EXPANSION JOINTS Expansion joints are used to accommodate increases in length in long runs of walls and consist of a premolded filler and sealant compound.3 ANCHORS Anchors are embedded in the limestone with mortar.3. stable material and should be stainless steel.4 MORTAR AND POINTING Mortar consists of cementitious material and well graded sand with sufficient fines.8 of the 2005 MSJC Specification.

when scrubbing action is required and delivered by a wide-angle nozzle from a distance not closer than one foot (300 mm) to the limestone surfaces. A standard hose can give the required pressure when this method is used. or where the junctions of the sections contain a U. The number of expansion joints depends on the horizontal surface of the structure and placement between 150 and 200 feet (45. . interior stone should be protected from construction dust and other forms of airborne or other debris. therefore. 1 Pilaster Expansion Joints Cold Weather Condition FIGURE 12.7 m and 61. T or L shaped building. however. requires that stone be thoroughly cleaned prior to installation.3. 3 Column Expansion Joints Normal Condition Waterstop /2”typ.3.8 CLEANING Limestone is distributed as it comes from the last process in the supplier’ s plant and surfaces or joints may be covered with dust or saw slush. Interior application. Pressure washing is a method considered most effective and successful in cleaning limestone.73 /4”typ.0 m) may be adequate.200 psi (8300 KPa). the job installation progress would not be affected.72 Joint sealant design. 1 Hot Weather Condition FIGURE 12. Cleaning the limestone with water at a lower pressure and at a greater distance may also be effective and more efficient. Once installed. The machine water-pressure should be not more than 1.NATURAL STONE 273 Typical examples of expansion joints: Waterstop Bondbreaker tape Mortar Sealant bead Exterior Expansion Joints /8”typ. 12. The expansion joint should be located at an offset of a building. Exterior applications of limestone may not require stone cleaning prior to erection. Expansion joints.

Slip connection Flashing cap Flashing cap Flashing cap Nuts for lateral adjustment Hook rod anchor Slotted holes for expansion bolts Flashing cap Flashing cap Rod anchor Nuts for lateral adjustment Twisted strap anchor FIGURE 12. Usually.9 DETAILS This section provides basic details and elevations for a variety of exterior and interior limestone applications.274 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL There are other methods that may be used.75 Floor span. acids or chemicals methods are not required to clean limestone. and clean water.3. the use of trim with other materials and by jobsite dirt.3. These details serve as examples from which drawings may be developed for specific projects. mild soap or detergent. therefore. special care and protection should be provided when limestone is used as a trim in brick walls. .74 Anchoring top panels. Normal rough cleaners will usually remove stubborn dirt or other strange material embedded in the limestone surfaces. plastic would be ideal to cover the limestone or wetting the stone surface would be the minimum protection required. FIGURE 12. Acid solutions often used for cleaning or removing smears from brick can burn and discolor limestone. Prior to cleaning the brick. The use of these methods may be dictated by the limestone ornamentation. Flashing cap Slip connection Expansion anchor Shim Shim Expansion anchor 12. Basic acceptable methods are handscrubbing with fiber brushes. Several commercial cleaners are made specifically for limestone when more drastic methods are required.

FIGURE 12. .76 Steel or concrete frame anchor.NATURAL STONE 275 Adapter channel welded to steel 1”min.77 Anchors at horizontal joints./2” recommended Grout anchor in CMU Stainless steel split anchor Bond beam Adjustable FIGURE 12.

78 Limestone panels structurally supported at vertical intervals. . Anchorage to concrete frame.276 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Dovetail anchor Grout CMU Adjustable insert Weld plate FIGURE 12.79 FIGURE 12.

FIGURE 12. FIGURE 12.NATURAL STONE 277 Flashing cap Epoxied joint Stainless steel dowel Wood cant Masonry back-up Epoxied joint Soffit FIGURE 12.80 Floor slab detail. . Compressible joint material Setting bed End adapter welded to beam Sealant and foam rod Flashing Adjustable disc type anchors for lateral stability of both panels Inserts cast into concrete Shelf angle Flashing Setting bed Strap anchor with dovetail end Sealant and foam rod Dovetail slot cast into concrete FIGURE 12.81 Bearing on concrete frame.83 Copings.82 Liner block or cleat Drip Roof detail.

or hot springs. Travertine is classified as chemical sedimentary rock and displays similar characteristics to limestone.4 TRAVERTINE Limestone sill Drip Flashing Sill Wood sash Caulk Drip Sill Setting bed Head FIGURE 12.85 Cornice detail. partly crystalline limestones. Travertine voids are the channels left by water once the flow has finished or evaporated. Utah and Idaho may replicate the color variations and coarser bedding associated with traditional travertine. Often. Dowel at jamb stones 12. travertines demonstrate a strong directional veined appearance and corresponding directional strength variations due to its formation by directional flow.84 Window details. This variety of limestone is a product of chemical precipitation from cold lakes and streams. Travertine originating in Colorado. The texture of travertine is created by the very porous structure or cellularly layered. .3.278 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Flashing Limestone panel Strap anchor Setting bed Concrete roof structure Stone lintel Drip Rake joint Metal sash Setting pads Head Standard strap anchor Anchor Anchor bolt Stone jamb Limestone architrave Caulk Limestone facing Jamb FIGURE 12. dense varieties with contrast are preferred for exterior applications. There are a wide variety of colors of commercial travertines ranging from light cream and brown to maroon. Typically.

are unchangeable. This is the primary and fundamental key to preventing anchorage failure. Freestone is a sandstone which easily splits into any desired direction. this stone dresses easily. The stone is brown or reddish-brown color. 4. structural designers are capable of analyzing and member-sizing these common backup systems independent of the stone. 2.5 SANDSTONE Sandstone is a sedimentary rock made of rounded or angular grains of sand. 2. The stone is usually dark gray. Sandstone is divided in siliceous (light color. These movements must be resolved in oversized joints or laps. . Support points are to be determined from the individual stone layout motivated by reducing stone bending stress and at the same time increasing force distribution. calcareous (light gray color. Recrystallized metamorphosed quartz sandstone may also be called a quartzite. the capabilities of the stone should be verified with the supplier since different colors and different stone types have different maximum size limitations. Depending on the quarry deposi t. 3. One of the engineering design principles is to understand the mechanics of the anchor when connected to the stone.NATURAL STONE 279 12. F IGURE 12. The stone anchorage design principles are the same everywhere and can be applied evenly if the anchorage attaches the stone to cold-form metal. 12. mullion. Quartzite. Never accept movements where the anchorage device connects the stone. The stone sizes and joint layouts.1 STONE ANCHORAGE The main function of stone anchorage is to laterally support the stone. also readily worked). such as wind and rain.86 Travertine (Getty Center museum). probable failure planes and panel support location reactions. The proper sequence in designing an anchorage system is to design the anchor to the stone first and then design the backup system. Forces flow toward greatest resistance or where the backup is solid. factors of safety. cemented and compacted together to form a solid mass.4 SUMMARY 12. The following steps are a suggested process for an effective design anchorage: 1. Stone attachment systems should be designed considering installation difficulties and probable backup systems. which are a product architect’ s design. Also. Some commercial sandstone varieties are: 1. Brownstone is a sandstone that is very popular in the East part of the United States even though it is less durable than other stone. 4. 3.3. gray sandstone which splits easily into thin slabs. Sandstone varies in color from red to yellow to white based on the mixture of minerals. Based on typical practices. hardest and toughest to work with). Anchor design should consider anchor strength.4. predominantly composed of quartz. is a quartz sandstone or conglomerate. and is also susceptible to erosion and deterioration from air pollutants. and ferroginous (reddish-brown color. Stone anchorage also resists all the changes of climate. Understanding how anchorage can deform or move to break the stone and accommodating these effects in the design will prevent anchorage failure. due to incomplete cementation of the sand grains. without deteriorating or inducing stress back into the stone. Bluestone is a hard. Attach anchorage devices to base building wherever possible and provide room for potential base building differential movements. easy to work with). Sandstone is soft and easy to quarry and shape.

These products dry out the stone and pull the life out of the stone. and alkalis. 12. A penetrating sealer is recommended to prevent staining. however.3 MAINTENANCE One misperception is that natural stone is maintenance free and resist the effects of time. New stone floors. Natural stone needs regular cleaning. A quality penetrating sealer will prevent water rings left by glasses placed on the marble surface. The anchorage capacity should be verified by multiple tests of the actual anchorage. There are a wide variety of sealers available. Revised anchor design if the anchorage tests do not provide the capacities needed. This type of procedure can be expensive so a reputable refinisher for the project is advisable. The best way to understand guidelines in stone care is to look at each natural stone and determine what is needed and what should be avoided. Damp mopping will be enough to keep it looking good and to prevent dirt and soil from clogging pores. counters or cladding require the use of a quality penetrating sealer immediately after installation. when limestone is exposed to air over a period of time will weather and become harder on the surface. The process of removing stains from natural stone is complicated and warrents professional guidance. melted ice. Most stone requires little maintenance. Alternative or backup designs should always be re-evaluated as outlined above for adequacy. Major threats are acids. A specialty penetrating sealer may be used to increase stain resistance and will prevent absorption of liquids and oils. Natural stone needs a stone care system or conditioning. 3. There are many sealers available and some do not have the ability to resist water penetration. manufacturers and distributors must educate the enduser for proper care. Moisture is the main factor contributing to the decay of masonry. Marble should be sealed since it is vulnerable to staining. The anchorage fastener connection to the backup should be duplicated in the anchor test apparatus. Successful use of natural building stone in any residential or commercial projects is a result of correct mai ntenance procedures. Natural stone requires protection against water penetration. cleaning and maintenance of the stone.280 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 5. However. 2. Both the backup and base design should be rechecked for adequacy to assure long-term system performance. which is simple and economical. 1. These coatings lie on the surface of the stone and provide only shine or varnish to the stone’ s surface. Long lasting beauty and appearance of natural stone will guarantee continued demand. Stone floors should be cleaned with warm water and a liquid soap that will not leave a residue. Marble floors may be resurfaced to bring back the original shine. and adjacent masonry materials. Regular maintenance can be easier if a professional initially seals the stone surface. not where the anchors are connected to the backup. Moisture contains soluble salts from polluted rain water or chemically treated tap water. The maintainability of these natural products is one of the major elements that affect the practicality of bringing polished stone back into residential and commercial buildings. which can darken the surface of the stone. The process involves specialized machinery and technical expertise. The use of ordinary cleaners may be harmful to the stone. salts. Granite’ s natural high density resists absorption of staining materials and requires little or no sealing. 4. Evidence frequently shows that when stone anchorage fails. Cleaners containing acids or abrasive chemicals sould never be used on stone. 12.4. The stone’ s natural components react to moisture and efflorescence. and a specialty stone cleaner should be used. Proper performance of the stone’ s supporting substrate is essential. . The cont ractors. rupture occurs where anchors are attached to brittle stone. Natural stone is very susceptible to chemicals. any contractor or building manager will disagree. The use of waxes on stone should be avoided since waxes attract airborne dirt. Limestone is more resistant to staining due to its unusual characteristics.4.2 SEALING Stone surfaces require careful maintenance to protect them from stains and environmental pollutants. Avoid spilling sugary or carbonated drinks as these may etch the surface of the stone and remove the shine.

Thus. 7. There are no stain removers that can successfully penetrate the fine pores of the stone and stain. Even an entrance mat helps in the protection of stone floors. Natural stone surfaces must be slip-resistant. Chemical cleaners may dam age the environment and personal safety. 281 The stone will wear if left unprotected. Users must be aware of possible property damage. non-acidic stain removers should be applied. and can therefore stain. it is nearly impossible to completely remove deeply penetrated stains. 6. In order not to permanently harm the stone. Carefully analyze Material Safety Data Sheets and reject chemicals which endanger the environment. sealers and maintenance products should not block the pores of stone. therefore. ADA regulations require a degree of slip resistance which cannot be achieved with any smooth natural stone. 9.NATURAL STONE 5. 8. In order to preserve the natural polish of stone. Even dense granite has a capillary structure. only very mild. natural stone surfaces must be protected against foot abrasion and other wear and tear. Natural stone should be stain-proofed. Chemical cleaners such as acids and alkalines can cause serious injury and health hazards. Natural stone must breathe. .

Bath Abbey. Windsor Castle.282 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL STONE MONUMENTS OF GREAT BRITAIN Leeds Castle. Westminster Abbey. . Windsor Castle.

6 CODE REQUIREMENTS The installation of glass block is accomplished using type N or type S mortar. Standard glass block units are to be at least 37/8 in. designers and home builders.1. (76 mm) specified thickness. glass block panels seal out flying dust and dirt.1.1. condensation. A remarkable decrease of solar heat gain is offered by the solar reflective glass blocks. natural light and artificial light can be used dramatically. 13. which is the average. 13. (98 mm) specified thickness.3 ENVIRONMENTAL Glass blocks help the designer create a more comf ortabl e env i ronment by control ling l ight transmission and glare. light may be directed.CHAPTER 13 GLASS BLOCK 13. Also. Regularly. (79 mm) specified thickness and thin solid units 3 in.5 MAINTENANCE Glass blocks require little care. in several applications. This insulating capacity reduces heat gain or loss and provides thermal benefit which can conserve energy. the glass block insulation capacity may eliminate surface Solid glass blocks are durable and extremely rugged. methods of installation and sizes permit freedom of inspired designs of the professional designer. the pattern selection permits controlled transmission of light from the outside or from room to room. Aggresive attacks by vandals can be resisted by solid glass blocks. . Glass block panels reduce and help control noise transmission.1.2 ENERGY CONSERVATION A partial vacuum is created within the unit when the halves of a glass block are combined together.1 DESIGN The large range of varity patterns. styles. There is nothing to paint and they are easy to clean. reduced or reflected. The combination of aesthetics and functional properties make glass block one of the favorite materials of architects.1 GENERAL Glass blocks have been used over the years by design professionals for exceptional design flexibility in a wide range of applications.1.4 SECURITY 13. Many glass blocks offer additional design opportunities due to the degree of translucence or transparency. 13. thin hollow units 31/8 in. The solid and regular glass block panels are fire resistant. In high humidity areas.1. Glass block provides security without creating a “ closed-in”feeling with its characteristics of transparency and light transmission. Panels of glass block remove drafts and assist to keep balanced comfort within the building. The sound transmission loss through a glass block panel is 38 decibels. To meet the requirements of the design. 13. diffused. A sporadic hosing on exterior surfaces and a damp cloth cleaning on interior surfaces are all that is required. 13. Also. Glass block panels are air-tight because they are typically mortared into place.

the splices are to be at least 6 in.1 provides limitation on panel size based on given wind pressure. 15 ft. 25 ft. (406 mm). 7 2 8 6 11 5 4 3 1 FIGURE 13. sq. 100 sq. 150 sq. There is nothing to deteriorate and the glass blocks require little care. light-transmitting panel that is completely finished on both sides. ft. 100 sq. ft. 2 10 9 Interior Walls Area Height Width 250 sq. 25 ft. 25 ft. psf 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Area of Panel. 10 ft.284 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Design Wind Pressure.1 Glass masonry design wind load resistance.1 providing none of the maximum values is exceeded Table 13. 10 ft.5 mm) are also required at the ends and top of glass block panels. FIGURE 13. air-tight. Glass block panels must be reinforced with at least two 9 gauge W 1. When the design wind pressure does not exceed 20 psf (958 N/m2). Expansion joints of at least 3/8 in.2 Glass block installation.1 Maximum Glass Block Panel Size Unit Type Thin Hollow Units Exterior Walls Thin Solid Units 144 sq. 20 ft. This can be accomplished by providing panel anchors at the sides and top of the glass block panels spaced not more than 16 in. 20 ft. (406 mm) apart. ft. (25.1. ft. Standard Units Area Height Width 85 sq. 15 ft. preassembled panels can be set into openings. 25 ft. (9. Figure 13. 13.7 (MW 11) in the horizontal bed joints at intervals not exceeding 16 in. 20 ft. Panel size is limited by the 2006 IBC based on wind pressure and absolute maximum dimensions and areas. ft. ft. Lateral support can also be provided by using channel type restraints with the glass block inset into the channels by at least 1 in. When joint reinforcement is lapped. 20 ft. ft. glass block panels may be designed using the criteria of Table 13.7 INSTALLATION Glass block panels give an attractive.4 mm). (152 mm). In one operation. Glass block panels must be laterally supported against out-of-plane displacement. .

4 Set lower course of glass block units. 8 Strike joints smoothly while mortar is still plastic. . 13. as required. Steel stud Sheathing Weather-resistant membrane Flashing Panel anchor Tube steel Steel lintel Mortar Weep holes Expansion strip Horizontal reinforcement Steel channel Glass block unit FIGURE 13.285 GLASS BLOCK Sill area.2 TYPICAL GLASS BLOCK DETAILS Exterior Finish The standard installation of a glass block window is shown in Figure 13.2. All mortar joints are full joints without furrows. Do not use a wire brush. Expansion strip Anchor screw 1 inch min. place full mortar bed. Place full mortar bed on joints not requiring panel reinforcement. 11 Clean the glass block using sponge and clean water. Change water often.3 Sealant and backer rod Glass block unit FIGURE 13. Do not furrow the mortar.Glass block in steel stud Glass block panel components. pack backer rod tightly between glass block and jambs & head. Lap panel reinforcement a minimum of 6".2. 10 Caulk panels per manufacturer. Do not furrow.) Sealant and backer rod Glass block unit FIGURE 13. Do not tap glass block units into place with tools. Expansion strips must extend to sill. 5 Install panel reinforcement in horizontal joints as follows: a) Place 1/2 depth of mortar bed joint on top of glass block. 2 Adhere expansion strips to jambs and head with asphalt emulsion. 7 Repeat at each course. Panel reinforcement shall not bridge expansion joints. Do not furrow. to be covered by mortar. Leave room for caulking. 6 Deflection space CMU lintel block Steel 2 x 2 x 14 (typ. Remove excess mortar from the face of glass block and wipe dry. d) Panel reinforcement is to be continuous. 3 When emulsion on the sill is dry. b) Press panel reinforcement into place. Tool joints smooth and concave before mortar sets. c) Cover the panel reinforcement with the other 1/2 of the mortar bed and trowel smooth. wall with brick veneer.5 Head .1 HEAD DETAILS Interior Finish 1 13. Rake out spaces to be caulked. shall first be covered with heavy coat of asphalt emulsion.4 Cross-section of glass block head joint at CMU wall. 9 AFTER the final mortar has SET. Buff with cheesecloth.

glass block in partition. 13. sill Glass block Sill anchor Metal flashing Horizontal reinforcement Steel tube Steel 2 x 2 x 14 (typ. wall.Glass block in steel stud in multiple vertical panels.286 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 13.11 FIGURE 13.3 TYPICAL SILL DETAILS Metal stud Glass block Gypsum board Mortar Solid blocking Asphalt emulsion Sealant Expansion strip Precast concrete sill Panel anchor Interior finish Glass block FIGURE 13. Brick Veneer Air space Building paper weatherproof membrane Sill .6 Jamb .2.Glass block in steel stud wall with brick veneer.8 Sill .10 Intermediate horizontal support Jamb . Head .2.7 Structural support member FIGURE 13.Glass block in CMU wall.2 TYPICAL JAMB DETAILS Glass block Mortar 1 inch min.5 MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR DETAILS 13.4 CONNECTION DETAIL Sealant Exterior sheathing Horizontal joint wire reinforcement Sealant and backer rod Glass block Tube steel Horizontal wire joint reinforcement Sealant Glass block Sealant Tie Backer rod Insulation Plan View Steel stud FIGURE 13.2. 13.9 FIGURE 13.2.) Anchor screw Steel stud framing CMU Interior Finish FIGURE 13. .Glass block in CMU wall. Exterior Finish Asphalt emulsion Sealant and backer rod Interior finish Precast conc.

73/4” Mortar 37/8” Expansion strip Panel anchor Expansion strip /4”exp. Expansion strip Panel anchor Expansion strip Sealant Horizontal reinforcing Mortar Glass block 45° block Glass block Glass block PLAN VIEW FIGURE 13.14 Existing construction. Glass block 13. PLAN VIEW FIGURE 13.13 New construction.12 Jamb . bolts two per anchor 1 Glass block Glass block Horizontal reinforcement Sealant Bullnose finish Glass block FIGURE 13. FIGURE 13.6 PANEL ANCHOR DETAILS 37/8” PLAN VIEW FIGURE 13. .16 45glass block at corner.2.Glass block in partition.287 GLASS BLOCK Metal stud 53/4” Solid blocking Glass corner block Sealant Mortar 53/4” 37/8” Glass block Panel anchor Horizontal reinforcement /4” 1 Expansion strip Horizontal reinforcement FIGURE 13.17 End block.15 Glass block at corner.

California.21 North Hollywood Police Station. FIGURE 13. Foster City.23 FIGURE 13. Employment Development Department. Los Angeles.288 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Minimum 9 gauge (W 1. California. Norwalk. . California. California. El Cerrito Middle School.19 Norwalk Arts and Sport Complex. FIGURE 13.20 Metro Center Parking Garage.22 F IGURE 13. North Hollywood. Corona. FIGURE 13. lap FIGURE 13.18 Glass block lap splice.7) longitudinal and cross wires 6”min. California.

attaches the masonry to the structural backup using mechanical fasteners called wall ties or anchors. but also on the structural and serviceability concerns of the project. There are numerous methods that have been developed to secure masonry veneer to a structural backup. Veneers may be laterally supported by structural masonry. These two systems are contained in the building code with prescriptive requirements that allow use with little engineering design. The other method. However. Building codes have adopted systems as they evolved and became standardized. In order to achieve a successful moisture drainage system. thereby allowing water to gravitate to the bottom of the system and exit through intentionally provided and functional weep holes. This means that veneers require a structural element and lateral support to keep them in place. The success of any veneer system depends on the proper design. FIGURE 14. Any anchored veneer system with an intentional airspace between the veneer facing and the structural backup is an example of a moisture drainage system. the components of flashing and weep holes must be present and care must be taken in the construction process for these elements to be . reinforced concrete. One method is called adhered veneer which secures the masonry units to the structural backup using a bonding material. anchored veneer. These structural elements are located behind the veneer and are known as the structural backup or simply “ backup” to the veneer.1 GENERAL Veneers are architectural facade coverings on a building and are non-structural.1 Anchor veneer using ties. wood. masonry panels and stone panels on a structural frame backup. the code also allows the use of alternative engineered systems based on engineering principles such as reinforced veneer. steel studs. A quality veneer system will prevent the moisture from bridging the ties. The type of backup would depend not only on the initial cost of the installation. or structural steel framing. selection of durable materials and quality construction. Details must be clear to assure that a moisturebarrier veneer system will perform to prevent water intrusion into the building and a moisture drainage veneer system will effectively shed any anticipated water penetration.CHAPTER 14 VENEER 14. Currently the 2006 IBC recognizes two basic methods to install masonry veneer.

Moreover.290 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL functional. this is done by painting the backup with bituminous tar or by covering with 30 pound (13. The limited deflection of the veneer reduces the possibility of water intrusion through flexural cracks in the veneer.2 system. Clay brick. This is seldom considered due to the increased cost. If the veneer is brick. can perform well if the designer understands wall movements relative to each other. This added measure helps mitigate the moisture penetration through the masonry. Traditionally. then the backup can be made of the same materials and there is little concern about dissimilar material properties. Anchored veneer can easily be attached to structural masonry with a variety of wall ties or joint reinforcement. Moisture must have a clear path to drain through the weep holes. Masonry veneer systems can be constructed from a variety of materials in a number of different ways. two wythes of brick with one wythe being the veneer brick facing have been used. Frequently. A prime advantage of this type of system is the ease in which insulation can be placed in the cavity between the wythes of masonry. The reason is compatibility. Weatherproof membrane Reinforced structural masonry back-up 14. W hen properly designed and constructed. Brick veneer 2”recommended air space FIGURE 14. Since the backup system deflects very little and the veneer is attached to the backup system. then veneer will have limited deflection.2. structural masonry backup systems have been constructed with Concrete Masonry Units. can also be used to support veneer. The corners. which must be open for passage of moisture to the exterior of the veneer.1 STRUCTURAL MASONRY BACKUP An easy and rigid method to support veneer units is with a structural masonry backup. and the build up of secondary stresses are minimized. Prior to placing the anchored veneer the structural masonry backup must be waterproofed. A rigid system deflects little. such as wind and earthquakes. Structural masonry backup . One of the best and obvious ways to assure the compatibility of material is to build the backup system of the same material as the veneer. If the veneer and the backup system respond in similar manners to changes in the environment. which can be particularly susceptible to seismic damage. then the tendency for cracking. The designer can select systems and materials to achieve a desired look or texture. or hollow clay brick. with minimal or no damage.2 STRUCTURAL SUPPORT BACKUP MATERIALS Seismically required horizontal joint reinforcement Anchor ties The structural support of a veneer system should have the same or very similar material properties as the veneer. 14.6 kg) felt. a masonry veneer system will survive natural elements. the system can prevent water intrusion into the building. movement differences. The anchored attachment system must have the flexibility of allowing vertical and horizontal movement relative to the backup system and at the same time be capable of transferring the lateral wind and seismic loads to the backup system for ultimate ground distribution. Instead. Manufacturers of each product should be consulted for more detailed information on specif ic products and installation procedures associated with their products. when properly flashed and drained with weepholes. This chapter presents the constructability of the most important materials and systems that are used in masonry veneer.

A dovetail tie system is shown in Figure 14. Accordingly.2. bowed or damaged studs should also be rejected. . 2. These substances act as bond breakers and can prevent the mortar from bonding to the concrete.291 VENEER When clay brick veneer is installed with a concrete masonry backup. The dovetail slot allows for vertical adjustment during construction. solidly bonding clay masonry to concrete masonry is not recommended except for small installations Weatherproof membrane Seismically required horizontal joint reinforcement 2”(50. (406 mm) on center although spacing of 24 in. movement joints should be placed in the veneer at all locations where movement joints occur in the concrete backup.8 mm) recommended air space Reinforced concrete back-up Dovetail slot A space or cavity should exist between the veneer and the concrete masonry units. Deflections of the wood studs should be limited to no more than h/600 or h/720 to reduce cracking in the masonry veneer. For anchored veneer. Only quality (grade 2 or better). Design of the wood stud backup system must comply with either IBC Chapter 23 or the National Design Specification by the National Forest Products Association. a provision to allow for differential movement between the materials must be included.2. Clay masonry expands with moisture and temperature over a long period of time while concrete masonry shrinks and creeps. cast the wire ties. 14. A “ dovetail slot”is embedded in the concrete and veneer ties are inserted into the dovetail slot.3 WOOD STUD BACKUP Wood studs are used to backup masonry veneer primarily on residential structures and low rise commercial buildings. As with masonry backup systems. are required.3 Concrete backup system. shrinkage and isolation joints should also be carefully located so that each material can move relatively free of the other. A few items require special attention to avoid problems with concrete backup walls: 1. 3. wood studs are typically located at 16 in.2 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE BACKUP Poured and precast reinforced concrete structures are often veneered with masonry. remove all form release agents (such as oil. When the veneer is to be adhered to the concrete. wax or grease) or curing agents that are present on the concrete. Dovetail anchor ties FIGURE 14. 14. Wall ties. (610 mm) may be used when the loads are small or when larger studs are utilized. the surf ace of the concrete should be sandblasted or water blasted until all such materials are removed. Wet and green lumber should not be used since shrinkage due to drying may damage not only the veneer but also interior drywall and other surface treatments.3. as well as vertical expansion movement. If any such substances were used. Multistory wood framed buildings can be veneered but accommodations must be provided to allow for lateral load support. which allow for minor differential movement between the materials. Excessively warped. Expansion. vertical shrinkage and movement of the wood structure. anchor slots and other embedded items directly into the concrete when practical. seasoned lumber should be used. For single story buildings.

This ensures that the studs will be sufficiently stiff so that the veneer will be adequately supported with only minor cracking from bending. flexible and light steel studs were used and little attention was paid to properly waterproofing the veneer/steel stud system.5 mm) metal stud. (50.292 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Plaster leveling course Seismically required horizontal joint reinforcement Recommended 2”(50. the deflection criteria may require a minimum of 16 gauge (1. Steel studs should be galvanized coated to conform to ASTM A 525. design changes were quickly implemented and attention was given to design and construction quality control thereby yielding a reliable steel stud/veneer system. Recommendations f rom the Brick Industry Association.2 mm) studs may be adequate. air space Paper backed metal lath weatherrproof membrane Steel stud framing back-up Wood stud framing back-up Anchor ties Batt insulation Exterior sheathing Brick veneer units Thin brick veneer Thin set mortar Weep screed at base Weep holes Building paper with 6 in. However.8 mm) min. (150 mm) minimum lap Adjustable ties Foundation Weep holes Flashing FIGURE 14. or fully supported at each story height by the structural frame through shelf angles. Use at least 18 gauge (1. Brick Veneer / Steel Stud Walls and Western States Clay Products Association.4 Wood stud backup system for adhered veneer. 4.2 mm) metal studs to allow for adequate screw thread grip. 3. Limit the deflection of the steel studs to h/600 of the height of the stud backup when considered alone as a full lateral design load. Technical Notes 28B.2. Initially. . Foundation Exterior sheathing Gypsum board Batt insulation Recommended 2 in. The brick veneer/steel stud wall system should be detailed as a panel wall.5 Steel stud backup system. except for lightly loaded and dry areas. As a result of these initial practices. such as building interiors where 18 gauge (1. Grade G-90.8 mm) minimum air space Steel studs Building paper with 6 in. 2.4 STEEL STUD BACKUP Steel studs have been used to support veneer construction for several decades. 14. (150 mm) minimum lap Flashing FIGURE 14. Design Guide for Anchored Brick Veneer over Steel Studs include: 1.

VENEER 5. Shelf angles at floor levels must be supported in this manner so that the load from the angle is not transferred to the veneer below. 14.6 mm). When installing shelf angles. weatherproof membrane Concrete floor Seismically required horizontal joint reinforcement Structural steel framing Exterior sheathing Anchor ties Recommended 2” (50. Rigid sheathing should be securely fastened to both sides of studs.3 in. The sheathing must be properly detailed and attached. This also reduces the overall deflection of the angle so that only the deflection of the projecting angle leg may be critical.7 mm) must be left at the ends of each angle. Avoid attaching heavily loaded shelf angles to steel studs since the substantial bending moment created by the large load and eccentricity could overstress the relatively flexible studs. 6. In this case. space should be provided between the ends of steel shelf angles at floor lines so each angle can expand and contract independently. Shelf angles can also be supported by bolting directly to the structural backup. The design of the steel stud system should meet the requirements of either the IBC or the Metal Lath/ Steel Framing Association design criteria. (12.3 SHELF ANGLES 293 a simply supported beam where the maximum deflection and moment would occur at the midspan. The deflection of the angle should be limited to the lesser of l/600 or 0. This is particularly advantageous since the angle size can be minimized by installing bolts at a relatively close spacing. The horizontal leg of the angle must extend to support at least two-thirds of the veneer thickness. Shelf angles over openings may be supported by bearing on adjoining masonry. such as the stud spacing.5 mm) and the rotation of the edge of the shelf angle should not exceed 1/16 in. Any loads imposed upon the studs must be considered in the design of the stud. . Angles must also support the veneer without excessive deflection or rotation. Horizontal bracing at mid-height for added stiffness is recommended. (1. a clear space of at least 1/2 in. (7. Provide a more substantial angle or a built-up structural steel member if deflections exceed l/600 to l/720. subject to building code provisions. the shelf angle would act as Similarly.8 mm) air space Weep holes Flashing FIGURE 14. This allows the steel angle to expand without damaging the surrounding masonry. Steel stud Building paper.6 Bolted shelf angle support system.

To prevent the expelled water from dripping down the face of the masonry. end dams must be constructed to direct the flow of moisture outward. The membranes are thicker than those previously manufactured and are reinforced and resistant to ultraviolet light.294 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Weatherproof membrane Veneer back-up system Exterior sheathing Continuous metal flashing Angled weep holes Concrete floor Veneer Continuous reglet Continuous metal flashing Wedge insert anchor Recommended 2” minimum air space Caulking Backer rod Compressible material Shelf angle FIGURE 14. CMU backing Flashing must slope toward the exterior face of the veneer so water can be shed through weep holes. (610 mm) on center. flashing is required directly above all shelf angles. although.5 WEEP HOLES Weep holes are installed above flashing to allow water to readily exit the masonry cavity. . 14. the type of weep holes and the particular weather conditions may alter this spacing.8 Adhesive flashing system. Otherwise water may reenter the masonry or cause staining. Where flashing terminates at the end of shelf angles. concrete foundations and over door and window openings to interrupt the downward flow of water. Flashing FIGURE 14.7 Metal flashing system. 14. Brick veneer Foundation Flashing must be continuous along the length of the veneer with sufficient lap joints to prevent moisture from migrating under the flashing. flashing should extend beyond the face and terminate in a drip edge. Plastic membranes designed specifically for flashing are available. Weep holes are typically placed at approximately 24 in.4 FLASHING Flashing at lintel In anchored masonry veneer.

a vertical expansion joint should be provided. Water can readily drain out of the open head joints which also serve as vents in the wall. Sections and details are provided which show the minimum code requirements along with recommendations based on design principles and standard construction methods. FIGURE 14. less the distance on the adjacent wall (Figure 14.9 Weep vent.7 SYSTEM DETAIL REQUIREMENTS This section describes masonry veneer systems in detail along with specific requirements contained in the 2006 IBC and the 2005 MSJC Code. To prevent insects or vermin from entering the open head joints and infesting the cavity. The distance from the corner on the adjacent wall would be the maximum calculated space between joints. maximum spacing of the vertical expansion joints should be calculated. FIGURE 14. temperature change. (3 m) Max. A vertical expansion joint can be placed at the corner of the veneer and this may be accomplished by following a continuous seam up through a series of attached vertical and horizontal joints. 14. dissimilar materials or abutment to other building elements. Discontinuities . The need for vertical expansion joints depends on the climate area in which the structure is located. allowing air circulation through the cavity. 295 Long term expansion Long term expansion L2 L1 Expansion joints L1 + L2 Typical spacing between expansion joints L1 or L2 = 10 Ft. type of structural frame and the materials involved in construction.6 EXPANSION JOINTS Any successful veneer system design will consider expansion and contraction in the veneer system. Additional attention should be given to vertical expansion joints in the following areas: Corners –In order to avoid buckling as depicted in Figure 14.VENEER Possibly.1 m) maximum spacing is recommended.When the veneer encounters any discontinuity. Examples are changes in height. Alternately. and a 20 ft (6.W it h all v ariables taken i nto consideration. the vertical expansion joint can be placed within ten feet of the corner. thickness. The spacing of the vertical expansion joints of clay masonry should never exceed 30 ft (9. the easiest form of weep hole is the open head joint.10).10 Expansion joints at corners.10 some type of vertical expansion joint should be placed in close proximity of the corner. Normally. Spacing . vinyl vents. . this method is cost prohibitive. 14. plastic grids or sheet metal devices can be placed in the open head joint to allow drainage and evaporation.1 m). and presence of any large openings.

Veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing. such as weep vents.1 m) could be catastrophic. IBC Section 1402. The MSJC requires that the veneer backing system be able to resist water penetration.8 mm) in diameter. EXTERIOR WALL. other than a fire wall. The units must also be adequately thick for the mason to place the units with stability.296 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Minimum thicknesses for various types of wall coverings are contained in IBC Table 1405. Exterior Walls. This height limitation is increased to 38 feet (11. (53. the veneer could collapse if the wood stud frame backup disintegrates and a fall of a system in excess of 30 feet (9.5 Stone (natural) 2 Terra cotta (anchored) 1 Terra cotta (adhered) 0. 14. the inside diameter of the tube must be 3/16 in. or where any lintels support the veneer above. IBC Chapter 14 references MSJC Code Chapter 6 for other specific requirements associated with masonry veneer. Note that the requirement for adhered masonry veneer is only 0. There are also considerations of differential movement.3 mm). but not counted as adding strength to the wall. and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1. Anchored veneer. on the other hand is the first line of defense for moisture penetration. are acceptable if they provide no less passage area than the 3/16 in. any veneer attached to a wood stud system or a cold-formed steel framing system is limited to 30 feet (9. In the event of a fire. 14. (4.2 (Partial) MINIMUM THICKNESS OF WEATHER COVERINGS COVERING TYPE MINIMUM THICKNESS (IN) Adhered masonry veneer 0.2. This is based on the concept that adhered veneer is applied to a system that already considers water management. The restriction on wood framing can be attributed to fire safety.7. bearing or nonbearing. that is used as an enclosing wall for a building.625 Marble slabs 1 Precast stone facing 0.6 m) for a gable condition. A wall. a brick cladding will expand over a long period of time.7. (6.1 DEFINITIONS IBC Chapter 14 contains definitions that are specifically related to masonry veneer. ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. includes masonry and the associated prescriptive requirements. such as a plaster substrate.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS IBC Chapter 14.8 mm).625 in. have the meaning shown herein.25 Anchored masonry veneer 2. (204 mm) long brick between weep holes. whereas. IBC TABLE 1405.1 (Selected Definitions) 1402. If using a plastic tube for a weep hole. Plain gypsum lath or gypsum board should never be used as an exterior material on the backup system. Alternate devices.625 Stone (cast artificial) 1.1 m) abov e the noncombustible foundation. (4. BACKING. A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of providing ornamentation. a wood frame backup shrinks over a long period of time. Veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding material applied to an approved backing. Typically. ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. and masonry veneer is not a hazard in a moderate fire. Maximum spacing of the weep holes is 33 in. VENEER. Anchored veneer requires flashing and weep holes at the base of the wall. whereas the anchored masonry veneer must have a minimum thickness of 2. such as 15 or 30 pound felt. protection or insulation. (838 mm) which allows for four 8 in. (4. any sheathing must be covered with a water-resistant membrane. for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code. The weep holes are to be a minimum of 3/16 in.25 in.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane. Additionally. . that is. More specifically. The given thicknesses are based on weather protection for the material and application. The wall or surface to which the veneer is secured.1. unless the veneer backing uses water-resistant sheathing with sealed joints.25 Fire protection is considered in the noncombustible systems. with an extra inch for tolerance.4 mm).1 The following words and terms shall.8 mm) diameter weep hole.

An example of this is masonry veneer designed and constructed as reinforced panelized systems. One guideline is that anchored veneer should be designed to resist horizontal forces.2 INSTALLATION 297 FIGURE 14.11 Dead load (weight of veneer) supported by shelf angles Lateral loads (wind. the load is transferred through mechanical systems such as wall ties or anchors.11 shows a typical load flow from the anchored veneer to the backup system. such as wind and earthquake loads. earthquake. The code requires that lateral loads. etc. equal to twice the weight of the veneer. In addition to lateral load transfer. The code provisions of the IBC and MSJC allow for rational design. or to design the masonry veneer in a manner acceptable to the building official.600 kg) force in tension or compression. especially the connection of the metal tie to the veneer system on one side. Dim ension stone system s should always be engineered. then the tie should be able to withstand 160 pounds (72. Load flow of anchored veneer system to backup system.12 Adhered veneer shear. Differential movement is caused by many factors including temperature changes. creep and deflection. typically installed as cladding on high rise buildings. thin cut stone panels. veneers are not a structural part of the building system.) transferred to back-up system through veneer ties Surfaces to which veneer is attached shall be designed to support the additional vertical and lateral loads imposed by the veneer. If a 4 in. which is transferred to the noncombustible foundation. The veneer is only to hold its own weight and any lateral loading is to be transferred to the backing. shrinkage. and connection to the backup system on the other side. One important design aspect is the deflection of the backup system under imposed lateral loads. the adhesive material applied to the back of the veneer transfers the loads.6) and terra cotta (2006 IBC Section 1405. With anchored veneer. Careful attention must be given to the entire system. which means that the veneer can be designed by engineering calculations. The designer has the option of following the prescriptive guidelines. consideration must be given for differential movement between the veneer and the backup system.1. As defined. or to the backup system through the shelf angles.VENEER The IBC contains prescriptive guidelines for the installation of masonry veneer. In the case of adhered veneer. Excessive deflection may allow cracking in the masonry veneer. Figure 14. Dimension stone.7.8) give prescriptive detail requirements. Shear stress bond 50 psi (345 kPa) or greater 14. This provision is taken from the Uniform Building Code requirements and gives a good sense of quantification. FIGURE 14. be transferred to the backup system through the attachments. (102 mm) nominally wide brick veneer system weighs 40 pounds per square foot (1. is not included in the provisions of the 2005 MSJC Code.916 kg/m2) and has one brick tie for every two square feet. . notwithstanding the prescriptiv e requirements contained in the code. such as wind or earthquake. Stone veneer (2006 IBC Section 1405. This movement is usually accommodated by the supports. The veneer system supports only the weight of the veneer.

2. (64 mm) by 75/8 in. (11 mm). depending on the manufacturer. (22 mm).2. Common face dimensions are approximately 21/2 in.3. on the job site. (194 mm) with a thickness of about 7/16 in. Thin brick veneers are installed using a variety of procedures. Adhering to Concrete Block Masonry or Concrete with surface preparation.46 m2) in area and not more than 36 in. 5. horizontal force resistance individual units are not to exceed 5 ft2. If expansion tolerances are not part of the design process. There is also a unit size limitation imposed by 2005 MSJC Code Section 6. (4. then veneer damage may result. consideration must be given for brick expansion and building contraction. Section 1405.9.7 mm). or approximately 10 ft.7. .2 ADHERED VENEER Thin brick veneer is increasingly popular in commercial. 14.298 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 2W 2 W = Min. The vertical distance between horizontal expansion joints would likely be between floors. (73 kg/m2). The horizontal distance between vertical joints should be compatible with the building design and ideally not exceed 15 to 20 ft. residential and do it yourself markets. The thickness may be as much as 7/8 in.2. Thin brick varies in size. The decision to begin using this product was due to marketing research which recognized remodeling and re-veneering areas as substantial markets for a thin clay veneer wall covering.7. 14. Adhered veneer may be designed and installed without limitation to height and length. (914 mm) long in any face dimension. Adhering to prefabricated panels. color and texture. Some of the common methods include: 1. Adhering to a wood or metal stud system with surface preparation. Adhered veneer is secured by adhesion of a bonding material applied over solid backing.1 which states that the thickness of adhered units are not to exceed 25/8 in. The code language states that the consideration is to control restrained differential movement between the veneer and backing. (66. (0. Masonry units used in this application are limited to a weight of 15 lbs/ft2 (73 kg/m2).13 An chored veneer fo rce resistance. Placing into forms and cast integrally with concrete.6 to 6. which is the same as previous building code requirements.1 of the 2006 IBC limits interior adhered veneer to a maximum self weight of 20 lbs/ft2 (98 kg/m2) and the deflection to l/600. The section further requires that the 3.1 T HIN BRICK W W = Weight of veneer F IGURE 14. adhered masonry veneer may be applied with vertical and horizontal expansion joints between sections.1 m). The unit weight is not to exceed 15 lb. This code also requires that the bond of an adhered veneer to its backing must be designed to withstand a shearing stress of 50 psi (345 kPa). 4. Consideration must be given to brick masonry veneer expansion and the building contraction of the backing system./ft2. (3 m). or any other selected location. Adhering directly to CMU or Concrete. which is preferred when a raked mortar joint is desired. In order to satisfy this requirement. however.

3 TERRA COTTA Terra cotta comes in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes. and attaching to aluminum honeycomb material. Conventional brick veneer provides greater thermal mass than thin brick veneer. 14. Adhered terra cotta are thin masonry units. Conventional brick veneer has higher sound and fire resistance ratings than thin brick veneer. including back ribs. (292 mm) are available and extra consideration should be given to units of greater thickness. 4. thus having minimal affect on the capacity rating of the elevator.4 ADHERED VENEER INSTALLATION Adhered masonry veneer is typically installed by one of two common methods. vinyl siding or aluminum. wood or steel stud framing. Thin brick provides additional sound and fire resistance.7 mm) to 11/4 in. (12. Adhered terra cotta should never be applied to structural masonry since the masonry units will significantly expand and contract during normal moisture retention and drying cycles.7.VENEER 299 Longer units of 111/2 in.5 m) by 9 ft 4 in. The thick set method may be used on backing of masonry. Thin brick can provide protection to the material over which it is applied and functions as an architectural wall covering. A waterproof membrane should first be applied to the concrete masonry surface. The structural properties of conventional brick veneer are not provided by thin brick veneer. It can be made in panels as large as 5 ft (1. The thick set method may use a setting bed of 1/2 in. 3. The durability of thin brick may not be equivalent to conventional brick veneer.2 HONEYCOMB STONE There is a product known as “Light Stone” made by cutting stone to a thickness of about 5 mm. Prefabrication with thin brick veneer is easily and economically done. since the weight is less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m2). Thin brick veneer is more durable than products such as wood. the thin set method has become quite popular and uses advanced technology to address some of the traditional shortcomings of adhered veneer installation.8 mm) in thickness. The traditional method is called the thick set method. 14. FIGURE 14. The total panel thickness is about 20 mm and the panels are widely used in elevators. then an expanded metal lath wire mesh and a scratch and brown coat of plaster applied prior to the adhered installation of terra cotta.7. 4. The color also depends on the chemical composition and firing process that is used. (2.2. There are some advantages and disadvantages of thin brick veneer: Advantages of Thin Brick 1.14 Honeycomb stone sample. 14.8 mm) where the units are pushed into the setting bed. The texture of thin brick units depends on the method of manufacture and the surface treatment used prior to or after firing.8 m). 5. More recently. the wire lath may be eliminated if the surface is heavily scarified or roughened by sandblasting or other means. 2.2.7. .2. concrete. When applied directly to concrete or masonry. (31. and most units are anchored. Thin brick walls are lighter in weight than conventional masonry veneer. up to 11/4 inches (31. Disadvantages of Thin Brick 1. Long thin brick veneer units may warp in the firing process. The back ribs are necessary in order to provide a secure bond with the mortar. Installation is possible year-round. 2. Thin brick veneer can be applied by craftsmen who are moderately skilled. 3. which can cause difficulty for the installer and dissatisfaction for the end user.

12 ”(3 05 mm ) Maximum weight of 15 lbs. (73 kg/m2) Caulking for expansion Cement plaster coat Proper joint allows the concrete backing structure to move.46 m2) in total face area. Then.1 mm) thick. Finish joints as appropriate. FIGURE 14.9 m * Maximum dimension in gl e d ) ma xim this configuration. The setting bed is typically 1/16 in. nor more that 5 ft2 (0.46 m2)).15 Adhered veneer with provision 36 ”( 0 Sin . No consideration made for difference in expansion . . The terra cotta unit should be soaked prior to setting. F IGURE 14.6 mm) thick and set on a scratch/ brown coat of plaster backing. Adhered veneer units shall not exceed 25/8 in. spread half the mortar setting bed on the wall and half on the terra cotta unit. Maxiime u ns mum dimensions and ion m maximum area (720 square inches (0. (914 mm) in any face dimension. Screed both mortar beds with a notched trowel./sq.7 mm) in specified thickness. The total mortar setting bed should be about 3/4 in.contraction between brick veneer and back-up system Firmly place the terra cotta unit on the mortar setting bed and tap into place with a rubber mallet. (66. This should assure a full mortar setting bed.17 L imit o f adhered stone dimensions and weight. 36 in. Apply the masonry veneer in acoordance with manufacturers recommendations and allow joints for expansion where necessary.300 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The thin set method is more contemporary and uses a latex additive in the thin set mortar. ft2. WRONG F IGURE 14. (19. and shall not weigh more than 15 lb/ft2 (73 kg/m2). while the caulking compresses. (1. No stresses are transferred to the masonry veneer.16 Adhesive 12”(305 mm) Veneer bu ckl ing due to expansion of brick and creep/plastic flow of frame. Adhered terra cotta is installed by brushing a coat of neat Portland cement and water onto the terra cotta unit and a limited area of wall. 20”(508 mm)* Provisions are made for the different coefficients of expansion between the materials. for expansion.

noncorrosive lintels over all openings where veneer is not self spanning. slab-type veneer.3.8 mm) or 1/16” (1. exterior masonry veneer not exceeding 40 lb/ft2 (195 kg/m2) may be supported on wood construction and is limited to a height of 12 ft (3. (195 kg/m2) when used as an interior finish on wood framing.5 m). Lintel deflections limited to l/600 Non-combustible foundation FIGURE 14. 301 Anchored veneer with a backing of coldformed steel framing should be supported by noncombustible construction for each story above the height limit Maximum height for veneer supported by foundation Anchored brick veneer Veneer system over 30 feet (9 m) in height with a backing of cold-formed steel .18 Each story Shelf angle supports attached to non-combustible corrosion cold-formed framing 30’(9. (9. Weep screed (at slab or foundation) VENEER BACKING Adhered veneer wall sections. Flashing 2005 MSJC Code Table 6. (11.2. Concrete 2006 IBC Section 1405. There is also a weight limitation for interior masonry veneer of 40 lb. Specific height and weight limitations apply for anchored masonry veneer under certain conditions.7 mm) to 11/4”(31.58 m) at the top of a gable.3 ANCHORED VENEER Cement mortar of plaster 1/2”(12. or All joints to be filled with excess mortar or grouted Concrete block Cleaned moistened surfaces brushed with neat cement paste Type S mortar applied to each face and units lapped into place to fill all the voids or Backing is defined as the wall or surface to which the veneer is secured.7 m).1 and 6.2 for masonry veneer design and installation with some specific prescriptive requirements for stone veneer. the height of the veneer is limited to 18 ft (5.VENEER 14. The IBC has specific veneer requirements including the materials permitted as the backing to masonry veneer.19 framing.7. Movement joints allowing for vertical movement directly under shelf angles should be installed.1 lists the maximum height for anchored veneer with backing of wood framing or cold formed steel framing as 30 ft.14 m) at the plate line and 38 ft.5 references 2005 MSJC Code Sections 6. Wood stud Adhered veneer or Metal stud Cement plaster on waterproof paper backed wire lath For exterior masonry veneer supported by preservative wood treated foundations./ft2.6 mm) latex set on scratch/brown plaster. and terra cotta.2. Each story FIGURE 14.1 m) Non-combustible. Also.

which states “ Design and detail the veneer to accommodate differential movement” . ft (m) ft. .58) Brick veneer units may be made of clay or concrete.1. (5 mm). For openings. Provision made for different expansion/contraction of veneer and back-up system by providing expansion joint at underside of shelf angle Since there must be a provision for expansion and contraction at horizontal breaks.3. Clay brick is by far the most popular masonry material for veneer applications. This means that for a 10 ft (3 m) opening. directly under the ledger angles.1 m) MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 38’(11.21 shows an example of an expansion joint that will accommodate vertical movement and Figure 14.5.3 in.14) 38 (11. noncombustible.22 depicts what could happen if vertical movement joint is improperly detailed or constructed.6 m) for gable 302 Wood frame backup Anchored brick veneer system Veneer supported by non-combustible base FIGURE 14. Height at gable. (m) 30 (9. Mortar bed Figures 14.30’(9.20 Waterproof sheathing Height limit of wood frame backup system. Steel shelf angle RIGHT FIGURE 14. or more specifically. except as required to control expansion and contraction. the deflection shall not exceed 0.21 Anchored veneer with provision for expansion. Height limit from foundation Height at plate.6 mm) of the span under the full load of the veneer. Flashing Caulking Backer rod Expansion filler The area and length of anchored veneer walls shall be unlimited. This is implied in the 2005 MSJC Code Section 6.2 in. airspace or a compressible expansion joint material must be provided. such as doors and windows. noncorrosive lintels shall be used and the deflection of the lintel shall not exceed l/600 or 0. where the veneer is not self spanning. (7. General Design Requirements.

The brick veneer is supported on the foundation and should not carry any vertical loads.4 mm) minimum clear space is provided between the veneer and the backup system. (25. Butt splices in wire permitted.c . (102 mm) thick exterior brick wythe tied to a backup system with metal ties in such a way that a 1 in. Metal stud back-up system Installation fill Weatherproof sheathing Seismic required No. WRONG F IGURE 14.2. Flexible metal anchors permit horizontal and vertical movement parallel to the plane of the wall and at the same time resistance to tension and compression forces in the direction perpendicular to the wall.8 mm thick by 7/8 inches (22 mm) wide In high Seismic Design Categories the tie must have lip to engage the horizontal joint reinforcement Ma 16 x.3inc hes (0.4 mm) minimum air space Corrosion resistant anchors at least 0. Anch or veneer w ith no provision for expansion. Adequate consideration must be given for difference in expansion/ contraction between veneer system and back-up system. .2 m2) of wall area and not spaced more than 16-inches (406 mm) apart horizontally Brick veneer 5”(127 mm) maximum Weep holes Building paper with 6 in. other than the weight of the veneer. Brick damage due to lack of expansion joint under shelf angle. (66.9 gauge (3. but 4”(102 mm) lap rec ommended Required 1”(25.23 Seismic anchored veneer tie system. Ties spaced to anchor not more than 2 square feet (0.2.2 mm) or 4 in. According to 2005 MSJC Code Section 6. (76.c .4 anchored veneer units should be at least 25/8 in.76 mm) wire or equivalent. st ”( ud 40 sp 6 m ac m) ing o.VENEER 303 Brick veneer is commonly used over wood and metal stud framing. Anchored brick veneer construction consists of a nominal 3 in. (152 mm) minimum lap Flashing Foundation FIGURE 14.22 The veneer system must transfer lateral loads to the backing and metal anchors with their mechanical fasteners can be the weakest component of the veneer system.7 mm) in thickness. Maximum stud spacing at 16”(406 mm) o.

are recommended where maximum resistance to rain and other water penetration is desired. The last 2 inches (51 mm) of each wire leg shall have a rightangle bend. Stone was first used for shelter because it formed the walls of caves in which early man took refuge from the ravages of the elements.1055-inch (2. Most low-rise residential and small commercial buildings use mortar for the installation of stone. concrete or to stud construction by one of the following methods: 1. Some features of stone construction include natural beauty. and the type of brick and type of mortar used. IBC Section 1405.6 Stone veneer. which include cavity walls.1(2). . or approved equal.68 mm) corrosion-resistant wire.6. Fire resistance –Typical anchored brick veneer walls (4 in. and spaced so that the eyes or loops are 12 inches (305 mm) maximum on center (o. Stone veneer may be applied by using the following methods as described in 2006 IBC Section 1405. formed beyond the base of the backing. The legs of the loops shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in length bent at right angles and laid in the mortar joint. Acoustics –Brick veneer walls reduce sound transmission. threaded through the exposed loops for every 2 square feet (0.c. the height of the brick veneer. The mass reduces sound transmission by absorbing the energy of the sound vibration. There are two basic types of natural stone veneer: 1. One-inch (25 mm) minimum thickness of cement grout shall be placed between the backing and the stone veneer. (102 mm)) have a fire rating of up to 2 hours (2006 IBC Table 720.1 STONE VENEER The application of stone as a cladding in construction is a continually evolving process.24 Stone veneer.7.1055-inch (2. anchor ties shall be not less than 0. the stiffness of the backing. Stone veneer units not exceeding 10 inches (254 mm) in thickness shall be anchored directly to masonry. Walls of this type. and 2 Thin 10 mm to 30 mm stone slabs mechanically or adhesively attached. Insulation –Brick veneer walls can easily be designed to obtain an energy efficient building environment in any type of weather condition. or approved equal.3. Rubble or cut stone laid in mortar. Careful consideration must be given to the design and construction that permits water drainage. FIGURE 14. Row 1).68 mm) corrosion-resistant wire tie. Water resistance –Anchored brick veneer walls are drainage type walls. There shall be provided not less than a 0.6 1405.) in both directions. the subliminal feeling of security and strength that it creates. 14. the tie system. With concrete or masonry backing.304 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Some properties of brick veneer are: Durability –Consideration must be given to five important elements that affect the durability of brick veneer. This tie shall be a loop having legs not less than 15 inches (381 mm) in length bent so that it will lie in the stone veneer mortar joint.2 m2) of stone veneer. namely.

1055-inch gauge (2. minimum 0. With stud backing.0625-inch (1.c. veneer Stone veneer 10”(254 mm) maximum Recommended 1”(25. into top and bottom plates or with equivalent wire ties.1055-inch gauge (2. formed as exposed eye extending 12 inch (305 mm) maximum on center beyond backing face with legs of minimum 6”(152 mm) length bent at right angles. There shall be not less than a 0.c. Figure 14. or the system can be designed to place spot bedded mortar to accommodate compressive forces.c.68 mm). Veneer ties.59 mm) corrosion-resistant wire mesh with two layers of waterproofed paper backing in accordance with Section 1403.3 shall be applied directly to wood studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) o.25 and 14.125-inch (29 mm) penetration into each stud and with 8d common nails at 8 inches (203 mm) o. On studs.28 shows the periphery dowels which may be required by the Code.6 are known as “ wired tied”anchored veneer systems. or approved equal.26 demonstrate the systems. corrosion resistant wire. Figures 14.68 mm). the mesh shall be attached with 2-inch-long (51 mm) corrosion-resistant steel wire furring nails at 4 inches (102 mm) o. laid in mortar joint. end bent in 2” (51 mm) angle Ties spaced to anchor not more than 2 square feet (0. laid in stone veneer mortar joint. looped through the mesh for every 2 square feet (0.68 mm) corrosion-resistant wire. threaded thru exposed anchor tie loops and with legs of minimum 15”(381 mm) length bent at right angles.68 mm). minimum 0. As with any anchored veneer system. Since there is no mortar spot bedding requirement. The last 2 inches (51 mm) of each wire leg shall have a right-angle bend.68 mm).1055inch gauge (2. Concrete 305 Anchor tie.2 m2) of wall area and not spaced more than 16-inches (406 mm) apart horizontally Concrete back-up 1”(25. minimum 0. so bent that it will lie in the stone veneer mortar joint. formed as exposed eye extending 12 inch (305 mm) maximum on center beyond backing face with legs of minimum 6”(152 mm) length bent at right angles. . corrosion resistant wire. providing a minimum 1. Non-combustible foundation Anchored system with concrete back-up. The two methods contained in 2006 IBC Section 1405. cement grout 10”(254 mm) max. laid in stone veneer mortar joint. minimum 0. corrosion resistant wire. threaded thru exposed anchore tie loops and with legs of minimum 15”(381 mm) length bent at right angles.1055-inch gauge (2. end bent in 2”(51 mm) angle Anchor tie. This tie shall be a loop having legs not less than 15 inches (381 mm) in length. corrosion resistant wire.25 2. One-inch (25 mm) minimum thickness of cement grout shall be placed between the backing and the stone veneer.4 mm) min. the tie must resist the force.1055-inch (2. a 2-inch by 2-inch (51 by 51 mm) 0. These anchors are to be connected to the backing by wire or ties.VENEER Veneer ties.2 m2) of stone veneer. laid in mortar joint. ties must be capable of resisting tension and compression forces.4 mm) minimum FIGURE 14.

If made of sheet metal.9 m2) in area.1055-inch gauge (2.6 mm) penetration Veneer ties. anchored to wood studs with 2”(51 mm) galvanized steel wire furring nails at 4”(102 mm) o. Units shall not exceed 20 square feet (1.. and at top and bottom with not less than 8d common wire nails at 8”(203 mm) o. granite or other stone units of slab form ties of corrosion-resistant dowels in drilled holes located in the middle third of the edge of the units spaced a maximum of 24 inches (610 mm) apart around the periphery of each unit with not less than four ties per veneer unit.68 mm).7 Slab-type veneer. veneer Non-combustible foundation “Wired tied”anchored veneer system. wood stud backup with wire mesh and waterproof paper. in tension or compression. not smaller in diameter than 0. cement grout 10”(254 mm) max. if made of wire.853 by 25 mm) or. not less than 2”x 2”x 16 gauge (51 mm x 51 mm x 1.7 FIGURE 14. a force equal to two times the weight of the attached veneer. with the hole countersunk to a diameter and depth equal to twice the diameter of the dowel in order to provide a tight-fitting key of cement mortar at the dowel locations when the mortar in the joint has set.1483-inch (3.27 application. end bent in 2”(51 mm) angle Stone veneer Ties spaced to anchor not more than 2 square feet (0. Studs at max. For veneer units of marble.c.2 m2) of wall area and not spaced more than 16-inches (406 mm) apart horizontally FIGURE 14. Typical anchored stone veneer 1405.063 inch (1. minimum 0. threaded thru exposed anchor tie loops and with legs of minimum 15”(381 mm) length bent at right angles.c.306 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Reinforcement. corrosion resistant wire. IBC Section 1405. 2 ply waterproofed paper-backed.c.57 mm) galvanized wire mesh. Slab-type veneer units not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness shall be anchored directly to masonry. Veneer ties shall be corrosionresistant metal capable of resisting.76 mm) wire. If the dowels are not tight fitting. 16”o. the holes shall be drilled not more than 0. travertine.26 Wood stud back-up 1”(25 mm) min. laid in stone veneer mortar joint. Min. veneer ties shall be not smaller in area than 0. . or anchor to steel studs with equivalent wire ties.0336 by 1 inch (0. 11/8”(28. concrete or stud construction.6 mm) larger in diameter than the dowel.

9 m2 ) FIGURE 14. communication between the design team and the developer is the key in selecting the most appropriate product to satisfy the end user. Block veneer may not be as readily available as clay brick veneer units. slumped or adobe faced.63”max. Quite often. especially in the smaller.76 mm) min. . such as smooth. As with any product. a wider structural block may be used to achieve both a desired surf ace appearance and a structural element potentially yielding a substantial cost savings.7.28 Anchored veneer doweling for 2 inch (51 mm) stone. Block veneer can also be made into a variety of textures. split faced and fluted. clay brick sizes. d /4”to 1” d + 0.2 BLOCK VENEER. 14.3. the application of block veneer may be impractical. more traditional. while maintaining an efficient cost approach. 3 24”(610 mm) maximum 24 ma ”(61 xim 0 m um m) 1 /3 t t (maximum 2”(51 mm)) Maximum panel size 20 square feet (1. block veneer is cost competitive. however. Since the manufacturing process does not require the high firing temperatures associated with clay products. CONCRETE UNITS Block veneer can be processed with quality control standards that allow color and texture variations are similar to clay brick.VENEER 307 9 Gauge (3. Alternatively.

8 TYPICAL DETAILS The following details are presented as a few of the design possibilities of a veneer system.308 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 14. Each project should be designed on its own merit using details most beneficial for the application.4 mm) minimum air space Steel stud Insulation Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw Interior finish FIGURE 14.1 ROOF/PARAPET DETAILS Horizontal and vertical reinforcement Continuous metal coping Sealant Sealant Counter flashing Metal tie Dovetail slot and anchor 1”(25.4 mm) minimum air space .29 Weatherproof sheathing Brick parapet on concrete frame building. Brick veneer Adjustable wire tie Weatherproof sheathing 1”(25.30 Roof detail without parapet.8. 14. Roofing Gravel-stop fascia Dovetail anchor Sealant Adjustable anchor Steel stud Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw Insulation Interior finish FIGURE 14.

VENEER Roofing /8”(3 mm) min.31 Weatherproof sheathing Brick veneer Metal tie 1”(25.c.4 mm) minimum air space 309 .32 Slab roof detail. 4”(102 mm) face brick 1”(25. air space 1 Wood plate Wood studs Insulation 8d nail Interior finish FIGURE 14. 8”(203 mm) CMU Vertical reinforcement FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Sloped wood roof detail. Floor or roof slab 8”(203 mm) CMU bond beam Drip (typical) Sealant joint Joint reinforcement @ 16”(406 mm) o.

Weep holes Elastic joint sealant Compressible material below shelf angle Adjustable wire tie FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Reglet Compressible material Backer rod 8”(203 mm) max.33 Flashing at shelf angle.8.310 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 14.2 SHELF ANGLE/FLASHING DETAILS 1”(25. .4 mm) minimum air space Reglet Flashing 8”(203 mm) max.34 Flashing one brick above shelf angle. Flashing Elastic joint sealant Compressible material below shelf angle Adjustable wire tie FIGURE 14. Lip brick Caulking 1”(25.

c. 311 . Weatherproof sheathing Tie Steel stud back-up 1”(25.35 Shelf angle anchored to CMU backup.36 Shelf angle at concrete support. for air circulation FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Flashing Lipped or lintel brick Weep holes Caulking Compressible material Steel shelf angle or bent plate 4”(102 mm) face brick Embedded anchor bolt 8”(203 mm) CMU FIGURE 14. steel stud backup.4 mm) minimum air space Brick veneer Building paper Flashing Steel angle Weep holes Sealant Insulation Backer rod Open head joint @ 4’(1.2 m) o.VENEER 1”(25.

4”(102 mm) face brick 8”(203 mm) CMU 1”(25.c.38 Shelf angle anchored to CMU backup.312 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Variation from specified position in plan Adjustable anchor Alternate position of flashing with weep holes shifted upward one brick Shims Weep holes @ 24” (610 mm) o. Vertical reinforcement Flashing Single or double 8”(203 mm) CMU bond beam lintel Weep holes Steel angle FIGURE 14. .c.4 mm) minimum air space Joint reinforcement @ 16”(406 mm) o.37 Shelf angle anchored to beam or slab. Sealant Backer rod Face of beam or slab Clear for vertical movement or provide compressible material FIGURE 14.

8. 8d nail Weatherproof sheathing Interior finish Wood stud Metal ties Brick veneer Brick sill Horizontal joint reinforcement as seismically required Caulking or sealant 1”(25.4 mm) minimum air space Building paper PLAN VIEW FIGURE 14. steel studs/brick veneer.39 Window jamb. 313 .VENEER 14.4 mm) minimum air space Horizontal joint reinforcement as seismically required Brick sill Weatherproof sheathing Caulking or sealant Metal ties Building paper PLAN VIEW FIGURE 14.40 Window jamb.3 SILL AND JAMB DETAILS Metal studs Interior finish Self-tapping corrosion resistant metal screw Metal casement window 1”(25. wood studs/brick veneer.

max. . Sealant and backer rod FIGURE 14. Sealant Steel angle lintel FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Weatherproof sheathing Insulation Brick veneer Building paper Brick ties Flashing Weep holes @ 24” (610 mm) o.41 Window/door soffit steel studs/brick veneer.c.42 Window soffit. 1”(25.c. wood studs/brick veneer. max.314 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 1”(25.4 mm) minimum air space Weatherproof sheathing Brick ties Steel stud Brick veneer Insulation Building paper Interior finish Flashing Weep holes @ 24” (610 mm) o.

44 Window sill. wood studs/brick veneer.VENEER Double hung wood window Caulking or sealant Weatherproof sheathing Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o. 315 . Wood stool Caulking or sealant Brick sill Channel Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o.4 mm) minimum air space Brick veneer FIGURE 14. Insulation Flashing 1”(25. Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw Flashing Metal ties 1”(25.c.c. steel studs/brick veneer.43 Window sill.4 mm) minimum air space Weatherproof sheathing FIGURE 14.

8. Anchor bolt Finish grade Waterproof membrane FIGURE 14.4 FLOOR CONNECTION DETAILS Interior finish Insulation 1”(25.c.c.4 mm) minimum air space Flashing Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o.46 Floor connection detail. Weatherproof sheathing Insulation Interior finish Wood studs Building paper Brick veneer 8d nail Metal tie 1”(25. Waterproof membrane .4 mm) minimum air space Weatherproof sheathing Brick veneer 8d nail Metal tie Wood studs Building paper Flashing Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o.45 Floor connection detail. Finish grade Anchor bolt Solid grouted collar joint FIGURE 14.316 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 14.

c. steel stud backup.5 WALL BASE DETAILS 1”(25. Vapor barrier Fill cavity w/mortar or grout up to underside of flashing 4”to 6”(102 mm to 152 mm) capillary water barrier Waterproof membrane Building paper Reinforced concrete foundation wall and footing Flashing FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Interior finish Steel stud 4”(102 mm) brick veneer Horizontal joint reinforcement as seismically required Building paper Insulation Weatherproof sheathing Vapor barrier Wall ties Concrete floor slab Bond break Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o. max.VENEER 14.8. 317 . concrete footing.47 Base of wall detail.

c. W eatherproof membrane Expansion joint material Concrete floor slab Flashing Weep holes Grade Vapor barrier 4”to 6”(102 mm to 152 mm) capillary water barrier Grout fill Waterproof membrane Concrete foundation FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Horizontal joint reinforcement @ 16”(406 mm) o.48 Base of wall detail. CMU backup. concrete footing.318 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 4”(102 mm) face brick 8”(203 mm) CMU 1”(25. .

319 .c.49 Base of wall detail.VENEER 8”(203 mm) CMU 4”(102 mm) face brick 1”(25. CMU backup.4 mm) minimum air space Horizontal joint reinforcement @ 16”(406 mm) o. concrete footing CMU below grade. W eatherproof membrane Expansion joint material Concrete floor slab Flashing Weep holes Grout fill Waterproof membrane Vapor barrier 4”to 6”(102 mm to 152 mm) capillary water barrier CMU foundation Concrete footing Alternate bars FIGURE 14.

steel stud backup. Finish grade Full collar joint Concrete grade beam FIGURE 14.4 mm) minimum air space Insulation Interior finish Flashing Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o. concrete footing. .320 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL W eatherproof membrane Self-tapping corrosion-resistant screw Metal stud Weatherproof sheathing Brick veneer Wall tie 1”(25. concrete footing/slab.51 Base of wall detail. steel stud backup. Interior sheathing W eatherproof membrane Adjustable wire tie Insulation Brick veneer Weatherproof sheathing Steel stud Weep holes Flashing FIGURE 14.c.50 Base of wall detail.

Joint free of all material except for backer rod and sealant Brick expansion joint FIGURE 14. 1 Exterior face of veneer FIGURE 14. 321 .53 W Sealant Plan view of vertical expansion joint.c.54 Stop longitudinal wire at all brick expanion joints Exterior face of 4”(102 mm) brick veneer Plan view of horizontal reinforcement at expansion joint. or leave out head joint mortar Sealant Backer rod FIGURE 14. max.6 EXPANSION JOINT DETAILS Alternate position of flashing with weep holes shifted upward one brick Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o.8. No mortar behind back-up material Backer rod 1 /2 W or /2”typ.VENEER 14.52 Horizontal expansion joint at shelf angle.

322 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Control joint key Stop longitudinal wires at all control joints Vertical wall reinforcement Interior face of CMU wall 1”(25.55 W Sealant Vertical expansion joint detail with CMU backup/brick veneer.4 mm) minimum air space Exterior face veneer Stop longitudinal wires at all control joints Backer rod 1 /2 W or /2”typ. . 1 FIGURE 14.

.7 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Friction-fit metal coping Sealant Sealant Horizontal reinforcement 1”(25.8.4 mm) minimum air space Counter flashing Metal tie Dovetail anchor Vertical reinforcement Steel stud Brick veneer Insulation Flashing Interior finish Head Weep holes (above windows) Steel angle Sealant Sealant Weep holes Steel stud Brick sill Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screws Adjustable wire tie FIGURE 14.VENEER 323 14.56 Veneer system.

57 Veneer system.324 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Roofing Gravel stop fascia Dovetail anchor Sealant Adjustable anchor Steel stud Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw Insulation Weatherproof sheathing Brick veneer Adjustable wire tie Flashing Interior finish Head Weep holes (above windows) Steel angle Sealant Sealant Steel stud Brick sill Weatherproof sheathing W eatherproof membrane Insulation Weep holes Flashing FIGURE 14. .

Masonry walls may be coated in non-visual locations. This chapter provides information on topics that significantly impact the performance and show the benefits of masonry. That is reducing the detrimental effect of water penetrating into a masonry system. Moisture resistance involves many detail parts of a building. and water resistance. not shelter. This is significant since regulatory issues are more stringent for fire protection. is porous and complete resistance cannot occur unless the masonry is coated with an impermeable membrane. When the advantages are exploited and the limitations are taken into account. Examples include walls above grade. the mass may be sufficient to prevent penetration through the wall. however can be quite resistant to water penetration.CHAPTER 15 SPECIAL TOPICS 15. The overall goal is mitigatation of water penetration. and limitations of masonry materials from which the designs are produced. In exposed masonry. The term “ shelter”is defined as something that covers or provides protection from the elements. The coating can change the color and texture of masonry.1 GENERAL The capacity to understand the entire process of design and construction without separating one from the other is the secret of a good design. roof and floor building elements. . A thorough understanding of the performance of masonry and the issues relating to moisture penetration will help in designing masonry buildings that successfully resist moisture penetration. Masonry. when applicable.2 MOISTURE RESISTANCE The term “ waterproof”usually means complete resistance to water penetration. walls below grade. By limiting the moisture that can penetrate masonry. by its nature. noise control and energy efficiency. such as bituminous coating. 15. Providing moisture resistant walls requires that a number of items must be considered before the application of any coating takes place. the result is invariably a successful project. A drainage system may also be used in partially grouted and ungrouted masonry allowing the moisture to gravitate to the base of the wall and exit through weep holes. by definition. The reduction occurs by a combination of waterproofing. Each construction material has speci f ic characteristics that can be economically incorporated in buildings if recognized and used intelligently. making the masonry impervious is impractical. such as below grade. Coating masonry with a substance defeats the purpose of using masonry. features. A leaky building is. Exposed masonry. With masonry materials an expert designer is one who f ully understands and is concerned with the construction advantages.

2.326 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Sheet metal cap. The joint must be properly tooled to make the mortar as dense as possible. reveals and recesses is essential. Detail of wall cap and parapet flashing. 2. The proper application method should be recommended by the manufacturer for the particular type of wall surface for the applied material. Should shrinkage cracks appear before or after the application of the waterproofing. In practice. Porous blocks may cost considerably more to waterproof. sprinklers and wind-driven rain. 15. Common sources of active water penetration are high water tables. such as the use of a tan colored concrete masonry split faced block to provide a distinctive appearance and both texture and color. Active water penetration occurs as a result of slight to moderate water pressure on concrete surfaces which contain larger openings than the cement gel pores. 10. Secure to wall and seal with caulking. 3”Minimum from top of masonry Caulking Roofing material mopped to back of parapet.2. Window frames must be properly installed and caulked. the owner. or may also be due to external factors.1 Capillary penetration usually involves small volumes of water that move slowly through concrete and causes relatively few problems. flashings must be properly caulked and the wall must be waterproofed from the capping down to the flashing. Where the roof attaches to the walls. Provide for expansion and contraction of metal cap with a slip joint. special corrective steps must be taken to seal them. 3. or both. running or ponded water. The average clear waterproofing material will not protect anything other than microscopic cracks. Proper detail ing and construction of architectural features such as vertical scores. Extend to top of masonry. The term “ waterproof ”technically means impervious. FIGURE 15. however. The larger openings may be a result of deficiencies in materials and/or workmanship. horizontal scores. This is especially true if the concrete is very dense and well compacted. Connections between masonry and dissimilar materials need to be waterproofed. 6. In some cases it will be a decision made by the owner based on previous successful applications. 15. 1. . Parapet wall Cant strip 9. 7. 8. or a total barrier to moisture infiltration. Cold joints or control joints require proper caulking that will allow for movement. such as ground settlement. Mortar joints must be free of beeholes. The proper waterproofing material must be selected for the masonry unit used. It could also be based on a specific desired appearance by the designer. 4. “ waterproof”is commonly used to describe coatings used to make surfaces weather-tight to a reasonable degree of confidence and usually includes the clear water-repellents used on masonry.2 MOISTURE MIGRATION CONTROL The decision to use a clear water repellent treatment on concrete masonry will typically be the result of a series of design considerations. Exterior door frames must be placed in the masonry walls in a manner that will permit proper caulking. 11.1 WHAT IS WATERPROOF Water penetration in concrete masonry occurs in two ways: actively and passively. The passive capillary action of water into the small cement pores occurs when liquid water comes in the contact with the concrete surface under little or no pressure. 5. Parapet walls should have metal caps to prevent the entrance of moisture at the top of walls.

Most clear water repellent treatments will keep the concrete masonry looking cleaner longer since a lower permeability prevents dirt from being drawn into the concrete masonry with the water.3 MOISTURE INTRUSION Moisture may enter a masonry wall through porous masonry units. Control joints and joint sealants should be included in the mock-up. Mortar joints in the wall are also a potential route for moisture entry. Fill cracks which exceed 0. Field test the masonry walls after the water repellent treatment has cured to assure water repellency. such as integral color. such as concave and V type joints are significantly more weather resistant than other types of joints.2. 9. 2. mortar joints. door and window details or at any structural break in the wall face. Full head and bed joints are required for solid units. 3. 4. water repellent treatments. Limit horizontal projections. Test the mock-ups for water repellency. the cost is typically competitive with other types of construction for many buildings. special aggregates. Tests should be based on the Navy Hose Stream test or similar hose stream test. 7. or to use masonry as a primary part of the exterior and closure of the building. parapet details. Surprisingly. Hollow units must be mortared for the depth of the face shell. Finally. Give special attention to the design of parapets. Selecting concrete masonry as an integral part of the buildings appearance provides numerous benefits for the designer and the owner. The following guidelines are useful for the designer in developing a program addressing moisture issues in masonry walls: 1. Wind-driven rain is of particular concern as the wind can blow water into hairline cracks in the wall and over a period of time may penetrate the masonry units and mortar. sills. Cross-reference the appropriate specification in Division 4 on masonry construction with related specifications in Division 7 on the water repellent treatments. Specify the use of full shoved head and bed joints and v erif y through the use of t hird party inspections. 327 construction. Mock-up panels should be a minimum 4 foot by 4 foot panel and testing should be for at least two hours. and treatment at joints should be discussed along with the expected results and testing procedures. Specify double struck joints for exterior masonry construction. Encourage the use of samples and mock-ups of masonry construction with the proposed water repellent treatments. the appearance of the concrete masonry must become in a integral part of the appearance of the building. The masonry materials. Next. Where the gray color of standard cementitious products might provide a cold appearance. 5. The multitude of concrete masonry textures available provides an infinite variety of possibilities for building design. Apply water repellent treatments in strict accordance with the manufacturer’ s installation instructions and recommendation by a trained experience applicator. Pay particular attention to the design phase of the project. Vapor condensation is another potential source of water entry. 10. Specify pre-installation meetings to familiarize all parties with the intended methods for prevention of water penetration. Require beeholes visible from 5 to 10 feet to be filled by a qualified mason prior to application of the water repellent treatment. 15. . Require a five year material and labor warranty from the manufacturer and the applicator through the general contractor. Applying a clear water repellent treatment to concrete masonry can maintain the appearance of the concrete masonry wall providing protection from water intrusion. a clear water repellent treatment must also be included. or texture. The use of open-end units in solid grouted masonry improves resistance to moisture migration.SPECIAL TOPICS There must be a decision to build a masonry building. hairline cracks. Certain types of mortar joints. 8. Properly spaced control joints minimize the potential for cracking.02 inches in width with mortar by a qualified mason or with joint sealer by a qualified applicator. use of integral colors and of special aggregat es gi v es concrete m asonry a warm appearance. 6. and tops of walls and waterproof those required by project designed with elastomeric coatings. shrinkage cracks.

4 Detail of flashing and roofing connection with a high wall. Concrete or stone sill Caulking Metal counter flashing installed in mortar joint. Caulking Flashing Flashing Weep holes Roofing membrane extend up and under flashing Cant strip Sealant 15° min.5 FIGURE 15. (25 mm) min. See detail Flashing turned up beyond end of sill 1 in. Steel angles 6”min.2 Sill flashing detail. Airspace 1”Min. (25 mm) min.5 Flashing FIGURE 15. Caulking Wall ties Metal counter flashing installed in bed joint. Wood or steel frame Weep holes 1 in.3 Lintel flashing detail. wall. Weep holes Interior Side Exterior Side Flashing Caulking Wall ties Flashing Flashing Cant strip Roofing material Weep holes Steel angles FIGURE 15. Detail of metal flashing for high . FIGURE 15.328 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Sealant Dovetail metal anchor 15° min. See Figure 15.

However. These holes are usually referred to as beeholes and may be a cause of leakage. Yellowing with age. Terms commonly used include filmforming.2. characteristics. Integral water repellent materials are not normally added to grout since the water is not expected to reach a depth in the wall that would require the grout to be a moisture penetrating barrier. these openings may be a result of improper or inadequate design and/or construction practices. Several factors may cause excessive permeability such as low cement content.3. Those treatments described as film-forming prevent water intrusion by coating or covering the surface of the masonry system. Pores are normal in concrete and vary in size. Holes may be a result of unfilled or improper mortar joints.SPECIAL TOPICS 15. Moving cracks such as those resulting from expansion and contract ion with temperature changes or continuing settlement can be sealed with an elastomeric sealant and coating system or low pressure epoxy injection. Cement gel pores are so small and inconsequential except for the very slow passive moisture migration. Clear water repellent treatments are intended to be clear. Most beeholes must be pointed with new mortar and tooled. Larger pores may occur in concrete block since the block mix is usually made with less water. Several possible classification methods exist including performance. Properly tooled mortar joints are free of larger pores and do not contribute to leakage under normal conditions. gap gradation of aggregate or insufficient fine aggregates and dry mix design. The following are types of openings as related to the degree of water penetration. Permeability is the rate at which a liquid will pass through a porous surface at constant pressure. Water repellents are supposed to keep water out while still allowing water vapor to escape the system. depending on manufacturer’ s recommendations. Water from rain and from sprinklers is kept out. Stationary cracks may be due to loss of bond of mortar in earthquake movements. should also be considered during the selection of materials. the term ‘ clear’does allow some variance. and resin types. These characteristics can be easily recognized on samples.4 WATER REPELLENT TYPES A listing of commonly used terms referenced in manufacturer’ s literature would include: Lists of clear water repellent treatments are constantly growing. Other clear treatments may darken the surface or result in a glossy appearance on the masonry. Hairline cracks may be sealed with a clear water-repellent coating. Technically a waterproof coating seals a material from water in        Acrylics Stearates Silicone Siliconate Silicates Silanes Siloxanes . Few in the construction industry have sufficient training and education in resin chemistry to do more than recognize terms and possibly relate them to a family of types of materials such as petrochemical organic and silica based materials. not typically evident on samples. 329 both its liquid and its gaseous states. Some clear treatments may not change the appearance of the masonry or the difference can only be detected by water beading on the surface rather than being absorbed into the unit. penetrating and integral water repellent treatments. Small holes can be sealed with mastic coating or block fillers.1 OPENINGS Although water penetration results from the existence of an opening through the shell of a structure. Integral water repellent materials are added during the manufacturing of the masonry units and during the mixing of the mortar. Clear water repellent treatments can also be described by the location of the treatment in the finished system. 15. Penetrating type treatments are drawn in to the masonry system and fill the voids (or more correctly. Larger cracks must be filled with mortar or caulking before they are coated. Performance classification of clearwater report treatments includes using the term water repellent treatments rather than waterproof coating. Cracks are a major source of leakage. Resin type is often the most direct way to identify types of water repellent treatments.2. while water vapor is also both kept out and kept in the system. line the pores) within the system rather than coat the surface. This is an important concept for masonry materials when dealing with clear water-repellent sealers.

and combinations of various siloxanes and silanes. Silicones. The solvents are typically mineral spirits. siloxanes are variations of the alkylalkoxysiloxanes which are oligomerous. Discussions relating to whether they are monomeric or polymeric resins and whether they are suspended or dissolved in solvents can become exasperating. removal of paint may be difficult if return to the natural surface of masonry is desired. Once applied. Types of paint that can be used for masonry walls include latex paints. 15. Silanes and siloxanes are typically penetratingtype water repellent treatments which react with silicate minerals in the concrete masonry units and mortar. Variations in chemistry and combinations of materials cause generalizations to be only moderately useful in identification and selection. and alkyd paints. to liquids. The remaining weight of solids is either sodium or potassium hydroxide. Siliconate. Paint provides color uniformity which may be aesthetically pleasing when new. Another form of penetrating sealer. Acrylics. modified polysiloxane. The silanes form a water repellent treatment by chemically bonding with the siliceous minerals in the concrete masonry system. A water based form of silicone. Each has favorable characteristics for the designer to consider. They form a film on the surface. including water. There are silicone emulsions but most use mineral spirits or other organic solvents. Typically penetrating types sealers. Silanes. Variations include polysiloxane. Paints. Siloxanes. when a coating is chapped or damaged it must be repaired to maintain aesthetic quality. siliconates are very alkaline and most siliconates presently available do not reflect the active siliconate solids content which in most cases is only 50% of the total weight of the solids. silanes are technically alkyltrialkoxysilanes which is defined as ‘a monomeric organosilicon compound with an unhydrolyzaple siliconcarbon bond’. Acrylic emulsions are typically waterbased. Acrylics. A general description of common language is helpful. Relating the characteristics to the resin types can be helpful. Other terms for silane are alkylalkoxy silane and alkytrialkoxy silane. They are clear. stearates. elastomeric paints. Acrylic resins are polymers and copolymers. but some forms are used with water as the solvent. Originally used as film formers.330 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Proper selection may be the first concern when reviewing and discussing proper clear water repellent treatments for masonry. Stearates. Silicates. oligomeric organosiloxane. Silicones are polymerized resins which are referred to as organopoly-siloxanes. Listed below are a number of different treatments that may be applied to masonry walls. different types of resins are often combined to improve the characteristics of the final water report treatment. For example. Variations in chemistry of acrylics allow various forms from solids. which is why they are so alkaline. The natural alkalinity of cementitious products typically acts as the catalyst for the reaction. and some silicone water repellent treatments typically form a film on the surface of the masonry system. They can also be used to produce a higher sheen or ’gloss’ appearance. acrylic solutions are typically solvent-based.5 SURFACE TREATMENTS In addition to providing clear surface treatments on the masonry wall other options for providing surface treatments are available. Alkali silicates are water-based alkaline solutions which harden and densify cementitious materials. Common terms include aluminum stearates and modified aluminum stearates. Specialty paints are available for masonry. oligomeric siloxane. They chemically bond to silicate materials in concrete masonry. As noted in several of the resin type descriptions. organosiloxane. The disadvantage of using these materials is the requirements of periodic maintenance. along with the moisture in the materials. Some silanes and siloxanes include catalysts in the treatment to promote or extend the reaction. Stearate residents are based on stearic acids that form a ‘soap’ in the masonry pores. . The following information may prove helpful in identifying families of materials and providing information on the basic resin types. Common carriers include alcohol and mineral spirits. Variations in the size and shape of the silicone polymer resin can vary whether the mineral is a film forming or penetration type water repellent treatment. Blends.2. and can be used with a wide variety of solvents. to elastomerics. They can also be used to darken or intensify colors and aggregates within the masonry units. later chemistries of the stearates have been marketed as penetrating treatments and as integral water repellent treatments.

manufacturer’ s literature and local manufacturer representatives are key sources of research information regarding the appropriate application of products. 15. Product manufacturers should be consulted on the compatibility issues relating to integral water repellents and grouted masonry. although some might be classified as a little of both. particulary the appropriate number of coats and the coverage rate in square feet per gallon. Information regarding application of additional coats should be determined prior to the selection of the material. Manufactures are the first to realize the danger in reputation where products prove unsuitable for specific known applications. rubber paints and oil-based paints. Block fillers are extremely advantageous in minimizing moisture penetration. Addition of this product does not change the color or texture of the concrete block or mortar. 2. Is the product intended to be a surface or penetrating sealer? The products are clearly formulated as either a surface film or penetrating type. without some form of protection. When using integral water repellents there is no need to include the product in the masonry grout since. 1. Changes in technology and in regulations. Manufacturers will typically note whether or not concrete masonry is an appropriate substrate. The natural porosity of concrete masonry may be inappropriate for some forms of water repellent treatments. can cause manufacturers to change formulations. The project. The designer must also be aware that the masonry units will not absorb moisture as traditional masonry walls do. Variations in conditions can also cause previous experience to be less applicable. Block fillers are recommended when porous concrete masonry is to be painted.7 CONSIDERATION IN SELECTION Concrete masonry construction is hydrophilic by nature. . Some materials require a sufficient time for the masonry to absorb the initial coat prior to reapplication. 15. Where not clearly identified. The use of integral water repellents cause hydrostatic pressure in the grout which forces water into the masonry unit and mortar. particulary limitations on volatile organic compounds (VOC). There are some important questions which should be considered during the research. Occasionally the water will bleed to the exterior of the wall through a path of least resistance. These products form an impervious surface and do not allow the masonry walls to breathe. Those who have successfully utilized products 331 can generally be secure that the same product can be expected to perform as well in similar conditions. Additionally. water in the masonry system can expand and damage the system. How many coats recommended? Differences in formulations make it important to understand the manufactures recommendations regarding application. There is no specific correct approach to the selection of appropriate clear water repellent treatments for concrete masonry. 4. Can the treatment be reapplied? Some forms of water repellent treatments create a water barrier which subsequent coats of the same material may not be able to penetrate. The water can then find ways into the structure and potentially damage interior finishes and materials. Timing between coats is also important to the application of the system. The following list of questions should provide a uniform approach to research which can be used for comparison of various products. under ideal conditions. Block fillers are used to fill small voids and surface irregularities. the product is probably a surface sealer. in areas where freeze-thaw conditions exist.6 INTEGRAL WATER REPELLENTS As an alternate to surface applied water repellent coatings the designer may wish to consider specifying integral water repellent additives to the concrete block and mortar.2. water moves through the natural porosity of the masonry units and mortar. moisture should not reach the grout. This is significant for grouted masonry since there is excess water in grout which traditionally dissipates into the masonry units.2.SPECIAL TOPICS Types of paint that are not recommended for masonry applications are epoxy paints. Moisture trapped in a wall can be problematic. Experience is typically the easiest means of finding an appropriate material. What are the manufacturers recommend applications? Diff erent resins hav e different appropriate applications. In such cases it is appropriate to research potential options. 3.

it might be appropriate to ask for the location of some of the older applications along with recommendations of owners. such as requiring a clean. information on what happens over time is only assumption and speculation. In other cases. polyurethanes. Where treatments have existed without change. metals.8 INTERIOR MOISTURE CONTROL Interior moisture control would not be complete without some information on water protection. galvanized steel. 15. Repeated vandalism might require addition of anti-graffiti coatings. Recommendations usually list conditions required prior to application. What are the long-term expectations? Since water repellent treatments are going through a period of constant change.9 OTHER CRITICAL ELEMENTS A significant portion of this chapter has focused on surface treatments relating to moisture penetration in masonry walls. polysulfides. and contractors who have used the products in the past. perimeters of windows and doors. through expansion and control joints and through other wall penetrations. Temperature limitations and moisture content at time of application might be critical to the water repellent treatment. the limitations may extend to the manufacturing of the product as well as sale and use. aluminum) and other siding materials (concrete. 9. Thus. A reputable company will stand behind their product regardless of warranties. 7. and run-off. 15. In some areas it may be best not to have a vapor barrier at all. Moisture can also migrate into the wall from a variety of other sources including tops of walls. 8. What are the effects of weather during and immediately after application? The manufacturer may have advice on what to do if it rains during or right after the application. Types of aggregate in concrete masonry may also have some bearing on success. dry substrate. 10. or coated can be useful in making early decisions. architects. Can the treatment be coated? Whether or not the treatment is compatible with other treatments and coatings might also prove important in the long-term.2. Paint on any adjacent surface and nearby materials could also be affected. state and local limitations on volatile organic compounds (VOC) might limit the availability of some otherwise excellent water repellent treatments in certain areas. stucco). Other material such as glass and landscaping may not be immediately adjacent. joint sealers (silicones. The buildup of condensation can be mitigated by placing a vapor barrier on the proper side of a wall. both in chemistry and in limitations on VOC. Interior moisture in the form of condensation can damage the building components and create occupant discomfort. A vapor analysis should be performed to determine the potential for condensation so that appropriate placement and choice of insulation and air and vapor barriers can be made. wood. Are there any special limitations on application? Limitation should include materials that should not be coated. Quite often a warranty is simply used as a sales tool and is only as good as the company behind a warranty. bronze) metal flashings (copper. a vapor analysis is highly recommended. plastics. Are there any potential adverse effects such as chemical reaction with adjacent materials? Water repellent treatments on concrete masonry will be in contact with the same materials in contact with the concrete masonry. if regionalized micro-climate varies the code could require the vapor barrier on the wrong side of the wall. such as California. A new building owner might want a new color and want the masonry to be painted. Water develops on the surface where the temperature is at the condensation point and is dependent on the micro-climates of an area. it would be interior moisture control. wood. steel. stainless steel. . Typically there are limitations on weather conditions including minimum and maximum temperatures. Warranties can be beneficial in comparing the relative quality of one manufacture to another. Are there any known local limitations on use? Federal. brick. Knowing whether or not the water repellent treatment can be retreated. If there were ever an issue that cannot be code “ quantified” . acrylics). Maximum porosity and minimum permeability requirements might be important.2. The treatment might not prove successful for some unknown reason. overspray. Such limitations may only be a concern in heavily populated areas. To confirm code requirements.332 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 5. 6. windows and doors (aluminum. but could also be affected by water repellent treatments due to wind. painted.

Moisture can enter the top of a wall and will gravitate down any imperfections in the system until it exits. usually on the face of the wall. expansion joints should be placed at intervals not exceeding 30 feet for walls without openings.333 SPECIAL TOPICS 15.8 Plan view of masonry wall control joint. Mortar copings — Mortar copings should always be avoided. The masonry units are not impermeable to moisture and there are a number of mortar joints along the top of the wall. . This type of cap will always crack. In descending order of performance. Masonry copings — Copings using masonry units are not recommended. proper and routine maintenance is required. 1 2 1 2 FIGURE 15. expansion joints and clay brick masonry should be spaced closer to 20 foot intervals.7 Elevation of masonry wall with control or shrinkage joint and abutting into another wall.9.1 WALL CAPS 15. the following top of wall finishes are the most widely recognized in design and construction of masonry walls. allowing moisture access into the masonry wall. thereby reducing the area of moisture penetration. Sheet metal caps — Sheet-metal caps are by far the preferred method of finishing the tops of masonry walls. When the tops of masonry walls are properly designed and constructed moisture migration in these areas can be minimized or totally eliminated. 2. 3. Sealant /8” 3 Backer rod 1 /2” Epoxy or nonshrink grout 1 /2” Slope cap Drip edge Flashing Caulking Backer rod Sealant Section 1-1 FIGURE 15. leakage can occur at movement joints through cracked. Sealant 1 W Backer rod /2 W or /2”typ.9. Typical drip edge on precast FIGURE 15. 1. As a general rule.2 MOVEMENT JOINTS One area for moisture penetration in masonry walls is at the top of the wall. This greatly reduces the number of mortar joints on the top of the wall. Additionally. Movement joints are provided in masonry structures and properly accommodate moisture and temperature fluctuation. 1 4.2. Through wall flashing is problematic in seismic regions since a positive attachment is required.2. A properly designed and installed sheet m etal cap system wil l prov ide an impermeable and durable finish. In clay brick masonry.6 concrete wall cap. unbonded or misapplied caulks and sealants. Ideally. Precast concrete copings — Precast concrete copings are extremely dense units and can be managed and installed in 4 foot lengths. control joints should be placed in concrete masonry every 25 feet but not more than 11/2 times the wall height. Use of this system may be acceptable if through wall flashing is installed immediately below the cap units. Most designers are reluctant to specify sheet-metal caps since proper design and installation require the sheet metal cap to project vertically down the wall for a few inches. Shrinkage and temperature hairline cracks can develop allowing water passage into masonry. In order to keep the control and expansion joints functional.

Flashing is the primary barrier with sealants (caulk) closing the open crack of the interface. wood studs/brick veneer. but with thinner masonry walls. air space Jamb (Plan view) Driving rains may penetrate bed joint and vertical head joints Wood frame wi nd ow Caulking or sealant Inappropriate Ledge Detail Batt insulation Weep holes @ 24”(610 mm) o.334 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Sealant 15. . masonry walls were thicker and more forgiving on the issue of moisture penetration.9.10 Ledge detail.2. W 1 Backer rod /8” /2” 3 1 Sealant One often overlooked critical element is the interface between masonry and sills or jambs of windows and doors.8 mm) min.3 HORIZONTAL SURFACES Horizontal surfaces contribute to the potential of water penetration. careful attention must be given to detailing these interfaces. Historically.4 WINDOWS AND DOORS 1 /2 W or /2”typ.2. Flashing Metal ties Mortar Sloped flashing Sill Sealant Weather Resistant Ledge Detail FIGURE 15. Metal ties Caulking or sealant Building paper Recommended 2”(50. 15. All projections.c. FIGURE 15. or a sloped flashing should be provided. ledges and sills should be sloped.9 Masonry/co ncrete w all intersection. Sealants alone should never be relied upon for the moisture barrier at the interface.9. /2” Backer rod 1 Sheathing Sealant Interior finish 8d nails W ood studs Wood frame wi nd ow Section 2-2 F IGURE 15. Ledges and sills are particularly susceptible as water may penetrate the top of mortar joints and cause cracking and spalling.11 Flashing at window sill/jamb.

This third party inspectors should be knowledgeable in quality control requirements and will often have other quality control responsibilities on the project. (CTL) developed a test similar to the RILEM Tube Test. The higher test pressures allow for an accelerated field test. Several tests are available relating to clear water repellent treatments for masonry. Permeability is measured based on the change of water level in the tube caused by the absorption of the water into the masonry system. observe mock-up construction and testing and develop check lists to verify compliance.13). will review the contract requirements. The test is based on a measurement from only a small area where the tube is located. such as ASTM E 514 Standard Test Method for Water Penetration and Leakage Through Masonry and the Navy Hose Stream Test. they will typically be noted and given to the owner and contractor. quantities. . electrical and other types of openings should be flashed above the opening and properly caulked around the opening. Inc.9 mm) hose and requires the water to be directed to where the stream is falling on the surface of the test panel simulating rain. 15. The Navy test uses a 5/8" (15. This test is performed on an actual section of the building approximately twenty days after the application of the water repellent treatment. The Construction Technology Laboratories.5 WALL PENETRATIONS Wall openings are often overlooked as areas contributing to leaks in masonry walls. or manufacturer). Special inspectors.4. The best way to assure proper application is to have periodic inspections which can establish that proper materials. The nozzle is located ten feet (3 m) from the wall and aimed upward so the water strikes the wall at a 45 degree downward angle as shown in Figure 15.2. If the inside face of the masonry wall shows traces of moisture. 15. The CTL test. however. 335 The Navy Hose Stream Test uses a 5/8" (15. .11 TESTING Tests allow comparison of products and systems. Some relate to individual components in masonry construction. RILEM Test No. Although the RILEM test provides an inexpensive method for determining water penetration into the concrete masonry system.2. typically hired by owner. The level of quality control of any masonry job can be provided by special inspection (third party individuals not connected with the contractor. Still others. Maintenance of the sealant on a periodic basis is required for continued performance. and application methods are used. The water is allowed to run continuously for three hours. 11. Where variations from the contract documents are observed.SPECIAL TOPICS 15. A vertical plastic or glass tube with graduated markings is adhered to a masonry wall with putt y (see Fi gure 15. Another field test used was developed by the International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures (RILEM). is also referred to as the tube test.9. Navy Hose Stream Test. RILEM Tube Test.12. additional coats of the water repellent treatment are required and the test must be repeated. like the RILEM tube test and the CTL Accelerated Field Test provide information on small segments of the construction. uses portable equipment to develop higher pressures than those used in the RILEM Test.10 INSPECTIONS Careful attention to detail by the treatment applicators is critical to the success of the project. such as ASTM C 140 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Concrete Masonry Units and Related Units.2. Others are intended to test complete masonry systems. A field test developed by the International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures (RILEM). the results must be based with caution. Penetrations for plumbing. The special inspector should periodically observe application of the water repellent treatment and verify compliance with information included on the check list. attend preinstallation meetings. The Navy developed a hose stream field test for testing concrete masonry walls resistance to water penetration. subcontractor.9 mm) hose with a spray nozzle.

14 psi which translates into a dynamic wind speed of 88. . the water pressure on the wall is 0. 2.13 -1000 Temperature. 2. These fire tests require that a wall specimen be subjected to fire having the time/temperature curve as shown in Figure 15. Fill the tube with water to zero (0) graduation mark at the top of the tube. 2400 Putty -1200 Concrete masonry wall RILEM test.12 Navy hose stream test. Masonry walls excel in resisting the passage of heat or flames and can also be used to effectively contain most fires. 1600 -800 1200 -600 800 -400 400 -200 Temperature. 15. h 6 8 The ASTM E 119 standard time/ temperature curve.5 mph. RILEM tube Fire resistance is determined by a series of fire tests conducted in accordance with the ASTM E 119. 2000 -0 0 0 FIGURE 15. Note: It has been estimated that when filled to this level.336 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 10 ft 45o Fan spray nozzle rotated view Fan spray nozzle Garden hose FIGURE 15.14 2 4 Time. and 10 minutes measure the depth the water level has dropped. At predetermined time intervals such as 1. °C FIGURE 15. 5.14. °F Procedure: 1. Adhere RILEM tube to wall surface with putty. Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials.3 FIRE RESISTANCE Masonry walls should be both structurally sound and fire resistant. Press firmly to ensure full adhesion. 3.

0 4.1 1 wall on 24”centers with approved fasteners. For solid clay units.2 Hollow brick.1(2). However. shall be permitted for the design of fire walls.2 f. f. sand or slag having a maximum particle size of 3/8 inch. 4. The specified wall thickness for masonry shown in 2006 IBC Table 720. g 3-1.4 mm. the equivalent solid thickness is the actual thickness of the unit or wall. in which case thicknesses are net. grout or filled with perlite 1-1.3 3.3. p. cinders or air-cooled slag.7 5.3 vermiculite or expanded shale aggregate. where specified.3 f.6 2.3. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thickness required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3.1/TMS 0216.3 6. c. 4”nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed 3 with a hat-shaped metal furring channel /4" thick formed from 0.1 Solid brick of clay or shale 1-1. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and clay masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 721.0 4. Limestone. and having a thickness of not less than 75/8 inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation.8 d 3. TABLE 15. Calcareous or siliceous gravel. the wall is considered as either ungrouted or solid grouted (partial grouted walls are considered as ungrouted). the equivalent thickness shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21. Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness of applied plaster and lath or gypsum wallboard.1 Rated Fire-Resistance Periods for Various Walls and Partitions1. shale or slate.1 2. vermiculite loose-fill insulation. Rated Fire-Resistance Periods for Various Walls and Partitions.0 - 1 inch = 25. This table provides a classification of masonry walls based on the required wall thickness for a specified fire rating time. or expanded clay.1.1 4”solid brick and 4”tile (at least 40 percent solid) 2-1. shale or slate lightweight aggregate. g 3.9 3.1(2) –(partial) b.4 - - 5 - 8 - - 4”solid brick and 8”tile (at least 40 percent solid) 12 - - - Expanded slag or pumice. Concrete masonry units For SI: 3-1. not filled Hollow brick unit wall.4. vermiculite loose-fill insulation. 1. shale or slate lightweight aggregate.1 FIRE RATINGS Table 15.9 6. g.1 5.8 2. or expanded clay.2 f 3-1. 1 square inch = 645. p MATERIAL 1.2 2. As an alternative to 2006 IBC Table 720. and /2" Type X gypsum wallboard attached to the metal furring strips with 1” -long Type S screws spaced 8”on center. NCMA TEK 5-8A. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masonry shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.4 MINMUM FINISHED b THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE (inches) 4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 6 4.6 5.4 5. Expanded clay.1 f. 1 cubic foot = 0. .021”sheet metal attached to the brick 1-2.1(2) fireresistive construction may be approved by the building official based on evidence submitted showing that the construction meets the required f ire-resistiv e classification.337 SPECIAL TOPICS 15.1 for clay masonry.1(2) is the equivalent solid thickness.6 4. 2006 IBC Table 720. 2-1.2 mm2.7 5.3 3. W here all cells are solid grouted or filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation.5 4.0 4.0 5.0283 m3. Thickness shown for brick and clay tile are nominal thicknesses unless plastered.2 4. d. Brick of clay or shale 2. g 3-1. Combination of clay brick and loadbearing hollow clay tile ITEM NUMBER CONSTRUCTION c 1-1. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot.7 2.1 shows fire resistance from 2006 IBC Table 720.2 3.1 for concrete masonry and Section 721.4 2. for hollow clay or concrete units. Shall be used for nonbearing purpose only.

What lessons we can learn from this?  During and after fire.000 structures. 3. More recently. there were the 1990 Painted Caves fire in Santa Barbara County that claimed 641 structures and the 1991 Oakland Hills fire that destroyed 3. chimneys and walls withstood the fires. unfortunately. The fire retardancy of other coverings is only a relative degree of slower burning. Brick and concrete block masonry serve as a barrier to fire like no other material. a series of wildfires over a two week period destroyed 722 structures throughout the state and claimed 14 lives. For example. place nonflammable mesh over openings such as roof vents and chimney openings.To prevent passage of embers. use clay or concrete roofing materials. Use more than the minimum retardancy in several hazardous areas. Fire-Resistive Walls: Fire-resistive walls are fundamental.400 dwellings and killed 25 people. Malibu and Altadena that claimed four lives and over 1. But fires of this type along the wildland/urban interface zones are not unusual in California. Masonry foundations. One other significant advantage is that masonry provides passive fire protection. Fire Retardant Roofing Materials . Instead of the slow burning composition. especially those facing possible fire approach areas such as vegetation slopes. The use of masonry shows a responsible approach in the balanced occupancy vs. 4. The American dream is to own a home. 15. standing as monuments to the barren landscape of ashes and rubble which were once thriving communities. (203 mm) pumice concrete block (face shell thickness 11/4 in. . (102 mm) solid clay brick is added as a veneer another 2 hours of fire rating is achieved for a total 3 hour fire rating. In 1961. where as active systems rely on other means of effectiveness.  Masonry will not fuel the fire and can often prevent the spread of fire to adjacent properties.3. The fire-resistive walls may be code-rated fire endurance masonry walls of one hour or more. masonry will always resist fire. these materials reduce the contribution to fire storms that spread rapidly to other structures and areas. fire sprinklers will not work. When structures are close together. 537 structures were destroyed in the Bel-Air fire.338 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 15. enhances and protects old flammable surfaces such as wood siding. Also. this method is important where there is a high risk of the fire jumping from one structure to another. risk design. masonry homes will retain structural integrity. Most building codes permit residential construction to be built solely of combustible materials with few exceptions. or the so-called fire retardant roof coverings. they just add fuel to the fire. 1. went up in smoke. critical land shortages have caused suburban areas to be constructed on dense hillsides. the heavier clay and concrete roof coverings will also reduce flying embers. Tables in the IBC show that brick and block masonry are significantly resistant to fire.3. The next logical step is to take the necessary precautions to ensure a safe family environment. water supply or maintenance. Fire ratings may be cumulative. such as wood. 15. In 1970. Reports from previous wildland fire area coverage found that masonry construction often resisted rampaging fire.  Masonry will not produce toxic gas or smoke. but also covers. An ungrouted 8 in. 2.2 FIRE RATINGS OF BRICK VENEER WALLS  Masonry will not burn.4 FIRE SAFETY FACTS Below are safety tips to assist in limiting the dangers of a potential fire. Vents . Eave Hazards: Eliminate projecting eaves or cover the underside with fire-resistive material such as properly installed plaster. that is. When residential buildings are built with combustible materials. In the event the supports are flammable. (31. Masonry is a material available for increasing the survival rate in a fire.3 FIRE SAFETY ENVIRONMENTS Fire is one of the most devastating forces which plagues California homeowners as evidenced by the wildfires of 1993 in Laguna Beach.  Masonry works full time without electricity. When a 4 in.Fire retardant roofing materials prevent fires from starting as a result of fire rain of flammable embers. if there is no water pressure.8 mm) each) will provide a fire rating of 1 hour. while combustible construction.  Masonry reduces fire loss.3. A fire-safe environment can be easily constructed using non-combustible materials. This fire-resistant construction is not only excellent for new masonry surfaces of desired patterns and textures.

sprinklers would have special potential benefits. 3. Stand-By Power 12. 12. Also for protection of vacant structures. Stand-by Power: Install a generator (diesel or gasoline-driven) to drive a water pump for use of swimming pool water or other water sources. easily installed and adjusted to any surface or change as desired. 7. In the event of a power failure.15 12 1. 9. . fuel load and hence stop the up rushing conflagration. This can be accomplished by the installation of sand bedded masonry paving which is economical. Draperies and curtains should also be of a fire retardant material. stove. Overhangs: Fire-resistive materials should be used to enclose the undersides of balconies and decks at slopes. 7. Water Storage: Tank storage may be installed which may be connected to provide fire water storage or as a reserve for those times when water service may be interrupted. These walls are also barriers in lieu of sandbags for diverting mud flows after the fire. refrigerator/freezer and security. tree trimmings. 30' Clearance: The structure should be free of flammable vegetation or weeds for 30 feet (9. Beautiful and colorful patterns and surfaces may be achieved for enhancement of aesthetics or use. Of course. 13. 8. Roof Vents Eaves Walls Overhangs Windows 30’ clear 8. Housekeeping: Flammable bushes. Housekeeping Building a fire safe environment. Dual Pane Fire Windows. there should be adequate hoses and outlets available for usage. 5. 2. 5. Glass Doors and Shutters: Windows of this type offer added fire protection and shutters may be permanent for quick closure or may be stored for quick placement in case of impeding fire. Plants 9. Water from swimming pools can be used if a small pump and connection is available. African daisy or periwinkle should be used in fire hazardous areas.SPECIAL TOPICS 339 2 1 13 2 10 10 10 10 3 6 6 4 10 6 10 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 11 9 10 12 FIGURE 15. the generator may then also be a stand-by source for lights. 10. Water Storage 13. 4. Sprinklers: The use of sprinklers systems for all sides of structure will help moisten grass and vegetation which could provide fuel for the fire. Garden walls and Curbs 10. 6. such as a flame barrier to resist the furnace-like blast of a fire roaring up a slope or to assure safe back-firing down the slope to remove 11. Plants: Fire-resistant plants such as rosemary. Garden Walls & Curbs: The use of masonry walls and curbs at the tops of slopes will provide several benefits. 6.1 m). Sprinklers 11. brush and close proximity untrimmed trees are hazardous invitations for disaster and should be properly trimmed and cleared away.

the human ear perceives sound logarithmically. under fire exposure conditions..44)1. beams.7 R = (3. lintels and steel columns protected by masonry are assemblies covered with “ masonry” . construction and material requirements include design to assure structural performance. Methods of calculation account for the added fire resistance contributed by the effect of plaster. Additionally.5 FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS Concrete masonry columns.03 /2”max.16 and 15.59 + 1. Also. FIGURE 15.2. with a factor (A1) of 0.340 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 15. R = (40. Bond breaker Sealant and backer 15.16 /2”max. . the mass of masonry absorbs sound which further reduces noise and mit igates echoes and reverberations.250.14 + 0.03)1.03 (National Bureau of Standards) FIGURE 15. This is effectively done two different ways.16 hours (round off to 8 hours) R1 = Fire resistance rating of wythe 1 R2 = Fire resistance rating of wythe 2 A1 = Air space factor = 0. For each 10 decibel increase in scale.27 + 1.. the noise doubles in loudness as illustrated in Table 15.17 Control joints for fire resistant concrete masonry assemblies.59 + 0.4 NOISE CONTROL Masonry walls are excellent in resisting the passage of noise from one side of the wall to the other. Figures 15.7 so.59 + A1)1.3.7 = 8.7 R = (2. Sound insulation is a reduction factor in decibels for noise that travels from one room to another. Wythe (R2) Caulking Gasket Backer rod Air space 1”min. + Rn0.03)1. drywall finishes and cores filled with grout or certain loose-fill materials. which is a logarithmic scale.59 + R20..17 illustrate control joints in fire resistant concrete masonry walls.. Grout key 4 Hour Fire Resistance Rating Mortar (1/2”minimum depth) Sealant and backer 4 Hour Fire Resistance Rating Sound intensity is measured in decibels (Db). control joint width 1 For Ratings Up to and Including 4 Hours Fire resistance of multi-wythe masonry wall. control joint width 1 For Ratings Up to and Including 2 Hours Caulking Ceramic fiber blanket Backer rod Wythe (R1) The fire resistance of this wall can be calculated using the equation: R = (R10.59 + . Interestingly.

Selection of the correct materials ensures that noise transmission from one room to another is kept to reasonable levels. Hotel and motel travelers prefer the privacy of peaceful accommodations. Designers have the responsibility to plan a functional and safe environment. Noise has more of an influence to the occupant’ s comfort than heating or cooling levels. such as larger television sets. Architects. 15.1 MASONRY SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC) Masonry is particularly well suited to the requirements of noise control in multi-family structures. and the design of smaller rooms with lower ceilings. developers and contractors know that a successful result of noise control is due to acoustics. Concrete block or brick wall assemblies provide a density of material with the noise reduction values needed to minimize annoyance and comply with recognized and required standards. Sound absorption reduces the level of sound generated in a room while sound transmission prevention reduces the amount of sound that is carried from one area to another. Any structure should hold regular noise to acceptable levels. The high level of noise in residential applications can be attributed to extensive use of glass and other reflective surfaces. Sound transmission ratings are achieved with masonry construction for the reduction of noise from freeways. A quiet environment will increase productivity in an office and will aid in recovery when in a hospital. TV Busy Street Printing Press Truck Traffic Subway Motorcycle Siren Artillery Fire Jet Takeoff Acoustics is important to the functioning of environment from auditoriums.341 SPECIAL TOPICS Table 15. Banks. interior space requires acoustic attention. rapid transit and freight rail systems. Sound rated masonry wall systems tested by application of standardized laboratory procedures are available to the design professional for combating these exterior noise sources. stores and government institutions recognize the advantage of conducting business in reduced noise surroundings. . In order to function for the specified purpose. the buil ding must f unction to prev ent sound transmission. such as open offices and churches has also been extensively recognized. more sophisticated radios and hand-held electronic devices. as well as undesirable sounds which may be experienced between units in multi-family housing. TV Ideal house sound level Private Office Average Conversation Average Radio. concert halls and movie theaters to the residential environment.4. When noise cannot be eliminated or reduced. along with the increased number of electronic devices. The need to control noise in other environments. Noisy voices and loud background music will have a negative effect on business in restaurants and other public places of business.2 Sound Level in Decibels 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 W hisper Quiet Conversation Soft Radio. aircraft operations and industrial activity.

4 STC VALUES OF MASONRY WALLS A typical sampling of masonry wall systems with associated STC ratings are listed in Table 15. FIGURE 15. 15.4. This section addresses the question of masonry wall design as needed to provide the isolation from exterior noise and the insulation of sound between living units.3 INSULATION BY STC The 2006 International Building Code requires a controlled noise environment to common interior walls. Sound transmission class STC vs. or 45 when field tested.4.19 Isolation. as well as the sound transmission loss through the exterior walls. exterior noise measurement 60 50 40 20 40 50 60 30 Wall weight . Increasing the weights of the wall typically improves the STC value in accordance with the accepted “ Mass Law”sound transmission characteristics. 2006 IBC Section 1207 states that these elements shall have an STC rating of not less than 50.342 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Figure 15. This sound protection is provided by known material ratings and the installation of materials complying with those ratings. The difference depends on that portion of the sound energy which entered the room and was not absorbed by the interior furnishings. interior noise measurement STC vs. 15.2 ISOLATION VS. wall weight for single-wythe painted or plastered block walls Sound level meter. doors and vents. Sound transmission loss values due to insulation are independent of sound isolation referenced above. roof. 15.pounds per sq.3. corridors and other service areas. A significant number of masonry wall systems posses an STC rating of 50 or greater making them code compliant. difference between the exterior and interior noise level measurements. partitions and floor/ceiling assemblies between dwelling units and adjacent public areas such as stairs. carpeting. When considering sound isolation the sound absorption provided by the interior space is an important part of the reduction between the interior and exterior noise levels.4. windows. not the noise reduction between the units. drapes and walls. FIGURE 15.18 shows the variation of sound ratings to wall weight. wall weight. INSULATION The distinction between isolation and insulation as they relate to Standards can be described as follows: Isolation of interior spaces from exterior sources is measured by positioning one sound level gauge in the room of concern to another directly outside. halls.18 70 80 Sound level meter. Insulation refers to the amount of sound protection required in party walls and floor/ceiling assemblies. ft. The difference in sound level measured by each instrument is a direct measure of the isolation provided by the building. The noise insulation characteristics of the materials separating the units is specified. .

0 26. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block. Plastered Both Sides. Unplastered 5 Solid Concrete. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block. Solid Grouted. Ungrouted 5 /8" Gypsum Board on Resilient Channels One Side Lightweight Block Hollow Concrete Lightweight Block. Solid Grouted. Geneva.8 TL 67-65 39. Reinforced 1 /2" Gypsum Plaster Both Sides 1 /2" Gypsum Board on Resilient Channels. Painted Both Sides (2 Coats) Hollow Concrete Block.0 NGC 3002 NGC 3003 . Illinois NGC.0 39. 2 Coats Paint One Side 1 /2" Gypsum Board on Resilient Channel Other Side Hollow Concrete Block. Cells Filled with Zonolite. Unplasterd.8 38. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block. Ungrouted.0 KAL 1379-5-72 KAL 1379-3-72 34.0 KAL 1144-3-71 86. Normal Weight Block.0 KAL 1023-3-71 40. Unplastered.5 KAL 359-1-66 TL 67-99 22. 2 Coats.7 TL 67-102 TL 67-70 26.7 TL 69-287 73.6 KAL 359-3-66 TL 67-61 KAL 1144-2-71 TL 67-93 63. Brick 3 /8" Thick ½" Sand Plaster. Plastered Both Sides. Ungrouted Lightweight Units. Lightweight Block. Unpainted.8 45. Painted Both Sides (2 Coats). Unpainted. /8" Gypsum Board on Resilient Channels.6 83. Unpainted.2 KAL 1023-9-71 KAL 1023-3-71 TL 70-6 121.0 33. Both Sides 1 Reinforced Brick Masonry.3 STC Values of Masonry Walls WALL THICKNESS (inches) STC 4 40 41 4 43 44 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 44 45 47 48 48 50 44 6 46 48 53 8 8 8 8 45 48 49 50 8 50 8 8 51 52 8 52 8 53 8 55 8 56 8 10 56 60 59 12 12 55 58 WALL DESCRIPTION Hollow Concrete Block. Unpainted Solid Face Brick 1 3 1 Brick Dimensions: 2 /4" x 3 /4" x 8 /4" Hollow Concrete Block.0 27. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block./sq.0 77. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block.0 94.0 124. Ungrouted Hollow Concrete Block. Elmhurst. Ungrouted Normal Weight Blocks. Wall 9 /2" 1 5 5 Thick. National Gypsum Company. Buffalo.3 KAL 1144-4-71 TL 67-68 53.0 KAL 359-4-66 28.ft. Ungrouted 5 Brick Wall. /2" Gypsum Board on Resilient Channels Each Side Lightweight Blocks. New York TL: Riverbank Acoustical Lab. Painted Both Sides. Unpainted Normal Weight Units. New York WEIGHT OF WALL lbs. Unpainted.0 29. on One Face Hollow Concrete Block. Ungrouted Normal Weight Blocks.0 42. Painted Both Side (2 Coats) Lightweight Blocks. Unplasterd. Unplastered. Wall 9¼" Thick 1 /2" Gypsum Board on Furring Strips One Side Hollow Concrete Block. One Side SOURCES OF DATA: KAL: Kodaras Acoustical Lab. Solid Grouted. Painted Both Sides (2 Coats) Lightweight Units. Ungrouted Normal Weight Units. Exterior Wall Painted Outside (2 Coats) Gypsum Board on Furring Strips Inside.0 32.4 KAL 933-1-70 79. Brick Dimensions: 2 /2" x 3 /8" x 7 /8" Solid Concrete Block. Reinforced Hollow Concrete Lightweight. Unpainted Solid Brick Wall.4 KAL 1379-4-72 KAL 1379-2-72 KAL 359-7-66 TL 69-283 21. Ungrouted Face Brick and Structural Clay Tile Composite Brick Dimensions: 3¾" Thick Tile Dimensions: 4" Thick Hollow Concrete Block.0 KAL 933-2-70 KAL 1379-1-72 KAL 359-6-66 36.5 42.343 SPECIAL TOPICS TABLE 15. Ungrouted Normal Weight Units 3 Face Brick Wall: 3 /4" Thick 1 Hollow Concrete Block.0 30. TEST 18.

pad or foam rubber . If only 50% of the sound were absorbed.5 Noise Reduction Coefficients (NRC) of Selected Materials 15.40 . summing values and dividing the sum by the total surface area of the room.70 Numerical Average Typical coefficients of a ceiling system An estimate of the average sound absorption. Table 15. or average NRC. yd. 10 oz.5 provides a sampling of NRC values for selected materials. Table 15.10 Concrete Floor . Medium Fabric. a sound rated party wall could be selected which meets the requirements of the code. yd.40 . 15./sq. Heavy or Concrete on 40 oz.14 . .12 .50. yd. the coefficient would be 0. A commonly used measure of sound absorption is the Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC). The implication is clear.01 Glass.35 . however.55 Concrete Block. Unglazed Unglazed. common ventilation and plumbing systems. Single strength window Heavy plate./sq.30 . These additional ‘ sound leaks’are commonly called flanking paths. large panes . When required to demonstrate compliance with the code requirements.344 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL TABLE 15.08 Marble or Glazed Tile .04 Gypsum Wall Board on 2" x 4" Studs .55 Garage “ B” Garage “ A” (source room) Bedroom “ B” (receiver room) Partition FIGURE 15.0. they would have a sound absorption coefficient of 1.4.6 FLANKING PATH CONTROL The transmission of sound from one room to another may occur through separating partitions.01 Asphalt Tile Floor on Concrete .03 Wood Floor . 18 oz. doors. the flanking paths could easily reduce the effectiveness and the completed building placed in a category of non-compliance.07 Gypsum Wall Board on Concrete .20 Flanking paths between source room and receiver room.13 Drapes. . TABLE 15. Light Fabric. determined by measuring the sound absorption coefficient at various frequencies and using the average. windows. Figure 15.20 depicts a room where t he f lanki ng paths ov ertake the effectiveness of the partition wall.4 Determination of Noise Reduction Coefficients Sound Absorption Coefficient Frequency (cps) 125 Coefficient 22 250 500 1000 2000 4000 NRC 62 85 70 65 58 . 14 oz. in a room may be determined by multiplying the NRC value of each material in the room by surface area.03 Plywood Paneling on Furring Strips .4. convenience outlets. all sound transmission from the source room to the receiver room shall be considered to be transmitted through the test partition. NRC Brick.4 provides an example of how the Noise Reduction Coefficient is determined.04 .30 . Heavy Fabric. coarse medium fine painted .5 SOUND ABSORPTION AND NOISE REDUCTION MATERIAL Sound is absorbed by any surface that dissipates sound energy by converting it to heat. If the surfaces of a room were capable of absorbing all sound generated within a room.02 Carpet.03 Plaster on Brick or Concrete Blocks . painted .

. 15. The noise problem is also aggravated by road surfaces. creating problems and reducing the quality of life for those affected by the excessive noise. Traffic noise largely depends on three factors:  The volume of traffic  The speed of traffic  The vehicular makeup of traffic (an area used frequently by trucks will have higher noise levels). bounce away from the receiver and back toward the source. masonry provides the best overall protection from noise. material used in the construction of noise barriers should have characteristics that induce noise reduction through sound transmission resistance and sound absorption. The rough surface of split faced block provides an additional benefit of weakening the sound waves by scattering the sound waves in a random manner. Although these modern highways contribute to the growth and economy of the communities they serve. interstate and secondary connector roads are cutting paths through once quiet settings. These barriers are constructed from a variety of materials.21 Sound level meter and third octave band analyzer Impact sound transmission measurement. 345 Many states erect highway sound barriers to help reduce noise. land use control and highway planning. they also promote noise pollution. trucks.4. diffraction and absorption to create an effective barrier system. for those living and working close to highways. inclines and faulty vehicle equipment.4. Tapping machine Floor ceiling assembly FIGURE 15. Therefore. Increasi ng numbers of cars.8 TRAFFIC NOISE As the United States highway system continues to expand to meet the needs of a growing population.SPECIAL TOPICS Masonry provides a uniform wall assembly from floor to ceiling and avoids the potential sound leaks of other material types. The noise problem has been addressed implementing motor vehicle regulation. are deadened within the masonry wall. and motorcycles are using the roads and affecting neighborhoods across the country. the potential flanking paths around the wall assembly through the windows and doors will impact the effective noise reduction. Insertion loss is the logarithmic difference in the reduction of noise measured in decibels averaged over the full spectrum of frequencies. However. Section 1207. Noise barriers made of concrete masonry block or structural clay brick utilize sound reflection. metal. Masonry provides it all. The sound waves. To be effective. The material must be strong and durable to maintain effectiveness as a noise deterrent and should offer an aesthetic appeal that will uphold the image of the surrounding neighborhoods. The design professional is assured that all joints and intersections from floor to ceiling are sealed without the need for additional acoustic sealants or any excessive on-site inspection. wood. Their mass or density keeps traffic noise normally disturbing to the human ear from passing through. These controls have drawbacks and traffic growth over time inevitably outstrips any effectiveness of these controls. plastic and earth. precast concrete panels. especially when constructed with sound absorbing units. masonry. Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Impact Sound Transmission Through Floor-Ceiling Assemblies Using the Tapping Machine.7 IMPACT NOISE CONTROL In addition to the STC limitations. Many strategies have been developed to reduce traffic noise. But tests indicat that masonry materials provide a higher insertion loss than wood at a distance of 65 feet behind the barriers. Sound waves. 15.3 of the 2006 International Building Code also requires that the Impact Insulation Class be rated at not less than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 492. when reflected. Compliance with this requirement is generally assured when the floor separating the upper and lower rooms is carpeted or covered with a cushion backed material. through sound absorption. Noise levels are increased by the every day traffic.

Typical dimensions b Actual wall width Cement mortar cap or other as desired Bond beam FIGURE 15.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Concrete and clay masonry materials are preferred since they resist the passage of sound waves.23 Concrete masonry block noise barrier wall (double mat steel). 3”clr. textures and patterns.24 Sound transmission. The design forces of wind pressure and earthquake force can be resisted by this structural system. Actual wall width Vertical reinforcement Jersey barrier Dowels 3”clr. The engineered design determines location and spacing of the reinforcement.346 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Noise barrier walls built of concrete masonry block are rapidly constructed as a hand laid unit-by-unit system.c.22 barrier wall. Scaled to the human environment. worsening the noise problem in a particular area.4. masonry is resistant to small holes and gaps. which could increase the sound passing. Typical dimensions FIGURE 15. they offer designers a wide range of colors. mortar and grout with steel reinforcing bars provides a wall with structural integrity. b Cement mortar cap or other as desired Wall height Bond beam The combination of masonry units. The wall may be supported on a foundation below grade or on deflection barriers. A complete solid wall system can be achieved when concrete masonry blocks are bonded together with mortar and grout locking each individual unit. thus increasing long term investment value. The masonry noise barrier system can be used for private residential or public highway projects and industrial and commercial projects requiring noise abatement. Also.8. 15. Concrete masonry block noise FIGURE 15. Wall height d = W/2 Wall 91 dBA Sound waves Vertical reinforcement 75 dBA Dowels #3 bars 12”o. Throughout the wall there are no gaps to allow the transmission of unwanted noise and if damage occurs repairs can be made to isolated sections of the wall. . reducing costs.

Masonry freeway sound wall. The ideal noise wall system is one which provides a high level of noise reduction at a low construction cost. When damaged. Two of the most important properties of the masonry construction material are the ability to absorb waves and the surface texture. Masonry fire ratings can exceed four hours. many designers specify the use of masonry walls between residential units. therefore. Wall Trucks/cars Sound waves FIGURE 15. such as by traffic. Masonry materials used in noise barrier wall construction facilitate compatibility with the aesthetic requirements of the community.25 So und refl ecti on and absorption.28 Masonry/concrete freeway sound wall. . Masonry barriers can also be seen as a dynamic whole from a vehicle in motion and as a stationary form from residences and sidewalks nearby. Designs with the wide range of colors and textures of concrete masonry create a structure in harmony with the highway. repairs are simple and cost effective. Materials should be available locally to reduce shipping costs and be environmentally friendly. Materials used in a barrier wall system will be subject to vandalism and graffiti. Cleaning may involve sandblasting or other acceptable means by the regulatory agency. Strength and fire resistance are additional benefits offered by masonry materials.26 Masonry freeway sound wall. A potential problem can be created when sound waves reflected off a barrier could be redirected to another area.27 F IGURE 15. Masonry separates homes and business structures from brush fires and other highway hazards. Masonry materials are durable and can be cleaned. The visual impression the highway gives is due to the significant components of masonry noise barriers. Masonry fences can easily harmonize with the surrounding stores and residences. FIGURE 15.SPECIAL TOPICS 347 Masonry noise barrier walls reflect sound waves away from the receiver back toward the noise source. FIGURE 15.

ex pensiv e transportation and distribution networks of energy are eliminated. The monotony of a straight wall can be broken with offsets and create pockets which can be used as areas for change in texture. As the design moves from the schematic . this can only be accomplished in rolling or hilly terrain. Shrubbery can also be used to soften the transition between the ground and the noise barrier wall. but it is also functional. This can be achieved by doing one or more of several things.5. The wall termination should taper down and angle away from the roadway if no natural hills or berms are available for this purpose. however. for example.9 m) are required. theref ore.1 INTRODUCTION Architecture in the twenty f irst century is characterized by emphasis on technologies such as energy conservation and innovative construction materials and techniques. but effective. a straight line will draw attention to that line. Practically. Pilasters. The drivers attention should be on the road ahead and adjacent traffic conditions. The amount of noise traveling around the end of the wall as a result of approaching traffic can efficiently be reduced by this transition. both types of walls have the advantage of being more resistant to seismic and wind forces than their straight counterparts due to the geometry used. The designer should reduce the visual impact of the noise barrier wall for safety reasons. materials such as plastics and synthetics now replace wood and clay.348 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 15. High walls can have an unattractive impact on the surrounding area and can give the driver a claustrophobic feeling. particularly in an urban environment where the horizon is created of different heights of buildings. Walls can be as high as 25 ft (7. In flat terrain. Solar energy is conveniently distributed throughout t he world. Information must lead to the necessary degree of accuracy at each stage of a building’ s design to be useful. however. Noise barrier walls should not begin or end abruptly regardless of shape. FIGURE 15. 15. are recommended to achieve visual balance. These passive solar systems are simple and require little or no maintenance. color or wall height. Visual consideration of surrounding features should be evaluated when noise barriers higher than 16 ft (4.6 m) above the road surface and normally thousands of feet long. The same visual interest can be created with a serpentine wall. Interior environments rely on complicated mechanical systems which require a ‘ tight’ building with well-sealed doors and windows. An appropriate wall may vary in height as a reflection of the city’ s profile. This is not only aesthetically pleasing. In addition. In addition. Motorists should pass the barrier walls with little or no visual disruption.29 Masonry highway barriers materials. Traditional. colors and textures. In rolling terrain. Changes in height and location of the wall could be another way to reduce the visual impact on the environment. The wall should step back to open up the view for the driver wherever possible. there is an existing dependence on mechanical control of the indoor environment rather than use of seasonal climatic and other natural resources. Architects. New interest in dependable passive solar heating and cooling systems is becoming increasingly popular. these systems do not contaminate since they require no outside energy contribution.2 VISUAL CONSIDERATIONS Noise barrier walls along a freeway dominate the visual environment adjacent to roadways. The line of a low noise barrier wall should reflect similar lines of the surrounding environment. builders and contractors do not always make use of information available concerning passive systems since the application is technical and timeconsuming. where the horizon is visible. as vertical lines placed along relatively low walls. a straight line in a noise barrier wall may not appear to be visually dominant. To satisfy comfort requirements.5 SOLAR ENERGY 15. design and construction techniques have given way to high tech and less forgiving building systems. Power and equipment failures may cause disruption of the controlled interior environment.4.8. In the construction industry.

an alternative heating system is often used as a backup system. it makes no sense to perform extensive heat loss and gain calculations at early design stages. the ideal configuration is to allow the maximum sunlight into the structure.5. living and family rooms are ideally located on the south side while bedrooms.2 PRINCIPLES Solar technologies use sunlight to become solar energy when the sun’ s rays are transferred to a medium that has the capacity or ability to provide useful heat. Solar energy reduces utility costs. Designing and constructing a building with energy efficient techniques and properly insulating the building to reduce heat loss and air infiltration is the primary goal of energy efficiency. but in the early evenings. a commitment to energy conservation is essential. An effective barrier for insulating the living areas from cold exterior elements is the garage. The user must compare the additional cost with the long term savings and realize that the savings can only be gained when the commitment to solar conservation is fulfilled. There are several energy facts that contribute to the effective use of solar energy. northeast or northwest side of the home. however. The active systems may be automatic requiring little or no participation for the operation. Concrete.5. The stored energy is released in the form of heat during the night. Whenever possible.SPECIAL TOPICS stage through detailed drawings and models and finally to construction documents the degree of accuracy must increase. and use solar heat without the assistance of mechanical devices. solar systems may provide heat from the sun with little or no involvement. 15. if any. Active systems use mechanical devices for absorbing. in part. The optimum orientation for solar application in the Northern hemisphere is the south elevation of the 349 structure. store. Solar radiation enters a structure through a glass panel and warms the surface of the building’ s interior. Glass is one of the materials that absorbs solar radiation while transmitting light. maintenance should be performed on a periodic basis to assure continued operation of the system. 15. a different approach or a variance to the restriction should be considered if the planned solar system encroaches upon this zoning rule. For residential structures. In order to provide maximum efficiency and comfort. Dwelling height restrictions in many areas is one example. In combination with solar heat. Solar heating is possible due. electricity and cooling systems. The amount of heat.5. active solar systems may be required. The minimal effort makes the long term investment worthwhile. . Solar energy is also used to heat water. installations may require plumbing and electrical permits. saves energy and produces clean energy. There are passive solar systems that may require periodic attention. The earth. storing and using solar heat. required from a backup system will depend on the demand and capacity of the solar system. Passive systems absorb. 15. receives about 60% direct sunlight each year while in very clear areas up to 80% of the annual sunlight is available for use as solar energy. can absorb more heat than less dense materials such as wood.5 BUILDING CODES Building permits are typically required for the installation of active solar systems or for the construction of passive solar systems. This is an ideal form of passive solar energy. passive. Another factor to consider when taking advantage of solar heat is room placement. On winter mornings. which is a dense material. Additionally. in many areas.4 ENERGY SYSTEMS When planning and developing a solar energy system. With proper planning. A mechanical shade that blocks the rays of the summer sun must be adjusted to allow for the penetration of the winter sun rays. The radiation is absorbed by the glass and keeps the heat inside the building. Air and objects become heated when the sun’ s rays reach the earth. therefore. or a combination of active and passive. The dense materials absorb and store solar energy during the day.3 DESIGN Solar energy is an economical alternative to fossil fuel. light. Southern exposure with adequate windows will improve the effectiveness of a solar system and produce sufficient heat to distribute to the entire building. 15. The requirements for solar system installations should be reviewed with local building officials. When a substantial amount of heat energy is required. Local zoning ordinances during the initial planning process must be checked to determine the feasibility of the installation. In this case. The building will change many times before a design is complete. to this concept. both systems should be professionally engineered. the garage should be placed on the north.5. bathrooms and laundry rooms are ideally located on the north side. shutters or drapes should be closed to keep as much heat as possible in the structure. Solar energy systems are classified as active.

34.7 1. trellis or awning are ways of overhang protection that serve the same function as the extension of the roof structure.9" overhang calculation for the 44latitude is illustrated in Figure 15.5. The effects of the summer and winter sun on the 2' . In architectural design there is a great deal of flexibility that will provide the same function. lower on the horizon in the winter and higher in the summer.350 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 15.2 ( F at 32o latitude) 6.4 5.8" window height would be: Overhang Winter sun FIGURE 15.9” This formula divides the window height by a factor determined in relationship to the latitude of the structure.8 3.8" (Glass Door Height) Overhang (OH)  5.8" OH  2' .30.4" 5.31 W indow height 2’.0 1.15. . A porch cover.3 1' . The f ol lowing f ormula can be used when calculating an overhang that will provide shading on the longest day of the year at noon. Calculate the recommended southern overhang for a location at 32latitude and provide for a 6' . Mechanical devices provide alternate methods of shading from summer heat and exposing the window areas to winter sun. 6' .8" sliding glass door height.4 2.31.4 Effective overhang.2 Summer sun For a more northerly latitude the overhang recommendation would be greater .0 2.30 6' .9” North Latitude 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 F 8. For example a 44latitude calculation with 6' . A properly designed roof overhang can aid in the effective use of the sun’ s heat as illustrated in Figure 15.9" 2. The summer heat is blocked while the heat from the winter sun is allowed to enter. These movable devices require that the occupant should be aware of the need for shade or heat at different times of the year. W indow height Window/Sil l Height Overhang (OH)  F Winter sun Effect of overhang on summer and winter sun.6 OH  1.6 ROOF OVERHANG Example: The design of roof overhang can shield a major glass area from the heat of the summer sun and also allow the lower winter sun to help warm the structure since the suns angle changes from season to season.32 . 2’. Some shading options are shown in Figures 15.2 3.4 Summer sun FIGURE 15.

Summer sun FIGURE 15.7. pumps.7. The solar radiation is classified by the length of these waves (the shortest is less than a million of an inch.33 Winter sun Sliding shade. In pure passive solar heating systems. 2. The solar spectrum is the grand aggregate of the sun’ s radiation. passive solar systems depend on the smart design and organization of the spaces in a building and the careful selection of building materials. the longest more than a thousands yards). 1. water tanks. 15. conduction and convection are the natural heat flow forces that make the system work. Passive solar designs depend on two basic material properties: Drop shade. The light strikes objects and surfaces within the building interior and is transformed into heat. all solar radiation travels through space in waves.SPECIAL TOPICS 351 Passive solar heating can be incorporated easily into plans with very little increase in costs and almost no change in construction methods or personnel. have the ability to store large amounts of heat and release that heat slowly into habitable spaces. Other forms of solar radiation are less easily perceived and often requires specilized equipment. rather than energy-using moving parts. pipes.34 Winter sun Awning shade. Summer sun FIGURE 15. Thousands of building with passive solar heating exist in every part of the country and there is nothing strange-looking about them since passive solar design adapts comfortably to all architectural styles. stored and finally this stored heat is recovered when and where is needed. this radiant heat is prevented from passing back out through the windows. Anyone who has opened the door to a car that has been sitting in the sun with the windows closed on a hot summer day can feel this phenomenon. walls and floors are the storage areas. Certain materials. heat exchangers and other equipment which can be costly to install and maintain.7. Heat and light can be sensed simply by sitting on a beach on a bright summer day.32 Winter sun 15. A passive solar buildings. These three tasks are performed by the active solar heating systems with collector panels.5. is attractive at a time when energy costs continue to rise.3 PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING Energy from the sun comes in a variety of forms. Since the glazing is opaque to this form of radiation.5. such as masonry. the building is the collector and the windows.7 PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY The sun’ s heat is collected by all solar systems.1 PRINCIPLES To obtain heating and cooling benefits from the free energy available in the natural environment. Glass and many glazing materials have the ability to transmit light (solar radiation) but to remain opaque to heat (thermal radiation). 15. The radiation. However.5.5. . 15.2 ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING Summer sun FIGURE 15.

During the design of the building attention must be given to questions of space planning.8. Five simple systems are very effective and economical when building passive solar capacity into a structure: 15. Winter sunlight 15.5.4 HYBRID SOLAR HEATING 15. natural lighting. absorption and storage of solar energy in a direct gain system occurs directly within the habitable space.35 Sun altitude . radiation and convection moves stored heat out to the habitable spaces.8 PASSIVE SOLAR BASICS Passive solar heating was observed and followed thousands of years ago by the American Indians and was based on common sense principles.5.1 DIRECT GAIN Designed primarily to be used for heating. privacy. 15. overheating and fading and deterioration of fabrics exposed to direct sunlight. These principles are being rediscovered and applied with new technology.36 Increased building window surface using clerestory and skylight.summer and The direct gain passive solar system is simple and economical and supplies a large amount of heat very rapidly.8. E FIGURE 15. The natural forces of conduction.1 SHAPE AND ORIENTATION The basic passive solar structure shape is rectangular. Fundamental elements for storing the sun’ s heat are the south-facing window areas (preferably doubleglazed) and the brick walls and floors (at least 4 in. Sunlight heats the exposed masonry when entering through the glazing.7. The structure becomes the passive solar system as a result of intelligent planning and minor modifications in standard building practice. W N S      Greater glass collection area increases and exposes even more interior for greater thermal storage when skylights are added. which slowly releases the stored heat to the interior of the structure. dampers and fans that help circulate collected heat throughout the building. These essential and simple features can be seen in and around any passive solar application.5.9.352 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL 15. [102 mm] thick) . The large areas of windows and/or glass allowing sunlight into the interior should be at the south elevation of the structure since the solar collector is the south facing wall. The collection. winter. with little or no window area on the north wall.5. direct gain systems are most effective in areas with mild or moderate winter climates. Summer sun Winter sun Direct Gain Thermal Storage Wall Attached Sunspace Convective Loop Thermal Storage Roof 15.5. FIGURE 15. brick fireplaces and floors.9 PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEMS Hybrid passive solar systems include simple devices such as small blowers. . glare. Windows on east and west walls should be limited.5.2 T HERMAL STORAGE/RETRIEVAL The sunlight transmitted through the south-facing glazing is absorbed and stored by interior brick walls. with the long axis oriented in an east-west direction and (wall areas faces south) to catch the maximum winter sunlight.

5. they are referred as “ solar greenhouses” or “ attached greenhouses”to diferentiate them from the standard. Then. This warm air can go straight into the habitable spaces or it can be stored in the storage area.9. and used to provide heat as required as shown on Figure 15. In walls with vents. wall vents can be closed at night.38 Attached sunspace. Insulated north wall Vented thermal storage wall system. thermal storage wall systems can also be used in certain climate conditions to provide cooling. The convective loop collector admits sunlight during the heating season which.39 Convective loop. Winter sunlight Insulated ceiling Projected overhang Massive brick storage wall Thermal convective loop Radiated heat Vents (T & B) South-facing double glazing FIGURE 15. To aid heat circulation the wall may have vents at the top and bottom.5. The lowest point in the system collects the heat. cooler air is allowed to circulate through the lower vent and is heated as it rises through the space between the glass and the brick. For heating they are most effective in areas with moderate or severe winters. For cooling.9.39.353 SPECIAL TOPICS 15. “ non-solar”varieties which are generally not as well constructed and detailed. Heat is spread out to interior habitable spaces. In the space between the absorber surface and the collector this heat is transmitted to the air. Heated air rises up 15. such as a rock bed. strikes an absorber surface and is converted to heat. The key elements are south-facing glass placed 2 to 4 in.9.5. they are best suited to areas with high daily temperature swings. . To prevent heat loss. This system is based on the principle that air will rise when heated. in turn. (50. When the sunspaces work as greenhouses.2 T HERMAL STORAGE WALL Designed primarily for space heating. Attached sunspaces are effective in areas with moderate to severe winter climates and are designed primarily to be used for heating.3 ATTACHED SUNSPACE Sunspaces are designed for passive solar gain and are “ attached”to the south side of the structure.37 FIGURE 15. the heated air rises up.8 to 102 mm) outside of a solid brick wall that is 10 to 18 in. 15. The thermal storage wall system shows smaller temperature fluctuations and achieves lower maximum temperatures than the direct gain system and may require a greater initial investment. Collector Storage area Absorber FIGURE 15. (254 to 457 mm) thick. The heated air passes through the vent at the top of the wall into the interior. passing out through a duct located at the top of the absorber.4 CONVECTIVE LOOP The convective loop is a heating type system that is more efficient in areas with moderate to severe winters. South facing glass walls collect the winter sun rays heating the brick storage wall by conduction.

This heat is stored and slowly transferred through the ceiling deck to the living spaces below as illustrated in Figure 15.9. masonry or water is the storage mass in a thermal storage roof system located on the roof of a structure. In this system and in the typical active hot air systems.5.5 T HERMAL STORAGE ROOF Typically. Also.5.40 Thermal storage roof. The thermal storage roofs can provide effective heating and cooling.10 MASONRY AND THE SUN In passive solar heating systems the texture of surface makes masonry a logical partner with the sun. supports this mass and also serves as the ceiling for the space below. This storage roof provides the efficient and even transfer of heat from the mass above.40. FIGURE 15. Masonry walls or floors are an efficient storage medium. metal or concrete. masonry contains a combination of physical qualities for top performance in passive solar systems. or can be a separate structure placed in front of and below the first floor. and are appropriate passive systems for desert climates due to the location and operation of the storage component. absorbing and holding heat.354 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL The convective loop system is ideally constructed on the south elevation of the structure. The storage component is exposed to the sky and heated by direct radiation from the sun. The heat flow is by natural means in any design. 15. it is a moderator of temperature preventing overheating and keeping a comfortable environment as heat is released into living spaces. Also. The roof decking. Thermal storage roofs do not require a collector component. One of the advantages of masonry is the permanent color will not fade or degrade in direct sunlight or high heat. no fans or pumps are required. For example. These attributes are:      Conductivity Absorptivity Specific heat Emissivity Mass The attributes of mass cannot be exaggerated. The character and beauty of living spaces is enhanced by the exposed brick or block on the interior of a structure in addition to serving the passive solar purpose. Masonry mass is at the heart of passive solar efficiency. masonry requires no painting and little or no maintenance. The reason lies in the nature of masonry: it absorbs the sun’ s heat slowly and releases it slowly. 15. .

018 kilograms/cubic meter 16 kg/m 1 pounds/gallon 119.7646 764.6 km or 1 /2 km 1 yard 0.016 metric tons or 1.000 cm or 1 liter Speed 1 mile per hour 1 foot per second 1.9144 meter 0.CHAPTER 16 UNIT CONVERSIONS ENGLISH/METRIC CONVERSION Unit Length 1 mile Exact Conversion Approximate Conversion 1 1.35 0.56 0.387 3.856 square meters 0.9 m or 1 meter 1 foot 0.2 square millimeters 2 4000 m 1 2 2 /10 m or 1000 cm 2 2 6 cm or 650 mm Volume 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic inch 1 gallon 1 quart 0.0929 square meters 645.0283 28.3048 meter 0.4 3.3 m/s or /3 m/s Weight or Mass 1 ounce 1 pound 28.45359 kilogram or 453 grams 30 grams 1 /2 kg or 500 g 1 kip 453.35 grams 0.217 16.3 m or /3 meter 1 inch 25.40 millimeters 1 1 25 mm or /40 meter Area 1 acre 1 square foot 1 square inch 4.609344 kilometers per hour 0.94635 cubic meter or liters cubic meter or liters cubic centimeters cubic centimeters or liters cubic centimeters or liter 3 3 /4 m or 750 liters 1 3 /35 m or 30 liters 3 3 16 cm or 16.83 kilograms/cubic meter 120 kg/m 3 A short Ton is a unit of weight equal to 2.18 kilograms).000 mm 3 4.907 metric ton or 907.000 cm or 4 liters 3 1.5 Mg 1 Ton (short) * 907. as compared to a Long Ton which is a unit of weight equal to 2.6 km/h or 1 /2 km/h 1 0.240 pounds (1. .785.3048 meter per second 1 1.18 kilograms 1 Mg Density * 3 1 pounds/cubic foot 16.785 946.016.609344 kilometers 1.05 kilograms).59 kilograms 500 kg or 0.046.000 pounds (0.

ft.054 kj Temperature ºFahrenheit 5 [(ºF-32)( /9)] ºCelcius 1 kj . ft.894. in.448 newton/meters/meters 1. ft.8 pascals 6.36 Nm 1.448 kilo newtons 1 1 pound force/lin.448 newtons 4 /2 N 1 kip force 4.35 joule or 1.895 mega pascals 1 pound force/sq. 1 kip/sq.9 kilo pascals 7000 Pa or 7 kPa 7 MPa 48 Pa 48 kPa Moment 1 foot pound force 1 foot kip force 1 foot pound force/foot 1. 14. 47.36 kNm 4.59 newtons/meter 1 kip force/lin.054.356 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Unit Force 1 pound force Exact Conversion Approximate Conversion 1 4.45 Nm/m Energy 1 BTU 1. 47.356 newton meters 1.356 kilo newton meters 4. 14. in.59 kilo newtons/meter 4500 N or 4 /2 kN 1 14 /2 N/m 1 14 /2 kN/m Pressure 1 pound/sq.9 pascals 1 kip force/sq. ft. 6.

8 pound force 1 /4 pound force 225 pound force Pressure 1 pascal 0.2642 0.6 mph 3 ft/s or 1 yd/s Weight or Mass 1 gram 1 kilogram 1 megagram 1 0.6214 mile 3 1 meter 3.2.000 pounds 1 gigagram 1.315 264.145 pounds/square inch 1 mega pascal 145 pounds/square inch /7 psi 150 psi Moment 1 newton meter 3 0. or 3 ft.764 sq.3937 inch 1 millimeter /8 mile or 0.196 square yds or 10.357 UNIT CONVERSIONS METRIC/ENGLISH CONVERSION Unit Length Exact Conversion 1 kilometer Approximate Conversion 5 0.2808 feet per second 5 /8 mph or 0.000 lbs 1 1.225 foot pound force/foot /4 ft lb 3 1 /4 ft kip /4 ft lb/ft Energy 1000 joules 0.062428 lbs/cu ft 1 8 /2 lbs/gal or 62 lbs/ft 1 1 /8 oz/gal or /16 lbs/ft 3 3 Force 1 newton 0. 1 square centimeter 2 /3 mi or 250 acres 2 2 /2 yd or 10 ft 1 0.205.737 foot pound force 1 kilo newton meter 0.4 inch or /8 inch 1 0.737 foot kip force 1 newton meter/meter 0.205 pounds 2 /4 kips or 2.0394 inch /32 inch Area 1 square kilometer 1 0.102 Tons or 2.3861 square mile or 247.024 in cubic inch 3 35 ft or 265 gallons 1 3 /4 gallon or 1 quart or 60 in 1 3 /16 in Speed 1 kilometer per hour 0.17 0.205 pounds 2 /4 pounds or 2 pounds 2.2808 feet or 39 /8 inches 1 centimeter 0.+ 3 0.0353 0.8 x ºC)+32] ºFahrenheit This chapter is referenced in Section 2.1 acres 1 square meter 1 1.061 1 cubic meter 1 liter 1 cubic centimeter cubic feet or gallons cubic feet or 3 gallon or 61.205 kips or 2. 3 in.6 mile 3 ft.2248 pound force 1 kilo newton 224.428 lbs/cu ft 1 kg/cubic meter 0.155 square inch /6 in 2 Volume 35.000 Tons or 2 million lbs Density 1 gram/cubic centimeter 8.000145 pounds/square inch 1 kilo pascal 1 0.345 lbs/gal or 62.03527 ounce /30 ounce 1 2.2 1 BTU .94845 BTU Temperature ºCelcius [(1.ft.6214 mile per hour 1 meter per second 3.0081345 lbs/gal or 0.

7 m 12.2 m 16.496" = 2' .9 m 213. 400 ft. 70 ft. 8 ft. 10 ft.9 /4" 1 36' .811" = 11 13 / 16" 3 15.433" = 2' .9 m 27.7 / 8" 3 164' .2 (203) mm 228. 800 ft. 9 in.7 /8" 1 45' .622" = 1' .2 m 13. 3 in.6 (229) mm 254 mm 279.3 m 22.3 m 304. 4 ft.5 m 1.4 m 25.3622" = 2 / 8" 2.1 /8" 1 39' .8 (178) mm 203.283' .748" = 1' .11 / 8" 26' .685" = 1' . 7 ft.3 3 /8" 3 6' .8 (305) mm 609.0 3/4" 1 62' .4 mm 50.2 (76) mm 101. 500 ft.0 3/8" 1 98' . 5 in. 100 ft. 75 ft.559" = 2' .4 m 243.10 1/8" 13' . 5 ft 6 ft.8740" = 8 / 8" 11. 9 ft. 200 ft.1 m 7.9685" = 2" 3 2.3" 7 147' .3 m 19. 2 in.1 m 2.0 / 4" 1 328' .1 1/2" 7 16' . 65 ft.6 (102) mm 127 mm 152.4 m 29.2 /8" 52' .7 m 15. 45 ft.9 m 24.7 m 3.1 m 10.2 m 1.8 m 2. 900 ft.640' . 60 ft.358 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL ENGLISH SYSTEM CONVERSION inches/feet 1 in. 95 ft.6 /8" 3 32' .5 /4" 114' .3 /16 " 1 31. 12 in.1 /2" .5748" = 1 / 16 " 1.9 /8" 59' .4 (279) mm 304.1 / 2" 1 1. 4 in.7874" = /4" 3 1.370" = 3' .0 m 6.6" 3 55' .4 /8" 65' .8 1/4" 5 22' . 300 ft.8 m M ETRIC S YSTEM C ONVERSION cm/meters 1 cm 2 cm 3 cm 4 cm 5 cm 6 cm 7 cm 8 cm 9 cm 10 cm 20 cm 30 cm 40 cm 50 cm 60 cm 70 cm 80 cm 90 cm 100 cm =1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m 8m 9m 10 m 11 m 12 m 13 m 14 m 15 m 16 m 17 m 18 m 19 m 20 m 25 m 30 m 35 m 40 m 45 m 50 m 100 m 500 m 1000 m inches/feet 3 0.7559" = 2 3/ 4" 3 3. 20 ft.11 /8" 9 27.101/ 8" 131' .7 /2" 7 35.8 m 274.4 m 182.7 /2" 1 3.4 (152) mm 177.10 /16 " 39. 7 in.4 m 2.6 m 9. 10 in. 700 ft.7 1/2" 82' . 11 in.8 (51) mm 76. 80 ft.0 m 30.9 m 152.1811" = 1 / 16 " 9 1.4 (914) mm 1. 600 ft. 55 ft.3937" = /8" 3 0.9370" = 4" 7 7. 25 ft. 50 ft. 6 in.8 m 18.5 m 61.0 m 91. 35 ft.8 m 21.6 (610) mm 914.4 /8" 19' .4 m 121.3" 3 29' . mm/meters 25. 1000 ft. 3 ft. = 1 foot 2 ft.1496" = 3 / 16 " 3. 90 ft.3 /4" 11 19.6 /4" 9' .11 / 4" 5 49' .4 /2" 7 42' . 30 ft.5433" = 3 9/ 16 " 3. 8 in. 40 ft.7 /16 " 5 23. 85 ft.

See ASTM Specification C 67 for clay units and ASTM C 140 for concrete units. when bound together with portland cement and water will form a homogeneous system such as grout or concrete. The remaining courses are stretcher courses. Adhered –Attached by adhesion. as in adhered veneer. Expressed as a percentage of the weight of the dry unit. Anchor Tie –Any type of mechanical fastener used to secure masonry to a support and stable system. Drying by simple exposure to ambient air. The weight of water a masonry unit absorbs. Angle Brick –Any brick that is shaped to an oblique angle to fit and create non-perpendicular corners. gravel. such as a backup wall. Apron Wall –That part of a wall that is below a window sill. Admixture –Any material other than water or aggregate or portland cement or lime that is used as an ingredient of mortar and grout to improve the quality and/or property. . Aggregate –Inert particles such as sand. which. Adobe –An unfired clay brick dried in the sun. usually used in tension application. when immersed in either cold or boiling water for a stated length of time. and/ or rock.CHAPTER 17 GLOSSARY A Absorption –The amount of water a dry masonry unit will absorb. Adherence –The property of materials bonded to each other without mechanical anchorage. Air Drying –The process of drying brick or block without any special equipment. American Bond –A form of bonding two wythes of masonry wall together with a header course occurring at every sixth course.

Ashlar Masonry –Masonry composed of rectangular units of fired clay. approximately a half brick. Bond beam units B Backup . or square beds and having joints laid in mortar. ASTM –American Society for Testing and Materials. or concrete block (generally larger in size than common building brick) having sawed. Serves as horizontal tie of wall. bearing course for structural members or as a flexural member itself. Bond Beam –Course or courses of a masonry wall grouted and usually reinforced in the horizontal direction. dressed. For reinforced masonry the course of masonry where the bond beam occurs. BIA –Brick Industry Association. usually formed into a rectangular prism while plastic and burned or fired in a kiln. Blind Header –A concealed header. such that it can not be seen from the exterior side of the wall. Ashlar masonry may be constructed in a random or coursed pattern.That part of a masonry wall behind the exterior facing. Bed joint Building Brick –A brick for building purposes and not specifically treated for appearance such as texture or color. Batter -–Recessing or sloping masonry back in successive courses. Bearing Wall –A wall that supports gravity wall. Bond Course –The course consisting of units which overlap more than one wythe of masonry. Bevel . floor loading) in addition to its own weight. stone.e. Building bricks are also known as common bricks. Belt Course –See Sill Course. Building bricks shall conform to ASTM C 62. the opposite of a corbel. Brick –A solid masonry unit of clay or shale. Bat –The end portion of a brick. Bed –The horizontal surfaces (mortar) on which the masonry units of the wall lie in courses.Once side of a solid body that is sloped with respect to another side. fired shale. (i.360 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Arch Brick –A wedge shaped brick for special use in arches. Breaking Joints –Any arrangement of masonry units which prevents a continuous vertical joint line. . Bed Joint –The horizontal mortar joint upon which the masonry units are placed.

Buttering –Placing mortar on a masonry unit with a trowel. . Checkerboard Bond . Chimney Throat –That part of a chimney directly above the fireplace where the walls are brought close together. and v it rif ied when f i red t o a suff i cient ly high temperature. mortar and grout. Cell –A hollow space within a concrete masonry unit formed by the face shells and the webs having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 11/2 square inches (968 mm2). 361 Cement –An ingredient of concrete. (6. ducts. Camber Cap –Masonry units laid on top of a finished wall or pier. Camber –A slight arching or upward curve of a beam or a soffit. See ASTM C 67. made to cover the walls of a chimney to protect the masonry from the effects of heat. The wythes of wall are tied together. terra cotta or refractory cement. Chamfer Channel Block –A CMU with the web portions depressed less than 11/4 in. C C/B ratio –The ratio of the weight of water absorbed by a masonry unit during immersion in cold water to weight absorbed during immersion in boiling water. Chimney Breast –The projection of the interior or exterior face of a wall caused by fireplaces or flues. Also called saturation coefficient. Chimney Lining -–Fire brick.4 mm) to produce a continuous horizontal channel in which horizontal reinforcement may be laid.See Stacked Bond. Cavity Wall –A wall built of two or more wythes of masonry units arranged to provide a continuous air space within the wall. Chamfer –A beveled edge. it is plastic when sufficiently wetted. Clay –A natural mineral aggregate consisting essentially of hydrous aluminum silicate.GLOSSARY Bull Nose Unit –A brick or concrete masonry unit having one or more rounded exterior corners. Chase –A continuous recess built into a wall to receive pipes. an oblique surface formed by cutting away an edge or corner. rigid when dried. Cell Chimney –A shaft built to carry off smoke. fire clay. An indication of the probable resistance of brick to freezing and thawing. Centering –Temporary formwork for the support of masonry arches or lintels during construction. etc. Cement is made by burning a mixture of clay and limestone and then pulverizing into a fine powder.

A shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of a wall. Closer –The last masonry unit laid in a course. Common Brick –See Building Brick. Concrete Block –See Concrete Masonry Unit. Coping Block –A solid concrete masonry unit for use as the top and finished course. Sometimes spelled “ closure” . CMU – See Concrete Masonry Unit.362 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Cleanout –Opening in the first course. where the openings are used to clean out mortar protrusions and droppings. Concrete Brick –A solid concrete masonry unit made from portland cement and suitable aggregates with or without additional materials. This type of mortar joint is weather resistant and inexpensive. aggregate and water) that consists of natural aggregates that are carefully graded. (48”max. Coping –A covering or top for a masonry wall. . Core Composite Wall –Multiple wythe construction in which at least one of the wythes is dissimilar to the other wythe or wythes with respect to type or grade of units or mortar. Collar Joint –The space between two wythes of wall filled with grout for tying the two wythes together. Concave Joint –A mortar joint formed with a special tool to produce a concave indentation in the mortar joint. of a masonry brick wall one or concrete block wall. Corbel . for partially grouted walls or @ reinforcing steel Clinker Brick –A very hard-burned brick whose shape is distorted or bloated due to nearly complete vitrification. Concrete Masonry Unit –Unit made of concrete (cement. Control Joint –A continuous unbonded or weakened vertical masonry joint to control the location and amount of separation resulting from the contraction of the masonry wall to avoid the development of excessively high stress and random cracking in the masonry. Core –A void space having a gross cross-sectional area less than than 11/2 square inches (968 mm2). sometimes projected out from the wall to provide decorative as well as protective feature. Cleanout (entire face shell removed 32”max. It may be whole or a portion of unit.

used as a decorative effect. Also known as an English Cross Bond. . Expansion Joint –A vertical or horizontal joint or space to allow movement of a masonry wall due to volume changes. Curing –The maintenance of proper moisture and temperature conditions during the initial setting period to develop the required strength and reduce shrinkage effects. Cut Joints –Masonry bed joints and head joints cut flush with a trowel. so the next section of wall may begin. Dry Press Brick –Brick formed in molds under high pressure from relatively dry clay. mortar or grout. Cultured Stone –Non-naturally occurring stone masonry usually made from concrete. color and/or quality. Discharging Arch –See Relieving Arch. Dead Load –The weight of all permanent and sustained loads in a building. Dutch Bond –A masonry wall having a bond course made up of alternating headers and stretchers. 5% to 7% moisture content. Deformed Bars –Steel reinforcing bars made with raised deformation to create a bond with the concrete. Also known as damp check. Dog’ s Tooth –A brick so laid that its corners project out from the face of the wall. Cultured Brick –A brick masonry unit made from a material other than clay or shale. Coring –The term used to describe the voids in the brick that occur perpendicular to the bearing surface. Drip –A projecting piece of material shaped to throw off water and prevent the water from running down the face of the wall. Dry enough that it must be rammed into place. 363 Dentil –The cogged or tooth-like members which project under a cornice. Dry Pack –A mixture of cement and fine aggregate with only enough moisture for hydration. Culls –The rejected masonry units in culling. Dowels –Steel reinforcement projecting up from a foundation or from a partially finished wall. E Efflorescence –The leaching of soluble salts from within the masonry (masonry unit or mortar) to form a whitish surface deposit. Culling –Sorting of masonry units (bricks and block) for size. Course –A horizontal row of masonry units bonded together with mortar. Curtain Wall –A non-load bearing wall built between columns and between floor levels to enclose and separat e the buil ding f rom the outside environment. Also known as a solid brick. D Damp Course –A course or layer of impervious material which prevents capillary action of moisture entering from the ground or a lower course.GLOSSARY Cored Brick .A brick in which the holes consist of less than 25% of cross-section area.

also a term applied to irregular pieces of stone split into slabs from one to three inches thick and used for walks. It is used extensively for laying of firebrick in the construction of kilns. (9. forming an integral part of a wall. in every course. Fat Mortar –Mortar containing a high percentage of cementitous components. The masonry is so laid that the header lands in the middle of the stretchers above and below. Flashing –A thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and/or provide water drainage. etc. highly resistant to abrasion.e.Brick made of refractory ceramic material which will resist cracking when exposed to high temperatures. Frog –A recess in the bearing surface of a brick. Fire Brick . Fire Box . Typically composed of a majority of stretcher units. Fascia –The flat outside horizontal member of a cornice. The exposed surface of a wall or masonry unit.5 mm) in depth. Flagging –A pavement made of stone slabs is known as flagging or flagstone. ovens and tanks for molten metals. Field –The expanse of area of wall between defining element (i. see definition. . consisting of alternating headers and stretchers. serving as the combustion space. used as a finished surface. often treated to produce desired appearance such as surface texture and/or color. This is contrasted to Veneer. openings. Flemish Bond –A masonry wall having a bond course. Fire Clay –Clay which is capable of being subjected to high temperatures without fusing or softening perceptibly. Flagstone –A kind of stone that splits easily into flags or slabs. Faced Wall –A wall in which the masonry facing and the backup wall are of different materials and bonded together to act as one wall.). terraces. etc. Fretwork –Any ornamental openwork or work in relief. and often contains the stam ped name of the brick manufacturer. Flare Header –A brick burned on one end to a darker color than the face. Face Brick –A brick made for facing on wall. F Face –1.The interior of fireplace or furnace. The surface of a masonry unit designed to be exposed in the finished masonry. corners. 2. Floor Brick –Smooth dense brick. Face Shell –The side wall of a hollow concrete masonry or clay masonry unit. Flashing Facing Brick –See Face Brick. Facing –Any masonry. used as finished floor surface.364 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Extrados –The exterior curve in an arch or vault. not exceeding 3/ 8 in. It is a sticky mortar that adheres to a trowel.

also the portion of the floor immediately in front of the fireplace. Gauged Brick – Brick that has been sorted or otherwise produced to accurate dimensions. Hard-Burned –Clay masonry products that have been fired at high temperatures to near vitrification. Glazed Brick –A brick prepared by fusing on the surface a ceramic glazing material resulting in a brick with a glossy surface. Also called a bonder. Solid shell hollow brick unit Double shell hollow brick unit Cored shell hollow brick unit I IBC –International Building Code. Hearth –The masonry floor of a fireplace. Sometimes called a cross joint. Impervious –The quality of resisting moisture penetration. ICC –International Code Council. An uncured concrete masonry unit. Harsh Mortar –A mortar that is difficult to spread. Initial Rate of Absorption –The amount of water a dry brick will absorb in one minute. High Lift Grouting –The technique of grouting masonry in lifts for the full height of the wall. generally producing low-absorption and high compression strength. Grout – Mixture of cementitious material and aggregate to which sufficient water is added to produce pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents. Green Masonry –A molded clay unit before it has been burned. Head joint G Header –A masonry unit which overlaps two or more adjacent wythes of masonry to tie them together. There is no consistent relationship between the initial rate of absorption and absorption. It is used in construction to reference what was actually built in the field. Grounds –Nailing strips placed in masonry walls as a means of attaching trim or furring. Grout is placed in the cells of hollow masonry units or between the wythes of solid units to bind the reinforcing steel and the masonry into a homogeneous structural system. Hollow Brick –A brick with interior voids creating bearing surface of less than 75% of the gross cross-sectional area. 365 Head Joint –The vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units. The initial rate of absorption is not to be confused with absorption. H Hacking –Laying masonry units so that the bottom edge is set back from the plane surface of the wall. In Situ –A Latin phrase meaning –in the original or natural place. . It is not workable.GLOSSARY Furrowing –The practice of striking a “ V”shaped trough in a bed of mortar.

etc. Jack Arch –An arch that is horizontal or nearly horizontal. Unit weight is less than 105 pcf. the major part of which is calcium oxide. same as hydrated lime. The term is also used for any roughly built arch. Jointer –A tool used by bricklayers to form various types of mortar joints. Lap –The distance one brick or reinforcing bar extends beyond or over another. A kerf cut can facilitate the break line of a unit. Slaked Lime –A crumbly mass of lime formed when quick lime is treated with water. Lean Mortar –Mortar containing a low percentage of cementitious components. magnesium. Kerf . or calcium oxide in natural association with lesser amounts of magnesium oxide. which generally regarded as the most important member because it binds or locks in all of the other members. L Line pin Ladder Bar –A prefabricated reinforcement designed for embedment in horizontal mortar joints. Lightweight CMU –Concrete masonry units that consist of lightweight aggregate. .A cut made with a saw where the cut does not go through the masonry unit.366 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Intrados –The under surface or interior curve of an arch. such as concave or “ V” . Processed Lime –Pulverized quick lime. The term may be modified by the use of the prefix high calcium. pressure. Joint Reinforcement –Steel wire. Lime – Lime Putty –Hydrated lime in plastic form ready for addition to mortar. May also be called a flat arch or a straight arch. depending on the exact chemical cont ent and m ethod of manufacturing. Hydrated Lime –A dry powder obtained by treating quick lime with water enough to satisfy its chemical affinity for water under conditions of its hydration. Jointing –The process of finishing a mortar joint into a specific shape. Lintel –A beam placed over an opening in a wall. bar or prefabricated reinforcement which is placed in mortar bed joints. capable of slaking with water. K Quick Lime –A hot or unslaked lime. such as concave or “ V’ . Jack Bond –See Stacked Bond. J Lift –The vertical section of wall that is built prior to grouting. Line Pin –A metal pin used to attach a line used for alignment of masonry units. A calcined material. Jamb –The side of an opening. Keystone –The wedge shape masonry piece at the top of an arch. such as a doorway or a window.. Hydraulic hydrated lime is a different material and is not generally used in masonry construction.

GLOSSARY

367

Lipping –Laying brick so that the top edge of the unit
is set in from the plane surface of the wall.

Norman Brick –Standard nomenclature for a brick
size of 4"(width) x 22/3”
(height) x 12"(length).

Low Lift Grouting –The technique of grouting as the
wall is constructed.

O

M

Ornamental Facing –A design formed by the laying
of stone, brick, tile or other masonry units so to
produce a decorative effect.

MIA –Masonry Institute of America.
Mason –A workman skilled in laying brick, block or
stone; as in a stonemason.
Masonry – Brick, Stone, Concrete Block or
combination thereof, bonded together with mortar.
Masonry Unit –Natural or manufactured building unit
of burned clay, concrete, stone, glass, gypsum or
other similar material, bonded together by a
cementitious agent.
Mechanical Bond –Tying masonry units together with
metal ties or reinforcing steel.
Medium Weight CMU –Concrete masonry units that
consist of aggregate to yield a unit weight of 105
pcf to less than 125 pcf.
Moist Air Curing – Curing with moist air at
atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about
70° F.
Mortar –In its most general terms, mortar is a plastic
mixture of materials used to bind masonry units
into a structural mass.
Multi-Unit Wall –A masonry wall composed of two or
more wythes.

N
NCMA –National Concrete Masonry Association.
Neat Cement –A pure cement uncut by a sand
admixture.
Nominal Dimension –A dimension greater than the
actual masonry unit dimension by the thickness
of a mortar joint.
Normal Weight CMU –Concrete masonry units that
consist of natural aggregate and has unit weight
equal to or greater than 125 pcf.

P
Parapet Wall –The portion of an exterior wall that
extends above the roof line.
Parging or Pargeting –The process of applying a
coat of cement mortar to the back of the facing
material or the face of a backing material.
Paving Brick –A brick suitable for application where
resistance to abrasion is important.
Pedestal –A support for a column or statue.
Permeability –The quality of allowing the passage of
fluids.
Perpend Bond –A header brick or larger stone
extending through a wall so that one end appears
on each side of the wall and acts as a binder.
Pick and Dip –A method of laying brick whereby the
mason simultaneously picks up a brick with one
hand and, with the other hand, picks up enough
mortar on the trowel to the lay the brick. Also
known as the Eastern or New England method.
Pier –An isolated column of masonry.
Pilaster –A wall portion projecting from either or both
wall faces and serving as a column.
Plasticizers –An additive to mortar or grout to impart
more plastic quality.
Plumb Joint Bond - See Stacked Bond.
Pointing –Troweling mortar into a joint after the
masonry unit has been laid.
Prism Testing –A small section of wall built to be
tested in a laboratory to determine the properties
of the wall.

368

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Q
Quoin –Projecting courses of brick at the corners of
a building as an ornamental feature, or large
squared stones set at angles or corner of a
building.

Rebar –Reinforcing steel bars.
Recess –An indentation in the surface of a wall.
Reglet –A groove or channel in a mortar joint, or in a
special masonry unit, to receive roof flashing or
other material that has to be sealed in the masonry.
Reinforcement –Nonprestressed steel reinforcement.
(MSJC Code)
Relieving Arch –An arch built over a lintel, or similar
wal l opening, and intended to di v ert the
superimposed load above the opening to the sides
of the opening, thus relieving the lintel or jack arch
from excessiv e loading. Also known as a
discharging arch or a safety arch.
Retempering –To moisten and remix, to proper
consistency, mortar for use. Also known as
retempering.

R

Return –Any surface turned back from the face of
the principal surface.

Racking – A method entailing stepping back
successive courses of masonry.

Reveal –That portion of a jamb or recess which is
visible from the face of a wall.
Roman Brick –Standard nomenclature for a brick size
of 4"(width) x 2"(height) x 12"(length).
Rowlock –An orientation of brick, such that the short
and thin side is exposed and laid upright. Also
spelled rolok and also known as a bull-header.
Running Bond - Lapping of units in successive
courses such that the vertical head joints of
alternating course line up.

Raggle –A groove in a joint or a special unit to receive
roofing or flashing.
Raked Joint –A type of mortar of joint that has the
mortar raked out of it to a specified depth, before
the mortar has set.

GLOSSARY

S
Sack Joint –A mortar joint that has been wiped or
rubbed with a rag or object such as a rubber heel.
Safety Arch –See Relieving Arch.
Salient –A prominent feature.

369

sticking of clay, the product is known as sand mold
brick. When the molds are wetted to prevent
sticking, the product is known as water-struck or
slip brick.
Soldier –An orientation of brick, such that the long
and thin face is exposed and laid upright.

Saturation Coefficient –See C/B ratio.

Solid Brick - A brick with interior voids creating bearing
surfacing that are at least 75% of the gross crosssectional area. No part of any void can be closer
than ¾”to an exterior edge. It is noted that the
term solid brick does not necessarily mean 100%
solid.

Scutch –A mason’
s cutting tool used for dressing and
trimming brick to a desired shape. It resembles a
small pick and is sometimes call a “
scotch”
.

Spall –A small thin fragment removed from the face
of a masonry unit by a blow or by action of the
elements (freeze/thaw).

Sailor –an orientation of brick, such that the long and
wide face is exposed and laid upright.

Set –To change from a plastic to a hard state.
Sewer Brick –A low absorption, abrasive-resistant
brick intended for use in drainage structures; see
ASTM C 32.
Shiner –An orientation of brick, such that the long
and wide face is exposed and laid flat.
Sill Course –A narrow horizontal course of masonry,
sometimes slightly projected such as window sills
which are made continuous. Also known as a string
course or sill course.

Spandrel –That part of a panel wall above the top of
a window and below the sill of the window in the
story above.

Slurry –A thin watery mixture of neat cement, or
cement and sand.

Splay –An inclined surface, as the slope of bevel at
the sides of a door or window; also to make a
beveled surface or to spread out.

Slurry Coat –A brushed application of slurry, generally
applied to the back of adhered veneer units and
the support backing.

Split –See Soap.

Smoke Chamber – The space in a f ireplace
immediately above the throat where the smoke
gathers before passing into the flue and narrowed
by the corbeling to the size of the flue lining.
Soap –A brick split though the middle of its height. A
brick the same dimensions as its whole but only
half the thickness. Also known as a split.
Soft Burned –Clay products which have been fired
at low temperature ranges, generally producing
relatively high absorption and low compressive
strengths.
Soft Mud Brick –A brick produced by molding
relatively wet clay. Often a hand process. When
the insides of the molds are sanded to prevent

Stacked Bond –A bonding pattern where no unit
overlaps either the unit above or below by more
than 25% of the length of the unit. Also known as
a plumb joint bond, straight stack, jack bond, or
checkerboard bond.

370

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Standard Modular Brick –Standard nomenclature
for a nominal brick size of 4"(width) x 22/3"(height)
x 8"(length).

Thin Brick - A brick specifically designed for adhered
veneer application. Common thickness are 1/2" to
1", with typical maximum thickness of 13/4”
.

Stiff Brick –A brick produced by extruding stiff but
plastic clay through a die. This is the most
common way of mass production of bricks.

Tie –Any unit of material which connects masonry to
masonry or other materials.

Straight Stack –See Stacked Bond.
Stretcher –An orientation of brick, such that the long
and thin face is exposed and laid flat..

Tooling –Compressing and shaping the face of a
mortar joint with a special tool other than a trowel.
Also known as jointing.
Toother –A brick projecting from the end of a wall
against which another wall will be built.

String Course –See Belt Course.
Stringing Mortar –The procedure of spreading
enough mortar on a bed to lay several masonry
units.

Existing

New

Trimmer Arch - An arch used to support a fireplace
hearth.

U
Utility Brick –A standard nomenclature for a brick
size of 4"(width) x 4"(height) x 12"(length).

Struck Joint –A mortar joint which is formed with a
recess at the bottom of the joint.

T

V
V Joint –Tooling works the mortar tight and provides
a good weather joint. Used to emphasize joints
and conceal small irregularities in laying and
provide a line in center of mortar joint.

Temper –See Retempering.
Tender –A laborer who tends to the needs of the
mason. Also known as hodcarrier.
Terra Cotta –Non-structural hard-burned, glazed, or
unglazed clay building units usually used for
ornamental purposes.
Throat –The throat is a slot-like opening directly above
the firebox through which smoke and combustion
gases pass into the smoke chamber. It is usually
fitted with a damper.

Veneer –A single wythe of masonry for facing
purposes, not considered to contribute to the
structural integrity of the wall itself.
Vitrification –The condition resulting when kiln
temperatures are sufficient to fuse grains of clay
and to close pores of a clay product rendering the
product impervious.

GLOSSARY
Vitrified –To be fused together by heat.
Voussoirs –The individual stones forming an arch.
They are generally in the form of truncated
wedges.

W
Weep Holes –Openings placed in mortar joints of
facing material at the level of flashing, to permit
the escape of moisture that has built up behind
the wall. Also openings in retaining walls to allow
the escape of water that has built up behind the
retaining wall.

Wire Cut Brick - A brick formed by extruding a plastic
clay into a bar shape and wire cutting the extrusion
into brick units, before firing.
Wythe - A continuous vertical section of masonry (i.e.
a wall) that is one unit (brick) thick.

371

372

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

CHAPTER

18

REFERENCES
2003/2006 International Building Code, published by
International Code Council, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite
600, Falls Church, VA, 22041-3401, www.iccsafe.org.

ASTM A 706/A 706M-06a Standard Specification for
Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement.

2002/2005 Masonry Standard Joint Committee Code,
Specification and Commentaries, published by ACI
Internationl, SEI - Structural Engineering Institute of
the American Society of Civil Engineers, TMS - The
Masonry Society.

ASTM A 707/A 707M-02 Standard Specification for
Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Flanges for LowTemperature Service.

American Architectural Manufacturers Association
(AAMA) - Filed Test Specification 501.2 for Water
Leakage.
Angelus Block Co., Inc., 11374 Tuxford St., Sun Valley,
CA 91352-2678, www.angelusblock.com.
Architectural Drafting and Design, Alan Jefferis and
David A. Madsen, Delmar Publishers Inc.
Architectural Graphic Standards, Tenth Edition,
Ramsey/Sleeper, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ASTM A 767/A 767M-05 Standard Specification for
Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement.
ASTM A 775/A 775M-06 Standard Specification for
Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars.
ASTM A 951 Standard Specification for Masonry Joint
Reinforcement.
ASTM A 996/A 996M-06a Standard Specification for
Rail-Steel and Axle-Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement.
ASTM C 55 Standard Specification for Concrete Brick.

ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.
ASTM A 82/A 82M-02 Standard Specification for Steel
Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement.
ASTM A 167 Standard Specification for Stainless and
Heat-Resisting Chromium-Nickel Steel Plate, Sheet
and Strip.

ASTM C 62 Standard Specification for Building Brick
(Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale).
ASTM C 67 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and
Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile.
ASTM C 90 Standard Specification for Loadbearing
Concrete Masonry Units.

ASTM A 615/A 615M-06a Standard Specification for
Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement.

ASTM C 91 Standard Specification for Masonry
Cement.

ASTM A 653/A 653M-06 Standard Specification for
Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron
Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process.

ASTM C 126 Standard Specification for Ceramic
Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile, Facing Brick, and
Solid Masonry Units.

374

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

ASTM C 129-05 Standard Specification for
Nonloadbearing Concrete Masonry Units.
ASTM C 140 Standard Test Methods for Sampling and
Testing Concrete Masonry Units and Related Units.
ASTM C 144 Standard Specification for Aggregate for
Masonry Mortar.
ASTM C 150 Standard Specification for Portland
Cement.
ASTM C 170 Standard Test Method for Compressive
Strength of Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 207 Standard Specification for Hydrated Lime
for Masonry Purposes.
ASTM C 216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick
(Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale).
ASTM C 270 Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit
Masonry.
ASTM C 404 Standard Specification for Aggregates
for Masonry Grout.
ASTM C 426 Standard Test Method for Linear Drying
Shrinkage of Concrete Masonry Units.
ASTM C 476 Standard Specification for Grout for
Masonry.
ASTM C 501 Standard Test Method for Relative
Resistance to Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by the
Taber Abraser.
ASTM C 503 Standard Specification for Marble
Dimension Stone (Exterior).

ASTM C 780 Standard Test Method for Preconstruction
and Construction Evaluation of Mortars for Plain and
Reinforced Unit Masonry.
ASTM C 880 Standard Test Method for Flexural
Strength of Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 902 Standard Specification for Pedestrian and
Light Traffic Paving Brick.
ASTM C 1019 Standard Test Method for Sampling and
Testing Grout.
ASTM C 1088 Standard Specification for Thin Veneer
Brick Units Made from Clay or Shale.
ASTM C 1142 Standard Specification for Extended Life
Mortar for Unit Masonry.
ASTM C 1314 Standard Test Method for Compressive
Strength of Masonry Prisms.
ASTM C 1329 Standard Specification for Mortar
Cement.
ASTM E 84 Standard Test Method for Surface Burning
Characteristics of Building Materials.
ASTM E 119 Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of
Building Construction and Materials.
ASTM E 492 Standard Test Method for Laboratory
Measurement of Impact Sound Transmission Through
Floor-Ceiling Assemblies Using the Tapping Machine.
ASTM E 514 Standard Test Method for Water
Penetration and Leakage Through Masonry.

ASTM C 568 Standard Specification for Limestone
Dimension Stone.

Astra-Glaze • Glazed Masonry Units • Trenwyth
Industries • One Connelly Road • P.O. Box 438 •
Emigsville, PA 17318, www.trenwyth.com/
astra_glaze.asp.

ASTM C 615 Standard Specification for Granite
Dimension Stone.

BIA Technical Notes 3A, Brick Masonry Material
Properties, www.bia.org.

ASTM C 616 Standard Specification for Quartz-Based
Dimension Stone.

BIA Technical Notes 3B, Brick Masonry Section
Properties, www.bia.org.

ASTM C 629 Standard Specification for Slate
Dimension Stone.

BIA Technical Notes 7, Water Penetration ResistanceDesign and Detailing, www.bia.org.

ASTM C 652 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick
(Hollow Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale).

BIA Technical Notes 7B, Water Penetration Resistance
- Construction and Workmanship, www.bia.org.

ASTM C 744 Standard Specification for Prefaced
Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units.

BIA Technical Notes 9B, Manufacturing, Classification
and Selection of Brick, Selection, www.bia.org.

bia. Brick Floors and Pavements. Efflorescence: Cause and Control. 601 7th Street.com. Build with the Sun Live with the Sun. Design Manual for: Concrete Masonry Basements. Can Efflorescence be Controlled?.us. Dur-O-Wal. Elder. Citrus Heights. www. Box 17.. published by CMACN. www.icc-es.shtm. Flexible Vehicular Brick Paving.bia. 400 Stone City Bank Bldg.fema. CA 95648-1828. Fundamentals of Building Construction Materials and Methods..org. Building Stone Institute.bia. John Wiley & Sons.bia. BIA. Merrigan. Inc. Indiana Limestone Institute of America. Schaumburg.org. Design and Detailing of Movement Joints. VA 20191.org.org..org. Brick Masonry Cavity Walls Selection of Materials. www. prepared by NCMA. BIA Technical Notes 14B.endicott. www. 1850 Centennial Park Drive. www. Brick Masonry Cavity Walls Detailing. Suite 1990. Modular Brick Masonry.bia. www.org. Michael W. Taking Shelter from the Storm Building a Safe Room Inside your House (Pub.bia. FEMA.bia.cmacn.gov/fima/fema361. Brick Industry Association. CA 95610. Bedford.org. Sills and Soffits. FEMA 361. Wood Frame Construction.cmacn. Brick Veneer/Steel Stud Walls. www. Reston. www. Single Wythe Bearing Walls. www.bia. www. CA 95610.org.com. VA 20191-1542. Passive Solar Heating with Brick Masonry. BIA Technical Notes 26. Western States Clay Products Association. NE 68352. BIA Technical Notes 18A. Fire Safety Update. Western States Clay Products Association. P.O. Brick Industry Association.crsi. Lincoln. 551 Tollgate Road.org. Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. BIA Technical Notes 28. Citrus Heights. 11490 Commerce Park Drive.org/ reports/pdf_files/icbo-es/5058. www. IL 60505.org. Brick Industry Association. www.us. by Edward Allen.bia.org.bia. Suite 1990. March. BIA Technical Notes 31. July.. Dickey. www.bia.org.buildingstoneinstitute. BIA Technical Notes 21B.iliai. Western States Clay Products Association.bia. 2000). P. www.wscpa.com.wscpa. www.org. Fire Endurance of Clay Brick Veneer. Plum Grove Road. Brick Institute of California. 2004).org.bia.fema. IL 60173-4758. 933 N.bia. Gladding McBean Co. BIA Technical Notes 21A. Suite C. www.. Jeffrey L. BIA Technical Notes 10B. Fairbury. Aurora. Elgin. www. BIA Technical Notes 36. Fire Endurance Ratings of Clay Brick Masonry.bia. Concrete Masonry Design Manual.coldspringgranite.gov/mit/saferoom. www. www. Cold Spring Granite Company. 6060 Sunrise Vista Drive.. BIA Technical Notes 43. Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters (Pub. ICC Legacy Report. . FEMA 320. 6060 Sunrise Vista Drive. Cold Spring. www. Reston. 375 CMACN.org.bia.org. Brick Masonry Rain Screen Walls.com.E. Bonds and Patterns in Brickwork. Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada.duro-wal. IL 60123.pdf. www. BIA Technical Notes 28B. Brick Sizes and Related Information. Masonry Institute of America. www. www. report by Walter L. FEMA.bia. Suite 301. Indiana 47421.org.gladdingmcbean.com.REFERENCES BIA Technical Notes 10A. 625 Crane St.E. BIA Technical Notes 27. CRSI. Anchored Brick Veneer. BIA Technical Notes 30. Endicott Clay Products Company. MN 56320-2593. www. Design Guide for Anchored Brick Veneer Over Steel Studs. www.org. www. BIA. CMACN. www. P. Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada. Brick Masonry Details. www. www.org.org. 202 South Third Avenue.org. www. Brick Masonry Arches. www.

www.org. The Proudfoot Company. www.com. Monroe. Pittsburgh Corning Corporation. Cleveland. Inc. Morton Newman. BIA.ncma. www. 44145. www. Fifth Edition Updated. www. www. Fourteenth Edition. 1220 L Street.masonryinstitute.PROSOCO.ncma. NCMA TEK NOTE 10-1A. Inc. NCMA TEK NOTE 19-5A. CA 90680.org. W.MacOnline. PO Box 276. www. 62 Whittemore Avenue. Removal of Stains from Concrete Masonry.com. NW. Marble & Stone Slab Veneer. Pittsburgh.org. National Concrete Masonry Association.org. Second Edition.masonryinstitute. VA 20171-4662. www. Masonry Construction Magazine (1992). VA 20191. Second Edition. www.masonryinstitute. CT 064682672. Fifth Edition. Masonry Institute of America.. Removal of Graffiti from Concrete Masonry.com.org.masonryinstitute.org. www. www. DC 20005. Dimensional Stone Magazine. 588 Pepper Street. Ohio. NCMA TEK NOTE 8-2A. NCMA TEK NOTE 8-4. www. www. Masonry Mortar Testing.376 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Masonry Advisory Council. PA 15239. Reinforced Grouted Brick Masonry.masonryinstitute.ncma.pittsburghcorning. Park Ridge.com. Fire Resistance Rating of Concrete Masonry Assemblies. RILEM Tube Test by The Construction Technology Laboratories.bia. NCMA TEK NOTE 7-1A.org. NCMA.marbleinstitute. Masonry Design Manual.soundblox.ncma. New York. Washington. Flashing Details for Concrete Masonry Walls. Lawrence.masonryinstitute. 11100 Beach Blvd. Crack Control in Concrete Masonry Walls. Marble Institute of America. www. www. 2nd Edition. Grace & Co. Masonry Institute of America. Suite 100. Principles of Brick Masonry. John A. MA 02140-1692.org. Koski. NCMA TEK NOTE 18-5A. 1991. NCMA TEK NOTE 19-4.na. Flashing Strategies for Concrete Masonry Walls. Masonry Institute of America.orco.com. National Building Granite Quarries Association. 800 Presque Isle Drive. Masonry Veneer. Stone Anchorage Design. Masonry Institute of America. . Architectural Acoustics. Suite 301. 28901 Clemens Road.R. Stone Maintenance & Care. Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook. Stanton. NY 10020.com.org.Conn.graceconstruction.ncma. Reinforced Concrete Masonry Construction Inspector’s Handbook. Brick Industry Association. Herndon.ncma.org.org. Standard Practice for Bracing Masonry Walls Under Construction (2001). Removing Efflorescence. KS 66046. Masonry Institute of America. 13750 Sunrise Valley Drive. www. www.ncma. Council for Masonry Wall Bracing.ncma.org. Inc. Standard Handbook of Structural Details for Building Construction. 1480 Renaissance Drive. www. Cambridge.. www. www. Orco Block Co. Concrete Masonry Inspection www.org.com.. PROSOCO. Third Edition. Inc. NCMA TEK NOTE 18-1A. Reston. www. www.org.. Grace Masonry Products. 1221 Avenue of the Americas. McGraw-Hill.ncma.org. IL 60068.org. .masonryinstitute. Masonry Institute of America. Reinforcing Steel in Masonry. NCMA TEK NOTE 18-3B.nbgqa. www. Masonry Institute of America. Suite 302.org.org.org. www. Dimensional Stone Magazine.. Compressive Strength Evaluation of Concrete Masonry. www..ncma. 3741 Greenway Circle. 1850 Centennial Park Drive. Suite 100-167. Glass Block. 1992.

An Overview-----------------------------------1 Shapes of Brick--------------------------------------------------------2 Angle Brick-------------------------------------------------------2 Arch Brick---------------------------------------------------------3 Building Brick----------------------------------------------------3 Face Brick or Facing Brick-----------------------------------3 Fire Brick----------------------------------------------------------3 Hollow Brick------------------------------------------------------3 Paving Brick------------------------------------------------------3 Solid Brick--------------------------------------------------------3 Thin Brick---------------------------------------------------------3 . 272 Angle Brick--------------------------------------------------------------------2 Appearance-------------------------------------------------------------------6 Arch Brick----------------------------------------------------------------------3 Arch Types and Terminology------------------------------------------135 Architectural Feature Units----------------------------------------------30 Architectural Units---------------------------------------------------------21 Cap Units----------------------------------------------------------------22 Screen Block-----------------------------------------------------------22 Slumped Unit-----------------------------------------------------------21 Split Face Units---------------------------------------------------------21 Veneer Units----------------------------------------------------------21 Areas of Refuge----------------------------------------------------------212 Asphalt-Impregnated Felt------------------------------------------------94 ASTM Stone Specifications----------------------------------------------38 Attached Sunspace------------------------------------------------------353 Attachment of Components---------------------------------------------105 B Backing-----------------------------------------------------------------------99 Barrier and Drainage Walls------------------------------------------------106 Basement Design------------------------------------------------------------212 Beaded Joint----------------------------------------------------------------75 Beam with Vertical Load------------------------------------------------216 Bearing Wall Types-------------------------------------------------------116 Block Veneer.CHAPTER 19 INDEX A Absorption and Saturation--------------------------------------------6. 99. Concrete Units-----------------------------------------307 Bond and Anchorage------------------------------------------------------93 Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------1. 144 Mortar and Grout------------------------------------------------------5 Orientation of Brick---------------------------------------------------3 Patterns of Brick-------------------------------------------------------4 Reinforced Brick . 10 Abutments-------------------------------------------------------------------143 Accessory Block------------------------------------------------------------27 Acoustics-------------------------------------------------------------------104 Decibels--------------------------------------------------------------104 Sound Transmission Class--------------------------------------104 Transmission Loss-------------------------------------------------104 Active Solar Heating---------------------------------------------------------351 Adhered Veneer-----------------------------------------------------------298 Adhered Veneer Installation-------------------------------------------299 Admixtures-------------------------------------------------------------------72 Aesthetic Design----------------------------------------------------------83 Brick Masonry Bond Patterns------------------------------------83 Common or American Bond--------------------------------84 English Bond---------------------------------------------------85 English Cross or Dutch Bond------------------------------85 Flemish Bond--------------------------------------------------84 Running Bond--------------------------------------------------83 Stack Bond--------------------------------------------------85 Wall Texture----------------------------------------------------85 Brick Masonry Dimensioning-------------------------------------87 Color--------------------------------------------------------------------88 Modular Brick Masonry---------------------------------------------85 Coordination of Masonry Units----------------------------86 Dimensions of Modular Units------------------------------86 Grid Locations of Masonry Walls-------------------------86 Initial Design Considerations------------------------------86 Scale--------------------------------------------------------------------89 Texture------------------------------------------------------------------88 Aggregates for Grout------------------------------------------------------77 Allowable Stresses---------------------------------------------------------92 Aluminum--------------------------------------------------------------------95 Anchor Bolt--------------------------------------------------------------------229 General------------------------------------------------------------------229 Ties at Anchor Bolts-------------------------------------------------230 Anchorage of Reinforcing Steel in Masonry-----------------------227 Development Length----------------------------------------------227 Development Length of Straight Reinforcement----227 Hooks-----------------------------------------------------------228 Lap Splices for Reinforcing Steel------------------------------229 Special Provisions for Higher Seismic Risk-----------------229 Anchored Veneer-------------------------------------------------------------301 Anchors--------------------------------------------------------------------65.

378 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Brick Applications------------------------------------------------------------105 Brick Masonry Arches---------------------------------------------135 Abutments--------------------------------------------------------143 Arch Detailing-------------------------------------------------140 Brick-----------------------------------------------------------144 Construction and Workmanship----------------------------144 Detailing Consideration---------------------------------------140 Expansion Joints----------------------------------------------143 Lateral Stability-------------------------------------------------143 Material Selection---------------------------------------------144 Mortar-------------------------------------------------------144 Providing Flashing and Weep Holes----------------------139 Skewback Detailing-------------------------------------------142 Soffit Detailing-----------------------------------------------141 Structural Function---------------------------------------------138 Temporary Shoring---------------------------------------------144 Terminology-------------------------------------------------135 Weather Resistance-------------------------------------------138 Workmanship---------------------------------------------------145 Brick Paving Design-----------------------------------------------145 Brick on Sheet Steel Forms----------------------------------149 Brick Paving Design Assemblies---------------------------148 Cleaning----------------------------------------------------------151 Drainage ---------------------------------------------------------146 Drains and Waterproofing-----------------------------------151 Edging-------------------------------------------------------------147 High-Bond Mortared Pavement-----------------------------149 Installation--------------------------------------------------------147 Insulation---------------------------------------------------------151 Maintenance-----------------------------------------------------151 Moisture----------------------------------------------------------148 Mortar-------------------------------------------------------------151 Reinforced Construction--------------------------------------149 Site---------------------------------------------------------------146 Structural Brick Floors-----------------------------------------148 Structural Considerations------------------------------------148 Suspended Diaphragm Bases------------------------------148 Thermal Considerations--------------------------------------148 Traffic--------------------------------------------------------------146 Brick Sculpture-----------------------------------------------------157 Corbels and Racks------------------------------------------------156 Fireplaces and Chimneys----------------------------------------154 Landscaping---------------------------------------------------------152 Fountains------------------------------------------------------153 Garden Walls-------------------------------------------------153 Planter Boxes------------------------------------------------153 Screen Walls-------------------------------------------------153 Steps------------------------------------------------------------153 Masonry Heaters---------------------------------------------------154 Parapets--------------------------------------------------------------156 Sound Barrier Walls-----------------------------------------------158 Structural Brickwork-Wall Types-------------------------------105 Attachment of Components----------------------------------105 Barrier and Drainage Walls----------------------------------106 Bearing Wall Types--------------------------------------------116 Brick Masonry Rain Screen Walls----------------------129 Cavity Walls---------------------------------------------------118 Cavity Wall Connections------------------------------------125 Composite/Non-Composite Wall---------------------------105 Double-W ythe Grouted Walls----------------------------116 Masonry Cavity Bearing Walls------------------------------121 Masonry Cavity Walls with Concrete Frame------------123 Materials for Single-Wythe Bearing Walls---------------109 Reinforced Hollow Masonry Walls----------------------118 Single-Wythe Bearing Walls------------------------------107 Solid Masonry Walls-----------------------------------------107 Thermal Insulation--------------------------------------------134 Vapor and Air Barriers----------------------------------------134 Thin Brick Veneer--------------------------------------------------157 Brick Masonry Arches---------------------------------------------------135 Brick Masonry Bond Patterns-------------------------------------------83 Brick Masonry Construction---------------------------------------------83 Brick Masonry Dimensioning--------------------------------------------87 Brick Masonry Rain Screen Walls------------------------------------129 Brick on Sheet Steel Forms-----------------------------------------------149 Brick Paving and Installation------------------------------------------145 Brick Paving Design-----------------------------------------------------145 Brick Paving Design Assemblies-----------------------------------------148 Brick Sculpture------------------------------------------------------------157 Building Brick or Common Brick-----------------------------------------5 Absorption and Saturation------------------------------------------6 Appearance-------------------------------------------------------------6 Color and Texture------------------------------------------------------7 Compressive Strength-----------------------------------------------6 Coring--------------------------------------------------------------------8 Durability----------------------------------------------------------------6 Efflorescence-----------------------------------------------------------9 Freezing and Thawing-----------------------------------------------6 Frogging-----------------------------------------------------------------8 Grade of Brick----------------------------------------------------------5 Grade MW (Moderate Weathering)------------------------5 Grade NW (Negligible Weathering)------------------------5 Grade SW (Severe Weathering)----------------------------5 Initial Rate of Absorption (I.)----------------------------------8 Size-----------------------------------------------------------------------7 Tolerances--------------------------------------------------------------8 Visual Inspection------------------------------------------------------9 Building Applications-----------------------------------------------------240 Building Codes----------------------------------------------------------------349 Building Stone Surface Finishes---------------------------------------38 C Cantilever Retaining Walls---------------------------------------------206 Cap Units---------------------------------------------------------------------22 Cavity Wall Connections-------------------------------------------------125 Cavity Walls----------------------------------------------------------------118 Cement-----------------------------------------------------------------------99 Cements----------------------------------------------------------------------70 Characteristics----------------------------------------------------49. 246 Classifications----------------------------------------------------------------271 Classification of Stone------------------------------------------------------38 Geological Classification--------------------------------------------38 Clay Brick Design for Moisture and Movement----------------------93 Coatings---------------------------------------------------------------98 Efflorescence---------------------------------------------------------98 Backing----------------------------------------------------------99 Brick--------------------------------------------------------------99 Cement----------------------------------------------------------99 Hydrated Lime-------------------------------------------------99 Mortar and Grout----------------------------------------------99 Sand--------------------------------------------------------------99 Trim---------------------------------------------------------------99 Flashing----------------------------------------------------------------94 Aluminum-------------------------------------------------------95 Asphalt-Impregnated Felt-----------------------------------94 Copper-----------------------------------------------------------94 Lead--------------------------------------------------------------95 Plastic------------------------------------------------------------94 Stainless Steel-------------------------------------------------94 Moisture Resistance------------------------------------------------93 Movement-------------------------------------------------------------100 Control Joints-------------------------------------------------102 Creep-------------------------------------------------------------100 Deflection-------------------------------------------------------100 Differential Movement----------------------------------------100 Expansion Joints-----------------------------------------------101 Expansion Joint Placement-------------------------------101 .R.A. 240.

88 Color and Texture----------------------------------------------------7. 158.INDEX Location of Expansion Joints-----------------------------101 Moisture Movement------------------------------------------100 Thermal Movement-------------------------------------------100 Selection of Wall Type----------------------------------------------93 Sources of Moisture-------------------------------------------------93 Condensation--------------------------------------------------93 Ground Water--------------------------------------------------93 Humidity---------------------------------------------------------93 Rain---------------------------------------------------------------93 Vents--------------------------------------------------------------------98 Water Penetration Resistance-------------------------------------94 Weep Holes------------------------------------------------------------98 Clay Brick Units--------------------------------------------------------------1 Cleaning-----------------------------------------------------------151. 349 Design Considerations--------------------------------------------------346 Design Construction-------------------------------------------------------83 Design Loads------------------------------------------------------------------89 Loads-------------------------------------------------------------------89 Dead Loads-----------------------------------------------------89 Hydrostatic Loads---------------------------------------------90 Live Loads------------------------------------------------------90 Material Property Loads-------------------------------------90 Seismic (Earthquake) Loads-------------------------------90 Wind Loads-----------------------------------------------------90 Detailing Considerations------------------------------------------------140 Determination of Noise Reduction Coefficients---------------------344 Development Length-----------------------------------------------------227 Development Length of Straight Reinforcement------------------227 Differences in Stone-----------------------------------------------------240 Granite----------------------------------------------------------------240 Building Applications------------------------------------------240 Details-------------------------------------------------------------242 . 273 Cleaning Guide for Brick Masonry--------------------------------------159 Clear Spacing Between Reinforcing Bars--------------------------226 Clearance Between Reinforcement and Masonry Units-----------225 Clearance 30’ -----------------------------------------------------------------339 Clearances-----------------------------------------------------------------225 Coarse Grout----------------------------------------------------------------76 Coatings----------------------------------------------------------------------98 Code Requirements---------------------------------------------------------283 Cold Weather Protection-----------------------------------------------272 Color----------------------------------------------------------------------72. 20 Compression Stresses--------------------------------------------------217 Compressive Strength------------------------------------------------------6 Compressive Strength of Mortar---------------------------------------69 Compressive Stress-------------------------------------------------------91 Concave Joint---------------------------------------------------------------74 Concrete Block-------------------------------------------------------------171 Concrete Brick--------------------------------------------------------------22 Concrete Masonry Basements----------------------------------------211 Areas of Refuge----------------------------------------------------212 Basement Design-----------------------------------------------------212 Construction---------------------------------------------------------214 Energy Efficiency-----------------------------------------------------211 Fire Resistance-----------------------------------------------------211 Maintenance and Low Cost-------------------------------------211 Natural Lighting--------------------------------------------------------211 Noise Control-------------------------------------------------------212 Strength and Durability-------------------------------------------211 Textures and Interior Finishes----------------------------------211 Water Penetration Resistance----------------------------------213 Concrete Masonry Units----------------------------------------------------17 Architectural Units---------------------------------------------------21 Cap Units--------------------------------------------------------22 Screen Block-----------------------------------------------------22 Slumped Units-------------------------------------------------21 379 Split Faced Units------------------------------------------------21 Veneer Units----------------------------------------------------21 Component Units and Sections----------------------------------31 Compression Strength----------------------------------------------20 Concrete Brick--------------------------------------------------------22 Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) Illustrated--------------------22 Concrete Paving Pattern Units-----------------------------------32 Dimensions and Modular Sizes----------------------------------19 Metric-------------------------------------------------------------------19 Paving Units----------------------------------------------------------22 Properties----------------------------------------------------------18 Dimensions and Modular Sizes-----------------------------19 Metric----------------------------------------------------------------19 Compression Strength------------------------------------------20 Resin (Glazed) Coatings-------------------------------------------33 Manufacturer’ s Standards----------------------------------34 Shapes and Sizes of Glazed CMU-----------------------34 Specifications--------------------------------------------------33 Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) Illustrated--------------------------22 Concrete Masonry Wall Assembly Detail----------------------------177 Concrete Paving Pattern Units-----------------------------------------32 Condensation---------------------------------------------------------------93 Conection Detail--------------------------------------------------------------286 Connectors-------------------------------------------------------------------64 Anchors----------------------------------------------------------------65 Wall Ties---------------------------------------------------------------64 Consideration in Selection-------------------------------------------------331 Consolidation----------------------------------------------------------------82 Construction---------------------------------------------------------------214 Construction and Workmanship--------------------------------------144 Continuous Footing Walls-------------------------------------------------203 Control Joints-----------------------------------------------------------102. 16 Columns--------------------------------------------------------------------230 Column Ties---------------------------------------------------------231 Column Tie Requirements--------------------------------231 Typical Layout of Ties and Masonry Units for Columns-----------------------------------------232 General---------------------------------------------------------------231 Non-Projecting Wall Columns--------------------------------------233 Projecting Wall Columns or Pilasters----------------------------234 Tie Spacing for Elements that are Part of the Lateral System-------------------------------------------------232 Tie Spacing for Higher Seismic Risk-------------------233 Tie Spacing for Lower Seismic Risk--------------------232 CMU Control Joint Spacing------------------------------------------------191 CMU Weight Classification-------------------------------------------------18 Common Brick or Building Brick Durability Physical Requirements-------------------------------------------------------------6 Common or American Bond---------------------------------------------84 Common Portland Cement-Lime Mortar Mixes---------------------70 Compartmentation of Rain Screen Walls--------------------------137 Component Units and Sections----------------------------------------31 Composite/Non-Composite Wall-----------------------------------------105 Compression Strength---------------------------------------------------11. 189 Convective Loop----------------------------------------------------------353 Conventional or Gravity-----------------------------------------------------210 Coordination of Masonry Units------------------------------------------86 Copper------------------------------------------------------------------------94 Corbels and Racks-------------------------------------------------------156 Coring--------------------------------------------------------------------------8. 11. 11 Corner Patterns------------------------------------------------------------183 Counterfort or Buttressed Walls--------------------------------------205 Creep--------------------------------------------------------------------------100 D Dead Loads------------------------------------------------------------------89 Decibels---------------------------------------------------------------------104 Definitions------------------------------------------------------------------296 Deflection---------------------------------------------------------------------100 Deformed Reinforcement-----------------------------------------------227 Design-------------------------------------------------------------------283.

336 Fire Ratings for Brick Veneer Walls------------------------------338 Fire Ratings----------------------------------------------------------337 Fire Safety Environments----------------------------------------338 Fire Resistance Ratings--------------------------------------------340 Fire Safety Facts---------------------------------------------------339 Fire Resistance Ratings----------------------------------------------------340 Fire-Resistive Walls---------------------------------------------------------338 Fire Retardant Roofing Materials----------------------------------------338 Fire Safety Environments--------------------------------------------------338 Fire Safety Facts-------------------------------------------------------------339 Fireplaces and Chimneys----------------------------------------------154 Flanking Path Control---------------------------------------------------344 Flashing---------------------------------------------------------------62. 14. 17. 289. 215. 283 General------------------------------------------------------------------283 Code Requirements-------------------------------------------283 . 294 Flemish Bond---------------------------------------------------------------84 Flexural Tension Stresses------------------------------------------------91 Floor and Roof Connection Details--------------------------------------179 Steel Connections-------------------------------------------------181 Timber Connections-----------------------------------------------179 Floor Connection Details-----------------------------------------------316 Flush Joint-------------------------------------------------------------------74 Foundation Details-----------------------------------------------------------175 Foundation Detail for Residential Construction----------------------200 Fountains-------------------------------------------------------------------153 Freezing and Thawing-------------------------------------------------6. 37. Glass Doors and Shutters-------------339 Durability----------------------------------------------------------------------6.380 MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL Characteristics--------------------------------------------------240 Maintenance-----------------------------------------------------241 Limestone------------------------------------------------------------271 Anchors-----------------------------------------------------------272 Classifications-------------------------------------------------271 Cleaning----------------------------------------------------------273 Cold Weather Protection----------------------------------272 Details-----------------------------------------------------------274 Discoloration-----------------------------------------------------271 Expansion Joints--------------------------------------------272 Mortars and Pointing---------------------------------------272 Sealant Systems--------------------------------------------272 Marble-----------------------------------------------------------------245 Application-------------------------------------------------------245 Characteristics--------------------------------------------------246 Details------------------------------------------------------------260 Installation-----------------------------------------------------247 Interior Veneer-----------------------------------------------247 Maintenance--------------------------------------------------259 Sandstone-----------------------------------------------------------279 Travertine------------------------------------------------------------278 Differential Movement-----------------------------------------------------100 Differential Movement in Rain Screen Walls----------------------136 Dimensions and Modular Sizes----------------------------------------19 Dimensions of Modular Units-------------------------------------------86 Direct Gain-----------------------------------------------------------------352 Discoloration-----------------------------------------------------------------271 Door Jamb Details---------------------------------------------------------1