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MASONRY

DESIGN
MANUAL
FOURTH EDITION

MASONRY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA


www.masonryinstitute.org
(800) 221-4000

www.iccsafe.org
(888) 422-7233

MASONRY
DESIGN
MANUAL
FOURTH EDITION

Contributors:
John Chrysler, P.E.
Craig V. Baltimore, S.E., Ph.D. Thomas Escobar
Executive Director
Cal Poly State University
Design Director
Masonry Institute of America San Luis Obispo, California
Masonry Institute of America

Published by

MASONRY INSTITUTE OF AMERICA


(800) 221-4000
www.masonryinstitute.org

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL


5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600
Falls Church, Virgnia 22041-3401
www.iccsafe.org

4th Edition
First Printing, January, 2007

Copyright 1969, 1972, 1979, 2007


by
Masonry Institute of America
and
International Code Council
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a computer or retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, fax, recording or otherwise, without
the prior written consent of the Masonry Institute of America or the International Code Council.
ISBN-10: 0-940116-44-8
ISBN-13: 978-0-940116-44-3
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Printed in the United States of America
Portions of this publication are reproduced, with permission, from the 2006 International Building Code, 2006
edition copyright International Code Council.
In this publication the Masonry Standards Joint Committee
s (MSJC) Building Code Requirements for Masonry
Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402) is hereafter referred to as the MSJC Code, and the MSJC
s Specification
for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602) is hereafter referred to as the MSJC Specification.
This book was prepared in keeping with current information and practice for the present state of the art of
masonry design and construction.
The authors, publisher and all organizations and individuals who have contributed to this book cannot assume or
accept any responsibility or liability, including liability for negligence, for errors or oversights in this data and
information and in the use of such information.

MIA 601-07

01-07 2M

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------xix
SECTION 1

MATERIALS

CHAPTER 1

CLAY BRICK UNITS--------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.1

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1.1
Reinforced Brick - an Overview------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1.2
Shapes of Brick----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.1.3
Orientation of Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.1.4
Patterns of Brick---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
1.1.5
Mortar and Grout--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.2
Building Brick or Common Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.2.1
Grade of Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
1.2.2
Appearance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.3
Durability------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.4
Freezing and Thawing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.5
Absorption and Saturation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.6
Compressive Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
1.2.7
Colors and Texture------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1.2.8
Size--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
1.2.9
Coring-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.10
Frogging--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.11
Tolerances-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.12
Initial Rate of Absorption (I.R.A.)------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
1.2.13
Visual Inspection--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
1.2.14
Efflorescence-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
1.3
Face (or Facing) Brick-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.1
Grade-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.2
Types-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.3
Durability-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.4
Freezing and Thawing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.5
Absorption and Saturation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
1.3.6
Compression Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.7
Color and Texture-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.8
Size-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.9
Coring-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.10
Frogging--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.11
Tolerances-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
1.3.12
Initial Rate of Absorption (I.R.A.)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------13
1.3.13
Visual Inspection---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
1.3.14
Efflorescence-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
1.4
Hollow Brick-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
1.4.1
Hollow Spaces------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
1.4.2
Types-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
1.4.3
Tolerances------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
1.4.4
Color and Texture-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16

vi

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

CHAPTER 2

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS---------------------------------------------------17

2.1
2.2

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17
Properties----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18
2.2.1
Dimensions and Modular Sizes-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2.2.2
Metric-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2.2.3
Compression Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
2.3
Architectural Units------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.1
Slumped Units------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.2
Split Faced Units--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.3
Veneer Units--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.3.4
Screen Block-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.3.5
Cap Units------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.4
Concrete Brick----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.5
Paving Units-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.6
Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) - Illustrated---------------------------------------------------------------22
2.7
Component Units and Sections--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
2.8
Concrete Paving Pattern Units--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32
2.9
Resin (Glazed) Coatings---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
2.9.1
Specifications------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
2.9.2
Manufacturer
s Standards---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34
2.9.3
Shapes and Sizes of Glazed CMU--------------------------------------------------------------------------34
2.10
Segmental Retaining Wall Units-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36

CHAPTER 3

NATURAL STONE-----------------------------------------------------------------------37

3.1
3.2
3.3

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
ASTM Stone Standards----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
Classification of Stone------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
3.3.1
Geological Classification-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
3.4
Texture of Quarried Stone-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39
3.5
Physical Characteristics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40
3.6
Physical Nature---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
3.7
Evaluating Stone-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
3.8
Properties----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9
Variations-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.1
Granite----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.2
Marble----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.3
Limestone------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
3.9.4
Travertine------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43
3.9.5
Sandstone-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43
3.10
Quarrying and Milling-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43

CHAPTER 4
4.1

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47
4.1.1
Characteristics------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------49

CHAPTER 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

TERRA COTTA-----------------------------------------------------------------------------47

GLASS BLOCK----------------------------------------------------------------------------51

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51
Special Shapes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51
Glass Block Properties-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------52
Glass Block Applications---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 6
6.1
6.2

VENEER--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61
Shelf Angles-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62
Flashing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62
Weep Holes-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63
Connectors---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
7.5.1
Wall Ties-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64
7.5.2
Anchors--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------65

CHAPTER 8
8.1

REINFORCING STEEL-----------------------------------------------------------------55

General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55
Types of Reinforcement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56
6.2.1
Reinforcing Bars---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56
6.2.2
Joint Reinforcement-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58

CHAPTER 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

vii

MORTAR AND GROUT---------------------------------------------------------------67

Mortar---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
8.1.1
Types of Mortar----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
8.1.1.1
Selection of Mortar Types---------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
8.1.1.2
Specifying Mortar---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------68
8.1.2
Mortar Materials----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70
8.1.2.1
Cements--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70
8.1.2.2
Hydrated Lime------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------71
8.1.2.3
Mortar Sand---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------71
8.1.2.4
Water------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.2.5
Admixtures-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.2.6
Color-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3
Mixing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3.1
Measurement of Mortar Materials-----------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3.2
Job Site Mortar Mix-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
8.1.3.3
Extended Life Mortar----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73
8.1.3.4
Pre-Blended Mortar------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73
8.1.3.5
Retempering---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------74
8.1.4
Types of Mortar Joints-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------74
8.2
Grout----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75
8.2.1
Types of Grout-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75
8.2.1.1
Fine Grout------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.1.2
Coarse Grout--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.1.3
Slump------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.1.4
Self-Consolidating Grout-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------76
8.2.2
Proportions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.1
Aggregates-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.2
Mixing Grout---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.3
Grout Admixtures---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
8.2.2.4
Grout Strength Requirements-----------------------------------------------------------------------------78
8.2.2.5
Testing Grout Strength--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
8.2.2.6
Methods of Grouting Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------79
8.2.2.7
Consolidation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------82
8.2.3
12 Foot Grout Lifts------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------82

viii

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION
CHAPTER 9
9.1

9.2

9.3
9.4

9.5

9.6

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION-------------------------------------------83

Aesthetic Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83
9.1.1
Brick Masonry Bond Patterns----------------------------------------------------------------------------------83
9.1.2
Modular Brick Masonry-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------85
9.1.2.1
Dimensions of Modular Units-----------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.2.2
Coordination of Masonry Units---------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.2.3
Initial Design Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.2.4
Grid Locations of Masonry Walls------------------------------------------------------------------------86
9.1.3
Brick Masonry Dimensioning-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------87
9.1.4
Color------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
9.1.5
Texture----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
9.1.6
Scale------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
Design Loads-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
9.2.1
Loads-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
9.2.1.1
Dead Loads----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
9.2.1.2
Live Loads-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.3
Wind Loads----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.4
Seismic (Earthquake) Loads----------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.5
Hydrostatic Loads--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
9.2.1.6
Material Property Loads------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
Load Distribution-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90
Masonry Stresses------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
9.4.1
Compressive Stress----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
9.4.2
Flexural Tension Stresses---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
9.4.3
Shear Stresses-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91
Empirical Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.1
Allowable Stresses------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.2
Minimum Thickness-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.3
Lateral Support-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
9.5.4
Lateral Stability-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.5.5
Bond and Anchorage---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
Clay Brick Design for Moisture and Movement--------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.1
Moisture Resistance----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.2
Sources of Moisture----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.3
Selection of Wall Type------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93
9.6.4
Water Penetration Resistance-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94
9.6.5
Flashing--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------94
9.6.6
Weep Holes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.7
Vents------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.8
Coatings--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.9
Efflorescence-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
9.6.10
Movement-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.1
Thermal Movement-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.2
Moisture Movement------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.3
Creep------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.4
Deflection-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.5
Differential Movement---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100
9.6.10.6
Expansion Joints---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
9.6.10.7
Expansion Joint Placement--------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
9.6.10.8
Location of Expansion Joints--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------101
9.6.10.9
Control Joints----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------102

TABLE OF CONTENTS
9.7

ix

Heat Transfer-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------102
9.7.1
R-Value---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------103
9.7.2
U-Value---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------103
9.7.3
Thermal Mass------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104
9.8
Acoustics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104
9.8.1
Decibels--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104
9.8.2
Transmission Loss------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104
9.8.3
Sound Transmission Class-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------104
9.9
Brick Applications------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------105
9.9.1
Structural Brickwork - Wall Types----------------------------------------------------------------------------105
9.9.1.1
Composite/Non-Composite Wall------------------------------------------------------------------------105
9.9.1.2
Attachment of Components-------------------------------------------------------------------------------105
9.9.1.3
Barrier and Drainage Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------106
9.9.1.4
Solid Masonry Walls----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------107
9.9.1.5
Single-Wythe Bearing Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------107
9.9.1.6
Double-Wythe Grouted Walls-----------------------------------------------------------------------------116
9.9.1.7
Bearing Wall Types------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------116
9.9.1.8
Reinforced Hollow Masonry Walls-----------------------------------------------------------------------118
9.9.1.9
Cavity Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------118
9.9.1.10
Masonry Cavity Bearing Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------121
9.9.1.11
Masonry Cavity Walls with Concrete Frame-----------------------------------------------------------------123
9.9.1.12
Cavity Wall Connections--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------125
9.9.1.13
Brick Masonry Rain Screen Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------129
9.9.1.14
Vapor and Air Barriers------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------134
9.9.1.15
Thermal Insulation---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------134
9.9.2
Brick Masonry Arches--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135
9.9.2.1
Terminology---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------135
9.9.2.2
Structural Function-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138
9.9.2.3
Weather Resistance-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138
9.9.2.4
Detailing Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------140
9.9.2.5
Material Selection--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------144
9.9.2.6
Construction and Workmanship--------------------------------------------------------------------------144
9.9.3
Brick Paving Design--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------145
9.9.3.1
Traffic------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146
9.9.3.2
Site--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146
9.9.3.3
Drainage--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------146
9.9.3.4
Edging-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------147
9.9.3.5
Installation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------147
9.9.3.6
Structural Brick Floors-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------148
9.9.4
Landscaping---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------152
9.9.4.1
Steps-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153
9.9.4.2
Planter Boxes-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153
9.9.4.3
Screen Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153
9.9.4.4
Garden Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153
9.9.4.5
Fountains-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------153
9.9.5
Fireplaces and Chimneys---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------154
9.9.6
Masonry Heaters--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156
9.9.7
Parapets-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156
9.9.8
Corbels and Racks-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------156
9.9.9
Thin Brick Veneer-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------157
9.9.10
Brick Sculpture-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------157
9.9.11
Sound Barrier Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------158
9.10
Cleaning------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------158
9.11
Reinforced Grouted Brick Masonry-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------160

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

CHAPTER 10

CONCRETE BLOCK--------------------------------------------------------------171

10.1
General--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------171
10.2
Layout and Assembly--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------172
10.2.1
Modular Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------172
10.2.2
Modular Dimensions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------172
10.3
Wall and Opening Dimensions-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------174
10.4
Foundation Details-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------175
10.5
Concrete Masonry Wall Assembly Detail----------------------------------------------------------------------------------177
10.6
Floor and Roof Connections Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------179
10.6.1
Timber Connections----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------179
10.6.2
Steel Connections-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------181
10.7
Corner Patterns--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------183
10.8
Vertical Steel Placement---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------186
10.9
Pilaster Details--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------186
10.10 Wall to Wall Connections--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------188
10.11 Lintel and Bond Beam Connection------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------189
10.12 Control Joints-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------189
10.13 Door Jamb Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------192
10.14 Window Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------194
10.15 Residential Design-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------195
10.15.1
Residential Construction Isometric with Roof Diaphragm----------------------------------------------195
10.15.2
Residential Construction Isometric without Roof Diaphragm------------------------------------------197
10.15.3
Resdiential Wall Section-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------198
10.15.4
Raised Wood Floor Connection for Residential Construction-----------------------------------------199
10.15.5
Foundation Details for Residential Construction------------------------------------------------------------200
10.15.6
Roof Connection Details for Residential Construction--------------------------------------------------201
10.16 Garden Fences---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------202
10.16.1
General---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------202
10.16.2
General Notes------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------202
10.16.3
Continuous Footing Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------203
10.17 Retaining Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------203
10.17.1
Gravity Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------204
10.17.2
Counterfort or Buttressed Walls-------------------------------------------------------------------------------205
10.17.3
Cantilever Retaining Walls--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------206
10.17.4
Supported Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------209
10.17.5
Segmental Walls---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------209
10.17.5.1 Conventional or Gravity----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------210
10.17.5.2 Soil-Reinforced or Geosynthetic---------------------------------------------------------------------------------210
10.18 Concrete Masonry Basements-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.1
Maintenance and Low Cost------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.2
Strength and Durability-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.3
Textures and Interior Finishes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.4
Natural Lighting---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.5
Energy Efficiency------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.6
Fire Resistance----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------211
10.18.7
Areas of Refuge---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------212
10.18.8
Noise Control-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------212
10.18.9
Basement Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------212
10.18.10
Water Penetration Resistance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------213
10.18.11
Construction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------214

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 11

xi

REINFORCING STEEL----------------------------------------------------------------215

11.1
General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------215
11.2
Tension Stresses-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------216
11.2.1
Beam with Vertical Load----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------216
11.2.2
Wall with Lateral Load-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------216
11.3
Compression Stresses------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------217
11.4
Shear Stresses---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------218
11.5
Shrinkage and Temperature Stresses----------------------------------------------------------------------------------219
11.6
Seismic Forces---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------219
11.7
Minimum Reinforcement Requirements--------------------------------------------------------------------------------221
11.7.1
Minimum Area of Steel------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------221
11.7.1.1
Minimum Steel Requirements for Low Seismic Exposure----------------------------------------221
11.7.1.2
Minimum Steel Reinforcement for High Seismic Exposure-------------------------------------------222
11.8
Reinforcement Spacing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------223
11.8.1
Location of Reinforcement
dDistance--------------------------------------------------------------------223
11.8.2
Tolerances for Placement of Reinforcement---------------------------------------------------------------224
11.8.3
Placement of Steel------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------224
11.8.4
Reinforcing Bar Positioners-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------225
11.8.5
Clearances----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------225
11.8.5.1
Clearance Between Reinforcement and Masonry Units-------------------------------------------225
11.8.5.2
Clear Spacing Between Reinforcing Bars-------------------------------------------------------------226
11.8.6
Reinforcement Cover---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------227
11.8.6.1
Deformed Reinforcement----------------------------------------------------------------------------------227
11.8.6.2
Joint Reinforcement and Ties----------------------------------------------------------------------------227
11.9
Anchorage of Reinforcing Steel in Masonry--------------------------------------------------------------------------227
11.9.1
Development Length---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------227
11.9.1.1
Development Length of Straight Reinforcement-----------------------------------------------------227
11.9.1.2
Hooks------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------228
11.9.2
Special Provisions for Higher Seismic Risk----------------------------------------------------------------229
11.9.3
Lap Splices for Reinforcing Steel-----------------------------------------------------------------------------229
11.10 Anchor Bolts-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------229
11.10.1
General---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------229
11.10.2
Ties at Anchor Bolts in Columns-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------230
11.11 Columns------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------230
11.11.1
General---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------230
11.11.2
Column Ties--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------231
11.11.2.1 Column Tie Requirements---------------------------------------------------------------------------------231
11.11.2.2 Typical Layout of Ties and Masonry Units for Columns--------------------------------------------232
11.11.3
Tie Spacing for Elements that are Part of the Lateral System------------------------------------------232
11.11.3.1 Tie Spacing for Lower Sesimic Risk--------------------------------------------------------------------232
11.11.3.2 Tie Spacing for Higher Seismic Risk-------------------------------------------------------------------233
11.11.4
Non-Projecting Wall Columns------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------233
11.11.5
Projecting Wall Columns or Pilasters------------------------------------------------------------------------234

CHAPTER 12

NATURAL STONE-----------------------------------------------------------------------235

12.1
General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------235
12.2
Types of Stone----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------235
12.2.1
Rubble and Ashlar Stone----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------235
12.2.2
Stone Coursing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------236
12.2.2.1
Rubble Stone Masonry Patterns-------------------------------------------------------------------------237
12.2.2.2
Split Stone Masonry Patterns-----------------------------------------------------------------------------237
12.2.2.3
Split Stone Masonry Height Pattern---------------------------------------------------------------------237
12.2.3
Stone Finishes------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------237
12.2.4
Stone Construction------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------239

xii

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

12.3
Differences in Stone---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240
12.3.1
Granite----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240
12.3.1.1
Characteristics----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240
12.3.1.2
Building Applications-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------240
12.3.1.3
Maintenance----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------241
12.3.1.4
Details-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------242
12.3.2
Marble----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------245
12.3.2.1
Application-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------245
12.3.2.2
Characteristics---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------246
12.3.2.3
Interior Veneer------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------247
12.3.2.4
Installation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------247
12.3.2.5
Maintenance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------259
12.3.2.6
Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------260
12.3.3
Limestone------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271
12.3.3.1
Classifications-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271
12.3.3.2
Discoloration--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------271
12.3.3.3
Anchors-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272
12.3.3.4
Mortar and Pointing----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272
12.3.3.5
Cold Weather Protection-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------272
12.3.3.6
Sealant Systems---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272
12.3.3.7
Expansion Joints---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------272
12.3.3.8
Cleaning-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------273
12.3.3.9
Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------274
12.3.4
Travertine------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------278
12.3.5
Sandstone-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------279
12.4
Summary-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------279
12.4.1
Stone Anchorage--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------279
12.4.2
Sealing----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------280
12.4.3
Maintenance-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------280

CHAPTER 13

GLASS BLOCK-------------------------------------------------------------------------283

13.1
General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.1
Design----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.2
Energy Conservation---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.3
Environmental------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.4
Security---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.5
Maintenance--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.6
Code Requirements-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------283
13.1.7
Installation--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------284
13.2
Typical Glass Block Details-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------285
13.2.1
Head Details--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------285
13.2.2
Typical Jamb Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------286
13.2.3
Typical Sill Details-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------286
13.2.4
Connection Detail-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------286
13.2.5
Miscellaneous Interior Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------286
13.2.6
Panel Anchor Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------287

CHAPTER 14

VENEER--------------------------------------------------------------------------------289

14.1
General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------289
14.2
Structural Support Backup Materials-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------290
14.2.1
Structural Masonry Backup-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------290
14.2.2
Structural Concrete Backup------------------------------------------------------------------------------------291
14.2.3
Wood Stud Backup-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------291
14.2.4
Steel Stud Backup------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------292

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xiii

14.3
Shelf Angles-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------293
14.4
Flashing-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------294
14.5
Weep Holes--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------294
14.6
Expansion Joints-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------295
14.7
System Detail Requirements----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------295
14.7.1
General Requirements-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------296
14.7.1.1
Definitions------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------296
14.7.1.2
Installation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------297
14.7.2
Adhered Veneer----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------298
14.7.2.1
Thin Brick------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------298
14.7.2.2
Honeycomb Stone--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------299
14.7.2.3
Terra Cotta-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------299
14.7.2.4
Adhered Veneer Installation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------299
14.7.3
Anchored Veneer--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------301
14.7.3.1
Stone Veneer--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------304
14.7.3.2
Block Veneer, Concrete Units----------------------------------------------------------------------------307
14.8
Typical Details-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------308
14.8.1
Roof/Parapet Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------308
14.8.2
Shelf Angle/Flashing Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------310
14.8.3
Sill and Jamb Details---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------313
14.8.4
Floor Connection Details----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------316
14.8.5
Wall Base Details-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------317
14.8.6
Expansion Joint Details------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------321
14.8.7
System Configuration---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------323

CHAPTER 15

SPECIAL TOPICS----------------------------------------------------------------------325

15.1
General----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------325
15.2
Moisture Resistance------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------325
15.2.1
What is Waterproof-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------326
15.2.2
Moisture Migration Control-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------326
15.2.3
Moisture Intrusion------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------327
15.2.3.1
Openings-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------329
15.2.4
Water Repellent Types-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------329
15.2.5
Surface Treatments-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------330
15.2.6
Integral Water Repellents-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------331
15.2.7
Consideration in Selection--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------331
15.2.8
Interior Moisture Control-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------332
15.2.9
Other Critical Elements----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------332
15.2.9.1
Wall Caps-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------333
15.2.9.2
Movement Joints------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------333
15.2.9.3
Horizontal Surfaces---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------334
15.2.9.4
Windows and Doors----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------334
15.2.9.5
Wall Penetrations---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------335
15.2.10
Inspections-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------335
15.2.11
Testing---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------335
15.3
Fire Resistance--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------336
15.3.1
Fire Ratings-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------337
15.3.2
Fire Ratings of Brick Veneer Walls----------------------------------------------------------------------------338
15.3.3
Fire Safety Environments---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------338
15.3.4
Fire Safety Facts--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------338
15.3.5
Fire Resistance Ratings----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------340
15.4
Noise Control---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------340
15.4.1
Masonry Sound Transmission Class (STC)-------------------------------------------------------------341
15.4.2
Isolation vs. Insulation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------342
15.4.3
Insulation by STC-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------342

xiv

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

15.4.4
STC Values of Masonry Walls------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------342
15.4.5
Sound Absorption and Noise Reduction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------344
15.4.6
Flanking Path Control-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------344
15.4.7
Impact Noise Control--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------345
15.4.8
Traffic Noise--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------345
15.4.8.1
Design Considerations------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------346
15.4.8.2
Visual Considerations-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------348
15.5
Solar Energy-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------348
15.5.1
Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------348
15.5.2
Principles------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349
15.5.3
Design---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349
15.5.4
Energy Systems-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349
15.5.5
Building Codes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------349
15.5.6
Roof Overhang-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------350
15.5.7
Passive Solar Energy-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351
15.5.7.1
Principles------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351
15.5.7.2
Active Solar Heating-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351
15.5.7.3
Passive Solar Heating------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------351
15.5.7.4
Hybrid Solar Heating--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352
15.5.8
Passive Solar Basics------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352
15.5.8.1
Shape and Orientation-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352
15.5.8.2
Thermal Storage/Retrieval-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352
15.5.9
Passive Solar Systems----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352
15.5.9.1
Direct Gain---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------352
15.5.9.2
Thermal Storage Wall------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------353
15.5.9.3
Attached Sunspace---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------353
15.5.9.4
Convective Loop--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------353
15.5.9.5
Thermal Storage Roof------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------354
15.5.10
Masonry and the Sun------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------354

CHAPTER 16

UNIT CONVERSIONS------------------------------------------------------------------355

CHAPTER 17

GLOSSARY---------------------------------------------------------------------------------359

CHAPTER 18

REFERENCES----------------------------------------------------------------------------373

CHAPTER 19

INDEX-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------377

xv

PREFACE
Masonry is perhaps the oldest building material, yet it is the least understood. This book is intended to
assist the designer in understanding the materials and the construction process. It is our desire to fulfill a need
of the designer, that is, to understand masonry materials in simple terms.
This book incorporates the latest information available and is consistent with the design provisions of the
2006 International Building Code, the 2005 Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/
ASCE 5/TMS 402) and the 2005 Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602). The
authors are presenting the material intended for the benefit of non-engineering disciplines, such as architects
and contractors. There are a number of engineering concepts contained in the publication, but they are important
to understanding the value of the basic concepts of masonry.
There are several sources that this publication incorporates, including the previous editions of the Masonry
Design Manual, Technical Notes from the Brick Industry Association and National Concrete Masonry Association
and a number of other technical publications developed by the Masonry Institute of America and other sources
were used in the develpment of this publication. The compilation of this information is focused to the benefit of the
designer and should be a valuable tool in improving the masonry industry.
This publication is not intended to replace the designer and anyone developing a masonry project should
seek the assistance of a design professional. The Masonry Institute of America welcomes recommendations
for the extension and improvement of the material and any new design techniques that may be incorporated into
future editions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge the recommendations and suggestions of the professionals who helped improve
and prepare this publication.
We are particularly appreciative to James E. Amrhein, James J. Kesler, Leonard L. Thompson and John J.
Van Houten who were the contributing authors to the previous edition.
Technical support and comments came from many sources and we are grateful to all. Gregg Borchelt of the
Brick Industry Association provided many useful comments relative to brick masonry. James Feagin and Roger
Utesch continually offer suggestions on practical construction methods.
Countless hours of staff support were provided by Luis Dominguez and Debby Chrysler in the development
and production of this publication. Others that made significant contributions included Larry Carnes, Dan Autovino
and Jim Buckley. We sincerely appreciate their input.
We appreciate the continued support of the Board of Trustees of the Masonry Institute of America, Ron
Bennett, Chairman, Doug Williams, Jim Hensley, Sr., Frank Smith, Ken Tejeda, Rennie Tejeda, Bobby Williams,
Jim Smith, Steve Winegardner and Julie Salazar who have given their full cooperation to see that this publication
has been successful and a benefit for the masonry industry.

xvi

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

MASONRY INSTITUTE
OF AMERICA
The Masonry Institute of America, founded in 1957 under the name of Masonry Research, is a promotional,
technical research organization established to improve and extend the use of masonry. The Masonry Institute of
America is supported by the California mason contractors through labor management contracts between the
unions and contractors.
The Masonry Institute of America is active in California promoting new ideas and masonry work, improving
national and local building codes, conducting research projects, presenting design, construction and inspection
seminars and publishing technical and non-technical papers, all for the purpose of improving the masonry
industry.
The Masonry Institute of America does not engage in the practice of architectural or engineering design or
construction nor does it sell masonry materials.

INTERNATIONAL CODE
COUNCIL
Since the early 1900s, the United States had been served by three sets of building codes developed by three
separate model code groups: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International
Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. (SBCCI). These
codes were extremely effective and responsive to regional needs. But, in 1994, recognizing the urgent need for
a single set of codes that would serve national needs, the three groups united to form the International Code
Council (ICC) with the express purpose of creating and developing one master set of comprehensive, coordinated, design and construction codes.
Substantial advantages are inherent to this single set of codes. Code enforcement officials, architects,
engineers, designers, and contractors throughout the United States can now work with a consistent set of
requirements. States and localities that currently write their own codes or amend the early model codes may
choose to adopt the International Codes without technical amendments, which encourages consistent code
enforcement and higher quality construction. Enhanced membership services are an additional benefit. All
issues and concerns of a regulatory nature now have a single forum for discussion, consideration, and resolution.
Whether the concern is disaster mitigation, energy conservation, accessibility, innovative technology, or fire
protection, the ICC offers a means of focusing national and international attention on these concerns.
The ICC makes available an impressive inventory of International CodesTM, including:

International Building Code


International Energy Conservation Code
International Fire Code
International Fuel Gas Code
International Mechanical Code
International Plumbing Code
International Private Sewage Disposal Code

xvii

International Property Maintenance Code


International Residential Code for One-and Two-Family Dwellings
International Zoning Code
ICC Performance Code for Buildings and FacilitiesTM
International Existing Building CodeTM
International Wildland-Urban Interface CodeTM
These codes provide a comprehensive package for adoption and use in the 21st Century.

The ICC also offers unmatched technical, educational, and informational products and services in support
of the International Codes, with more than 300 highly qualified staff members at 16 offices throughout the United
States and Latin America. Products and services readily available to code users include:

Code application assistance


Educational programs
Certification programs
Technical handbooks and workbooks
Plan reviews
Automated products
Monthly magazines and newsletters
Publication of proposed code changes
Training and informational videos

MASONRY STANDARDS JOINT


COMMITTEE
The Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) is an organization comprised of volunteers who through
background, use, and education have established experience in the manufacturing of masonry units and materials
and the design and construction of masonry structures.
Working under its three sponsoring organizations, the American Concrete Institute (ACI), the American
Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), and The Masonry Society (TMS), the Committee has been charged with
developing and maintaining consensus standards suitable for adoption into model building codes. Since The
Masonry Society has received ANSI accreditation, TMS has become the lead sponsor in the production of the
MSJC.
In the pursuit of its goals, Committee activities include:
1.

Evaluate and ballot proposed changes to existing standards of the Committee.

2.

Develop and ballot new standards for masonry.

3.

Resolve negative votes from ballot items.

4.

Identify areas of needed research.

5.

Sponsor educational seminars and symposia.

6.

Monitor international standards.

xviii

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

THE MASONRY SOCIETY


The Masonry Society, founded in 1977, is an international gathering of people interested in masonry. It is a
professional, technical, and educational association dedicated to the advancement of knowledge on masonry.
TMS members are design engineers, architects, builders, researchers, educators, building officials, material
suppliers, manufacturers, and others who want to contribute to and benefit from the global pool of knowledge on
masonry.

AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE


ACI is a technical and educational society founded in 1904 with 30,000 members and 93 chapters in 30
countries.
As ACI moves into its second century of progress through knowledge, it has retained the same basic
mission: develop, share, and disseminate the knowledge and information needed to utilize concrete to its fullest
potential.

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL


ENGINEERS
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) was founded in 1852 and currently represents 125,000
members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. ASCE
s vision is to position engineers as industry leaders
building a better quality of life.
To provide essential value to members, their careers, partners and the public, ASCE develops leadership,
advances technology, advocates lifelong learning, and promotes the profession.

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Masonry structures have been constructed since
the earliest days of mankind, not only for homes but
also for works of beauty and grandeur. Stone was the
first masonry unit and was used for primitive but
breathtaking structures such as the 4000 year old
Stonehenge ring on England
s Salisbury Plains.

Egyptian Pyramids located in Giza were constructed


around 2500 B.C. Note limestone veneer at the top of
the great pyramid, Cheops.

Stonehenge ring on England


s Salisbury Plains.
Stone was also used around 2500 B.C. to build
the Egyptian pyramids in Giza. Limestone veneer
which once clad the pyramids can now be seen only
at the top of the great pyamid Cheops, since much of
the limestone facing was later removed and reused.
As with the Egyptian Pyramids, numerous other
structures such as the 1500 mile long Great Wall of
China testify to the durability of masonry.

The 1500 mile Great Wall of China was constructed of


brick and stone between 200 B.C. and 1640 A.D.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Additionally, structures such as the stone pyramids
of Yucatan and Teotihuacan, Mexico, demonstrate the
skill of ancient masons.

Masonry has been used worldwide to construct


impressive structures such as St. Basil
s Cathedral in
Moscow.

The Pyramid of El Castillo de Chichn Itz in Yucatn


in Mexico was built between 700 and 900 A.D.

The outer walls of St. Basil


s Cathedral in Moscow, were
built in 1492, while the remainder of this impressive
cathedral was constructed in the 17th century.
The Pyramid of the Sun, built in the 2nd century A.D.
dominates the landscape of the ancient city of
Teotihuacan in Mexico.

The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, demonstrates unique


monumental characteristics of stone.

In fact, the stone walls at the Machu Picchu in


Peru have masonry unit joints so tight that it is difficult
to insert a knife blade between units.

Built between 1631 and 1653, the Taj Mahal depicts


grandeur in symmetry.
The stone walls at Machu Picchu in Peru were built
between 1200 and 1400 A.D.

INTRODUCTION
In the United States, masonry is used from Maine
to Hawaii and has been the primary material for building
construction from the 18th to the 21st centuries.

strength concrete block walls are 12 in. (305 mm) thick


CMU for the bottom three floors and 8 in. (203 mm)
thick CMU for the upper 10 floors.

13 Story Pasadena Hilton Hotel, Completed in 1971.


The Pasadena Hilton, like the newer 16 story
Queens Surf in Long Beach, California and the 19 story
Holiday Inn in Burbank, California is located in one of
the most severe seismic areas in the world.

Built in 1891, the 16 story brick Monadnock Building in


Chicago is still in use today.
In the early 1900
s concrete block masonry units
(CMU) were introduced to the construction industry.
Later, between 1930 and 1940, reinforcing steel was
introduced into masonry construction to provide
increased resistance to lateral dynamic forces from
earthquakes.
Prior to the development of reinforced masonry,
most masonry structures were designed to support
only gravity loads, while the forces from wind and
earthquakes were ignored. Massive dead loads from
the thick and heavy walls stabilized the unreinforced
structures against lateral forces.
The introduction of reinforced masonry allowed wall
thickness to be decreased dramatically and provided a
rational method to design walls to resist dynamic lateral
loads from winds and earthquakes.
An excellent example of the benefits of reinforced
masonry is the 13 story Pasadena Hilton Hotel in
California, completed in 1971. The load bearing, high

Constructed primarily of concrete masonry units, the


Queen
s Surf in Long Beach, California rises 16

stories.ses 16 stories.
Another oustanding example of reinforced load
bearing masonry is the 28 story Excalibur Hotel in Las
Vegas, Nevada. This large high-rise complex consists
of four buildings each containing 1008 hotel rooms.
The load bearing walls for the complex required
masonry with a specified compressive strength of
4,000 psi at the base of the wall.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

28 Story Excalibur Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California.

Although taller masonry buildings may someday


be constructed, it is of more importance that the
benefits of reinforced masonry are appropriate not only
for multi-story buildings, but for buildings of every size
and type, even single story dwellings.

Anahola Station, Hawaii.

The Getty Center, Los Angeles, California.

Coe College McCabe Hall, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

Physical Science Building, Riverside, California.

SECTION

M A T E R I A L S

CHAPTER

CLAY BRICK UNITS


1.1 GENERAL
For more than 10,000 years brick has played an
important role in the history and development of
architecture. W hile different methods of brick
production have been introduced during that time, the
basic materials and techniques used to make brick
have remained essentially the same. That is, earthen
material (clay) is mixed with water to form a thick paste.
The thick paste is molded into brick shapes and then
cured with heat to give the brick strength.
The term
brickmeans manufactured units of
either clay or shale, dried and fired. Any of the other
materials that are made into brick units, such as
concrete, sand lime, and so forth, must use a
descriptive adjective relating to the brick material, for
example, concrete brick.
Brick
s main ingredient is clay. While clay is one
of the most abundant materials on the earth, the clays
used in brick production must possess certain
properties and characteristics. There must be
plasticity, which permits units to be shaped or molded
when mixed with water. Furthermore, units must have
sufficient strength to maintain shape after forming.
Also, when subjected to elevated temperatures during
the firing process, the clay particles must fuse together
to create a durable unit.
Mechanization and automation have been growing
in the brick plant during the past fifty years. Heavy
machinery is used to mine and transform the clay into
dense, precise units. The bricks are fired in continuous
tunnel kilns at carefully controlled temperatures to
produce the best unit that can be made from the clay
used. The brick is inspected, sorted and packaged

for easy and safe shipment to the retail distribution


facility or job site. Bricks made in the United States
are of high quality conforming to American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards. By
conforming to the ASTM Standards, a mason can be
assured that the properties and characteristics of a
brick manufactured in North Carolina are similar to a
brick manufactured in Oregon. The brick will be precise
in dimension (within tolerances), durable, strong, and
color-fast.
Moldabilityof brick allows it to be shaped
into literally thousands of combinations of sizes,
shapes, colors and textures.
In addition to machine manufactured brick, brick
can be hand formed. Hand formed bricks are unique
and the compressive strength characteristics are less
than for the machine extruded brick, but still
conforming to the requirements of the ASTM Standard
(ASTM C 62, Standard Specification for Building Brick
(Solid Masonry Units Made From Clay or Shale)).
Hand formation of brick, however, allows for additional
array of shapes and characteristics not created
through machine manufactured brick.

1.1.1 REINFORCED BRICK AN OVERVIEW


Brick is intrinsically strong in compression but
weak in tension. Through the centuries, brick has been
the building material of choice since it
stackedwell
and has high compressive strength properties. While
brick masonry is one of the oldest forms of building
construction, it wasn
t until recent history that the
weakness of brick in tension was overcome by
combining the brick (strong in compression) with a
material that is strong in tension steel. In other words,
the brick was reinforced with the steel. Again, in the
modern sense, reinforced brick masonry in the United
States is a relatively new type of construction, requiring

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

new design procedures and construction methods.


These methods have been developed during the past
70 years from experimental investigations, through the
construction of thousands of buildings which have
demonstrated the practicability and economy of
construction and whose performances have confirmed
the soundness of the principles of design and through
ongoing research focused at practical ways to reinforce
old brick masonry and limits on the performance ability
of new masonry construction.

About 70 years ago, the concept of reinforced


masonry was advanced in California primarily as an
outgrowth of the need to improve the resistance of
existing brick masonry structures to earthquake forces.
Since that time, reinforced masonry has not only been
successfully used on the West Coast of the United
States, but also throughout the world.

Reinforced brick masonry consists of brick


masonry in which steel reinforcement is embedded in
the brick masonry system. The reinforcement is placed
so that the masonry, as a whole, will have greatly
increased resistance to forces which produced tensile,
shearing and compressive stresses. The principles
of reinforced brick masonry design are the same as
those commonly accepted for reinforced concrete and
similar design formulae are used.
In addition to direct tension (pulling something
apart), bending (causing a member to curve) can
create tension forces. Thus, a reinforced masonry
system (strong in tension and compression) is
designed to resist bending as well as compression.
In order to have the reinforcement and the brick work
as a system, cells or cavities containing reinforcement
must be filled with a bonding material. The method
recommended for accomplishing this is to fill all the
interior voids with grout. Grout is made by adding
sufficient water to a cementitious material and
aggregate to provide a fluid consistency.
Marc Isambard Brunel, once Chief Engineer of the
City of New York and later Knighted by Queen Victoria,
is credited with the discovery of reinforced masonry
nearly 200 years ago.
He first proposed the use of reinforced brick
masonry in 1813 as a means of strengthening a
chimney under construction; however, it was in
connection with the building of the Thames Tunnel in
1825 that he made his first major application of its
principles.
Brunel
s discovery of reinforced brick masonry
increased, particularly in seismically active areas of
India, Japan and the United States. These countries
are subjected to severe earthquakes and buildings
which can be expected to withstand such shocks must
be designed with relatively high resistance to lateral
forces. Lateral forces can come in any direction and
therefore impose tension and compression forces, on
a structure in just about any direction. Since structural
steel and suitable form lumber were relatively
expensive in these countries, engineers turned to
reinforced brick masonry and adopted it as standard
construction for public and important private buildings.

FIGURE 1.1

1933 Long Beach, CA earthquake.

During the past 60 years reinforced brick masonry


has been used for the construction of a wide variety of
structures. In the United States the most extensive
use has been in the construction of vertical members,
such as walls and columns. Since no forms are
required for these members, reinforced brick masonry
is competitive with reinforced concrete.

1.1.2 SHAPES OF BRICK


Because of bricks ability to be molded, there are
a variety of different sizes and shapes of brick. Some
of the common types of brick defined by the Brick
Industry Association (BIA), Technical Notes 2 are:
Angle Brick is any brick shaped to an oblique
angle to fit a salient corner.

FIGURE 1.2

Angle brick.

CLAY BRICK UNITS


Arch Brick is a wedge shaped brick for special
use in an arch.

part of any hole is to be closer than 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) to


any face perpendicular to the bearing surface of the
brick. The term Solid Brick does not necessarily mean
100% solid and the holes in the brick are not intended
to be reinforced and grouted.

Arch brick

FIGURE 1.3

No Voids

Voids 25% or less


of cross-sectional area

Arch brick.

Building Brick is a brick unit for building purposes


not especially treated for texture or color and also
called Common Brick, and conforms to ASTM C 62.
Face Brick or Facing Brick are brick made for
facing purposes, often treated to produce desired
surface texture. They are made of selected clays, or
treated, to produce desired color and conform to ASTM
C 216.

FIGURE 1.5

Thin Brick are clay units specifically designed for


adhered veneer application. Maximum thickness as
defined in ASTM C 1088 is 13/4 in. (44.5 mm), and are
commonly between 1/2 and 1 in. (12.7 and 25.4 mm)
thick. Thin brick can also be manufactured in special
shapes, such as corner units.

Fire Brick are made of refractory ceramic material


and resist high temperatures. Commonly used in kilns
and fireboxes of fireplaces.
Hollow Brick is a masonry unit of clay or shale
whose net cross sectional area in any plane parallel
to the bearing surface is less than 75% of its gross
cross sectional area measured in the same plane.

Types of solid clay brick.

35/8

21/2
75/8

75/8

Modular

21/4
75/8

21/2 Standard

21/4 Standard

31/2

21/2

111/2

111/2

Jumbo
Solid shell
hollow
brick units

FIGURE 1.4

Double shell
hollow
brick units

Norman

Cored shell
hollow
brick units

Types of hollow (structural) brick.


Lintel Corner

Paving Brick are vitrified brick especially suitable


for use in horizontal installation applications where
resistance to abrasion is important.
Solid Brick is any clay or shale masonry unit
whose net cross sectional area in any plane parallel
to the bearing surface is at least 75% of the gross
cross sectional area measured in the same plane. No

FIGURE 1.6

Standard 900 Corner

Types of thin brick units.

1.1.3 ORIENTATION OF BRICK


In order for a building to achieve unique character,
brick may be oriented a number of different ways in a
wall. Typical orientation is shown in Figure 1.7.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Stretcher

Header

Rowlock
Flemish Bond

Shiner

Soap

Split

Running Bond With Rolock Course

Sailor

FIGURE 1.7

Soldier

Typical brick orientation.

Stack Bond

1.1.4 PATTERNS OF BRICK


The designer is limited only by his or her
imagination for the available pattern or combination of
patterns. Figure 1.8 shows a few typical examples of
brick patterns.
Running Bond With Soldier Course

American Bond
Running Bond, 1/2 Bond

Dutch Cross Bond

FIGURE 1.8

Running Bond, 1/3 Bond

Typical bond patterns.

CLAY BRICK UNITS


1.1.5 MORTAR AND GROUT
Mortar and grout are the bonding agents that
integrate masonry units into masonry walls. Mortar
and grout structurally bind masonry units together.
Mortar is located between bricks. Grout is located in
the voids on the inside of the brick or in the cavity
created between two wythes of brick.
Brick tie

Grout

The effect of weathering on brick is related to the


weathering index which is the product of the average
annual number of freezing cycle days times the
average annual winter rainfall in inches for any given
locality. Grade requirements for exposures are listed
in Table 1.1, and are described below. Figure 1.10
displays weathering indexes for the United States.
Grade SW (Severe Weathering) brick should be
used where a high and uniform degree of resistance
to frost action and disintegration by weathering is
desired and exposure is such that the brick may freeze
in the presence of moisture.

Reinforcing steel

Table 1.1 Grade Recommendations for Face


1
Exposures
W eathering Index
Exposure
Less
50 to 500 and
than 50 500
greater

Mortar joint

FIGURE 1.9

In vertical surfaces
In contact with earth
Not in contact with earth
In other than vertical surfaces
In contact with earth
Not in contact with earth
1

MW
MW

SW
SW

SW
SW

SW
MW

SW
SW

SW
SW

ASTM C 62, Table 2

Mortar and grout.

1.2 BUILDING BRICK OR


COMMON BRICK
Building Brick or Common Brick refer to the basic
type of clay brick unit. Applicable standards are
covered in ASTM C 62, Standard Specification for
Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made From Clay
or Shale).
This standard covers the acceptable parameters
for grades, durability, freezing and thawing criteria,
absorption and saturation, strength, size, coring,
frogging and permissible variations in dimension.
Common brick may be used for structural or nonstructural applications where the external appearance
of the brick is not a requirement. The brick may be
exposed and the designer must be aware that the
visual quality associated with face brick is not a
requirement for common brick.

1.2.1 GRADE OF BRICK


The three grades of brick, SW (Sev ere
Weathering), MW (Moderate Weathering) and NW
(Negligible Weathering), are classified according to
their weathering resistance.

......
......
......
......

FIGURE 1.10

Weathering index map of the

United States.
Grade MW (Moderate Weathering) brick should
be used where moderate resistance to frost damage
is acceptable and unsaturated freezing of the brick is
permissible.
Grade NW (Negligible Weathering) brick is
acceptable for interior masonry and backup for interior
masonry. Grade NW units may disintegrate when
subjected to freezing and thawing cycles.
Grade SW or grade MW may be substituted for
grade NW brick, and grade SW brick may be
substituted for grade MW brick. When the grade of
brick is not specified, grade SW shall govern.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

1.2.2 APPEARANCE

1.2.5 ABSORPTION AND SATURATION

When consistent color, texture, finish, uniformity;


or limited amount of cracks, warping, exposed particles
or lime, are desired, the brick should be specified
according to Face Brick, ASTM C 216, Standard
Specification for Facing Brick with such requirements
noted.

The total absorption of brick units is measured in


a two step process. Initially, a 24 hour cold water
submersion is performed and the amount of water
absorbed is recorded as a percentage of total weight
of the dry unit. Next, the brick is placed in boiling water
for 5 hours. The amount of water absorbed is recorded
as a percentage of total weight of the dry unit. The
resultant ratio of the two is the cold water/boiling water
(C/B) ratio, or saturation coefficient.

Brick with glazed surfaces should be specified


under ASTM C 126, Standard Specification for Ceramic
Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile, Facing Brick, and
Solid Masonry Units. The associated tolerances
should be carefully reviewed and any deviation from
the specified tolerances should be clearly noted in the
design stage of the project.
Brick may be solid or cored at the option of the
installer and seller unless otherwise specified in the
contract documents.

1.2.3 DURABILITY
The durabili ty of brick is indi cated by
measurements of water absorption, saturation
coefficient and compressive strength as described in
ASTM C 62, Section 4.2. Durability can be evaluated
by a pass-fail grading according to the test method
contained in ASTM C 67, Standard Test Methods for
Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile,
Section 8.

1.2.4 FREEZING AND THAWING


The criteria listed in Table 1.2 shows that Grade
SW brick is limited in the absorption and saturation
coefficient, which means that there will be less moisture
present within the unit when subjected to the freezethaw cycle. Similarly, Grade MW brick is limited to a
less stringent value for the absorption and saturation
coefficient and there is no limit placed on Grade NW
brick.

Even though durability is a combination of three


physical properties, some consider only the C/B ratio
a measure of durability, from the concept that water,
which easily enters the brick, will have room to expand
under freezing conditions.
When the weathering index, as shown in Figure
1.10, is less than 50, the absorption and saturation
coefficients may be waived in accordance with ASTM
C 62.
Absorption should not be confused with Initial Rate
of Absorption (IRA) as explained in Section 1.2.12.

1.2.6 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH


Based on the gross area, extruded brick generally
yield a higher compressive strength and lower absorption than those using the dry-press or soft-mud
process. Additionally, higher firing temperatures in the
kiln usually produce higher compressive strength brick.
If firing temperatures are too high, however, brick will
melt in the kiln. Therefore, the default specification
should be for extruded and kiln-fired brick.

Table 1.2 Common Brick or Building Brick Durability Physical Requirements


Minim um Com pressive
Maximum W ater Absorption
Maxim um
Strength (brick flatwise),
by 5-h
Saturation
2
Gross Area, psi (MPa)
Boiling, %
Coefficient
Designation
Average of 5
Individual
Average of 5
Individual
Average of 5
Individual
brick
brick
brick
G rade SW
3000 (20.7)
2500 (17.2)
17.0
20.0
0.78
0.80
Grade MW
G rade NW

2500 (17.2)

2200 (15.2)

22.0

25.0

0.88

0.90

1500 (10.3)

1250 (8.6)

no lim it

no lim it

no limit

no lim it

Based on ASTM C 62, C 216 or C 652.

The saturation coefficient, or C/B Ratio, is the ratio of absorption by 24-hour submersion in cold water to that after 5-hour
submersion in boiling water.
Does not apply for ASTM C 216 and C 652.

CLAY BRICK UNITS


The compressive strength of brick produced in
the United States normally exceeds the compressive
strengths associated with concrete. Compressive
strength of brick can be greater than 20,000 psi (137.9
MPa), and most brick exceed compressive strength
of 5,000 psi (34.5 MPa), therefore, the minimum
compressive strengths of Table 1.2 are rarely a
problem. Higher required strengths, such as for
heavier loads in multi-story construction or other
specific requirements for loading or weathering, must
be expressly specified.

21/4

22/3
8

8 35/ - 31/
8
2

Standard Modular

95/8

Standard

Engineer Modular

12

Norman

The standard common building brick (ASTM C 62)


color is terra cotta red. Units of buff, salmon, orange,
red or brown may also be supplied. The brick texture
is usually smooth or wire cut, but it may also be scored,
combed face, or whatever textures are agreed upon
prior to delivery.

4
12

12

Engineer Norman

1.2.7 COLOR AND TEXTURE


Building bricks are manufactured in a variety of
colors and textures. The colors and textures, however,
are supplied as standard units of the brick manufacturer
unless a specific requirement has been stated, or
mutually agreed upon, between the buyer and seller
prior to delivery.

31/5

22/3

King Size

23/4- 25/8

31/5

Closure Modular

Utility

8x 8

31/5

4
8

12

12
6

FIGURE 1.11

Common brick sizes (nominal

dimensions).

1.2.8 SIZE
Bricks are manufactured in a variety of different
sizes and shapes. Some of the modular brick
terminology listed includes Modular, Engineer Modular,
Roman, Norman and Utility brick.
Other common terms used to designate brick in
non-modular sizes are Oversize, Jumbo, Common,
and King Size. One should check the local market to
find out what is readily available and sizes associated
with local terminology.
Notwithstanding the dimension terminology stated
above, manufacturers have the discretion to produce
brick in various sizes. For example, one manufacturer
may consider a 71/2 in. (190 mm) long brick standard,
another may consider a full 8 in. (203 mm) long brick
as standard.
There are limits to physical dimensions as noted
in ASTM C 62 and special attention should be given
to the quality control of long thin brick.

Round Cap

Ridge Cap

Tread

Cove

Ogee Watertable

Interior Single

Napoleon Cap

Interior Corner

Bullnose

Exterior Corner

Lipped Stretcher

FIGURE 1.12

Exterior Double

Special brick shapes.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

1.2.9 CORING
Coring is the term used to describe the voids in
the brick perpendicular to the bearing surface. These
voids, or holes, save on material used, permit more
uniform firing and reduces the weight of the unit, which
is beneficial in the transportation of the brick from the
manufacturing plant to the project site.
As required in ASTM C 62, the net cross sectional
area of the cored brick in the plane parallel to the
bearing surface shall not be less than 75% of the gross
cross sectional area. Also, the holes shall be at least
3
/4 in. (19.1 mm) from any surface which is perpendicular
to the bearing surface.

FIGURE 1.13

L.A. Brick Company


frog
.

not contain more than 5% broken brick. If a higher


degree of precision from chips and cracks is required,
the brick should be specified under ASTM C 216, which
contains guidelines of distance for visual inspection.

1.2.10 FROGGING
A frog is a recession (not exceeding 3/8 in. (9.5
mm)) in the bearing surface of the brick and often
contains the stamped name of the manufacturer.
Frogs exceeding 3/ 8 in. (9.5 mm) are permitted,
providing conformance as noted in the material
standard. Like the holes in cored brick, a frog may not
be any closer than 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) to the exposed
surface of the brick. Frogs were also common in
ancient masonry where the craftsmen wrote the name
of the reigning monarch on the brick, which offers a
means for archaeologists to identify the age of
discovered ruins.

1.2.12 INITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION (I. R. A.)


The Initial Rate of Absorption is a measure of the
amount of water that a brick will absorb in one minute
expressed in number of grams per 30 sq. in. (194 cm2)
per minute. It does not have any consistent relationship
with the total absorption.
The maximum bond strength between the clay
brick and the mortar will be achieved when the I.R.A.
is between 5 and 30 grams per minute per 30 square
inches (194 cm2) of brick surface immersed in 1/8 in.
(3.2 mm) of water.

Today, f rogs are less comm on si nce the


manufacturing of this type of brick requires a labor
intensive
dry press
or
molded
process. Frogs were
common when brick manufacturers
stampedtheir
product (see Figure 1.13).

There are a number of reasons that the I.R.A. is


important:

1.2.11 TOLERANCES

1. If the I.R.A. exceeds the proper rate, a good


bond between the brick and mortar may not
be achieved.

Table 1.3 shows the allowable dimensional


tolerances in the manufacturing of building brick. Minor
indentations or surface cracks incidental to the
manufacturing process, or minor chipping caused by
the handling and delivery of brick shall not be grounds
for rejecting the brick. Additionally, brick deliveries shall

2. When mortar is spread on the bed joint, the


rate of laying brick will be influenced by the
rate of water loss from the mortar bed before
the brick is laid.

Table 1.3 Permissible Variations in Dimensions


Specified Dimension, inches (mm)

Maximum Permissible Variations from Specified


Dimension, + or -, inches (mm)

Up to 3 (76) incl.

Over 3 to 4 (76 to 102) incl.

Over 4 to 6 (102 to 152) incl.

Over 6 to 8 (152 to 203) incl.

Over 8 to 12 (203 to 305) incl.

Over 12 to 16 (305 to 406) incl.

ASTM C 62, Table 3

/32 (2.4)
/8 (3.2)

/16 (4.8)
/4 (6.4)

/16 (7.9)
/8 (9.5)

CLAY BRICK UNITS


3. When bricks with an excessively high I.R.A.
are tapped into place, the bond between the
brick and the mortar may be disturbed.
4. An extremely high I.R.A. will have the tendency
to rapidly dry the mortar so that the proper
water retention for high strength and good
bond may not be achieved.
5. Brick with an extremely low I.R.A. do not draw
water from the mortar and the brick tend to
float. This can be compensated for by using
a mortar with low water retention.
6. A good bond between the mortar and brick is
preferred to achieve the desired resistance to
water penetration through the masonry
system.
Burned clay units shall have an initial rate of
absorption not exceeding 0.035 ounce per square inch
(1.6 L/m 2) during a period of one minute. The
International Building Code references MSJC Code
for requirements. Article 3.2 C.2 of the 2005 MSJC
Specification requires that the initial absorption rate shall
not exceed one gram per minute per square inch.
Requirements are the same as 30 grams per minute
per 30 square inches (194 cm2). Wetting of the brick
prior to laying achieves a lower I.R.A. which may be
necessary for the stated reasons.
The wetting of the brick is preferred 3 hours to 24
hours prior to laying, but may be done immediately
before laying if time is a constraint. Figure 1.14 shows
different water content conditions of the brick unit.
Surface dry is the ideal condition where the center is
wet and the surface is slightly damp.
Surface dry is the ideal condition for creating the
maximum bond strength. However, the excess water

on the inside of the brick will dry out. By drying out,


the water will migrate to the surface of the brick. This
migration has the potential to bring with it soluble salts
and create efflorescence. Precautions must be taken
to minimize efflorescence and achieve the optimum
in masonry strength and aesthetics.

1.2.13 VISUAL INSPECTION


The building brick delivered to the site shall, by
visual inspection, conform with the requirements as
specified by the purchaser if special requirements have
been stated in addition to ASTM, or comply with the
sample or samples supplied to the purchaser. For
customary construction, minor flaws, indentations,
surface cracks and minor chips resulting from the
customary handling of building brick shall generally
not be deemed grounds for rejection in the wall.
Unl ess otherwise agreed upon by the
manufacturer or the seller, building bricks, when
delivered to the job site, shall contain not less than
95% whole brick according to ASTM C 62.

1.2.14 EFFLORESCENCE
Efflorescence is caused by the leaching of soluble
salts from within the masonry to form a whitish surface
deposit. In order to minimize efflorescence, proper
planning is necessary. The key is to minimize the
migration of water into the masonry. Attention should
be given to the following:
1. Proper design of construction details such as
providing dampproof course at proper levels
and at correct locations.
2. Prevention of water entering into the body of
the brickwork. Special attention should be
given to properly tooled mortar joints.
3. Specify and use a weather resistant joint, such
as concave tooled.
4. Avoid using brick with high soluble salt content.

(a) Saturated

(b) Dry

5. Use portland cement with low alkali content


and chemically pure lime.
6. Prevent brick work coming into contact with
salt bearing materials.
7. Fill all joints at sills.
8. Keep gutters and drain pipes functional.

(c) Surface Wet

FIGURE 1.14
brick.

(d) Surface Dry

9. Fill cracks and joints properly.


Moisture condition of inside

10

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

1.3 FACE (OR FACING) BRICK


Clay units manufactured to a higher visual
standard than Building Brick for the purpose of being
an exposed surface of the masonry wall are called
Face Brick. These brick follow the guidelines of ASTM
C 216, Standard Specification for Facing Brick. The
criteria for Face Brick is based on grade, type, physical
properties, compressive strength, total absorption,
initial rate of absorption, material, finish, texture, color,
warping and visual inspection.

1.3.1 GRADE
There are two grades of face brick, Grade SW
(Severe Weathering) and Grade MW (Moderate
Weathering). The definitions and weathering index,
for these two grades, are identical to those for building
brick, however, there is no classification for Grade NW
(see Figure 1.10 for U.S. Weathering Index Map), and
there is no Grade NW brick in Table 1.4 (as there is
for common brick) since face brick is not intended for
use as a back up brick.

Table 1.4 Grade Recommendation for Face


Brick Exposure*
Weathering Index
Exposure
Less
50 and
than 50
greater
In vertical surfaces
In contact with earth
Not in contact with earth
In other than vertical surfaces
In contact with earth
Not in contact with earth

MW
MW

SW
SW

SW
MW

SW
SW

*ASTM C 216, Figure 1

1.3.2 TYPES
In addition to the criteria for building brick, face
brick is also categorized according to type. There are
three types of face brick, Types FBS, FBX and FBA.

Type FBS (Face Brick Standard) is for general


use where normal variation in size is permitted.
Type FBX (Face Brick Extra) is for general use
in exposed faces of interior and exterior masonry
where a higher degree of mechanical precision and a
lower permissible variation in size is required.
Type FBA (Face Brick Architectural) is for
general use in masonry manufactured and selected
to produce characteristic architectural effects resulting
from non-uniformity, color, size or texture of the
individual units. Type FBA is usually related to a
specific project.
When Face Brick is specified, and no type is noted,
the designer should be aware that the basic
requirements of Type FBS govern.

1.3.3 DURABILITY
As with common brick, the durability of face brick
is indicated by measurements of water absorption,
saturation coefficient and compressive strength as
described in ASTM C 216, Section 6.1. For face brick,
durability can be evaluated by a pass-fail grading
according to the test method contained in ASTM C 67,
Section 8.

1.3.4 FREEZING AND THAWING


The criteria listed in Table 1.5 show that Grade
SW brick has the least absorption and saturation
coefficient, which means that there will be less moisture
present within the unit when subjected to the freezethaw cycle.

1.3.5 ABSORPTION AND SATURATION


As in the absorption and saturation measurement
for common brick, the total absorption of a face brick
unit is measured in a two step process. Initially, a 24
hour cold water submersion is performed and the amount
of water absorbed is recorded as a percentage of total
weight of the dry unit. Next, the brick is placed in

Table 1.5 Face Brick Durability Physical Requirements


Min. Compressive Strength
Maximum Water Absorption
(brick flatwise), psi (MPa)
by 5-hour Boiling, %
Designation
Average of
Individual
Average of
Individual
5 brick
5 brick
Grade SW
3000 (20.7)
2500 (17.2)
17.0
20.0
Grade MW
2500 (17.2)
2200 (15.2)
22.0
25.0

Maximum
2
Saturation Coefficient
Average of
Individual
5 brick
0.78
0.80
0.88
0.90

Based on ASTM C 216, Table 1

The saturation coefficient on C/B Ratio, is the ratio of absorption by 24-hour submersion in cold water to that after 5-hour
submersion in boiling water.

CLAY BRICK UNITS


boiling water for 5 hours. The amount of water absorbed
is recorded as a percentage of total weight of the dry
unit. The resultant ratio of the two is the cold water/
boiling water (C/B) ratio, or the saturation coefficient.
The C/B ratio is considered a measure of durability
from the concept that water, which easily enters the
brick, will have room to expand under freezing
conditions.
When the weathering index, as shown in Figure
1.10, is less than 50, the absorption and saturation
coefficients may be waived in accordance with ASTM
C 216.
Absorption should not be confused with Initial Rate
of Absorption (IRA).

1.3.6 COMPRESSION STRENGTH


Similar to common brick, compressive strength
of 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) for Grade MW brick and 3,000
psi (20.7 MPa) for Grade SW brick is required (Table
1.5). Higher required strengths, such as for heavier
loads in multi-story construction or other specific
requirements for loading or weathering, must be
expressly specified.

1.3.7 COLOR AND TEXTURE


Color and texture are
strong pointsof face brick,
since both attributes are exposed. Face brick can be
manufactured in a variety of textures ranging from
smooth to combed face. According to ASTM C 216, a
majority of the brick will have one end-texture and color
similar to the face. If the project requires two ends or
two faces to be of finished texture and color, the
requirement must be clearly stated by the specifier.
Face brick is available in many appealing textures
and finishes while enjoying relative freedom from
cracks, warpage or exposed particles.
There is a wide range of available colors for face
brick. The colors may range from off-white to jet black,
with intermediate colors of yellow, orange, red, blue,
purple, brown and gray. Some projects require a
consistent color, while others specify a
blend
, or
combination of colors.
Brick samples of at least four units should be
approved for texture and color prior to the start of the
project.

11

1.3.8 SIZE
Brick manufacturers may name brick rather than
list by size. Most manufacturers follow the terminology
and sizes for brick defined for modular brick such as
Standard Modular, Economy, Norman and Roman (see
Figure 1.11).
Standard practice in the masonry industry is to
define unit size in the order of width x height x length.
The best practice is to specify brick size in the order
of width x height x length, and then by name. The
designer should verify that the size and orientation of
the brick is compatible with the project drawings.
Manufacturers frequently make special brick to
satisfy project requirements.

1.3.9 CORING
Unless specified, the brick may or may not be
cored at the option of the manufacturer or possibly
the option of the contractor. Normally, a manufacturer
will provide a majority of the brick with cored holes
which permit a more uniform firing, saves on material,
and is beneficial in the trasportation process.
The net cross sectional area in any plane parallel
to the surface containing the cores shall not be less
than 75% of the gross cross sectional area, and no
core hole may be closer than 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) to any
exterior face of the brick.

1.3.10 FROGGING
One bearing edge of the face brick may contain a
frog not exceeding 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) deep and the frog
may not be closer than 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) to any exterior
face of the brick. As with building brick, deep frogs
are permitted, with the same restrictions.
At one time, nearly all brick in the United States
were molded with the signature of the manufacturer
embossed in the frog, but most brick are now
manufactured using the extruded process and frogs
are only occasionally seen in new brick.

1.3.11 TOLERANCES
The dimension tolerances for face brick are
contained in Table 1.6 and the distortion tolerances
are in Table 1.7. The dimensional tolerances require
greater precision than that for common or building brick
and type FBX brick require greater precision than FBS
brick.

12

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

California Used

Honey Mushroom

Cedar Bark

Mohave Bark

Desert Sand Bank

Saturn Red

Harbor Mist

Sedona

FIGURE 1.15

Various brick textures.

(Courtesy of Higgins Brick Company).

CLAY BRICK UNITS

13

Table 1.6 Face Brick Tolerances on Dimensions


Maximum Permissible Variation, in. (mm)
Specified Dimension or
plus or minus from:
Average Brick Size in Job
Column A
Column B
Lot Sample, in. (mm)
2
(for Specified Dimension)
(for Average Brick Size in Job Lot Sample)
Type
Type
Type
Type FBS
Type FBS
3
4
FBX
FBS
FBX
Smooth
Rough
3 (76) and under

Over 3 - 4 (76 - 102) incl.

Over 4 - 6 (102 - 152) incl.

Over 6 - 8 (152 - 203) incl.

Over 8 - 12 (203 - 305) incl.

Over 12 - 16 (305 - 406) incl.

/16 (1.6)

/32 (2.4)

/16 (1.6)

/8 (3.2)

/32 (2.4)

/16 (1.6)

/16 (1.6)

/32 (2.4)

/32 (2.4)

/32 (2.4)

/8 (3.2)

/32 (2.4)

/8 (3.2)

/16 (4.8)

/32 (4.0)

/4 (6.4)

/32 (2.4)

/8 (3.2)

/16 (4.8)

/16 (4.8)

/32 (5.6)

/16 (7.9)

/32 (7.1)

/8 (9.5)

/4 (6.4)

/8 (3.2)

/16 (4.8)
/4 (6.4)

/16 (7.9)
/8 (9.5)

ASTM C 216, Table 3

Lot size shall be determined by agreement between purchaser and seller. If not specified, lot size shall be understood to include all
brick of one size and color in the job order.
Type FBS Smooth units have relatively fine texture and smooth edges, including wire cut surfaces. These definitions relate to
dimensional tolerances only.
Type FBS Rough units have textured, rounded, or tumbled edges or faces. These definitions apply to dimensional tolerances only.

Table 1.7 Face Brick Tolerances on Distortion


Maximum Dimension, in. (mm)

Maximum Permissible Distortion, in. (mm)


Type FBX

Type FBS

8 (203) and under

Over 8 - 12 (203 - 305) incl.

/32 (2.4)

Over 12 - 16 (304 - 406) incl.

/16 (1.6)

/8 (3.2)

/32 (2.4)
/8 (3.2)

/32 (4.0)

ASTM C 216, Table 4

In order to determine dimensional tolerances, a


sample of ten brick representing the extreme range is
selected and compared to the allowable variation in
Table 1.6, Column A. From the sample of ten brick,
the average size is determined and the permissible
dimensional tolerances from the average size is listed
in Table 1.6, Column B.

body of the brick. In other words, it may not be merely


a surface color unless specifically agreed upon by the
purchaser and seller. The standard also states that
the brick shall be free of cracks and other defects that
will interfere with the proper setting of the brick or that
will impair the strength or the permanence of the
construction.

1.3.12 INITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION (I. R. A.)

Except for chips, FBX brick shall be free of cracks


and other imperfections when viewed from a distance
of 15 ft (4.6 m), and FBS or FBA brick shall not exhibit
these imperfections when viewed from a distance of
20 ft (6.1 m).

The I.R.A. requirements for face brick are the same


as common or building brick.

1.3.13 VISUAL INSPECTION


ASTM C 216 states that all brick units shall be
made of clay, shale or fireclay materials and that any
admixtures or colors used in giving a special color to
a unit shall be uniformly distributed through the entire

This visual guideline applies to the installed


materials, and can also be used for workmanship
acceptance of the complete brick installation. Table
1.8 list the ASTM acceptable extent of chipping.

14

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 1.8 Maximum Permissible Extent of Chippage from Edges and Corners of Finished Face or
1
Faces onto the Surface
Type

Percentage
allowed2

Chippage in in. (mm)


in from
Edge
1

FBX

5% or less

10% or less

FBS4
(Rough)

15% or less

FBA

/8 - /4
(3.2 - 6.4)
1

FBS
(Smooth)

/4 - /16
(6.4 - 7.9)
5

/16 - 7/16
(7.9 - 11.1)

Percentage
allowed2

Corner
1

Edge

/4 - /8
(6.4 - 9.5)

/2 - 3/4
(12.7 - 19.1)

Corner

0 - /4
(0 - 6.4)

95 to 100%

0 - /8
(0 - 3.2)

90 to 100%

0 - /4
(0 - 6.4)

0 - /8
(0 - 9.5)

85 to 100%

0 - 5/16
(0 - 7.9)

0 - 1/ 2
(0 - 12.7)

/8 /2
(9.5 - 12.7)

Chippage in in. (mm)


in from

to meet the designated sample or as specified by the purchaser, but not more restrictive than Type FBS (rough)

ASTM C 216, Table 2


Percentage of exposed brick allowed in the wall with chips measured the listed dimensions in from an edge or corner.
3
Smooth texture is the unbroken natural die finish.
4
Rough texture is the finish produced when the face is sanded, combed, scratched, or scarified or the die skin on the face is entirely
broken by mechanical means such as wire-cutting or wire-brushing.
2

1.3.14 EFFLORESCENCE
Since face brick are used for appearance, exposed
surfaces with unsightly white stains from salt is not
acceptable. Thus, the standards for efflorescence are
more stringent for face brick than for common or
building brick.
When face brick are tested in accordance with
ASTM C 67, the brick shall achieve a rating of
not
effloresced
.
This test requires five pairs of brick which are
separated. One of each of the pairs of brick is partially
immersed on end, in 1 in. (25.4 mm) of water for seven
days in a drying room. The brick are inspected and all
brick are placed in a drying room for 24 hours.

FIGURE 1.16

Efflorescence.

The specimens are then compared at a distance


of 10 ft (3.1 m) with illumination of at least 50
footcandles (538.2 lm/m2). If no perceptible difference
is observed, then the brick are rated as
not
effloresced
.
In order to minimize efflorescence in the system,
the same precautions as noted in Section 1.2.14
should be observed.

1.4 HOLLOW BRICK


Hollow brick units are very similar in shape and
use to concrete masonry units. Hollow brick are made
of dried and fired clay, like solid brick. In the United
States, hollow brick were first developed and marketed
in the Southeast under a regional specification of

Jumbo Brick
. As their popularity grew, these units
were made and marketed under several different
names in different regions of the country, but Jumbo
Brick has remained a common reference name. They
were typically 8 in. (203 mm) nominal in through-thewall thickness, and had face sizes ranging from
nominal 21/4 by 12 in. (57.2 by 305 mm) to nominal 4
by 12 in. (102 by 305 mm). Hollow brick units contain
cells, approximately 40 percent void, 60 percent solid.
The units have been used in thousands of buildings
since the 1920
s. Since the geometry of this type of
brick is a significant departure from Face Brick, the
term Hollow (Clay) Brick applies and is widely
recognized and understood.

CLAY BRICK UNITS


Today, hollow brick are prevalent in reinforced brick
bearing walls because they hav e cells, which
accommodate vertical reinforcement and grout.
Hollow units shall meet the requirements of ASTM C
652 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick. The
standard describes hollow units in two classes based
on void area. Hollow units with void areas up to 40
percent are Class H40V. Units with void areas up to
60 percent of the gross area are defined as Class
H60V. Void areas are defined by the void space that
yields the least cross-sectional area, where the crosssection is aligned parallel to the bedding surface.

15

patterns, such as one-third bond and bonds at corners


may require different unit configurations to permit
placement of reinforcement. The designer should
check with the brick manufacturer to determine the
cell patterns available.

End shell
or end web

Solid face shell


Cell or core
Cell

Webs

Within the two classes of hollow brick (H40V and


H60V), there are two Grades that exist in ASTM C
652: Grades SW and MW. The Grade establishes
requirements to ensure adequate freeze/thaw
resistance. Grade SW units provide high and uniform
resistance to frost action when saturated with water.
Grade MW units are intended for applications that are
unlikely to be saturated with water when exposed to
freezing temperatures.

Solid Shell Hollow Brick Units


Cell

Core or cell in face shell


Core in face shell

Double
face shells
End shell or
end web

Webs

1.4.1 HOLLOW SPACES

Double Shell Hollow Brick Units

The thickness of face shells and webs are limited


by ASTM C 652. Figure 1.17 defines the nomenclature
associated with hollow brick units and Table 1.9
provides the minimum required thickness of face shells
and cross webs. The dimensions of the unit and the
configuration of voids are critical for reinforced brick
masonry. The cells intended to receive reinforcement
must align so that reinforcing bars can be properly
placed. Most Class H60V hollow brick contain two cells
that are aligned when laid in running bond. Other bond

Cored face shell

End shell or
end web

Core in face shell


Cell

Webs

Cored Shell Hollow Brick Units

FIGURE 1.17

Hollow brick units.

Table 1.9 Hollow Brick Section Properties


Nominal width of
Minimum solid
Minimum cored
units, in. (mm)
face shell
or double face
1
thickness, in.
shell thickness ,
(mm)
in. (mm)
3
3 & 4 (75 & 100)
/4 (19)
----

6 (150)

1 (25)

8 (200)

1 /4 (32)

Minimum end
shell or end web
2
thickness , in.
(mm)
3
/4 (19)

1 (25)

1 (25)

1 /2 (38)
1 /2 (38)

1 /8 (41)

1 /8 (30)

2 (50)

1 /8 (30)

10 (250)

1 /8 (35)

12 (300)

1 /2 (38)

1
1

Cores greater than 1 in.2 (650 mm2) in cored shells shall be not less than 1/2 in. (13 mm) for any edge. Cores
not greater than 1 in.2 (650 mm2) in shells cored not more than 35% shall be not less than 3/8 in. (10 mm)
from any edge.
2
The thickness of webs shall not be less than 1/2 in. (13 mm) between cells, 3/8 in. (10 mm) between cells and
cores or 1/4 in. (6 mm) between cores.
3
Based on ASTM C 652, Table 2.

16

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

1.4.2 TYPES

1.4.4 COLOR AND TEXTURE

Four Types of hollow brick are covered by ASTM


C 652: Types HBS, HBX, HBA and HBB. Each of these
Types relate to the appearance of the unit. Dimensional variation, chippage, warpage and other imperfections are qualifying conditions of Type. The most
common type, Type HBS, is considered to be standard and is specified for most applications. Type HBX
brick is specified where a higher degree of precision
is required. Type HBA brick are unique units which
are specified for non-uniformity in size or texture.
Where a particular color, texture or uniformity is not
required, Type HBB brick is specified. These applications are usually unexposed locations.

1.4.3 TOLERANCES
The dimension tolerances for hollow brick are
contained in Table 1.10 and the distortion tolerances
are in Table 1.11. The dimensional tolerances require
greater precision than that for common or building brick
and type HBX brick require greater precision than HBS
and HBB brick.

Color and texture are


strong points
of hollow brick,
since both attributes are exposed. Hollow brick can
be manufactured in a variety of textures ranging from
smooth to combed face. According to ASTM C 652, a
majority of the brick will have one end-texture and color
similar to the face. If the project requires two ends or
two faces to be of finished texture and color, the
requirement must be clearly stated by the specifier.
Hollow brick is available in many appealing
textures and finishes while enjoying relative freedom
from cracks, warpage or exposed particles.
There is a wide range of available colors for hollow
brick. The colors may range from off-white to jet black,
with intermediate colors of yellow, orange, red, blue,
purple, brown and gray. Some projects require a
consistent color, while others specify a
blend
, or
combination of colors.
Brick samples of at least four units should be
approved for texture and color prior to the start of the
project.

In order to determine dimensional tolerances, a


sample of ten brick representing the extreme range is
selected and compared to the allowable variation in
Table 1.10, Type HBX. From the sample of ten brick,
the average size is determined and the permissible
dimensional tolerances from the average size is listed
in Table 1.10.
Table 1.10 Hollow Brick Tolerances on Dimensions

Permissible Variation, max.

Specified Dimensions

Type HBX

/32 (2.38)

/8 (3.18)

/16 (4.76)

/4 (6.35)

/16 (7.94)

/8 (9.52)

3 (76) and under

/16 (1.58)

Over 3 to 4 (102), incl.

/32 (2.38)

Over 4 to 6 (152), incl.

/8 (3.18)

Over 6 to 8 (204), incl.

/32 (3.97)

Over 8 to 12 (306), incl.

/32 (5.56)

Over 12 to 16 (408), incl.

/32 (7.14)

ASTM C 652, Table 3

Table 1.11 Hollow Brick Tolerances on Distortion, in. (mm)

Permissible Distortion, max.

Dimension, max.

Type HBS and HBB

Type HBX

Type HBS

8 (204) and under

/16 (1.58)

Over 8 to 12, (306), incl.

/32 (2.38)

Over 12 to 16 (408), incl.

ASTM C 652, Table 4

/8 (3.18)

/32 (2.38)
/8 (3.18)

/32 (3.97)

CHAPTER

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


2.1 GENERAL
Ancient Greeks and Romans used natural stone
as their primary building material which is evidenced
by the existence of the monuments that still remain.
In addition to using natural stone for its inherent strength,
the ancient Greeks and Romans also used natural stone
for beauty. The artists of the time crafted stone into
sculptures of different shapes, sizes, and form. Because
of its endurance from ancient times, stone has earned
a reputation as the material symbolic of permanence.
The concrete masonry industry considers concrete
masonry units (CMU) as the
stoneof modern times.
Concrete masonry, that is masonry constructed of
concrete masonry units, enjoys a reputation for strength
and durability. The beauty of concrete masonry is left
to the designer
s imagination, as concrete masonry is
available in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, textures
and colors.
Concrete masonry units are made up of concrete
(cement, aggregate, and water) that consists of natural
aggregates carefully graded to provide the concrete
masonry units with properties of strength, durability,
and beauty. Concrete masonry units are designed, in
shape and size, for ease of handling in the installation
process. Part of this ease of installation is that concrete
masonry units contain cells (large voids inside the
concrete masonry unit) which conceal the reinforcing
steel. When the cells containing the reinforcing steel
are properly grouted (filled with cementitious material),
the system acquires strength that is capable of resisting
large compression and tension forces. In addition to
structural integrity, concrete masonry units can vary in
color and texture allowing the designer to create an
aesthetically pleasing structure.

When concrete masonry is not required to resist


large forces, some or all of the cells of the concrete
masonry units may remain empty (a void space). The
hollow cells in the concrete masonry provide an
airspace within the masonry wall which helps resist
the transmission of heat or cold, and sound. Under
extreme weather conditions, the hollow cells may be
filled with an insulating material such as vermiculite,
perlite or insulating foam.
The evident advantages of concrete masonry are:
Strength (compression and tension when
reinforced)
Durability
An insulator for extreme weather conditions
An insulator for sound
Aesthetic beauty
Fire resistance
The advancement in building construction practices
have opened new opportunities in creative design with
concrete masonry units. In the tradition of stone, but
without the expense, concrete masonry demonstrates
sturdy and honest expression with viable properties;
while also allowing for flexibility and delicacy, but never
being superficial in appearance.
A look at some of the work accomplished by
distinguished architects will convince the designer of a
material that is indeed beautiful, in good taste and
sophisticated, providing infinite possibilities for self
expression. Concrete masonry
s characteristics of
strength, durability, fire resistance and sound insulation
demand a look at its versatile design possibilities when
all these advantages can be included at a competitive
cost with other materials.

18

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Concrete masonry units are equally adaptable for


interior as well as exterior treatments; for appealing
space dividers and for attractive exterior terrace walls
and other enclosures. Many times a unit which can be
readily made with the same pattern or treatment on
both faces serves handsomely as both exterior and
interior finish wall material with added economic and
aesthetic advantages.
Concrete masonry units can be installed in a
multitude of pattern arrangements and combinations to
create an unending diversity of effects. The designer
not only prefers to express ingenuity in development of
the design, but also can very often obtain helpful
suggestions or useful guidance through consultation
with manufacturersrepresentatives or industry
professionals. One should not hesitate in availing such
expert technical knowledge.
Projecting or recessing a certain number of units
can create a geometric pattern or design. Another
interesting variation consists in using units which are
only half the usual course height and occasionally
projecting these units slightly beyond the face of the
wall plane. Ground face units can be utilized to add
interest in the form of color and texture.
Many of the fluted and ribbed units are designed
so the vertical flutes or striations will appear in the
finished wall as unwavering continuous straight lines
for indefinite height, even when laid in regular running
bond wherein the joints alternate over the center of the
block unit in the courses above and below. The
continuity contributes to creation of the soaring
monolithic effect.
With any configuration or texture the designer
chooses, the overall effect will be influenced and
heightened by the play of lights and shadows, enhanced
by control of colors and textures and by introducing
contrasts. Curved surfaces will produce interesting
shadows caused by broken surfaces. Vertical surfaces
can produce bold rugged effects.
One of the many benefits of concrete masonry is
natural appearance. The color of natural sands and
aggregates render an earthy look of the masonry units.
Use of natural colors makes the structure appear to
belong to the environment. Different colors can be produced by using different aggregates or different natural
cements, or color can be changed by pigments or by
surface treatment. Occasionally, use of a transparent
sealer may be warranted. Use of natural materials,
sands, cements and aggregates is recommended. This
will result in a more natural appearance with lower maintenance costs and can facilitate material duplication

for future additions to the structure. Color can also be


altered or enhanced by aging and erosion, sandblasting, or by the action of acid or detergent cleaners. A
sparkling white color can also be achieved with the use
of natural white sand and white cement.
The size of concrete masonry units is designated
by width by height by length, in that order. The nominal
dimensions are typically 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) larger than the
actual unit dimensions, which allows for a 3/8 in. (9.5
mm) mortar joint while still keeping a standard module.
The most common nominal widths of concrete masonry
units are 4 in. (102 mm), 6 in. (152 mm), 8 in. (203
mm), 10 in. (254 mm) and 12 in. (305 mm). The
common heights are 4 in. (102 mm) and 8 in. (203
mm), except for concrete brick, which may be typically
22/3 in. (67.7 mm) high. The nominal length of concrete
brick is commonly 8 in. (203 mm), but can be as long
as 12 in. (305 mm). Nominal block lengths are normally
16 in. (406 mm).
The weight of concrete masonry units varies.
Depending on the aggregates used, concrete masonry
units are normally manufactured using concrete with
densities ranging from 85 to 140 pounds per cubic foot
(1362 to 2243 kg/m3). The lighter units provide more
fire resistance, have an improved noise reduction
coefficient and are more economical to place in the
wall. Heavier units occasionally provide increased
compressive strength, higher water penetration
resistance and greater thermal storage capabilities.
Concrete masonry units are referred to as lightweight,
medium weight, or normal weight depending on the unit
density (see Table 2.1).
Table 2.1 CMU Weight Classification
Unit Weight,
Classification
3
pcf (kg/m )
Less than 105 (1680)
Lightweight
105 to 125
Medium weight
(1680 -2000)
125 and greater
Normal weight or
(2000)
Heavy weight

2.2 PROPERTIES
Concrete Masonry Units can be either hollow or
solid load-bearing in accordance with ASTM C 90
Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete
Masonry Units or hollow or solid non-loadbearing,
conforming to ASTM C 129 Standard Specification for
Non-Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units. Concrete
brick should conform to ASTM C 55, Standard
Specification for Concrete Brick. There are many
different sizes and textures of concrete masonry units
to fit any application. There are precision units,

19

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


slumped, or adobe textured block, split-faced block,
fluted block, ground faced block and special effect
architectural units.
Actual width

Most block manufacturers have an excellent


support staff and offer valuable assistance to the
designer in the conceptual phase of the project.
Consultation with the manufacturers support staff is
invaluable assistance to the designer in the choice of
materials.

Face shell thickness

Nominal length - less mortar joint


= Actual length

2.2.1 DIMENSIONS AND MODULAR SIZES


Web thickness

The industry standard for block dimensions is to


state the nominal width by the nominal height by the
nominal length, in that order. For example, a 6 x 8 x 16
in. (152 x 203 x 406 mm) block would refer to a unit
that is 6 in. (152 mm) wide by 8 in. (203 mm) tall by 16
in. (406 mm) long, even though the actual dimensions
are 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) less: 55/8 in. x 75/8 in. x 155/8 in. (143
mm x 194 mm x 397 mm). The 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) is the
allowance for the size of the mortar joint. Slumped
(adobe textured) block are made by a wet mix process
under high vibration with the actual dimensions, typically
1
/2 in. (12.7 mm) less than the nominal dimension.
The industry standard modular concrete block is
shown in Figure 2.1. The manufacturing process of the
concrete block causes the bottom of the block to have
narrower thickness and sloped interior sides. This also
allows a larger surface for bedding of mortar as units
are laid in the wall. The sloped sides helps the block
slide out of its mold after it has cured. Figure 2.2 and
Table 2.2 lists the minimum thickness of the shell and
webs.

Plan View of a Modular Block

Cross Section of a Modular Block, A-A

FIGURE 2.2

Industry standard modular block.

Table 2.2 Minimum Thickness of Face Shells


1
and Webs

Web
Cell
1
2

Nominal
Width

Specified
Width

Minimum
Face Shell
Thickness

Minimum
Web
Thickness

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

3 /8

5 /8

7 /8

1 /4

10

9 /8

1 /8

1 /8

12

11 /8

1 /8

/4

1 /2

/4

1
1

This table is to be used in combination with Figure 2.2


For solid grouted masonry construction, minimum face
shell thickness shall be not less than 5/8 in. (16 mm).

Face shell
End
Web
Cell

Shapes of block include straight, radius and angled.


Standard colors are gray, tan and pink. Manufacturers
also have a wide variety of colors available on special
order.

Ears

2.2.2 METRIC
Face shell
Concave end

FIGURE 2.1

Industry standard modular block.

Many countries use the metric or Systems


International (SI) method of measurement. The United
States favors a conversion to the
soft metric
system
for concrete block, which is maintaining the current size
of the unit and using metric nomenclature that is not
rounded to size. A (US) standard nominal size concrete

20

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

block 8 in. wide by 4 in. high by 16 in. long is 194 mm


by 92 mm by 397 mm. Adding a typical 9 to 10 mm
mortar joint makes the US units slightly, but intolerably,
larger than the metric units.

For historical references, the widely used 1997


Uniform Building Code (UBC) Standard 21-4 was similar
to ASTM C 90, however Standard 21-4 did contain some
intentional differences relating to the concrete masonry
unit requirements. One of the differences is the
recognition of both Grade N and Grade S by Standard
21-4. In addition to the Type I unit, which is the required
unit for ASTM C 90, Standard 21-4 recognizes the Type
II unit.

Adding a 10 mm mortar joint, the standard 190 x


90 x 390 metric block becomes 200 x 100 x 400 block
in metric (millimeter) units.
In November, 1996, the Cox Bill, also known as the
Savings in Construction Act went into effect in the
United States. This bill gave designers and the industry
the flexibility to continue design and use of the English
System of units for concrete block masonry. Even
though the dimensional difference of 8 in. (203 mm)
and 200 mm is small, it is too great to be compensated
by a 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) mortar joint. The cost to industry
to manufacture and stock two sets of units (English
and Metric) would be staggering. Since 1996 the use
of English Units has continued and will continue for the
foreseeable future.

As a practical matter, there are very few block


manufactured that conform only to Type S specifications.
Also, UBC Standard 21-4 specifically recognizes
slumped block units as a structural unit. The slump
textured block is widely used in the Southwestern
United States to duplicate the traditional adobe
appearance.
The amount of moisture a concrete unit absorbs
can affect its strength. Table 2.3 lists the strength and
absorption requirements for concrete masonry.

In Chapter 16, there are conversion tables for values


of length, speed, area, weight or mass, volume, density,
force, pressure, energy and temperature from English
measurement to SI (metric) measurement.

The specified compression strength value that is


common for ASTM C 90 conforming units can be used
to verify a design strength (f
) = 1,500 psi (10,342 kPa)
m
for solid or partially grouted reinforced masonry walls.
The definition of f
is the design value used in masonry.
m
The actual compressive strength of the masonry system
must not be less than the design value of f
. This
m
value of 1,500 psi is not the compression strength of
the unit, it is the design value of the total masonry
system.

2.2.3 COMPRESSION STRENGTH


ASTM C 90, Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units, requires that the
average compressive strength of 3 units, based on the
net area of the unit, be at least 1,900 psi (13,100 kPa).
In 1990, ASTM deleted the differentiation between Grade
N and Grade S concrete block and required all block
units under ASTM C 90 designation meet the higher,
old Grade N, standard.

Table 2105.2.2.1.2 of the 2006 International Building


Code (2006 IBC), lists verified compression strengths
of the masonry based on the compression strength of
the concrete unit and the type of mortar used. The
strength of the grout should conform to ASTM C 476
and the minimum compression strength of the grout
must equal or exceed f
but not be less than 2,000 psi
m
(2006 IBC Section 2105.2.2.1.2).

Grade N units were defined as acceptable for


exterior use above or below grade, whereas Grade S
units were limited to above grade exterior use provided
the units are covered with a protective coating or not
exposed to the weather.

Table 2.3 Strength and Absorption Requirements


Water Absorption, Max. (Avg. of 3 units) With
2
3
Compressive Strength , min. psi
Oven-Dry Weight of Concrete. lb./ft
Average Net Area
Weight Classification
Avg. of 3 Units

Individual Unit

Lightweight
Less than 105

Medium Weight
105 to Less than 125

Normal Weight
125 or More

1900

1700

18

15

13

ASTM C 90, Table 2.

Higher compressive strengths may be specified where required by design. Consult with local suppliers to determine availability of
units of higher compressive strength.

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


For example, when a masonry wall is designed for
a compression strength of 1,500 psi, the concrete
masonry units need to be 1,900 psi using Type S or M
mortar.
For high-rise load-bearing buildings, high cantilever
retaining walls, tall slender walls with an h/t ratio
between 30 and 50, or heavily loaded members, the
strength of the concrete masonry unit may require more
than the basic minimum strength of ASTM C 90. When
high strength units are required, the units should be
specified as follows:

2.3.2 SPLIT FACED UNITS


Split-faced units have an irregular surface
appearance. Two split faced units are manufactured
as one block and separated into two units by splitting
the block (Figure 2.3). This provides an irregular
roughened texture on the face shell.

Concrete masonry units shall conform to the


requirements of ASTM C 90, except that the average
unit net area strength shall be at least _______psi and
the specified compression strength of the masonry wall,
solid grouted, shall not be less than the design strength,
f
= _______psi.
m

The percentage of desirable increase over the


specified f
is dependent on the materials and
m
experience in the area. Typically, the material strengths
should be 25% to 33% greater than f
.
m
.

2.3 ARCHITECTURAL UNITS


The technology of the manufacturing process keeps
the concrete masonry unit cost effective as a useful
building material. The same technology also offers the
designer more variety in the creative selection of the
building appearance. As the architectural features of
the building change, so too must the materials change.

2.3.1 SLUMPED UNITS


Concrete masonry units are manufactured with
virtually zero slump (very low water/cement ratio).
However, the finish and texture of some architectural
units require a higher water/cement ratio (more water)
that causes the concrete block mix to slump or provides
an adobe texture.
In the Western United States, where adobe is
popular, slumped concrete masonry units are readily
available in standard colors, such as gray and tan.
Special colors, such as brown and buff, are also available
by special order. The slump block width varies, with 6
in. (152 mm) wide units commonly used.
With modern technology, slumped units can be
manufactured as slumped on one side only and radius
wall units. These are usually limited to special orders.
Producers also make a special slumped cap unit, which
is readily available.

21

Split line

FIGURE 2.3

Plan view of a fluted split face


unit (Before splitting).
Split-faced units are manufactured in standard and
special sizes and in a variety of textures and colors.
One special feature of these units is the architectural
appearance of one or more sides. This makes possible
a standard block texture on one side of the wall and a
special stone-like texture on the exposed side.
Split face units are also available with one or more
vertical scores, as well as a fluted split face block
configuration. These units are usually available by
special order only.

2.3.3 VENEER UNITS


Veneer units are manufactured in a multitude of
colors and many textures. They are non-structural and
laid against a structural backup wall. The width of veneer
units varies from approximately 2 in. (50.8 mm) for
precision units up to 41/2 in. (114 mm) for fluted and
split face units. The height may vary depending on the
design requirements, however, the standard heights are
4 and 8 in. (102 and 203 mm).
Veneer units can also be used under special
conditions in a structural wall, such as the exterior facing
of a concrete floor line where the floor intersects the
structural masonry wall.

22

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

2.3.4 SCREEN BLOCK

2.4 CONCRETE BRICK

Screen wall units are manufactured in standard face


and sculptured designs. The sizes have a range to
meet nearly every decorative need from a 4 in. (102
mm) cube to the giant 16 in. (406 mm) square. These
units are used in areas to screen out direct sunlight as
well as to add to the aesthetic design of the wall or
structure. Manufacturers will typically inventory grey
or stock color units, however, the units may be ordered
to provide a specific color.

Concrete brick are manufactured in block modular


and regular brick sizes and conform to ASTM C 55,
Standard Specification for Concrete Brick. They may
be used as backup units to a clay face brick wall or as
units making up the total wall.
Concrete bricks are manufactured in various colors,
textures and sizes and are economical and attractive
masonry units. Concrete brick can be produced to
effectively imitate clay brick.

2.5 PAVING UNITS

FIGURE 2.4

Screen block units.

2.3.5 CAP UNITS


Cap units are manufactured in a variety of sizes to
match wall widths. They are typically used to cap the
top of free-standing walls and may be used for patio
paving. Many integral colors are available.

Concrete paving units are manufactured to high


strength and density specifications. They come in a
variety of patterns, colors and arrangements as shown
in Figure 2.7 and can add significantly to the beauty of
any paved area. They can be used for walkways,
driveways, patios, streets, or virtually any horizontal
application. See the specifications provided by the
manuf acturer for vehicular and non-vehicular
recommendations.

2.6 CONCRETE MASONRY


UNITS (CMU) - ILLUSTRATED
Shown below and on the following pages are a few
of the many types of concrete masonry units available.
Consult with the local manufacturer for complete
availability of product line and colors.

4" WIDE WALL; 4" High Units

4 x 4 x 16 Standard

4 x 4 x 8 Half

4 x 4 x 12 Corner

4 x 4 x 16 Stretcher Unit

4" WIDE WALL; 8" High Units

4 x 8 x 16 Standard

FIGURE 2.5

4 x 8 x 8 Half

Typical concrete masonry units.

4 x 8 x 12 Corner

4 x 8 x 16 Stretcher Unit

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

23

6" WIDE WALL; 4" High Units

6 x 4 x 16 Standard

6 x 4 x 16 Stretcher Unit

6 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam

6 x 4 x 8 Half

6 x 4 x 14 Corner

6" WIDE WALL; 8" High Units

6 x 8 x 16 Standard

6 x 8 x 16 Bond Beam

FIGURE 2.5

6 x 8 x 8 Half

6 x 8 x 16 Open End

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

6 x 8 x 16 Return Corner

24

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


8" WIDE WALL; 4" High Units

8 x 4 x 16 Standard

8 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam

8 x 4 x 8 Half

8 x 4 x 16 Open End

8" WIDE WALL; 6" High Units

8 x 6 x 16 Standard

8 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam

8 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam Closure

8" WIDE WALL; 8" High Units

8 x 8 x 16 Standard

8 x 8 x 8 Half

8 x 8 x 16 Open End Bond Beam

8 x 8 x 16 Open End

8 x 8 x 16 Lintel

8 x 8 x 16 Grout Lock

FIGURE 2.5 Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

8 x 8 x 16 Double Open End


Bond Beam

8 x 8 x 16 Bond Beam

8Y-Block

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


10" WIDE WALL; 4" High Units

10 x 4 x 16 Standard

10 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam

10 x 4 x 8 Half

10" WIDE WALL; 8" High Units

10 x 8 x 16 Standard

10 x 8 x 16 Open End
Bond Beam

10 x 8 x 16 Open End

10 x 8 x 8 Half

12" WIDE WALL; 4" High Units

12 x 4 x 16 Standard

12 x 4 x 8 Half

12 x 4 x 16 Open End
Bond Beam

12 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam

12" WIDE WALL; 8" High Units

12 x 8 x 16 Standard

12 x 8 x 16 Double
Open End Bond Beam

FIGURE 2.5

12 x 8 x 16 Bond Beam

12 x 8 x 16 Open End

12 x 8 x 8 Half

12 x 8 x 16 Open End
Bond Beam

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

12 x 8 x 12 Column

12 x 8 x 8 Lintel

25

26

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


24" LONG UNITS, 8" WIDE WALL; 8" High Units

8 x 8 x 24 Open End

8 x 8 x 24 Standard

8 x 8 x 12 Half

8 x 8 x 24 Vertical Score

8 x 8 x 24 Open End
Bond Beam

PILASTER UNITS; 8" High Units


12" Wide Pilaster

12 x 8 x 16 Banjo Pilaster

16" Wide Pilaster

16 x 8 x 16 Banjo Pilaster

16 x 8 x 6 C-Alternate

FIGURE 2.5

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

12 x 8 x 8 C-Alternate

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


8" WIDE RADIUS WALL, 8" High Units

8 x 8 x 16 - 2 Foot Radius

8 x 8 x 16 - 4 Foot Radius

2 Foot Radius - Alternate Course

4 Foot Radius - Alternate Course

ACCESSORY BLOCK

21/2 x 8 x 16 Veneer

8 x 8 x 16 H-Pilaster

FIGURE 2.5

21/2 x 8 x 16 Split Face Veneer

8 x 8 x 16 Standard 45o

10 x 4 x 8 Sill

8 x 2 x 16 Cap

8 x 8 x 16 Corner 45o

8 x 8 x 16 Bullnose

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

27

28

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


4" WIDE; 4" High Slumped Block

4 x 4 x 16 Standard

4 x 4 x 16 Solid Top Cap

4 x 4 x 12 Corner

4 x 4 x 8 Half

6" WIDE; 4" High Slumped Block

6 x 4 x 16 Standard

6 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam

6 x 4 x 16 Solid Top Cap

6 x 4 x 14 Corner

6 x 4 x 8 Half

6" WIDE; 6" High Slumped Block

6 x 6 x 16 Standard

6 x 6 x 18 Standard

FIGURE 2.5

6 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam

6 x 6 x 18 Bond Beam

6 x 6 x 16 Solid Top Cap

6 x 6 x 18 Solid Top Cap

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

6 x 6 x 14 Corner

6 x 6 x 15 Corner

6 x 6 x 8 Half

6 x 6 x 9 Half

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

29

8" WIDE; 4" High Slumped Block

8 x 4 x 16 Standard

8 x 4 x 16 Bond Beam

8 x 4 x 16 Open End Bond Beam

8 x 4 x 16 Solid Top Cap

8 x 4 x 16 Open End

8 x 4 x 8 Half

8" WIDE; 6" High Slumped Block

8 x 6 x 16 Standard

8 x 6 x 8 Half

FIGURE 2.5

8 x 6 x 16 Bond Beam

8 x 6 x 18 Standard

8 x 6 x 16 Open End

8 x 6 x 18 Bond Beam

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

8 x 6 x 16 Open End
Bond Beam

8 x 6 x 9 Half

30

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


SLUMPED CAP UNITS

6 x 2 x 16 Cap

4 x 2 x 16 Cap

8 x 2 x 16 Cap

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURE UNITS

155/8
15 /8

15 /8

75/8

75/8

75/8

75/8
11/2

75/8

1
3

8 x 8 x 16 - 3 Score Split Face

8 x 8 x 16 Fluted Split Face

155/8

75/8

115/8
11/2

2
2

12 x 8 x 16 Scored Split Face

115/8
1

12 x 8 x 16 - 3 Score Split Face

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

1
3

10 x 8 x 16 - 3 Score Split Face

155/8

75/8

FIGURE 2.5

95/8

23/4
1 /4
1

31

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


ARCHITECTURAL FEATURE UNITS - CONTINUED

8 x 8 x 16 Shadow

8 x 8 x 16 Split Face

8 x 8 x 16 - 3 Score

8 x 8 x 16 - 5 Score

FIGURE 2.5

8 x 8 x 16 Projected Block

8 x 8 x 16 - 11 Score

8 x 8 x 16 Center Score

8 x 8 x 16 Combed Face

Typical concrete masonry units (Continued).

2.7 COMPONENT UNITS AND


SECTIONS
A component masonry wall is a system of creating
concrete masonry walls by using the face shell pieces
of the block. The component units are held in place
through cross ties. Reinforcing bars are placed in the

cavity between units (where the web of the standard


unit would normally be) and the void is filled with grout
(Figure 2.6). This system of creating walls allows the
designer to vary the width wall without having the block
manufacturer make special block and permits different
colors and textures on opposite faces of the wall.

115/8
Variable wall thickness

23/4

235/8
235/8

75/8

Reinforcing steel

75/8

21/4
513/16
12
513/16

Ties

21/4 x 8 x 12 x 24
Outside Corner Return

Grout
cavity

Variable wall thickness

FIGURE 2.6

Masonry component system.

21/4 x 8 x 24
Split Face

21/4 x 8 x 24
Standard Inside Face

21/4 x 8 x 12 x 24
Split Face Outside
Corner Return

32

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The expense of a special order block is directly


related to the quantity of the order. There is an initial
set up fee associated with stopping the production line
run of standard modular block, then setting the molds
for the special order, producing the special order, and
finally resetting the molds for the standard production.
The greater the number of special order block, the
greater the set-up fee can be distributed over and thus
bring the cost per unit down. If the quantity of special
order is not large enough to justify the cost, a designer
might consider the component unit system of concrete
masonry wall construction, providing that component
units are readily available.
Both designer and engineer can enjoy the versatility
of components which typically conform to ASTM C 55
with 2500 psi (17,237 kPa) compressive strength. The
designer enjoys the flexibility of wall thickness and the
engineer benefits from higher strengths. Components
can act as a faade/formwork thus combining the
formwork and veneer cost in one labor step. The
structural system is the reinforced concrete located on
the inside of the component units. However this design
approach sacrifices the economy in wall thickness,
since the component units might not be considered in
the structural design. Wall thicknesses are available
from 8 in. (203 mm) to 24 in. (610 mm) in 1 in. (25.4
mm) increments.

Symmetry and Square Units and Pattern

The components are given a 4 hour fire rating when


used in 8 in. (203 mm) walls. Since the face shells are
separated until tied in the wall, different units may be
used on each side of the wall. Due to this unique
feature, components are the most economical method
of using white cement and limestone units for one
finished wall face.

2.8 CONCRETE PAVING


PATTERN UNITS
Concrete paving units are high strength, dense,
durable and available in multiple designs and colors.
They are economical and construction is rapid and easy.
Concrete paving units are designed and manufactured
for efficient locking of individual units in place providing
an attractive arrangement of maintenance-free areas.
The following figure shows some of the paving units
available. Check local manufacturer for availability.
Varying the bond or joint pattern of a concrete
masonry patio or walk can create a wide variety of
interesting and attractive designs.

Basketweave/Parquet Units and Pattern

FIGURE 2.7

Paving bond patterns.

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

33

2.9 RESIN (GLAZED) COATINGS


Glazed concrete masonry units are concrete block,
with finished and exposed surfaces covered at point of
manufacture with a thermo-setting resinous compound
permanently adhered onto base block by an external
heat-polymerizing process. Block shall conform to type
and use noted in Table 2.4.
Table 2.4 Concrete Masonry Unit Standards
Product
Specification
Concrete Building Brick
ASTM C 55
Hollow Loadbearing Block
ASTM C 90
Hollow Nonloadbearing Block
ASTM C 129
Solid Loadbearing Block
ASTM C 145

2.9.1 SPECIFICATIONS

Venus II Unit and Pattern

Facing material shall conform to ASTM C 744,


Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and
Calcium Silicate Masonry Units, with respect to
imperviousness, resistance to fading (chemical
resistance), opacity and tolerances on dimensions, and
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, Standard
Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of
Building Materials, shall have a flame spread index and
other fire characteristics in accordance with local
requirements. Units tested for shrinkage as per ASTM
C 426, Standard Test Method for Linear Drying Shrinkage
of Concrete Masonry Units, shall be free of crazing,
cracking and spalling. The facing shall return over ends
and edges of the block, forming a lip at least 1/16 in. (1.6
mm) thick, resulting in a 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) exposed mortar
joint. When tested for abrasion, the facing shall have a
wear factor not in excess of 130, in accordance with
ASTM C 501, Standard Test Method for Relative
Resistance to Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by the
Taber Abraser.
Glazed units shall be used in the widest nominal
dimension compatible with accepted concrete masonry
design, and single through-the-wall units shall be used
where possible.
Deliver units to job site on pallets with individual
faces protected. One method of protection at the job
site is to carefully stack and protect from weather by
covering with tarpaulins or storing inside until placed in
wall.

Herringbone Unit and Pattern

FIGURE 2.7
ued).

Paving bond patterns (Contin-

The glazed surface must be free from chips, cracks,


pinholes and other imperfections detracting from the
appearance of the finished wall when viewed at five feet
(1.5 m), at right angles to the wall, using daylight without
direct sunlight.

34

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

At all times use reasonable and proper care in


handling units to prevent marring or damaging faces,
edges and corners. During erection, keep walls free of
excess mortar and, upon completion, clean walls with
a masonry cleaning compound recommended by the
manufacturer.

2.9.2 MANUFACTURER
S STANDARDS
Concrete units to be glazed shall be top grade units
conforming to the latest revision of ASTM Specifications
for Concrete Masonry Units.
Tolerances on dimensions shall be:
1. Permissible variation in face dimensions from
Standard: ______________ 1/16 in. (1.6 mm).
2. Permissible variation in bed depth dimensions
from Standard: _________ 1/16 in. (1.6 mm).
3. Maximum permissible face distortion:
_____________________ 1/16 in. (1.6 mm).
The color of the surface shall conform to an approved
sample consisting of f iv e stretcher units fully
representing the range of shade and color.

Double-glazed units, if available, permit construction


and finish of two-faced walls in a single operation. This
system should be used only when tight bed depth
tolerance or second face alignment is not mandatory.
Structural glazed units offer many fire safety
advantages. Glazed units provide the same fire rating
as concrete block. As with precision concrete block,
fire ratings of 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours can easily be achieved
with structural glazed units, depending on wall
thickness and grouting requirements.
Structural glazed units are often used where sanitary
conditions are a concern, such as kitchens and
hospitals. The impervious facing is easily cleaned and
sanitized.
As with any manufactured item, a minor variation
in shade or color is to be expected. A wide range of
colors, including blue, green, yellow and brown are
available.
Laying of these units is performed in the same
manner as for precision structural concrete block units.

2.9.3 SHAPES AND SIZES OF GLAZED CMU


Stretcher Units
Glazed 1 Side

2 X 8 X 16

6 X 8 X 16

4 X 8 X 16

8 X 8 X 16

Glazed 2 Sides

4 X 8 X 16

FIGURE 2.8

6 X 8 X 16

Glazed Concrete Masonry Units.

8 X 8 X 16

8 X 8 X 16

CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS


Cove Base
Glazed 1 Side

2 X 8 X 16

4 X 8 X 16

6 X 8 X 16

8 X 8 X 16

Glazed 1 Side and 1 End

2 X 8 X 16

4 X 8 X 16

2 X 8 X 16

4 X 8 X 16

Jamb
Glazed 1 Side and 1 End

4 X 8 X 16

2 X 8 X 16

4 X 8 X 16

Cap

2 X 8 X 16

FIGURE 2.8

4 X 8 X 16

2 X 8 X 16

Glazed Concrete Masonry Units (Continued).

4 X 8 X 16

35

36

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

2.10 SEGMENTAL RETAINING


WALL UNITS
Relatively new on the scene is Segmental Retaining
Walls. This type of masonry unit uses weight and
gravity to retain soil. The units are not mortared, but
are designed with a mechanical interlock for stability.
Segmental Retaining Wall (SRW) units have a
separate material standard, ASTM C 1372, Standard
Specification for Segmental Retaining Wall Units. This
standard is somewhat different from ASTM C 90
requiring compressive strength of the units to average
at least 3,000 psi (20.68 MPa). Other properties, such
as the maximum water absorption requirements and
the weight classification, are equivalent to ASTM C 90.
Individual units, however, are significantly heavier, up to
100 pounds (45 kg) each due to more volume with each
unit.
The manufacturer
s product data is essential for
the correct application of SRW units, since there is a
limitation on how tall the walls can be constructed while
maintaining a factor of safety. Walls not exceeding 4
feet (1.2 m) are normally constructed without any
significant special provisions, however, taller walls
typically require design with a geogrid mesh assisting
in the retention of the SRW units.

FIGURE 2.9

Segmental retaining wall units.

CHAPTER

NATURAL STONE
3.1 GENERAL
Today, natural stone is used in building as a facing,
veneer, and decoration. This is in contrast to natural
stones used as a structural load carrying building
material, such as the Parthenon of ancient Greece.
When considering the use of natural stone as a facing,
veneer or decoration, the major factors affecting the
suitability and use of stone fall under two broad, but
overlapping categories, physical and structural
properties versus aesthetic qualities.

and color. For physical and structural properties,


weathering characteristics, size and thickness
limitations are factors of selections. Consideration also
should be given to cost and availability.
Hundreds of stone types and colors are available
for use as veneer on buildings. In addition, the
arrangement of the stone type and color should be
considered. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 provide various patterns
of rubble and ashlar stone.
Stone may be trimmed and cut to form regular
patterns such as range, random or broken ashlar.

For aesthetics, three factors of building stone that


most influential in the selection are pattern, texture,

Uncoursed Field Stone

Random Range

Broken Range

Long Stone Random


Range

Polygonal or Mosaic

Coursed

FIGURE 3.1

Range Course

Square Stone

Rubble stone.

FIGURE 3.2

Ashlar stone.

38

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

3.2 ASTM STONE STANDARDS

ASTM C 880 Standard Test Method for Flexural


Strength of Dimension Stone.

In order to assure quality stone the following ASTM


Standards may be referenced:

3.3 CLASSIFICATION

ASTM C 97 Standard Test Method for Absorption and


Bulk Specific Gravity of Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 99 Standard Test Method for Modulus of
Rupture of Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 170 Standard Test Method for Compressive
Strength of Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 503 Standard Specification for Marble
Dimension Stone (Exterior).
ASTM C 568 Standard Specification for Limestone
Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 615 Standard Specification for Granite
Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 616 Standard Specification for Quartz-Based
Dimension Stone.
ASTM C 629 Standard
Dimension Stone.

Specification

for

Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite

2. Metamorphic

Marble
Serpentine
Onyx
1
Slate
1
Quartzite
2
Gneiss
4
Travertine
Granite
Syenite
3
Diorite
Gabbro
Andesite
Basalt

3. Igneous

STONE

Natural stone, such as marble and granite, is one


of the most beautiful of earth
s natural materials used
in construction. The variegated surface of marble and
the visual strength of granite have made these stones
ideal for the creative designer.

3.3.1 GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION


In the most general sense, masonry stone are rocks
that form the earth
s crust and fall into three genetic
groups: Igneous; Sedimentary; and Metamorphic.
Igneous - When the earth formed, the crust was
at one stage a viscous liquid skin that slowly cooled
and hardened into igneous rock. Granite is a multicolored intrusive igneous rock ranging in color from

Slate

Table 3.1 Building Stone Surface Finishes


Geological Category
Common Name
1. Sedimentary

OF

Finishes
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
K)
L)
M)
N)
O)
P)
Q)
R)
S)
T)
U)

Smooth (machine finished by saw, grinder or planer)


Machine tooled (with uniform grooves)
Chat Sawn (non-uniform)
Shot Sawn (irregular and uneven markings)
Split Face (concave-convex)
Rock Face (convex)
Sanded
Honed
Polished
Wheelabraded
Bush-Hammered
Split Face
Rock Face
Sawn
Honed
Polished
Machine Tooled (4-cut, 6-cut, chiseled, axed,
pointed, etc.)
Flamed
Sand Finished
Split Face
Rock Face

Slate and quartzite cannot be polished.


Gneiss will take all of the finishes of marble and may also be flame finished.
3
Diorite will not take flame finish.
4
Travertine is actually a limestone but is classified with marbles for surface finishes. Travertine finishes include filled, partially filled
and unfilled.
2

NATURAL STONE
white to black. Granite is composed of quartz, feldspar,
mica and ferro magnesium minerals. As igneous rock
weathers, it deteriorates into deposited soils that are
then consolidated due to heat, pressure and
cementitious action to produce sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary - Sedimentary rocks are formed by
the process of cementing, consolidating crystallization
and hardening of chemical solutions and biological
deposits.
Metamorphic - W hen sedimentary rocks are
subjected to increasing heat, pressure and shear, the
minerals are then altered chemically and distorted or
physically realigned to produce metamorphic rocks.
Table 3.1 lists some of the common masonry stone
types and their geologic category, along with a
description of the available finishes.
Metamorphic rocks may resemble their original
sedimentary ancestors but are usually more crystalline
and dense. Igneous rocks may also be metamorphosed
by heat, pressure and shear but the changes are usually
less drastic.

39

3.4 TEXTURE OF QUARRIED


STONE
The term
texture
, as applied to marble, relates to
the size, shape, degree of uniformity and arrangement
of the component grains or crystals. The texture or
grain pattern can be:
Equigranular - grains of approximately the same
size, such as limestone.
Inequigranular - grains of markedly unequal sizes
such as granite.
Porphyrithic - relatively large, coarse crystal called
phenocrysts of one or more mineral components
in a ground mass of markedly finer texture such as
granite.
Interlocking - where grains with irregular boundaries
interlock by mutual penetration such as granite and
breccia.
Mosaic (or Granulitic) - closely packed grains with
smooth to moderately irregular, non-interlocking
mutual boundaries such as feldspar and pyroxene.

This manner of heat and pressure forms dense


metamorphic rocks, differing widely from the igneous
or sedimentary types. When limestones or dolomites
crystallize, they form a metamorphic rock commonly
called marble. All calcareous (calcium based) rocks,
as well as some dolomitic and serpentine rocks that
are able to be polished, are commercially called marbles.

Elastic - naturally cemented fragmental grains but


without interlocking or mosaic relation such as
quartzite.

Natural patterns within the stone can be highly


varied, and provide special features that make building
stone a unique material. In addition to the pattern, the
texture is varied, ranging from coarse fragments to fine
grains and crystalline structures. Texture also varies
with the hardness of minerals composing the stone.

Table 3.2 list some common stone veneers used in


the United States.

Grano Balstic - a granular mosaic texture in which


the grains are tightly compacted, the minerals are
dominantly of equidimensional kinds and present
irregular mutual boundaries such as granite.

Pattern, texture, and color are all affected by how


the stone is fabricated and finished. Granites hold color
and pattern, while limestone color changes with
exposure. Textures may range from rough and flamed
finishes to honed or polished surfaces. As a
hard
stone, granite has the ability to become a highly
polished finish which can be maintained over the life of
the stone.

FIGURE 3.3

Getty Center, Los Angeles.

40

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 3.2 West Coast Veneer Stone


Name
Type
Palos Verdes
Bouquet Canyon
Santa Maria
Drift Stone
Black Lava
White Marble
Arizona Cut Wall
Featherock
Slate
Texas Shell
Texas Lime
Whitewater Canyon
Mariposite
Grimes Canyon
Desert Bark
Santa Rita
Apache Stone

Sedimentary Limestone
Granitic Schist
Sedimentary Limestone
Wallostonite
Lava
Limestone
Sandstone
Pumice
Sedimentary Shale
Oolitic Limestone
Oolitic Limestone
Unknown
Quartzite
Unknown
Shale
Sedimentary Limestone
Shale

Color

Texture

Off White to Gray


Tan to Rust
Cream to Rust
Brown to Black
Black
White
Tan and Red
Gray-Black
Gray-Green-Plum
Cream
Cream
Red w/Yellow
Green w/White
Red w/Yellow
Red to Brown
Cream to Gray
Green-Red-Pink

Flat to Uneven
Flat to Uneven
Flat
Rough to Rugged
Rough to Rugged
Irregular
Smooth
Rough
Smooth
Irregular
Smooth
Irregular
Irregular
Irregular
Irregular
Flat
Flat

3.5 PHYSICAL
CHARACTERISTICS
The use of the physical characteristics of a
particular stone must be appropriate. Physical
properties of the actual stone must be determined and
applied, as opposed to using generic table values, to
assure an adequate design and installation. The
physical properties of the stone being selected include:

coefficient of expansion
change in shape
modulus of rupture
shear strength
modulus of elasticity
weatherability
creep deflection
moisture resistance
compressive strength

Epoxy adhesives, which are frequently used with


stone are affected by cleanliness of the surfaces to be
bonded and ambient temperature. Curing time
increases with cold temperatures and decreases with
warmer temperatures.
Costs can be controlled with the introduction of
new systems of manufacture, installation and recent
developments in the design and detailing of stone
cutting, support and anchorage. The quality and
durability of installation is affected by the correct design
of joints, selection of mortars, and use of sealants. The
adequate design and detailing of each piece of stone
anchorage is required. Based on physical properties

Coverage
(SqFt/Ton)
40-45
40-45
40-45
40-45
45-50
40-45
45-50
150-180
300-350
45-50
45-50
45-50
25-30
45-50
45-50
45-50
45-50

of the stone, its method of anchorage, and the loads it


must resist, the size and thickness of the stone should
be established. Also, based on the variability of the
stone properties as well as other considerations such
as anchorage, deficient workmanship, method of support
and degree of exposure of the cladding installation a
correct safety factor should be developed. To prevent
unacceptable loading of the stone, relieving angles for
stone support and anchorage may be necessary. The
stone should be protected from staining and breakage
during shipment, delivery and installation. With these
variables and factors, the need for an experienced and
qualified designer in stone attachment is a necessity.
The development of stone in construction has been
a continually evolving process. Stone was first used
for shelter simply because it formed the walls of caves
in which people took refuge from the ravages of the
elements. This worked, but early man had to leave the
shelter of the dark cave to forage and hunt. Later, as
humanity evolved, the use of large, solid blocks of stone
to build homes gave the builder choice of location and
layout. This worked better. The home could be built
closer to food and water and also be built with a greater
degree of comfort. Unfortunately, building with solid
stone was a costly venture requiring much time and
labor. Only the very wealthy could build with stone.
Today, natural stone is not used as a structural
element of buildings. Instead, thin slabs of natural stone
are used to clad buildings in aesthetically pleasing stone
veneer. This use allows any building to be economically
constructed with stone.

NATURAL STONE
Features of stone construction include natural
beauty, subliminal feeling of security, and eternal
strength. In addition, marble and granite do not lose
beauty with age as do so many other materials. Marble
and granite age gracefully with passing years and
weather nature
s fury with serenity.
Over the last four decades, natural stone has been
incorporated in massive architecture as one of the
preferred building claddings. Natural stone is easy to
obtain, is less expensive and the manufacturing
technology for producing thinner stone which could fit
in the evolving curtain wall has advanced to make stone
lighter.
Stone used in buildings is not new and was utilized
as a shelter in ancient times. Today, designers have
included stone in their material palette in recognition of
that inherent permanence and durability. For selfsupporting stone, the historic anchorage approaches
of stacking, friction, mass and gravity have been
replaced by pins, grooves, wedges and other means of
positive anchorage. Stone that appears to exceed its
own carrying capacity can be self-supporting under wind
or seismic loads, with or without reinforcement or
special support considerations. This is possible due
to the manufacturers
ability to make stone thinner and
in larger face sizes. This requires that practices be
developed to evaluate each stone
s ability to function
as a structural component combined with other different
elements within a building
s skin.

3.6 PHYSICAL NATURE


Stone is a natural material which, as an end product,
maintains the same indigenous and varying physical
characteristics that it did in the ground. Extracting
deposits in the original or natural place and then
changing rough stone blocks into thin slabs typically
increase any natural inconsistent behaviors due to
imperfections. Products of refined recipes of minerals
and matter combined under controlled processes to
yield clearly measurable and predictable physical
behavior are concrete, steel, aluminum, glass, rubber
and other familiar curtain wall building materials. Natural
stone contains varying minerals, even within the same
quarried block, yielding non-isotropic and uneven
mixture of substance with moderately irregular and
changeable behavior. Thus, the need for testing to
determine the behavior properties is a requirement.
As with any masonry product, the v arying
characteristics of individual units enhance the beauty
of the finished product. If consistency in the final product
is desired, natural stone may not be the correct material
selection.

41

3.7 EVALUATING STONE


Tests that measure physical properties are
important in evaluating material durability, permanence
and safety. For predicting the utility of stone, these
tests are the designer
s foundation. Inconsistent
properties can be accommodated into a safe and
permanent building system, even when the stone is
unpredictable and widely varying compared to other
materials.
The initial tests of the material to discover the basic
strength values and the variability are required even before
beginning to design the stone
s support. This data is
collected by statistical analysis to determine standard
differences and mean values from which correct factors
of safety are suggested. Support backup behavior
climate, superimposed pressures, prospective
anchorage types and redundancy are parameters that
should be considered in the implementation of this
objective information. Before a final judgment on factor
of safety is provided, analysis of risk and consequence
of a potential failure is essential.
Conclusions drawn from the initial testing of a
generous sampling of the selected stone become the
foundation of structural proof of each stone panel
s
adequacy. While published strength values are
practical, these values are never acceptable data for
natural stone engineering. Initial testing is the only
acceptable data source for engineering when it comes
to natural stone.
The buyer must conduct quality control testing, as
necessary, to assure strength conformance of the stone
since natural stone wasn
t created within a quality
control program. Typically, to assure aesthetic
characteristics, a similar program is introduced which
requires visual inspection of the production stone
supplied and comparison to an approved range of
sam ples. To assure basic strengths and
inconsistencies, do not depart from the safe useful range
established on the conclusions of the initial tests. Stone
engineering requires stone strength characteristics be
confirmed throughout the project. Using the same initial
testing sequence, the results of which, when
completed, are compared to the initial testing values
and conclusions, the quality control program usually
consists of tests conducted on smaller sample
quantities.
Where the new stone is to be installed, a review is
required prior to the stone installation to permit
adjustments of anchorage or thickness to be
incorporated into the design of the facade area.

42

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

3.8 PROPERTIES
The composition of natural stone is an uneven
mixture of many mineral and fossil ingredients. Also,
the natural composition of natural stone differs along
length, width and throughout the mass, resulting in
location-dependent physical properties. Most natural
stone has veins or rifts, which means that there exists
a predominant direction of crystal flow resulting in
direction-dependent physical properties, although rifts
are almost invisible with some dense granites. In
addition, the presence of moisture modifies stone
s
behavior, resulting in wetness dependent physical
properties. In the sampling testing programs the
designer must recognize that different stones possess
different degrees of heterogeneity, non-isotropicity, rift
and moisture susceptibility which must be evaluated.

3.9 VARIATIONS
In today
s stone industry there are many different
types of building stones. Typically, granite, marble,
limestone, travertine and sandstone are the most
common. The physical characteristics of each stone
is distinctive which affects applicability to numerous
building designs. The characteristics and physical
properties of these important building stones are
described below.

3.9.1 GRANITE
Granite is an igneous rock created in the deep part
of the earth
s crust and slowly cooled and hardened
under great pressure. It is the most commonly stone
quarried for construction in North America. Granite is
a mosaic of mineral crystals, principally feldspar and
quartz, and can be obtained in a range of colors that
includes gray, black, pink, red, brown, buff and green.
This stone is known as the hardest building stone with
a very dense grain, which makes it resistant to stain.
Granite is nonporous, hard, strong and durable, the
most permanent of building stones, suitable for use in
contact with the ground or exposed to severe
weathering. Due to its highly polished finish, granite
resists severe environments. The surface can be
finished in a number of textures including a mirror-like
polish. Granite may be mixed with other minerals to
provide color and different patterned movement. With
very little movement, however, granite may also be
quarried in highly consistent grains. This means it is
possible to get a large square footage of granite with
similar color and pattern. In the United States granite
is quarried primarily in the eastern mountains and the
upper Midwest.

3.9.2 MARBLE
Marble is a metamorphic rock, composed of fine
to coarse-grained recrystallized calcite and/or
dolomite. When it is at its purest form, marble is
crystalline white calcite. However, the majority of
marbles are mixed with impurities such as dolomite
silica or clay, which provide difference in color and
patterned movement. The marble colors vary from white
to black with a wide variety of hues. Marble, when
subjected to greater wear and weathering, is
considerably softer than granite. The surface of all
marbles may trap water, which consequently freezes
and cracks the stone with the corners more vulnerable
to fissures and chipping. Marble is not appropriate for
environments where it will be exposed to many foods,
chemicals or air pollution, since it may stain.
The major metamorphic stones utilized in
construction are slate and marble. Slate formed from
clay, displays closely spaced planes of cleavage, which
allows it to split into sheets usable for roof shingles
and thin wall facings. Slate comes black, gray, purple,
blue, green and red and is quarried in Vermont and
Pennsylvania.
Marble is a recrystallized form of limestone. It is
soft, which makes it easily carved and polished. Marble
is available in white, black and nearly every color,
frequently with beautiful patterns of veining. Marble
used in the United States comes from Georgia,
Missouri, Tennessee and Vermont. Europe, Italy and
Greece also have large sources, and recently Africa
has increased marble quarrying.

3.9.3 LIMESTONE
The principal sedimentary stones used in
construction are limestone and sandstone. They can
be found in a strongly stratified form, or in deposits
that show little stratification (free-stone). None of them
will accept a high polish.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of
calcites or calcium carbonate. Most limestones
originated from the deposits of shellfish and fossils of
marine invertebrates, which makes it marine in origin.
Limestone contains several natural characteristics, is
non-crystalline and has very uniform composition,
texture and structure. Due to its soft consistency
limestone is easy to quarry and shape. Limestone
may experience discoloration and disintegration from
air pollution and show erosion over time.

NATURAL STONE
Major quarries for large dimension stone located in
Indiana and Missouri supply limestone throughout North
America. Originally formed by the skeletons or shells
of marine organisms, limestone may be composed
either of calcium carbonate or a mixture of calcium and
magnesium carbonates. Colors range from white
through gray and buff to iron oxide red. When quarried,
limestone is a porous stone that contains considerable
ground water (quarry sap). Most limestones are easy
to work with, but are vulnerable to frost damage when
saturated. The stone becomes harder and is resistant
to frost damage after seasoning in the air.

43

The stone producer works from the designer


s
drawings when preparing cut stone for a building to make
a set of shop drawings that show each individual stone
and how it is to be dimensioned and shaped. The
designer
s drawings are used to guide the work of the
mill in producing the stones. Then, rough blocks of
stone are selected in the quarry, brought into the mill,
and sawed into slabs. Finishing may require the stone
slabs to be sawed, carved, edged, planed flat, or planed
to a molding profile to give the desired surface. As
indicated on the shop drawings, the finished pieces of
stone are marked to match the precise position in the
building and delivered to the construction site.

3.9.4 TRAVERTINE
Travertine exhibits characteristics similar to
limestone and it is classified as sedimentary rock. It
is considered a precipitate calcium carbonate formed
by deposits of warm or hot water, particularly hot
springs.
Travertine is marble-like and has a polished surface
which brings out the full color and the character of this
stone. Colors range from light buff through tan to brown
and shades of red.

Thin slabs of stone should be cut from a large block


of quarried stone so that the slabs will be attached to
the structure in the same perspective they had in the
quarry as shown in Figure 3.4.

Block

3.9.5 SANDSTONE
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock usually consisting
of quartz cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium
carbonate. Sandstone has a wide range of colors, from
red to yellow to white, depending on the presence of
other minerals. Sandstone is easy to quarry and shape
due to its soft consistency. It is vulnerable to erosion
and deterioration from air pollution. Brownstone is a
variety of sandstone.
Sandstone is quarried primarily in New York, Ohio,
and Pennsylvania and formed from deposits of sand
(silicon dioxide). Two types of sandstone are
brownstone, typically used in wall construction, and
bluestone, principally for paving and wall copings.

Block

FIGURE 3.4 A quarried block and a cut slab.

3.10 QUARRYING AND MILLING


Since the quarrying and milling process affect the
finish stone qualities, a presentation of these items can
help in the stone decision process.
Several sedimentary rocks are cut out from the
quarry strata and used as rubble masonry. However,
the majority of building stones must be cut from the
quarry in big blocks.

FIGURE 3.5
Bedded slab.

A quarried block with an Edge

44

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Figure 3.5 illustrates a stone slab that is attached


to a structure with the bedding planes perpendicular to
the face of the wall. This type of stone is called edge
bedded. The natural seams are exposed on the
surface and could wash out in time.
When the bedding planes are parallel to the face of
the wall it is called face bedded as shown in Figure
3.6. The stones could have a tendency to scale off in
layers.

FIGURE 3.8 Finishing for blend or slip patterns


is on the same face of each slab.

FIGURE 3.6

A quarried block with a Face

Bedded slab.
Consideration of the veining or rifts is essential for
the aesthetics of natural stone. The architect may visit
the quarry and view the quarried block prior to the cutting
of the slabs.

FIGURE 3.9

Finishing for matched patterns is


on adjacent faces.
Blend Pattern - A random arrangement of stone
panels that may or may not be from the same block.
The pattern is arranged to uniformly blend the different
stones into the wall. If no pattern is specified then a
blend pattern will be provided.

43

21

FIGURE 3.7 Quarried block of stone ready for


fabrication into slabs.
The drawings shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 illustrate
how the veins of the slab are related to the block. The
figure is idealized. Actual stone patterns will have
variations due to the portion of the stone that will be
lost during fabrication and sawing. For optimum pattern
uniformity, panel arrangements should be planned for
groupings of four panels of equal size.

FIGURE 3.10

Blend Pattern.

NATURAL STONE
Slip Pattern - Stone slab panels are placed side
by side so that veining patterns run parallel with each
other and is usually done with stones from the same
block.

FIGURE 3.11

45

Quarter or Diamond Matched Pattern - A


combination of book matching stone slab veneer from
the same block so that veining patterns are mirror
imaged in the adjacent stones.
1

Slip Pattern.

Match Pattern - Stone panels from the same block


are inverted and finished on adjacent surfaces so the
veining will be a mirror image.

FIGURE 3.13
Pattern.

FIGURE 3.12 Matched

Pattern.

Quarter or Diamond Match

46

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Kerlan Jobe Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

FAA Federal Credit Union, Hawthorne, California.

Soka University, Aliso Viejo, California.

CHAPTER

TERRA COTTA
4.1 GENERAL
Terra cotta is a Latin word that means
baked earth
.
This ancient process has been used for thousands of
years. A special aged clay is used which can be
molded into simple building units or into very ornate
three-dimensional figures. This clay is fired at high
temperatures to give nearly glass hardness and
compact.
Terra Cotta or Architectural Terra Cotta, as it is now
known, is described by Charles Thomas Davis in his
book,
Manufacture of Bricks, Tiles and Terra Cotta,
published in 1884, as follows:

Terra cotta is but another name for architectural


enrichments of brickwork of various designs and
shapes. The term is of Italian derivation, and, literally
translated, means cooked or baked clay.
Terra Cotta
is more descriptive of the ancient material which was
usually less burned, not as homogeneuos and coarser
in texture. Current manufacturing processes yield a
material that is kiln-fired for quality and durability and
well-mixed for more consistent and smoother texture.
Terra cotta was largely used for architectural
decorations in Greece, Etruria, Pompeii, Rome, and
Mediaeval Italy, and it was in the clay plains of Northern
Italy that terra cotta was first predominantly employed
over other materials in architectural construction and
ornamentation. The inspiration of modern designs in
architectural terra cotta is largely drawn from these
works, especially those structures erected from the
middle of the thirteenth century until the commencement
of the sixteenth century.

According to Davis terra cotta is of ancient origin


and like brick, the shapes or blocks are molded and
carved or otherwise decorated by hand. Like brick,
terra cotta was produced even in the days of early
Greece with ceramic slips as well as natural finishes.
Following the development of the extrusion brick
machine, architectural terra cotta shapes of the simplest
designs were machine made.
The development, about 1883, of so-called terra
cotta lumber resulted in a confusion of terminology and
the application of the name
terra cottato products
which have little or no resemblance to the original
product or to its rightful successor, the present
architectural terra cotta.
Terra cotta lumber, as produced by the New York
Terra Cotta Company in 1884, is described by Davis in
his book previously referenced to as follows:

The New York Terra Cotta Lumber Company has


established large works at Perth Amboy for the
manufacture of lumber by mixing resinous sawdust with
the wet clay, which is left porous after the burning by
the sawdust being consumed.
The material is thoroughly ground and mixed in a
mill and carried to the upper portion of the building by
an elevator bucket belt. There it is shoveled into a
compressor, through which it passes to the floor below,
and is forced through a die into any requisite shape,
and remains in that portion of the building for a time to
stiffen. It is then carried to the ground floor and dried
on a brick floor heated by flues running underneath it
from a furnace.

48

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

It then goes in the form of slabs to the kilns, where


it is brought to a high heat, which burns out the sawdust
and fuses clay particles.
This process takes about forty-eight hours, and
produces in that period about one hundred and eighty
tons of fireproof lumber.
It is next planed, tongued, grooved, or sawed into
any desirable shapes.

cladding material on skeletal-framed structures. It


served as an excellent cladding which architects
appreciated for its fire safety, light weight and low cost,
as well as for its aesthetic appeal.
Terra cotta can be molded into any designs or
architectural shapes or colors needed. It is frequently
used for special ornamental work and architectural
detail.

Heinrich Ries and Henry Leighton, in their book,

History of the Clayworking Industry in the United


States,published in 1909, credited the discovery of
terra cotta lumber to a man named Gilman of Eldora,
Iowa. These authors report:

He was a clay manufacturer who in 1883 made


the experiment of mixing prairie soil with clay and found
that it burned to a light porous block. This was used
for absorbing alcohol, which he subsequently fired and
placed under a receptacle for heating coffee.
The attention of a New York architect being
accidentally drawn to this porous block, he exclaimed:

This is what I have always been looking for, for


fireproofing purposes.Mr. Gilman sought to carry out
the idea and hit upon the use of sawdust as a desirable
substitute for prairie soil.
Whether or not Mr. Gilman was the actual discoverer
of the method of making this porous fireproofing, it is
true that ever since the introduction of fireproofing in
the New Jersey works, there has been a steady and
increasingly large demand for these hollow blocks,
whether filled with sawdust or not, and now New Jersey
stands as the leading producer.
Hollow brick, used for partitions, floors and
fireproofing iron or steel structural members, produced
from clays to which high (30-50) percentages of sawdust
had been added, were used extensively during the early
part of the 20th century and since these products were
produced from the same raw materials as terra cotta
lumber, they were improperly referred to as terra cotta
or porous terra cotta, a practice which still continues in
some parts of the country. However, as previously
indicated, the term terra cotta has for centuries been
applied to decorative molded clay units whose properties
are similar to brick. This material is now known as
architectural terra cotta and it would appear that the
term should be limited to this product alone.
Although used in construction since ancient times,
terra cotta enjoyed renewed popularity in North America
from the late 19th century through the 1920
s as a

FIGURE 4.1

Decorative terra cotta, T he


Woolworth Building, New York, NY.
In recent years, increasing interest in the
preservation and conservation of historic structures has
returned terra cotta to the attention of the building
industry. The material is also being used increasingly
in new construction, both for cladding and ornamental
purposes.
If properly maintained, terra cotta can enjoy a long
and successful service life. Buildings such as the historic Rookery Building in Chicago, designed by Burnham
& Root, have passed their 100th anniversary with the
terra cotta intact and in good condition.

TERRA-COTTA

49

Today units are used as cladding are supported by


steel shelf angles at floor levels, above wall openings
and at projections such as cornices. Steel straps are
set into slots at the back of each unit for horizontal
support and tied to the anchorage system of the
supporting wall. The projecting cornice units are
suspended from the anchorage system by steel bolts,
which hold horizontal bars threaded through holes
formed in the webs of the terra cotta block. Well
engineered systems will withstand earthquake and
severe weather conditions..

FIGURE 4.2 Rookery Building in Chicago


designed by Burnham & Root.
4.1.1 CHARACTERISTICS
Toady terra cotta is used as a ceramic veneer, it is
fired clay, fired to vitrification and impervious to moisture.
The clays are a composition of fire clays, ball clay,
feldspars, sand and grog. They are processed and
ground to enable a smooth surface. Both hand pressed
and extruded shapes are manufactured.
Typically terra cotta units are formed in hollow
blocks, open at the back with several web stiffeners to
reduce the weight of terra cotta manufactured for
cladding. They can be ashlar units or have more intricate
profiles. Typically, the units are glazed on surfaces
that will be exposed when the block is set in the wall.
In the past, terra cotta units were laid up in the wall
with narrow mortar joints using a cement-lime mortar.
In some buildings, the hollow backs of the units were
filled with masonry and mortar, with the fill keyed into
the masonry backup wall. Also, metal ties were used
providing positive anchorage of the terra cotta.

FIGURE 4.3

Terra cotta cornice, Two Rodeo


Drive, Beverly Hills, CA.

50

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Two Rodeo Drive, Beverly Hills, California.

CHAPTER

GLASS BLOCK
5.1 GENERAL
Glass block is one of the most attractive and
practical materials available to architects and designers.
Glass block widen the aesthetic possibilities of glass
whi le combining unique design and f unct ion
characteristics.

Glass block may also be solid, resistant to impact


while allowing transparency. A practical example of
the use of solid units is for high security applications,
such as police stations. Solid glass units also possess
beneficial solar properties. Solar control units have either
inserts or exterior coatings to reduce heat gain.

The glass block unit is made by combining two


halves together with a partial vacuum inside. Glass
block faces may be clear, figured, or with integral relief
forms.

FIGURE 5.3

FIGURE 5.1

Glass block halves.

The typical thickness of glass block ranges from 3


in. (76 mm) to 4 in. (102 mm).

Thick block.

Normal nominal face sizes for glass block are 6 in.


x 6 in. (152 mm x 152 mm), 8 in. x 8 in. (203 mm x 203
mm) and 12 in. x 12 in. (305 mm x 305 mm). Some
styles offer half units for the 8 in. (203 mm) module.
These half units can be oriented vertically or horizontally.
Check with the manufacturer for available products.
Standard glass block panels are limited in size by
2005 MSJC Code, Section 7.2.1. Exterior limitations
are based on Design Wind Pressure with a maximum
width dimension of 25 ft. (7.6 m) between supports or
20 ft. (6.1 m) in height.

5.2 SPECIAL SHAPES


FIGURE 5.2

Solid glass block.

End block units have a rounded, finished surface


on one edge. When installed horizontally, glass end
block may be used to end interior partitions or walls as
well as space dividers.

52

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

FIGURE 5.4

FIGURE 5.6

Glass block entrance.

FIGURE 5.7

Light diffusion.

End block.

Manufacturers produce special shapes for executing


corner designs. These units may also be placed
together for varying patterns and forms.
53/4

53/4

37/8

Mortar

/4

Glass block unit


corner block

Horizontal
reinforcement
Glass block unit

37/8

FIGURE 5.5

The maximum sound insulation possible among


light transmitting materials, including double glazing,
is provided by glass block.
Glass block, among light transmitting materials, is
the most successful insulator against heat and cold.
Solar reflective glass block screens out approximately
70% of the sun
s heat while standard glass block
screens out approximately 35% of the sun
s heat.

Corner block.

5.3 GLASS BLOCK PROPERTIES


One of the major characteristics of glass block is
allowing soft daylight into a building while controlling
undesirable heat and glare.

FIGURE 5.8

Sound reduction.

GLASS BLOCK

53

Panels of glass block are strong and provide


security without a closed-in feeling. Typically, when
one surface of a glass block is broken, the other surface
usually remains intact and the unit can easily be
replaced by a mason without interruption of normal
activities.

FIGURE 5.9

Heat dissipation.

The high levels of condensation related to wide


temperature variations between interior and exterior is
reduced significantly with glass block.

FIGURE 5.12

Security.

5.4 GLASS BLOCK


APPLICATIONS

FIGURE 5.10

Condensation reduction.

The glass block is noncombustible and has the


highest fire resistive capacity among any light
transmitting materials.

FIGURE 5.11

Fire resistance.

Today
s architecture glass block is emerging as a
classic building material, combining unique and highly
desirable functional values with versatility as a design
element. Selection of glass block includes plain and
patterned surfaces with variations in transparency,
translucency, light directive, solar reflection and color
options. The flexibility of masonry installation offers a
wide range of design possibilities for walls, windows,
partitions and skylights, including curved and serpentine
shapes.
The designer
s imagination is the only limitation in
the application of glass block, which range from
walkways, floors, skylights, partitions, facades, interior
dividers, windows and stairways. The architect
Gwathmay Siegel used glass block for a bridge in the
Disney World Convention and Exhibition Center. In all
applications, glass block units permit the control of light,
both natural and artificial, for function and beauty.
Architect Peter Hamilton demonstrates the versatility
of glass block in his design at 136 Cumberland Street,
Toronto. Glass block also allows the control of noise,
dust and thermal transmission. Security can also be
achieved when using bullet-resistant glass block.

54

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

FIGURE 5.13 Glass block bridge, Disney World


Convention & Exhibition Center.

FIGURE 5.15

FIGURE 5.14

Glass block walk-in shower.

Glass block panel, Cumberland

Street, Toronto.

FIGURE 5.16 Glass block jacuzzi enclosure.

CHAPTER

REINFORCING STEEL
6.1 GENERAL
Unreinforced masonry has been used throughout
the world since the earliest known history. In biblical
times, Moses made bricks of clay while the Egyptian
pyramids and numerous temples in Guatemala, Mexico,
and Peru were constructed of stone masonry. Ancient
Greece and Rome were built primarily of brick and stone
as was the 1500 mile (2,400 km) long Great Wall of
China.

on extensive tests conducted on reinforced brick


masonry. The data obtained from the tests provided
answers to many of the questions which had been
raised regarding reinforced masonry construction.
The first major use of reinforced masonry in the
United States occurred in 1931. Two 52 ft (16 m) high
reinforced brick masonry sand storage bins were
constructed for Wedron Silica Company of Illinois; one
was 25 ft (7.6 m) in diameter, and the other 16 ft (4.9
m) in diameter.

Reinforced masonry construction is a relatively new


application to an old material. Although structures
throughout the world have been made of masonry for
thousands of years, reinforced masonry has been
developing for only the last two centuries.
The first use of reinforced masonry is credited to
Mark Isambard Brunel in 1825. As part of the Thames
Tunnel, Brunel used 30 in. (762 mm) thick iron
reinforced brick masonry walls in the construction of a
50 ft (15 m) diameter, 75 ft (23 m) deep caisson.
With the development of Portland cement around
the year 1850, concrete and reinforced concrete were
introduced. Soon it was discovered that using Portland
cement in masonry mortars increased the strength of
masonry assemblage, thus leading to a close alliance
and identit y between masonry and concrete.
Additionally, formulas developed in the middle 1800
s
for the design of reinforced concrete became the
forerunners of the reinforced masonry design methods.
In 1913, and later in 1919, reinforced masonry
beams were constructed and tested. Later in 1923,
British Undersecretary of India, Abe Brentner, reported

FIGURE 6.1

Long Beach earthquake of 1933.

Significant impetus was added to the use of


reinforced masonry following the 1933 Long Beach,
California, earthquake. Numerous unreinforced masonry
buildings in Long Beach were severely damaged by the
earthquake and it became evident that an improved type
of masonry construction was required.

56

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Reinforcing steel in masonry has been used


extensively in the West since the 1930
s, revitalizing
the masonry industry in earthquake prone areas.
Reinforcing steel extends the characteristics of ductility,
toughness and energy absorption that is necessary in
structures subjected to the dynamic forces of
earthquakes.

2. The minimum reinforcement protection.

Reinforced masonry performs well because the


materials; steel, masonry units, grout, and mortar, work
together as a single structural unit. The temperature
coefficient for steel, mortar, grout and the masonry units
are very similar. This similarity of thermal coefficients
allows the different component materials to act together
through normal temperature ranges. Disruptive stresses
are not created at the interface between the steel and
the grout which would allow effective force transfer.

5. Adequate lapping of the reinforcing bars.

Structures subjected to severe lateral dynamic


loads, such as earthquakes, must be capable of
providing the necessary strength or energy absorbing
capacity and ductility to withstand these forces.
Reinforcing steel serves to resist the shear and tensile
forces generated by the dynamic loads. It can also
provide sufficient ductility to the masonry structure so
that the structure can sustain load reversals beyond
the capability of plain, unreinforced masonry.
In order for the reinforcing steel to provide adequate
ductility and strength, the reinforcing steel must be
designed and placed properly to provide a continuous
load path throughout the structure. The designer must
pay special attention to reinforcing steel details to
ensure continuity. The following items must be provided:
1. The proper size and amount of reinforcement
which complies with the limited minimum and
maximum percentages of reinforcement and
other code requirements.

3. The proper spacing of longitudinal and


transversal reinforcement.
4. Sufficient anchorage of flexural and shear
reinforcing bars.

6. Sufficient stirrups, metal plates, spirals, and


ties in order to provide confinement.
7. Adequate grout coverage of the reinforcing steel.

6.2 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT


6.2.1 REINFORCING BARS
For reinforced masonry construction, deformed bars
range in size from #3 (3/8 in. [9.5 mm] diameter) to a
maximum size of #11 (13/8 in. [34.9 mm] diameter) as
required by 2005 MSJC Code, Section 1.13.2.1. The
Strength Design Provisions of 2005 MSJC Code Section
3.3.3.1 limits the maximum size of reinforcement to a
#9 bar. This reinforcing steel must conform to ASTM A
615, A 706, A 767, A 775 or A 996 which specify the
physical characteristics of the reinforcing steel.
ASTM A 615 and A 996 list the requirements for
reinforcing steel manufactured from billet, rail and axle
steel respectively. ASTM A 707, A 767 and A 775 are
generally not applicable since they cover low alloy, zinccoated and epoxy-coated reinforcing steel which are
seldom used in masonry construction.

Table 6.1 Reinforcing Steel Bar Designations, Sizes and Weight (ASTM A 615 Chart)
2
Inch-Pound Bar
Nominal Dimensions
Nominal Weight
Size
Diameter
Cross Sectional Area
lb./ft.
(kg/m)
1
2
2
Designation (mm)
in. (mm)
in (mm )
#3 (10)
0.376
(.560)
0.375
(9.5)
0.11 (71)
#4 (13)
0.668
(.994)
0.500
(12.7)
0.20 (129)
#5 (16)
1.043
(1.552)
0.625
(15.9)
0.31 (199)
#6 (19)
1.502
(2.235)
0.750
(19.1)
0.44 (284)
#7 (22)
2.044
(3.042)
0.875
(22.2)
0.60 (387)
#8 (25)
2.670
(3.973)
1.000
(25.4)
0.79 (510)
#9 (29)
3.400
(5.060)
1.128
(28.7)
1.00 (645)
#10 (32)
4.303
(6.404)
1.270
(32.3)
1.27 (819)
#11 (36)
5.313
(7.907)
1.410
(35.8)
1.56 (1006)
1

Bar numbers are based on the number of eighths of an inch included in the nominal diameter of the bars (bar numbers
approximate the number of millimeters of the nominal diameter of the bar).
The nominal dimensions of a deformed bar are equivalent to those of a plain round bar having the same weight (mass) per
foot (meter) as the deformed bar.

REINFORCING STEEL
Reinforcing steel may be either Grade 40, with a
minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi (276 MPa) or
Grade 60 minimum with a minimum yield strength of
60,000 psi (414 MPa). Grade 60 steel is furnished in
all sizes, while Grade 40 steel bars are normally
available in #3, #4, #5 and #6 sizes. If Grade 40 steel
is required, special note must be made to ensure
delivery. A designer should verify that the grades and
sizes of reinforcement are available in the geographic
area of a given project.
The identification marks are shown in Figures 6.2
and 6.3 and described in descending order:

1stProducing Mill (usually an initial)


2ndBar Size Number (#3 through #18/#10 thru
#55)
3rdType of steel (Type A for Axle, W for Low Alloy,
S for Billet, R for Rail.)
4thGrade of reinforcement; for Grade 60 steel
(grade is shown as a marked 60 or One (1) grade mark
line (Figure 6.2). The grade mark line is smaller and
between the two main longitudinal ribs which are on
opposite sides of all U.S. made bars. For grade 75
steel, there are two grade mark lines.

Main ribs

Main ribs

Initial of
producing mill

11

Bar size
#11

11

Type of steel
(Billet)

Grade mark

60

Initial of
producing mill

36

Bar size
#36

36

Type of steel
(Billet)

Grade line (One line only)

Grade 60 (English)

FIGURE 6.2

Grade mark

Grade line (One line only)

Grade 420 (Metric)

Reinforcement Identification Grade 60 Steel.

Main rib

Main rib

Initial of
producing mill

Initial of
producing mill

Bar size #6

19

Bar size #19

Type of steel
(Billet)

Type of steel
(Billet)

Grade 40 (English)

FIGURE 6.3

57

Reinforcement Identification Grade 40 Steel.

Grade 300 (Metric)

58

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

FIGURE 6.4

Heavily reinforced masonry wall.

FIGURE 6.7

Column reinforcement.

FIGURE 6.5

Typical wall reinforcement.

FIGURE 6.8

Corner reinforcement.

6.2.2 JOINT REINFORCEMENT


High strength steel wire fabricated in ladder or truss
type configurations placed in the bed joints to reinforce
the wall in the horizontal direction is called joint
reinforcement.
The most common uses of joint reinforcement are:
1. To control shrinkage cracking in masonry walls.
2. To provide part or all of the minimum steel
required.
3. To function as designed reinforcement that
resists forces in the masonry, such as tension
and shear.
4. To act as a continuous tie system for veneer
and cavity walls.

FIGURE 6.6

Pilaster reinforcement.

REINFORCING STEEL

59

Joint reinforcement must meet the requirements of


ASTM A 951, Standard Specification for Masonry Joint
Reinforcement. In addition to wire material conforming
to ASTM A 82, Standard Specification for Steel Wire,
Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement, longitudinal wires
must be deformed.
Since truss-type and ladder type joint reinforcement
equally satisfy the code requirements, the designer
should not be concerned which type is used. When
vertical reinforcement is combined with horizontal joint
reinforcement, ladder type joint reinforcement is far more
practical since the perpendicular cross wires will not
interfere with the vertical reinforcement when the joint
reinforcement is properly placed.

FIGURE 6.12

Truss type joint reinforcement


spaced at 16 in. (406 mm) on center in a concrete
masonry wall.

FIGURE 6.9

Ladder type joint reinforcement.

FIGURE 6.10

FIGURE 6.11

Truss type joint reinforcement.

Ladder type joint reinforcement


spaced at 16 in. (406 mm) on center, vertically, in
a concrete masonry wall.

FIGURE 6.13

Truss type joint reinforcement


tying brick veneer face to concrete masonry wall.

FIGURE 6.14

Ladder type joint reinforcing


tying brick veneer face to concrete masonry wall.

60

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

FIGURE 6.15

Ladder type joint reinforcement tying two wythes of a brick wall together.

Glass block
Masonry mortar
Joint reinforcement

FIGURE 6.16

Joint reinforcement in glass block wall.

CHAPTER

VENEER
7.1 GENERAL

directly from the veneer into the structural backup.


Structural masonry, by contrast, can be designed to
carry both vertical and lateral (horizontal) loads.

2006 Random House Webster


s Unabridged
Dictionary, 2006 provides eight definitions for the word
veneer. Three of these definitions are particularly
appropriate to the presentation of masonry veneer:

Since veneer is not intended to resist lateral loads,


the masonry veneer is relatively thin compared to the
structural wall.

3. Building Trades. a facing of a certain material


applied to a different one or to a type of construction
not ordinarily associated with it, as a facing of brick
applied to a frame house.

Yet the veneer still provides both the beauty and


durability of masonry. Additionally, the veneer also
increases the fire resistance, noise resistance and water
resistance over a non-veneered wall.

6. to face or cover (an object) with a material that


is more desirable as a surface material than the basic
material of the object

The use of v eneer is by no means a new


development. In fact, limestone veneer covered some
of the pyramids in Egypt and pieces of it can still be
seen at the top of the Great Pyramid, Cheops.

8. to give a superficially valuable or pleasing


appearance to.
Similarly, the 2006 International Building Code
defines veneer in Section 1402.1 as follows:

VENEER - A facing attached to a wall for the


purpose of providing ornamentation, protection or
insulation, but not counted as adding strength to the
wall.
Masonry veneer is a system which uses clay brick,
concrete masonry, stone or terra cotta to adorn, enclose and protect a building. The primary difference
between masonry veneer and structural masonry is that
veneer is designed to carry only its own vertical weight.
The lateral loading, due to wind, seismic or other
lateral loads, is carried by a system behind the veneer
a backup system. Lateral loads are transferred

FIGURE 7.1

Egyptian Pyramid located in Giza


constructed around 2,500 B.C.

62

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Additionally, architects have historically chosen


masonry veneer to adorn churches, cathedrals and
monuments for beauty, economy and durability.
As noted, masonry veneer facing consists of clay
brick, concrete masonry units, stone and terra cotta.
Other material considerations related to masonry veneer
include anchoring and support systems, flashing, weep
holes and expansion joints.

7.2 SHELF ANGLES


Corrosion resistant shelf angles are provided to
support only the weight of the veneer. Thus, a backup
system (Section 7.5) is still required to support the
veneer for lateral loads.
Shelf angles are also used to support the weight of
veneer above window and door openings.
Shelf angles are typically installed at each floor
level of multistory buildings in high seismic exposure
so that the vertical loads on the veneer are not excessive
and so the structural frame can move slightly without
damaging the masonry veneer. A 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. (6.4 to
12.7 mm) compressible pad or space is placed directly
beneath the shelf angle allows for minor movements.
This accommodates shrinkage of concrete and wood
frame buildings, as well as long term brick expansion.

7.3 FLASHING
Flashing materials, such as sheet metals, asphaltimpregnated membranes and vinyl membranes, prevent
water from penetrating into the building interior by
directing water toward the exterior face of the veneer.
Historically most flashings were made from 10 to
20 ounce per square foot (3.05 to 6.11 kg/m2) copper or
lead sheeting. These materials perform quite well but
their use has steadily decreased due to the initial cost
and the potential for staining and galvanic corrosion.
Advantages of such materials include availability in a
variety of preformed shapes, the ease which they may
be worked with and record of performance.
Sheet metal flashing of aluminum, galvanized steel
and stainless steel are also used, although only stainless steel flashings are recommended. Aluminum
flashings should be used with extreme caution since
the wet and alkali environment of mortar can corrode
aluminum. Similarly, some galvanized flashings can
corrode in fresh mortar and the galvanized coating may
crack during bending and handling.
Stainless steel sheet metal flashing provide an
excellent corrosion resistant water barrier. Stainless
steel is workable, yet capable of resisting rough handling
at the job-site. It does not stain and is available in
several gauges and finishes. When stainless steel
sheet metal flashing is used, it should be at least 0.01
in. (0.25 mm) thick and should meet the requirements
of ASTM A 167, Type 304.

W eatherproof
membrane
W eatherproof
membrane

Sheathing board

Sheathing board
Mortar net
Concrete
masonry unit

Flashing

Brick veneer

Flashing
Non-combustible
veneer support

FIGURE 7.2

Masonry flashing material.

VENEER
Asphalt impregnated membrane flashing, also called
bituminous fabrics or building felt, is increasingly used
as a flashing material since it is more economical than
sheet metal f lashing and is easy to install.
Unfortunately, asphalt impregnated flashing is less
durable than sheet metal flashing and can tear during
installation.
Accordingly, asphalt systems are seldom used as
the sole flashing material and instead are typically used
in combination with other flashing materials. In such a
system, 2 layers of asphalt impregnated sheets such
as 30 lb. (13.6 kg) felt are installed over the structural
backup so that all seams overlap at least 6 in. (152
mm) and the 2 layers are offset by half the sheet width.
These layers overlap more resistant flashing at shelf
angles and supports.

These wicks should be installed so that at least 6


in. (152 mm) of each wick rope penetrates into the cavity.
This provides a large surface area for water to be
absorbed into the wick despite the possibility of a few
mortar droppings.
In time, cotton wick ropes rot, ideally leaving clear
drainage holes. Nylon and hemp are also available for
use as weep hole material.
Another type of weep hole is formed with 3/16 to 3/8
in. (4.8 to 9.5 mm) diameter oiled rope or tube which is
installed in the head joints of the veneer. After
construction of the veneer is complete, the ropes or
tubes are removed to form clear weep openings.

W eatherproof
membrane

Plastic and rubber-like flashings can perform well


when properly designed and installed with care. They
are resilient, durable and resistant to corrosion.
There are many plastic flashing materials available.
Always consult with a reputable manufacturer and obtain
test reports on the ultra-violet light resistance and
durability of the proposed plastic flashing materials.
Additionally, to ensure satisfactory performance, use
plastic flashing materials from 20 to 40 mils thick (0.5
to 1.0 mm). The designer should also be aware that
low permeability membranes may allow condensation
when applied to the entire structural backup. Use a
non-permeable, not low permeable, membrane.

7.4 WEEP HOLES

63

Mortar
disturbing
material
Sheathing board

Brick veneer
Weep holes
Flashing

Non-combustible
veneer support

One quarter or 3/8 in. (6.4 or 9.5 mm) inside diameter


plastic tubes can be used as weep holes. These tubes
are installed in the head joints at a slight slope to drain
freely. The plastic tubes are less noticeable than open
head joints, but may have a problem of clogging. Mortar
droppings and other debris can lodge at the entrance
of the tube, thus rendering the tubes ineffective. To
prevent clogging, some contractors place a few inches
of pea gravel or a special mortar screen in the cavity
between the veneer and the back up. Also, the plastic
tubes may be removed when the section of veneer is
complete. The void made by the plastic tube will allow
free passage of water to the building exterior.
Cotton, hemp and nylon wick ropes about 1/4 in. to
/8 in. (6.4 to 9.5 mm) in diameter have been used to
drain moisture from cavity and veneer walls. Water in
the cavity is absorbed by the material and wicked to
the exterior where it evaporates. This can be a very
slow process, therefore the wick ropes should be placed
approximately 16 in. (406 mm) on center.
3

FIGURE 7.3

Weep hole devices.

64

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

7.5 CONNECTORS

Square ties and horizontal joint reinforcement are


the most common wall ties and are used in conjunction
with structural masonry backup.

When securing the veneer to the backup system,


shelf anchor or foundation, numerous types of
connectors are used in masonry construction and the
type utilized depends on the particular application, local
practice, requirements and availability.

Structural masonry
backup
Horizontal joint
reinforcement

There are three main categories of connectors and


since industry terminology is often ambiguous,
definitions are given:
Wall ties: Used to tie two wythes (widths) of
masonry together, as would be the case with cavity
walls. Wall ties are commonly manufactured from
wire formed into either a square tie or joint
reinforcement as shown in Figure 7.4.

Airspace

Brick veneer

Structural masonry
backup

Anchors: Used to secure veneer masonry to a


supporting structure such as a stud backup wall or
a structural steel column. An anchor may be a
flat-type metal fabrication used to attach to the
selected backup system. Anchors may also be
wire fabricated. Samples of anchors are shown in
Figure 7.5.

Horizontal joint
reinforcement
Airspace

Fasteners: Used to connect an appliance such as


a sign or fixture to masonry.
Only wall ties and anchors are directly related to
anchored veneer construction. Fasteners should be
installed in strict accordance with local codes and the
manufacturer
s instructions.

Brick veneer

Structural masonry
backup

7.5.1 WALL TIES

Horizontal joint
reinforcement

Wall ties are used to connect two wythes of masonry


together and are designed and sized based on
prescriptive standards. The ties are sized and spaced
to provide adequate capacity in resisting applied loads.

Airspace

In no case should the tie be substandard to the


most stringent minimum requirement that applies.
The 2006 IBC Code Section 1405 provides tie
requirements based on the type and application of
masonry v eneer. Additional veneer tie detail
requirements are contained in 2005 MSJC Code,
Chapter 6.
The veneer system must also permit differential
movement between the veneer and the backup.

Brick veneer

FIGURE 7.4

Typical wall tie systems.

Additionally, wall ties must be protected to resist


corrosion as stated in both the MSJC Code and MSJC
Specification.

VENEER
Wall ties, sheet metal anchors, steel plates and
bars, and inserts exposed to earth or weather, or
exposed to a mean relative humidity exceeding 75
percent shall be stainless steel or protected from
corrosion by hot-dip galvanized coating or epoxy
coating. Wall ties, anchors, and inserts shall be mill
galvanized, hot-dip galvanized, or stainless steel for all
other cases.

65

7.5.2 ANCHORS
There are different types of anchors available and
when properly designed and fabricated, work efficiently.
Unless there are specific design requirements that
dictate the type of anchor required, latitude should be
exercised in the selection of the anchor.
Manufacturers are helpful in providing selection
assistance and product data to ensure that the anchor
will provide a quality connection.

FIGURE 7.5

Typical seismic veneer anchors.

FIGURE 7.6

Typical non-seismic ties.

66

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

New Zealand, which is an active seismic region,


uses a significant amount of masonry veneer. An
effective and popular brick anchor in that region is the
La Palle
flexible tie connection.

FIGURE 7.7

As shown in Figure 7.7, this tie is excellent for


transferring the lateral loads to the backup system while
allowing for relative movement in the horizontal and
vertical directions with the backup system.

La Palleflexible veneer anchor (New Zealand).

CHAPTER

MORTAR AND GROUT


8.1 MORTAR
Mortar is a basic component of masonry. Some
claim that mortar holds the units apart while others
claim it holds the masonry units together. It actually
does both.
Historically, mortar has been made from many
different materials. Some ancient mortar mixtures were
plain mud or clay, earth with ashes, ox blood and earth,
and sand with lime.
In its most general terms, mortar is a plastic mixture
of materials used to bind masonry units into a structural
mass.
Modern mortar consists of cementitious materials
and well-graded sand with sufficient fines to create a
plastic mixture that will bind masonry units together.
In addition to binding the masonry units, mortar is also
used for the following purposes:
1. It is a bedding or seating material for the
masonry unit.

7. It seals irregularities of the masonry unit and


provides a weather-tight wall which prevents
penetration of wind and water through the wall.
8. It can provide color and contrast to the wall.
9. It provides an architectural expression by using
various types of joints.

8.1.1 TYPES OF MORTAR


The requirements for mortar are provided in ASTM
C 270, Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit
Masonry.
The historic designation of mortar types recognized
five types of mortar which were designated as M, S, N,
O and K. The types are identified by every other letter
of the two word phrase
MaSoN wOrK
. Type K is no
longer referenced in ASTM C 270. While type
Ois
referenced in the ASTM Standards, it is used
infrequently. Thus there are three mortar types that
are commonly specified and used; Types M, S and N.
8.1.1.1 SELECTION OF MORTAR T YPES

2. It allows the masonry unit to be leveled and


properly placed.
3. It bonds the units together.
4. It provides compressive strength.
5. It provides shear strength.
6. It allows some movement and elasticity
between units.

The performance of masonry is influenced by various


mortar properties such as workability, water retentivity,
bond strength, durability, and compressive strength.
Selection of the proper mortar type provides the optimum
properties for the intended use. Tables 8.1 and 8.2 are
guides for the selection of mortar type. Selection of
mortar type should also consider all applicable building
codes and engineering practice standards. With mortar,
stronger is not better.
Softer
mortar will increase bond,
therefore, mortar with less cement will provide the better
system. Types N and O, however are not permitted for
use in higher seismic lateral load resisting systems.

68

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 8.1 Mortar Types-Classes of


Construction
Mortar Type
Construction Suitability
Designation
M

Masonry subjected to high compressive


loads, severe frost action, or high
lateral loads from earth pressures,
hurricane winds, or earthquakes.
Structures below or against grade such
as retaining walls.

Structures requiring high flexural bond


strength and subject to compressive
and lateral loads.

General use in above grade masonry.


Residential basement construction,
interior walls and partitions, masonry
veneer and non-structural masonry
partitions.

Non-loadbearing walls and partitions.


Solid load bearing masonry with an
actual compressive strength not
exceeding 100 psi (690 kPa) not
subject to weathering.

Table 8.2 Guide for the Selection of Masonry


1,4
Mortars
Location

Mortar Type

8.1.1.2 SPECIFYING MORTAR


Field mortar should always be specified by type
based on proportion specif ications. Property
specifications are intended for laboratory prepared
mortar.
8.1.1.2.1 PROPERTY SPECIFICATIONS
Property specifications are those in which the
acceptability of the mortar is based on the properties
of the ingredients, or materials, and the properties
(water retention, air content, and compressive strength)
of samples of the mortar mixed and tested in the
laboratory.
Property specifications are used for research so
that the physical characteristics of a mortar can be
determined and reproduced in subsequent tests. Mortar
that is to be mixed and used at the jobsite should never
be specified by property specifications.

4,5

The property requirements for mortar are given in


Table 8.3.

Rec.

Alt.

Load-bearing wall
Non-load bearing
wall
Parapet wall

N
2
O

S or M
N or S

Exterior,
at or
below
grade

Foundation wall,
retaining wall,
manholes,
sewers,
pavements, walks
and patios

Interior

Load bearing wall


Non bearing
partitions

N
O

Exterior,
above
grade

Building
Segment

In accordance with the MSJC Code, Type M or S


mortar must be used for the lateral load resisting system
in Seismic Design Categories D and E. This
requirement provides additional strength and bond in
structures located in high seismic risk areas.

Table 8.3 M ortar Properties a


Mortar

Type

S
M or N

Cem ent
Lim e

Mortar
Cem ent

S or M
N

This table does not provide for many specialized mortar uses,
such as chimney, reinforced masonry, and acid resistant
mortars.
Type O mortar is recommended for use where the masonry is
unlikely to be frozen when saturated or unlikely to be subjected
to high winds or other significant lateral loads. Type N or S
mortar should be used in other cases.
Masonry exposed to weather in a nominal horizontal surface
is extremely vulnerable to weathering. Mortar f or s uc h
masonry should be selected with due caution.
Based on ASTM C 270, Table X1.1. Rec. = Recommended, Alt.
= Alternative.
Types N and O mortar are not permitted in the lateral load
resisting system in Seismic Design Categories D and E.

Masonry
Cem ent

M
S
N
O
M
S
N
O
M
S
N
O

Avg. Compressive b
Strength at 28 days
Min. (psi)

2500
1800
750
350
2500
1800
750
350
2500
1800
750
350

(17.2)
(12.4)
(5.2)
(2.4)
(17.2)
(12.4)
(5.2)
(2.4)
(17.2)
(12.4)
(5.2)
(2.4)

Water
Air
RetenContent
tion Min.
Max (%)
(%)

75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75

12
12
c
14
c
14
12
12
c
14
c
14
18
18
20 d
20 d

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a
This aggregate ratio (measured in damp, loose condition) shall
not be less than 21/4 and not more than 3 times the sum of the
separate volumes of cementitious materials.
b
Average of three 2-inch cubes of laboratory-prepared mortar,
in accordance with ASTM C 270.
c
W hen structural reinforcement is incorporated in cement-lime
or mortar cement mortars, the maximum air content shall not
exceed 12 percent.
d
W hen structural reinforcement is incorporated in masonry
cement mortar, the maximum air content shall not exceed 18
percent.

MORTAR AND GROUT


Table 8.4 is a comparison of the equivalent strength
between cylinders and cube specimens for three types
of mortar.

69

Table 8.4 Compressive Strength of Mortar


Mortar
2" dia. x 4" high
2" (50.8 mm)
Type
(50.8 x 102 mm)
Cube Specimen
Cylinder
psi (MPa)
Specimen psi
(MPa)
M
2100 (14.5)
2500 (17.2)
S
1500 (10.3)
1800 (12.4)
N
625 (4.3)
750 (5.2)
1

Lateral
compression

Lesser periods of time for testing may be used provided the


relation between early tested strength and the 28 day strength
of the mortar is established.

The field strength of mortar should be used only as


a quality control test, rather than a quantification
evaluation. The in-place mortar strength can be much
higher than the test values. The aspect ratio (h/t) of a
mortar joint, typically 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) high to 11/4 in.
(31.8 mm) wide is so small that a compressive failure
mechanism in the mortar joint is difficult. Additionally,
the masonry units above and below the mortar joint, as
well as the grout, confine the mortar so that the inplace mortar strength is much higher than the strengths
of the test specimens.
Since the in-place mortar strength exceeds the
cube and cylinder test strengths, mortar will perform
well even when tests on mortar are less than the
specified strength of the mortar specimens. Additionally,
because the in-place strength is quite high, mortar
compression is adequate even when the compressive
strength of the entire masonry assemblage, f
, is higher
m
than the cylinder and cube strengths. This concept is
easily understood considering that a type O mortar with
a property compressive strength of 1,800 psi (12,400
kPa) can be used to construct prism assemblages with
a compressive strength of 3,000 psi (20,700 kPa).
In addition to compressive strength requirements,
the bond shear strength may be investigated, where
wind or seismic lateral forces must be considered.

Lateral
compression

FIGURE 8.1

Bond Shear Strength of masonry


unit and mortar.
A lack of bond at the interface of mortar and
masonry unit may permit moisture penetration through
hairline cracks. The use of lime in the mortar increases
bond bet ween mortar and the masonry unit.
Workmanship can also affect bond strength, and the
time lapse between spreading mortar and placing the
masonry unit should be kept to a minimum since the
bond of the mortar will be reduced by a long delay in
placing the units.
8.1.1.2.2 PROPORTION SPECIFICATIONS
Proportion specifications limit the amount of the
constituent parts by volume. Water content, however,
may be adjusted by the mason to provide proper
workability under various field conditions. When the
proportions of ingredients are not specified, the
proportions by mortar type must be used as given in
2006 IBC Table 2103.8(1).
Mortars other than those approved in Table 8.5
may be used when laboratory or field tests demonstrate
that the mortar, when combined with the masonry units,
will achieve the specified compressive strength of the
masonry assemblage, f
.
m

70

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


1

Table 8.5 Mortar Proportions for Unit Masonry


Proportion by Volume (cementitious materials)

Mortar

Cementlime

Mortar
cement

Masonry
cement

Portland Mortar Cement


Cement
or
Type
Blended
M
S
N
Cement
M
S
N
O
M
M
S
S
N
O
M
M
S
S
N
O

1
1
1
1
1
1
/2
1
1
/2
-

1
-

1
-

1
1
1
1
-

Masonry Cement
M

Hydrated
Lime or Lime
Putty

1
-

1
-

1
1
1
1

/4
1
over /4 to /2
1
1
over /2 to 1 /4
1
1
over 1 /4 to 2 /2
-

Aggregate Ratio
Measured in Damp
Loose Conditions

Not less than 2 /4 and


not more than 3 times
the sum of the separate
volumes of cementitious
materials

2006 IBC Table 2103.8(1)

The most common Portland cement-lime mortar


proportions by volume are in Table 8.6 below.
Table 8.6 Common Portland Cement-Lime
Mortar Mixes
Type M mortar:
1 part Portland cement
1
/4 part lime
1
3 /2 parts sand
Type S mortar:

1 part Portland cement


1
/2 part lime
1
4 /2 parts sand

Type N mortar:

1 part Portland cement


1 part lime
6 parts sand

Type O mortar:

1 part Portland cement


2 parts lime
9 parts sand

8.1.2 MORTAR MATERIALS


The principal mortar ingredients are cement, lime,
sand and water each making a unique contribution to a
mortar
s performance. Cement contributes durability,
high early strength and high compressive strength to
mortar. Lime contributes to workability, water retentivity
and elasticity. Both contribute to bond strength. Sand
acts as a filler and contributes to the strength. Water
is the ingredient which creates a plastic, workable
mortar and is required for the hydration of the cement.

8.1.2.1 CEMENTS
Three types of cement are permitted to be used in
mortar; Portland cement, masonry cement and mortar
cement. Mortar cement has been developed as ASTM
C 1329, Standard Specification for Mortar Cement and
may be used in high seismic applications.
8.1.2.1.1 PORTLAND CEMENT
The basic cementitious ingredient in mortar is
Portland cement. This material must meet the
requirements of ASTM C 150 Standard Specification
for Portland Cement. In mortar, the type of Portland
cement is limited to Type I, II or III. The use of airentraining Portland cement (Type IA, IIA or IIIA) is not
recommended for masonry mortar because air
entrainment can reduce the bond between mortar and
the masonry units.
Portland cement is the primary adhesive material
and based on the water/cement ratio can produce high
strength mortars. Hydrated lime is used in conjunction
with the Portland cement to provide the desired strength,
bond, workability and board life (board life is defined as
the time during which mortar is still plastic and
workable).
8.1.2.1.2 MASONRY CEMENTS
Masonry cement is a proprietary blend of Portland
cement and plasticizers such as ground inert fillers and

MORTAR AND GROUT


other additives for workability. Masonry cement must
meet the requirements of ASTM C 91 Standard
Specification for Masonry Cement and is available for
Types M, S and N mortar.

71

Lime in mortar provides cementitious properties to


the mortar and is not considered to be an admixture.
Used in mortar it:
1. Improves the plasticity or workability of the
mortar.

The use of masonry cement for mortar is not


permitted in lateral load-resisting masonry in Seismic
Design Categories D and E.

2. Improves the water tightness of the wall.

Masonry cements can be proprietary with specific


ingredients not disclosed, therefore, the MSJC Code
imposes the seismic restriction.

3. Improves the water retentivity or board life of


the mortar.
8.1.2.3 MORTAR SAND

8.1.2.1.3 MORTAR CEMENTS


Mortar cement is also a Portland cement based
material which meets the requirements of ASTM C 1329,
Standard Specification for Mortar Cement. Mortar
cement may be used for mortar in all Seismic Design
Categories.
Unlike masonry cement, mortar cement was
developed specifically for use in seismic application,
therefore, the lateral load-restriction does not apply.
Manufacturers of this material were deliberate in
developing a cement that would satisfy the requirements
of structural engineers and building officials.
8.1.2.2 HYDRATED LIME

For masonry mortar, sand aggregate is required to


conform to ASTM C 144, Standard Specification for
Aggregate for Masonry Mortar.
Sand used in preparing mortar can be natural or
manufactured. Manufactured sand is obtained by
crushing stone, gravel or air-cooled blast-furnace slag.
It is characterized by sharp and angular particles
producing mortars with workability properties different
than mortars made with natural sand which generally
have round, smooth particles.
Sand gradation is most often specified or defined
by referring to a standard sieve analysis. For mortar,
sand is graded within the limits given in Table 8.7.

Hydrated lime is manufactured from calcining


limestone (calcium carbonate with the water of
crystallization, CaCO3H2O). The high heat generated
in the kiln drives off the water of crystallization, H2O,
and the carbon dioxide, CO2, resulting in quicklime,
CaO.
The quicklime can then be slaked by placing it in
water thus making hydrated lime, lime putty or slaked
lime Ca(OH)2. The hydrated lime can then be dried
and ground, producing a white pulverized hydrated lime
which is sacked and used in mortar.
Hydrated lime can be used without delay making it
more convenient to use than quicklime.
Hydrated lime must conform to ASTM C 207,
Standard Specification for Hydrated Lime for Masonry
Purposes, and is available in Types S, SA, N and NA.
Types S and N hydrated limes contain no air entraining
admixtures. Types NA and SA limes provide more
entrained air in the mortar than allowed by ASTM and
therefore may not be used. Additionally, unhydrated
oxides are not controlled in Type N or NA limes thus
making only Type S hydrated lime suitable for masonry
mortar.

Table 8.7 Sand for Masonry Mortar


Percent Passing
Sieve
Natural Sand
Manufactured
Size
Sand
No. 4
100
100
No. 8
95 to 100
95 to 100
No.16
70 to 100
70 to 100
No. 30
40 to 75
40 to 75
No. 50
10 to 35
20 to 40
No.100
2 to 15
10 to 25
No. 200
0 to 5
0 to 10
1

Based on ASTM C 144, Section 4.

Sand should be free of injurious amounts of


deleterious substances and organic impurities. ASTM
C 144 provides guidelines on determining if an aggregate
has excessive impurities.
Concrete sand should not be used in mortar since
the maximum grain size is too large. Additionally, the
fine particles which are needed in masonry sand have
often been washed out of concrete sand thus creating
harsh, coarse sand unsuitable for mortar. Mortar sand
needs at least 5% fines which pass the No. 200 sieve
to aid plasticity, workability and water retention of mortar.

72

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Mortar sand, like all mortar ingredients, should be


stored in a level, dry, clean place. Ideally, it should be
located near the mixer so it can be measured and added
with minimum handling and can be kept from
contamination by harmful substances.

Mixing time of the mortar should be long enough


for a uniform, even color to be obtained and should be
the same length of time for every mortar batch.
Additionally the mixing sequence should be the same
for each batch. MSJC Specification requires that mortar
be mixed between 3 and 5 minutes.

8.1.2.4 WATER
Water must be clean and free of deleterious amounts
of acids, alkalies or organic materials. Water containing
soluble salts such as potassium and sodium sulfates
should be avoided since these salts can contribute to
efflorescence.
8.1.2.5 ADMIXTURES
There are numerous admixtures which may be
added to mortar to affect its properties. One of these,
called a retarding set admixture, delays the set and
stiffening of mortar. The set may be delayed for 36
hours or more if desired.
There are also admixtures used to replace lime.
These may be an air entraining chemical or pulverized
fire clay or bentonite clay to provide workability. Care
should be taken with these admixtures since the bond
between the mortar and the masonry units may be
affected.
The use of any admixtures should be accepted by
the architect or engineer and must also be acceptable
to the building official.
8.1.2.6 COLOR
Mortar colors are normally mineral oxides or carbon
black. Iron oxide is used for red, yellow, and brown
colors; chromium oxide for green, and cobalt oxide for
blue colors. Commercially prepared colors for mortars
also offer a wide variety of colors and shades.
The amount of color additive depends on the color
and intensity desired. Typically, the amount of color
additive ranges from 0.5% to 7.0% for the mineral oxides
with a maximum of 2% for carbon black. These
percentages are based on the weight of cement content
and the maximum percentages are far greater than the
amounts of color additives usually required.
MSJC Specification limits the amount of color,
based on percentage by weight of cement, to 10%
mineral oxide pigment and 2% carbon black pigment
for Portland cement-lime mortars and 5% mineral oxide
pigment and 1% carbon black pigment for masonry
cement and mortar cement mortar.

Retempering of colored mortar should be kept to a


minimum to reduce the variations in color of the mortar.
For best results, colored mortar should not be
retempered.
Finally, the source, manufacturer and amount of
each ingredient should remain the same for all colored
mortar on a project in an effort to obtain uniform color
throughout. Prepackaged mineral color additives that
can be added to the mix based on full sacks of Portland
cement will minimize mortar color variation.

8.1.3 MIXING
8.1.3.1 MEASUREMENT OF MORTAR MATERIALS
The method of measuring materials for mortar must
be such that the specified proportions of the mortar
materials are controlled and accurately maintained. A
reasonable method to control the mortar proportions is
to use full sacks of cement per batch and to use
measuring boxes for the proper amounts of lime and
sand. Dry preblended mixes are also available.
8.1.3.2 JOB SITE MORTAR MIX
Mortar mixing is best accomplished in a paddle
type mixer. About one-half of the water and one quarter
of the sand are put into the operating mixer first, then
the cement, lime, color (if any), and the remaining water
and sand. All materials should mix for three to five
minutes in a mechanical mixer with the amount of water
required to provide the desired workability. Small
amounts of mortar can be hand mixed. Dry mixes for
mortar which are blended in a factory should be mixed
at the job site in a mechanical mixer until workable,
but not more than 5 minutes.
Figure 8.2 shows a paddle mixer with a stationary
drum. The blades rotate through the mortar materials
for thorough mixing.

MORTAR AND GROUT

FIGURE 8.2 Plaster or paddle mortar mixer.


A drum or barrel mixer, shown in Figure 8.3, rotates
the drum in which the materials are placed. The
materials are carried to the top of the rotation and then
drop down to achieve mixing. This type of mixer is used
for jobsite mixed grout.

73

Table 8.8 Property Specification


3
Requirements
1
Average
Compressive
Water
Air
Mortar
2
Strength at 28 Retention Content,
Type
days, Min. psi
Min. %
Max. %
(MPa), Cubes
RM
2500 (17.2)
75
18
RS
1800 (12.4)
75
18
RN
750 (5.2)
75
18
RO
350 (2.4)
75
18
1

Twenty-eight days old from date of casting. The strength


values as shown are the standard values. Intermediate
values may be s pecified in ac cordanc e with projec t
requirements .
When structural reinforcement is incorporated in mortar, the
maximum air content shall be 12%, or bond strength test
data shall be provided to justify higher air content.
Based on ASTM C 1142, Table l.

8.1.3.4 PRE-BLENDED MORTAR


Mortar can also be factory pre-blended and stored
at the jobsite in sacks or silos. Some silo systems
introduce water to the dry mortar mix in an auger screw
at the base of the silo, while other silo systems
discharge the dry mortar mix directly into a conventional
mixer.

FIGURE 8.3

Drum or barrel concrete mixer.

8.1.3.3 EXTENDED LIFE MORTAR


ASTM C 1142, Standard Specification for Extended
Life Mortar for Unit Masonry provides the requirements
for this material. Extended life mortar consists of
cementitious materials, aggregate, water and an
admixture for set control which are measured and mixed
at a central location using weight-or-volume-control
equipment. This mortar is delivered to a construction
site and is usable for a period in excess of 21/2 hours.

Pre-blended dry mortar is also available in sacks,


which may be beneficial in keeping project debris at a
minimum. This packaging method can be especially
useful in limited working areas, such as parking
garages.
W hen f actory blended mortar is used,
manufacturers certification of the type of mortar is
recommended.

There are four types of extended life mortar, RM,


RS, RN, and RO (Table 8.8). These types of mortars
can be manufactured with one of the four mortar
formulations: Portland cement, Portland cement-lime,
masonry cement, or masonry cement with Portland
cements.
Extended life mortar is selected by type and the
length of workable time required. The consistency based
on the mason
s use should be specified. Otherwise
the extended life mortar is required to have a cone
penetration consistency of 55 + 5 mm as measured by
ASTM C 780, Standard Test Method for Preconstruction
and Construction Evaluation of Mortars for Plain and
Reinforced Unit Masonry.

FIGURE 8.4

Silo mixing system.

74

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

8.1.3.5 RETEMPERING
Mortar may be retempered with water when needed
to maintain workability. This should be done on wet
mortar boards by forming a basin or hollow in the mortar,
adding water, and then reworking the mortar into the
water. Splashing water over the top of the mortar is not
permissible.
Harsh mortar that has begun to stiffen or harden
due to hydration should be thrown out. MSJC
Specification requires mortar to be used within two-andone-half hours after the initial water has been added to
the dry ingredients at the job site. Retempering color
mortar should be avoided to limit color variations.

a. Concave Joint It is the most common joint used.


The tooling works mortar tight into the joint,
compressing the mortar producing a weather joint.
The joint emphasizes the masonry unit pattern and
conceals small irregularities in laying the unit.

8.1.4 TYPES OF MORTAR JOINTS


Figure 8.5 provides basic terms for mortar joints.
The finished bed and head joints are cut, trowelled, or
tooled.

b.
VJoint - Tooling works the mortar tight and
provides a weather joint. However the
notchof
the
Vcan be a point of discontinuity and cracks
may develop which allow water migration. This joint
emphasizes the masonry unit pattern and conceals
small irregularities in laying, while providing a line
in center of mortar joint.

Head joint
Collar joint

c. Weather Joint The primary purpose is to


emphasize horizontal joints. This type of joint is a
marginaly acceptable weather-type joint. The
reason for this is the top ledge of the joint acts as
a drip ledge. If the joint is not properly tooled, the
surface tension of water will allow water to pool at
the drip ledge and the water can migrate back into
the mortar.
Bed joint

FIGURE 8.5

Basic terms for mortar joints.

Shown in Figure 8.6 are nine examples of commonly


used mortar joints. Each joint provides a different
architectural appearance to the wall. Since some joints
provide poor weather resistance, care must be taken in
the selection of the proper type of mortar joint. Joints
with ledges such as weather, squeezed, raked and
struck joints perform poorly in exterior applications and
may allow moisture penetration. Tooled joints are
recommended for exterior applications since tooling
compacts the mortar tightly preventing moisture
penetration.

d. Flush Joint This joint is used where the wall is


to be plastered. Special care is required to make
the joint weatherproof. Mortar joint must be
compressed to assure intimate contact with the
masonry unit. Not recommended for exposed
exterior use.

FIGURE 8.6

Mortar joint types.

MORTAR AND GROUT

75

8.2 GROUT

e.

Squeezed Joint - Provides for a rustic, high


texture appearance. Satisfactory indoors and
exterior fences. Not recommended for exterior
building walls, for no weather resistance is created
because the mortar is not compressed back into
the joint. Also the top ledge allows for pooling of
the water.

f.

Beaded Joint - Special effect, poor exterior


weather joint due to exposed ledge and not
recommended.

Grout is a mixture of Portland cement, aggregates


and water mixed to fluid consistency so that it will have
a slump of 8 to 11 in. (203 to 279 mm). The MSJC
Specification states that grout slump of 11 in. (279 mm)
is permissible. Grout is placed in the cores or cells of
hollow masonry units or between the wythes of solid
units to bind the reinforcing steel and the masonry into
a structural system.

FIGURE 8.7 Grouting a concrete masonry wall.


g. Raked Joint - Strongly emphasizes the joints.
Poor weather joint and not recommended if exposed
to weather unless tooled at bottom of mortar joint.
Pooling of water can occur at the top ledge (surface
tension properties of water) and the bottom ledge.

Additionally, grout provides:


1. More cross-sectional area allowing a grouted
wall to support greater vertical and lateral shear
forces than a non-grouted wall.
2. Added sound transmission resistance thus
reducing the sound passing through the wall.
3. Increased fire resistance and improved fire rating
of the wall.
4. Improved energy storage capabilities of a wall.

h. Struck Joint - Use to emphasize the horizontal


joi nts. Poor weat her joint, theref ore not
recommended as water will penetrate on lower
ledge.

5. Greater weight thus improving the overturning


resistance of retaining walls.
Requirements for grout are given in ASTM C 476,
Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry.

8.2.1 TYPES OF GROUT

i.

Grapevine Joint - Shows a horizontal indentation.


Same limitations as flush joint.

FIGURE 8.6

Mortar joint types (Continued).

The ASTM C 476 defines two types of grout for


masonry construction: fine grout and coarse grout. As
their names imply, these two types of grouts differ
primarily in the maximum allowable size of aggregates.
The fineness or coarseness of the grout is selected
based on the size of grout space and the height of the
grout pour. Table 8.9, Grout Proportions by Volume
covers the requirements for the mixture of the grout
type.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

8.2.1.1 FINE GROUT


Fine grout is used where the grout space is small,
narrow or too congested with reinforcing steel. When
fine grout is used, there must be a clearance of 1/4 in.
(6.4 mm) or more between the reinforcing steel and the
masonry unit.

and the top of the grout, with the cone removed, is the
slump. Both types of grout, fine and coarse, must
contain enough water to provide a slump of 8 to 11
inches (203 to 279 mm).

The normal proportions by volume for fine grout are


as follows:
12Cone

1 part Portland cement


21/2 to 3 parts sand
Water for a slump of 8 to 11 in. (203 to 279 mm)

8 to 11Slump

76

8.2.1.2 COARSE GROUT


Coarse grout may be used where the grout space
for 2 wythe masonry is at least 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) in
width horizontally, or where the minimum block cell
dimension is 11/2 x 3 in. (38.1 x 76.2 mm).
Although approved aggregates for grout (sand and
pea gravel) are limited to a maximum size of 3/8 in. (9.5
mm), a coarse grout using 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) aggregate
may be used if the grout space is significantly wide (8
in. [203 mm] or more horizontally). Larger size
aggregates take up more volume, thus requiring less
cement for an equivalent strength mix that uses smaller
aggregates. One should also be aware that when
pumping grout with 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) aggregate, a
concrete pump is required.
When coarse grout is made with pea gravel, there
must be a minimum clearance of 1/2 in. (12.7 mm)
between the reinforcing steel and the masonry unit.
The typical proportions by volume for coarse grout
are as follows:
1 part Portland cement
21/4 to 3 parts sand
1 to 2 parts pea gravel
Water for a slump of 8 to 11 in. (203 to 279 mm)
8.2.1.3 SLUMP
Fluidity is measured by a slump cone test. The
test consists of a 12" cone with openings on both ends.
The grout sample is taken from the middle of a transit
mixed load, not the initial 10% discharge and not the
last 10% discharge. The cone is placed on flat
horizontal surface (Figure. 8.8). The cone is filled with
grout, by placing the grout in the top of the cone and

rodding
to consolidate. The cone is then lifted straight
up, and the grout is free to flow to its final resting state.
The difference in height between the top of the cone

FIGURE 8.8

Slump cone and slump of grout.

Excess water in the grout is immediately absorbed


by the masonry units, reducing the apparently high
water/cement ratio to the proper levels. Thus the
masonry units should be dry prior to grouting. Once
the masonry units have absorbed the water from the
grout, the moist masonry assists in curing the grout.
The use of admixtures can change the initial water/
cement ratios and affect the final water/cement ratios,
due to the absorption of the masonry units. The designer
should carefully consider the use of admixtures in grout,
particularly water reducing admixtures since the
hydration process is dependent on the water/cement
ratio. Water reducing admixtures may be preferred for
integral water repellent systems since the excess water
does not migrate into the units as with conventional
masonry.
8.2.1.4 SELF-CONSOLIDATING GROUT
A new product is currently under development
Self-Consolidating Grout. Self-consolidating grout has
properties that can eliminate the need to mechanically
vibrate the grout, creating a savings in time, labor, and
equipment. Also self-consolidating grout may allow
higher lifts during the grout pour. The efficiency of not
consolidating and reconsolidating grout without
compromising structural integrity makes masonry more
economical. The fluidity of self-consolidating grout relies
on plasticizing admixtures, but must be stable. This
material is not measured in slump, but in spread as
depicted in Figure 8.9.

77

MORTAR AND GROUT


Table 8.9 Grout Proportions by Volume
Parts by
Parts by
Volume of
Volume of
Portland
Hydrated
Cement or
Lime or
Blended
Lime Putty
Cement

Type

Aggregate Measured in a
Damp, Loose Condition
Fine

Coarse

Fine
Grout

Coarse
Grout

FIGURE 8.9

Self-consolidating grout spread.

8.2.2 PROPORTIONS
Grout ingredient proportions are commonly selected
from Table 8.9, Grout Proportions by Volume.
Proportions of the grout ingredients may also be
determined by laboratory testing, design mix or from
field experience if a satisfactory history of the grout
s
performance is available. Note that any grout
performance history must be based on grout, mortar
and masonry units, which are similar to those intended
for use on the new project.
Historic results should be determined in accordance
with ASTM C 1314, Standard Test Method for
Compressive Strength of Masonry Prisms or ASTM C
476, Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry. The
use of 70% sand and 30% pea gravel requires six sacks
of Portland cement per cubic yard and results in a
pumpable grout that provides the minimum strength of
2,000 psi (13,800 kPa) required by ASTM C 476. Grout
must have adequate strength so that the masonry
exceeds the design strength values and for sufficient
bonding to the reinforcing steel and the masonry units.
Without adequate bonding, stresses cannot be properly
transferred between the various materials. Adequate
strength is also needed to assure the embedded anchor
bolts will perform adequately.
8.2.2.1 AGGREGATES
Aggregates for grout must meet the requirements
of ASTM C 404, Standard Specification for Aggregates
for Masonry Grout. Grading of the aggregate should
comply with Table 8.10, Grading Requirements.
8.2.2.2 MIXING GROUT
Grout prepared at the job site should be mixed for
at least 5 minutes in order to assure thorough blending
of all ingredients. Enough water must be used in the

0 to /10

0 to /10

2 /4 to 3 times
the sum of the
volumes of the
cementitious
materials
1 to 2 times
21/4 to 3 times
the sum of
the sum of the
the volumes
volumes of the
of the
cementitious
cementitious
materials
materials

IBC Table 2103.12

Table 8.10 Grading Requirements


Sieve
Size

-in.
/8-in.
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100
No. 200
1
ASTM
3

Amounts finer than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square


Openings), Percent by Weight
Fine Aggregate
Coarse Aggregate
Size No.
Size No.
Size No. Size No.
1
2
8
89
Natural
Manufactured
100
100
100
85 to 100 90 to 100
95 to 100
100
100
10 to 30 20 to 55
80 to 100 95 to 100 95 to 100 0 to 10
5 to 30
50 to 85 70 to 100 70 to 100
0 to 5
0 to 10
25 to 60 40 to 75 40 to 75
0 to 5
10 to 30 10 to 35 20 to 40
2 to 10
2 to 15
10 to 25
0 to 5
0 to 5
0 to 10
C 404. Table 1.

mixing process to achieve a high slump of 8 to 11 in.


(203 to 279 mm). Dry grout mixes which are blended
at a factory should be mixed at the job site in
accordance with manufacturers instructions or a
minimum of 5 minutes if there are no instructions.
8.2.2.3 GROUT ADMIXTURES
Admixtures are materials other than water, cement
and aggregate which are added to the grout, either before
or during mixing, in order to improve the properties of
the fresh or hardened grout.
The four most common types of grout admixtures are:
1. Shrinkage Compensating Admixtures - Used
to counteract the loss of water and the shrinkage
of the cement by creating expansive gases in the
grout.

78

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

2. Plasticizer Admixtures - Used to obtain the high


slump required for grout without the use of excess
water. By adding a plasticizer to a 4 in. (102 mm)
slump grout mix, an 8 to 11 in. (203 to 279 mm)
slump can be achieved.
3. Cement Replacement Admixtures - Used to
decrease the amount of cement in grout without
adversely affecting the compressive and bond
strengths of the grout. Types C and F fly ash are
by far the most common cement replacement
admixtures. Typically, 15 to 20% of the Portland
cement by weight is replaced with fly ash as long
as the strength characteristics are maintained.
4. Accelerator Admixtures - Used in cold weather
construction to reduce the time that the wall must
be protected from freezing. Accelerators decrease
the setting time of grout and speed up its strength
gain. Accelerators also increase the heat of
hydration preventing the grout from freezing under
most circumstances.
Careful consideration must be given prior to the
use of all admixtures since an admixture may adversely
affect certain grout properties while improving the
intended properties. Admixtures containing chloride
salts and antifreeze liquids may not be used despite
the apparent benefits, since chlorides cause corrosion
of the reinforcing steel. Admixtures can significantly
reduce the compressive and bond strengths of the grout.
Similarly, care should be taken when using two or
more admixtures in a grout mix since the combination
of admixtures can produce unexpected results. Under
all circumstances, information regarding laboratory and
field performance of an admixture should be obtained
from the manufacturer prior to use in a grout. The MSJC
Specification contains the same intent, but is somewhat
more general, requiring that admixtures must be
acceptable.
Admixtures that rely on air entrainment are a code
concern. ASTM C 476 refers to ASTM C 260 for
conformance of air entraining admixtures, whereas,
historically, the UBC stated that tests must be
conducted for mortar and grout compliance for the
admixtures.
8.2.2.4 GROUT STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS
ASTM 476 requires that the minimum grout
compressive strength shall be 2,000 psi (13,800 kPa)
at 28 days.

The required minimum compressive strength of


2,000 psi (13,800 kPa) is needed in order to achieve
adequate bond between the grout, the reinforcing steel
and the masonry unit. This minimum value is
satisfactory for masonry construction in which the
specified design strength, f
, equals 1,500 psi (10,300
m
kPa), and the masonry unit has a compressive strength
of 1900 psi (13,100 kPa). The compressive strength of
the grout in concrete masonry construction should be
1.25 to 1.33 times the design strength of the masonry
assemblage, f
.
m
IBC Section 2105.2.2.1.1(3) states that grout used
in clay masonry conform to the proportion requirements
of ASTM C 476, Table 1, or meet the minimum design
strength requirements (f
), but in no case shall the
m
strength of grout be less than 2,000 psi (13.8 MPa)
If grout tests are required, the following schedule is
suggested.
1.

At the start of grouting operations, take one test


per day for the first three days. The tests should
consist of three specimens which are made as
outlined in Section 8.2.2.5 and in accordance with
ASTM C 1019, Standard Test Method for Sampling
and Testing Grout.

2.

After the initial three tests, specimens for


continuing quality control should be taken at least
once each week. Additionally, specimens should
be taken more frequently for every 25 cubic yards
(19 m3) of grout, or for every 2,500 square feet
(232 m2) of wall, whichever comes first.

8.2.2.5 T ESTING GROUT STRENGTH


In order to determine the compressive strength of
grout, specimens are made that will represent the cured
grout in the wall. The specimen is made in a mold
consisting of masonry units identical to those being
used in construction and at the same moisture condition
as those units being laid. The units are arranged to
form a space approximately 3 to 4 in. (76.2 to 102 mm)
square and twice as high as it is wide (Figures 8.10
and 8.11).
To prevent the grout from bonding to the masonry
units, the space is lined with permeable paper or a
porous separator which allows any excess water to be
absorbed into the units. A paper towel does an excellent
job.
The representative samples of grout are placed in
molds which will remain undisturbed for 48 hours (ASTM
C 1019, Section 6.1). The grout samples are placed in
molds, in two layers, puddled and kept damp and

MORTAR AND GROUT

Line units with an


absorbent material
Tape

79

Though lifts may not exceed 5 feet (1.5 m) in height,


a grout pour may consist of several lifts. For example,
if the wall is built 20 feet (6.1 m) high, the total grout
pour could be the entire 20 feet (6.1 m). For this
situation, the contractor could place the grout in 4 lifts
of 5 feet (1.5 m) each.
8.2.2.6.2 LOW LIFT AND HIGH LIFT GROUTING
Although the terms low lift and high lift grouting
were deleted from Codes in recent years, the terms are
still commonly used when referring to grouting methods.

Grout test
specimen
Wooden block

FIGURE 8.10

Typical arrangement for making


a grout specimen for block.
Line units with
an absorbent
material

Grout
test specimen

Wooden block

FIGURE 8.11

Low lift grouting may be used when the height of a


grout pour is 5 feet (1.5 m) or less. High lift grouting
may be used only when cleanout holes are provided at
the bottom of the grout pour. The height of the masonry
wall prior to grouting may exceed 5 feet (1.5 m).
8.2.2.6.3 LOW LIFT GROUTING PROCEDURE
When the low lift grouting procedure is used,
masonry walls may be built to a height of 5 feet (1.5
m). Because of this limited pour height, which allows
for easy inspection of the walls, cleanout openings are
not required.
For multi-wythe grouted walls, the wythes must be
tied together with wire ties or joint reinforcement (Figure
8.12). The wire tying of the wythes prevents the wythes
from bulging or blowing out, during the grouting
procedure. The MSJC Specification gives a requirement
for wall ties.

Typical arrangement for making


a grout specimen for brick.
undisturbed. Between 24 and 48 hours the molds
should be removed (ASTM C 1019, Section 10.1) and
the samples are to be transported to the lab within 8
hours after mold removal.

Minimum number of
wall ties required
One per 2.67 ft2 (0.25 m2)
One per 4.50 ft2 (0.42 m2)

Wire size
W1.7 (MW 11)
W2.8 (MW 18)

8.2.2.6 METHODS OF GROUTING WALLS


There are several methods of constructing and
grouting masonry walls that will result in strong,
homogeneous and satisfactory walls. The method
selected is influenced by the type of masonry, the area
and length of wall, the equipment available and the
experience of the contractor.

t - 2

8.2.2.6.1 GROUT POUR AND LIFT


The total height of masonry to be grouted prior to
the erection of additional masonry is called a grout pour.
Grout is placed in increments called lifts. A grout lift is
the height of grout placed in a single continuous
operation.

FIGURE 8.12

Ties for two wythe walls.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


height must be consolidated by means of a mechanical
vibrator. The grout must also be reconsolidated after
the excess water is absorbed by the units to close any
voids due to the water lost.

At the top of the wall, the grout should be placed


flush with the masonry units.

Max. height of
grout pour is 5

The maximum horizontal spacing between ties is


36 in. (914 mm) and the maximum vertical spacing is
24 in. (610 mm). Additional ties are provided around
opening larger than 16 in. (406 mm) in either dimension.
The ties are placed within 12 in. (305 mm) of the opening
and have a maximum spacing of 36 in. (914 mm).

After lower section is grouted,


next 5of wall may be
constructed and grouted

80

8.2.2.6.4 HIGH LIFT GROUTING PROCEDURE

11/2minimum key
recommended ( 1/ 2
min. where bond
beams occur)

Consolidated and reconsolidate


the grout after allowing the excess water to be absorbed by
the masonry units

Cleanouts not
required since
grout pour height
is 5or less

FIGURE 8.13

Horizontal construction joints should be formed


between grout pours by stopping the grout pour 11/2 in.
(38.1 mm) below the top of the masonry. Where bond
beams occur, the joints may be reduced to 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) deep to allow sufficient grout above the horizontal
reinforcing steel.

Low lift grouting-cleanouts not

required.
Hollow unit masonry does not require ties since
the cross-webs and end shells support the face shells
and resist bulging and blowouts.
Grout may not be placed until all the masonry units,
ties, reinforcing steel and embedded anchor bolts are
in place to the top of the grout pour. Once these items
are in place, the wall may be partially or fully grouted.
For grout pours 12 in. (305 mm) high or less, the grout
may be consolidated by puddling with a stick such as
a 1 in. x 2 in. (25.4 mm x 50.8 mm) piece of wood.
However, grout pours in excess of 12 in. (305 mm) in

Grouting after a wall is constructed to its full height


is often quite economical. This method allows the
mason to continually lay masonry units without waiting
for the walls to be grouted. High lift grouting procedures
must be used when grout pours exceed 5 feet (1.5 m).
Currently the maximum pour height the Building Codes
allow is 24 feet (7.3 m).
Cleanout openings must be provided in walls which
are to be grouted using the high lift method. The MSJC
Specification requires cleanouts at the bottom course
of masonry for each grout pour so that the cells or
cavities that are to be grouted can be cleaned and
inspected prior to grouting. In partially grouted masonry,
this is usually means the vertical cells containing
reinforcement. However, in solid grouted walls,
cleanouts must be provided at no more than 32 in. (813
mm) on center, even if the reinforcing steel is spaced
at greater intervals (Figure 8.14). For partially grouted
walls the maximum spacing of cleanouts must not
exceed 48 in. (1,219 mm) on center.
Cleanout holes must be of sufficient size which the
MSJC Specification defines as at least 3 in. (76.2 mm)
in any dimension direction. A common practice is to
remove an entire CMU face shell, or leave out an entire
brick unit to satisfy the cleanout requirements. The
face shell or unit can then be replaced before grouting
with minimal evidence of the cleanout.
For solid grouted masonry walls, inverted bond
beam units will maximize grout contact with the
foundation and also make cleaning out the bottom of
cells easier.
Alternately, cleanouts may be omitted for grout
pours in excess of 5 feet (1.5 m) if a grout demonstration
panel is provided and results are satisfactory to the
designer and acceptable to the building official.

MORTAR AND GROUT

81

Section AA

32 maximum spacing of cleanout


openings for solid grouted walls; 48
maximum for partially grouted walls.

FIGURE 8.14

5 maximum

Wall tie #9 wire spaced:


Horizontally - 24 o.c. max.
Vertically for
running bond - 16 o.c.

5 maximum

Cleanout opening
at all vertical
reinforcing bars.

Grout in 5 lifts to top of pour.

Vertically for stack


bond - 12 o.c.

Cleanout opening.
Seal prior to grouting
but after inspection.

Maximum spacing of cleanout

holes.
Two wythe masonry walls must be tied together
with wire ties or joint reinforcement to prevent blowouts
and bulging.

If grout pour
is 5 - 0 or
less then it
can be placed
in one lift

5 max.

Grout lifts must be mechanically consolidated.


Before the grout loses plasticity, the grout should be
reconsolidated to close any voids due to water loss.

5 max.

Stop grout pour (not


grout lift) 11/2 below
top of masonry units

Cleanout opening.
Seal prior to grouting
but after inspection

FIGURE 8.15

Reconsolidate the grout after the excess water has been absorbed into
the masonry units.

FIGURE 8.16

High lift method of grouting 2


wythe walls, with cleanout openings.
An unrestricted double-wythe masonry wall will
allow grout to flow horizontally along the cavity and
excessive flow may cause materials to segregate.
Control barriers restrict the flow as depicted in Figure
8.17. These barriers, typically spaced at 30 feet (9.1
m), are constructed by laying masonry units in the grout
space for the full height of the wall.
At the bottom of the wall the footing may be covered
with a layer of loose sand to prevent mortar droppings
from sticking to the foundations. The mortar droppings
and sand are then removed from the grout space by
blowing out, washing out, or cleaning out by hand.
Once the bottom of the grout space has been
cleaned and inspected the cleanout holes are sealed
with a masonry unit, a face shell, or a form board which
is then braced to resist the pressure of the poured grout.

5 max.

Consolidate and
reconsolidate
the grout after
the excess
water has been
absorbed into
the masonry
units

Provide vertical
grout dam every
30 maximum

High lift grouting block wall.

82

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Long Flow Lines

FIGURE 8.18 Consolidating grout in a concrete


masonry wall.

8.2.3 12 FOOT GROUT LIFTS


Under specif ic conditions the 2005 MSJC
Specification allows for grout lifts not exceeding 12 feet
8 inches (3.86 m). These higher lifts may be used
when all of the following conditions are met:
the masonry has cured for a minimum of four
hours;
30max.

the group slump is maintained between 10 and


11 inches (254 and 279 mm); and
Controlled Placement of Grout with Barriers

FIGURE 8.17

Grout barriers.

8.2.2.7 CONSOLIDATION
Grout must be consolidated just like concrete.
Consolidation eliminates voids and causes grout to flow
around the reinforcement and into small openings or
voids.
Consolidation may be performed using a puddle
stick if the lifts are not higher than 12 in. (305 mm).
Lifts greater than 12 in. (305 mm) high, however, must
be consolidated by mechanical vibrators. As there is
only a small volume of grout to be consolidated in a
cell or grout space, the mechanical vibrator need only
be used for a few seconds in any location. Excessive
vibration increases the possibility of blowing out face
shells or dislodging masonry units.
The need for mechanical vibration to consolidate or
to re-consolidate grout does not apply to self-consolidating grout.

no intermediate reinforced bond beams are


placed between the top and the bottom of the
pour height.

Engineering Building Unit 2


UC Riverside, California

Physical Science Building


UC Riverside, California

Neuroscience Research Bldg.


UCLA, Los Angeles, California

Cupertino Civic Center


Cupertino, California

Redlands East Valley H.S.


Redlands, California

Performing Arts Center


Cal State, Fullerton, California

Congregation Ner Tamid


R. Palos Verdes, California

New Gym-Diablo View M.S.


Clayton, California

Pacifica High School


Oxnard, California

Stanford U. Auxiliary Library III


Livermore, California

Digital Media Center


Santa Ana, California

New Gym-Kennedy H.S.


Granada Hills, California

Orange County Fire Authority


Irvine, California

Getty Center Museum


Los Angeles, California

Community Center and Sports


Laguna Hills, California

Center for Wine, Food & Arts


Napa, California

SECTION 2

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

CHAPTER

BRICK MASONRY
CONSTRUCTION
In chapter one, clay brick, as a material, was
presented. In this chapter, brick design and construction
will be given in detail. Such topics will include the
importance of the brick pattern, types of loading,
empirical design, environmental design and structural
design. Detailing issues will also be addressed. As
mentioned in the preface of this book, the material is
for the non-engineering disciplines of the building
industry. However, basic knowledge of the issues and
terminology of the engineer is assumed. There are
many books and other publications available that give
an in-depth discussion of the engineering of brick. A
significant amount of information in this chapter is
derived from the Brick Industry Association
s Technical
Notes. The designer is encouraged to use the most
current information by using the sources available in
the Reference Section.

9.1 AESTHETIC DESIGN


Brick masonry and shaped stones are possibly the
oldest manufactured building materials. They are also,
when used well, two of the most beautiful and enduring
building elements. Brick, for example, is a building
material of bewildering flexibility, and is used to solve
an infinite number of design problems. When brick is
used with imagination and care, with good design and
with attention to color and texture, it can create a
structure that is both aesthetically appealing and
functional.
The most visual and important characteristics of
brick and brickwork are how it will be assembled and
the pattern the layout creates, or the bond pattern. The
bond pattern gives a statement to the architectural
quality, but it is extremely important to the structural
quality.

9.1.1 BRICK MASONRY BOND PATTERNS


Bond patterns such as English or Flemish, or
variations of these, may be used to create patterns in
the face of a wall. Pattern refers to the change or varied
arrangement of brick, texture or color used in the face.
Using the same structural bond, it may be possible to
secure several patterns. Also, patterns may be
produced by the method of handling the mortar joint or
by projecting or recessing certain units from the plane
of the wall, thus creating a distinctive wall texture that
is not solely dependent upon the texture of the individual
brick.
Five essential structural bonds are typically used
to create typical patterns: Running Bond, Common or
American Bond, Flemish Bond, English Bond, and
Stack Bond. With variations of the color and texture of
the brick and of the joint types and color, an unlimited
number of patterns can be developed through the use
of these bonds.
Running Bond - The running bond consists of all
stretcher units with units overlapping in adjacent courses
and is the simplest of the basic bond patterns. Running
bond is further identified by the length of overlap, such
as half bond or third bond. The running bond is utilized
extensively in cavity wall construction and veneered
walls of brick, and often in facing tile walls where the
bonding may be achieved by extra width stretcher tile.
Because of the importance of the running bond
pattern to structural integrity, the MSJC Code formally
defines a running bond pattern as:

The placement of masonry units such that the


head joints in successive courses are horizontally
offset at least one-quarter the unit length.

84

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


All other bond patterns are treated as
stack bond
.
1

/2 unit length

/2 Running Bond
1

/3 unit length

Flemish Bond Each brick course in this bond


consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately. A
header is flanked on both sides, above and below, by
stretchers. Where the headers are not used for the
structural bonding, the headers may be obtained by
using half brick called
clippedor
snapheaders.
Flemish bond may be varied by increasing the
number of stretchers between headers in each course.
A
garden wallbond is known when there are three
stretchers alternating with a header. When there are
two stretchers between headers, it is known as
double
stretcher garden wallbond. Also, garden wall bond
may be laid with four or even five stretchers between
the headers.

Dutch Corner

English Corner

/3 Running Bond

FIGURE 9.1

Running bonds.

Common or American Bond - This bond is a


variation of running bond with a course of full length
headers at regular intervals. The headers provide
structural bonding, as well as pattern. Typically, header
courses appear at every fifth, sixth or seventh course.
First course bonding patterns are important to the
layout of the wall. A three-quarter length brick may be
required at the corner to maintain the bond on both
walls.

Common Bond

FIGURE 9.3

Flemish bonds.

Patterns that may be obtained by varying brick color


are illustrated in Figures 9.4 and 9.5.

6TH Course Headers

FIGURE 9.2

Common or American bond.

FIGURE 9.4 Double stretcher garden wall bond


with units in diagonal lines.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

English Corner

FIGURE 9.7
FIGURE 9.5

Garden wall bond with units in


dovetail fashion.
English Bond This pattern is made f rom
alternating courses of headers and stretchers on each
course. The headers are centered on the stretchers
and the joints between the stretchers in all the courses
are lined up vertically. Snap headers are used in
courses which are not structural bonding courses.

English Corner

FIGURE 9.6

85

Dutch Corner

English cross or Dutch bond.

Stack Bond This is a weak bond, typically used


for decorative effect on veneers. All vertical joints are
aligned, and steel joint reinforcement must be installed.
Since all vertical joints are aligned there is no overlapping
of units. Normally this pattern is bonded to the backing
with rigid metal ties, but when 8 in. (203 mm) boundary
units are available, they may be used. In stack bond
dimensionally accurate masonry units must be used if
the vertical alignment of the head joints is to be
maintained.

Dutch Corner

English bond.

English Cross or Dutch Bond This is a variation


on the English bond, the only difference being that the
vertical joints between the stretchers in alternate courses
do not line up vertically. These joints center on the
stretchers as shown in Figure 9.7.
There are two methods used in starting the corners
in Flemish and English bonds. The
Dutch Corner
uses
a three-quarter brick closure, and the
English Corner
uses a 2 in. (51 mm) or quarter brick closure, and is
called a
Queen Closure
. The 2 in. (51 mm) closure
should always be placed 4 in. (102 mm) from the corner.

FIGURE 9.8

Stack bond.

Wall Texture Another contemporary modification


of the traditional bond has been used by projecting and
recessing units, or by omitting units to form perforated
walls or screens.

9.1.2 MODULAR BRICK MASONRY


Several years ago, the ultimate objective of the
construction industry was the development of a system
of construction in which all materials, components,
products and equipment fit together simply and easily
with minimum alterations required at the jobsite.
Today, a large percentage of brick is produced in
modular sizes consistent wit h est ablished
manufacturing policies.

86

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The exterior face brick are shown with 3/8 in. (9.5
mm) joints and are backed up with units, such as
structural clay tile designed for use with 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) joints. The inside facing of ceramic glazed units
are laid in 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) joints. As indicated in the
enlargements, the full coordination between units is
apparent. The thickness of the vertical joints between
the different types of units is the average of the joint
thickness used with each unit.

12
/4 1/8

/2 j

/2 j

/8

/2 j

Cavity

/2 j

Plan
j

/2
1
/41/4

1
/16
/4
7
/16

/8

/2 j

3
/16
/16

Cavity

Actual Wall
Thickness = t

Nominal Wall
Thickness = T

/4

/8

/8

/41/4

As illustrated in Figure 9.9, the dimensions of


modular units are
nominaland are equal to the
specified dimension (i) plus the thickness of the mortar
joint (j) with which the unit is designed to be laid. The
specified length of a unit, for example, whose nominal
length is 12 in. (305 mm) is 111/2 in. (292 mm) if the
units were designed to be installed with 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) mortar joints, or 115/8 in. (295 mm) for 3/8 in. (9.5
mm) mortar joints.

Figure 9.10 shows the way in which the coordination


of different modular masonry units can be achieved.

/2

9.1.2.1 DIMENSIONS OF MODULAR UNITS

9.1.2.2 COORDINATION OF MASONRY UNITS

As design requirements change, new sizes may


be added and less popular sizes discontinued. Also,
not all manufacturers produce all the typical sizes.
Therefore, the designer should consult current
manufacturer or regional catalogs for available sizes in
any locality before proceeding with a design.

/16wall ties
16o.c. vertically
36o.c. horizontally
3

j
L

Wall Sections
W

Elevation

Section

Capital letters indicate nominal dimensions.


Lower case letters indicate actual dimensions.

FIGURE 9.9

Modular unit dimensions.

Face brick are normally laid with either 3/8 in. (9.5
mm) or 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) thick mortar joints, however
some products, such as ceramic glazed brick or
structural clay facing tile, are designed for 1/4 in. (6.4
mm) thick mortar joints.
The standard dimensions of a single unit may vary
from the specified dimensions by no more than the
permissible tolerances for variation in dimensions
included in the applicable ASTM Standard.

FIGURE 9.10

Coordination of modular unit.

9.1.2.3 INITIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

A 4 in. (102 mm) modular grid should be established


as a reference system for the three dimensional
elements of plan and structure, but no part of the plan
should be forced to fall on the grid, nor should any
dimension be forced into multiples of 4 in. (102 mm).
Economics can be realized in construction costs
through the use of modular dimensions, thus minimizing
field cutting brick units.
9.1.2.4 GRID LOCATIONS OF MASONRY WALLS
Figure 9.11 shows grid locations of mortar joints in
walls constructed with various modular units when the
walls are centered between grid lines.
All grid lines coincide with horizontal mortar joints
for the 2 in. (50.8 mm) and 4 in. (102 mm) nominal
heights, thus providing 4 in. (102 mm) flexibility.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

87

Grid lines coincide with horizontal joints every 8 in.


(203 mm) with 22/3 in. (67.7 mm) high units (as well as
8 in. (203 mm) high units). A course of 4 in. (102 mm)
high supplementary units (or a rowlock header course)
may be required to complete even coursing for the given
wall height when 4 in. (102 mm) flexibility is required.

8stretcher 3 courses = 81/2 bond


4multiple corner to opening

The fact that alternate grid lines coincide with the


mortar joints when the 22/3 in. (67.7 mm) high brick is
used provides a simple rule for determining the location
of a grid line with respect to the masonry at any point
above or below a given reference grid line. Any grid line
which is an even multiple of 4 in. (102 mm) from the
reference line will have the same relative position with
respect to the masonry coursing, while any grid line
that is an odd multiple of 4 in. (102 mm) will have the
alternate position. This rule greatly simplifies the
checking of course heights, particularly for lintels, where
it is usually desirable that the head of the opening
coincides with a horizontal mortar joint.
Typically, a symmetrical grid location for walls is
preferred to an unsymmetrical position. The correct
symmetrical location, which is centered between grid
lines or centered on a grid line, will often be influenced
by the length of the masonry units to be used.

12stretcher 2 courses = 41/3 bond


12multiple corner to opening

For masonry units whose nominal lengths are 8 or


16 in. (203 or 406 mm), vertical joints will occur on grid
lines when 4 and 8 in. (102 and 203 mm) thick walls
are centered between grid lines, and they will occur at
mid-grid points when these walls are centered on grid
lines.
When laid in one-third bond, the above conditions
are also true for 12 in. (305 mm) nominal length units.
Vertical joints in alternate courses will occur on grid
lines and be centered between grid lines when these
units are laid in center (1/2) bond.

12stretcher 1 courses = 41/2 bond


12multiple corner to opening

12stretcher 3 courses = 161/2 bond


12multiple corner to opening

FIGURE 9.11

Grid locations.

9.1.3 BRICK MASONRY DIMENSIONING


Brick detailing has become simplified with the
advent of modular dimensioned construction. This
method requires the designer to create details on the
basis of length and width of brick. Using dimensions of
multiples of full brick length will reduce the number of
cut brick required when locating corners, returns and
openings. Full brick and half brick in alternate courses
around a recessed window opening is shown in Figure
9.12. Cut brick would have to be placed in all courses
as shown in Figure 9.12, if the dimension to the window
was not a whole number of brick lengths. Uniform
mortar head joints are maintained in alternate courses.
This becomes more critical with shorter horizontal
dimensions.

88

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


By arranging different colors of brick other effects
can be accomplished. Color can be used to draw
attention and give direction. One example is the use of
color bands around entances. Color can also be used
to create simple patterns or complex murals.
The light reflectance of the masonry is influenced
by color. To reflect light, the exposed surface of the
units may be glazed or smooth skinned. Deeply
textured or sand faced units absorb light, creating richer
colors.
Proper Dimensioning

9.1.5 TEXTURE
In masonry, texture can reach new or can surpass
most limits. Modifying the brick unit, the mortar joint
and the combination of both makes it feasible to
accomplish thousands of textural effects. For example,
large uniform glazed units laid in stack bond with thin
flush mortar joints can produce sleek surfaces. An
irregularly sized, rough unit laid with thick, raked joints
in a non-uniform bond pattern achieves a highly coarse
texture.

Improper Dimensioning

FIGURE 9.12

Dimensioning layouts.

9.1.4 COLOR
Traditionally, brick masonry was made of natural
earth colored brick and either white or gray mortar.
Revisions to the manufacturing process and suitable
pigments now provide an almost limitless color pallet
from which a designer may choose.
Variation of colors can be accomplished by
changing the color of the units or mortar. To create
different effects, mortar color can be used to contrast
or blend with the brick . Greater contrast between mortar
and brick enhances the separation of the units, creating
a more ornate surface which appears to contain more
texture. As the viewing distance increases color variation
changes. Small patterns are lost and larger ones
dominate as the area is viewed from farther away.
Varying hues of the same color may be
accomplished due to the materials and manufacturing
methods for brick. The bricks, when laid, create a
variegated pattern of color which cannot be achieved
with any other building material. Brick which appear
to have little variation in color can be used when a
uniform color is desired.

The brick units can have great textural diversity.


Smooth glossy surfaces are produced by glazed units.
Extruded die skins create smooth velvet surfaces. Sand
finish, deep grooves, scratches or wire cuts may be
applied to coarse textures. Several manufacturers
tumble unfired brick down inclines to increase texture.
Limited only by the imagination of the designer, special
shapes have long been used to give added interest to a
facade
s texture.
Textural flexibility is given by mortar joints.
Although, only the concave, V-shaped, and weathered
joints are recommended for exterior use due to moisture
concerns, it is surprising how the use of these joints
will modify the appearance of a wall. Since moisture
penetration is not a consideration in interior masonry,
more dramatic joint profiles, such as raked or extruded
joints, can be used to create interesting textures and
shadows. The size of the joint, of course, provides
many additional possibilities.
The combination of brick and mortar creates many
textures, which is further expanded with imaginative
bond patterns and by projecting and recessing brick
units. Brick masonry is renowned for the textural effects
created with corbels, racking and dentils. When
thoughtful attention to texture is given, the facade of
the building can easily be altered from ultra-modern to
rustic.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


9.1.6 SCALE
The most important architectural aspect of a building
is the scale. The dimension of the building naturally
has the greatest influence on scale, but architectural
features and materials are important factors. Features
such as long slender colonnades, for example, make
even the most modest size building appear large.
The scale of a building is perceived, but controllable.
Based on comparative affirmation it is a judgment of
size by the observer. Studies show that two identical
objects have a different perception under different
lighting conditions. The object with brighter lighting will
appear larger. Also, given two equal length lines, one
horizontal and one vertical, the vertical line appears
longer. Furthermore, highly ornate areas reduce scale,
whereas plain areas increase scale. Comparative
objects must be present to give scale since size is
relative.
Brick is the human-scale building element by
tradition. Perhaps this is one of the reasons brick
masonry is so popular, as it gives a human scale to
structures. The combination of darker colors and
horizontal lines reduces the scale of a building. To
create flat, stretching ranch homes, Frank Lloyd Wright
made extensive use of long, thin brick. The comparison
of the relatively small size of individual units to the large
building elements can give the elements an exaggerated
large scale. Architects can make use of smaller brick
units and mortar joints that can be used to mislead the
viewer. The use of oversized units modify the learned
comparison of scale and makes the element appear
smaller.

9.2 DESIGN LOADS


All structures must be designed to support their
own weight along with any superimposed forces, such
as the dead loads from other materials, live loads, wind
pressures, seismic forces and earth pressures. These
vertical and lateral loads may be of short duration such
as those from wind or earthquake, or they may be of
longer duration such as the dead loads of machinery
and equipment. Proper design must consider all
possible applied forces along with the interaction of these
forces on the structure.
Empirical or rational methods can be used in the
design of brick masonry structures. The successful
performance of previously constructed buildings are
determined by empirical methods and are often used
on smaller projects. Based on engineering principles,
rational methods are developed from the analysis of
test results, interaction of members and load distribution.

89

For larger projects, rational design typically result in a


material cost savings over empirical design .
A rational or engineering design of structures
considers the presence of loads, the interaction of
elements and the amount of material present to resist
those loads. Basic assumptions concerning performance of materials are made. A significant amount of
masonry is designed based on the following three
principles:
1. Normalize force (stress) and normalized
deflection (strain) are directly related to each
other by a proportion (Hooke
s Law),
2. Cross-sections which are straight and form a
plane, before loading, remain straight and form
a plane after loading (no warping), and
3. Masonry (bri ck, m ortar, grout, and
reinf orcement) works t ogether as one
homogeneous system.

9.2.1 LOADS
Imposed loads govern the sizes of structural
members. Building codes and standards traditionally
prescribe the value and combinations of loads.
Structures and members must be designed to resist
the most unfavorable effect of load placement and
combination. Vertical loads are either dead loads or
live loads; common horizontal loads are wind,
hydrostatic and seismic loads.
9.2.1.1 DEAD LOADS
Dead loads are long term stationary forces which
include the self-weight of the structure and the weight
of permanent equipment and machinery, such as; walls,
roofs, stairways, partitions and fixed HVAC or service
equipment. Dead loads are computed from known
material weights and their respective sizes. Additionally,
the 1997 Uniform Building Code Section 1606.2 required
a uniformly distributed dead load of 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2)
where wall partitions are to be used. However, the 2006
International Building Code, Section 1607.5, now
classifies this 15 psf wall partition loading as a live
load. This double classification is brought on by the
nature of the wall partition load. If the partitions are
present, they are usually in place for a long time and
the partitions are positively attached to the structure,
thus becoming a part of the dead load mass for seismic
forces and long term creep (deflections). However, if
the partitions are not present, then the dead load is not
present to help hold the building down during wind and
seismic events (i.e. resist over-turning) and the partition
loading should be considered as live loading. The caveat

90

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

in the code should not be followed blindly and a designer


should be given leeway to exercise judgment. In either
case, dead load vs. live load, both require uniformly
distributed dead load of 15 pounds per square foot (0.74
kN/m2) when partitions are used and the minimum
specified live load is less than 80 psf. ASCE 7-05 also
requires a minimum design dead load of 15 pounds per
square foot (0.74 kN/m2) for framed partitions using 2 x
4 wood studs, plastered two sides.
9.2.1.2 LIVE LOADS
Live loads are short duration forces which are
variable in magnitude and location. Examples of live
load items include people, furniture, rain and snow.
The 2006 IBC, Chapter 16, addresses these live
loadings. Table 1607.1 of the IBC is a comprehensive
live load list based on the use and occupancy of the
structure.
9.2.1.3 WIND LOADS
Wind loads exert a pressure and a suction on the
exposed building surfaces and are particularly important
in high-rise construction. Factors such as height of
the structure, gust factors, exposure, wind speeds and
importance designation of the structure are included in
the design for wind loads. Wind forces overturning of
the structure must also be considered.
9.2.1.4 SEISMIC (EARTHQUAKE) LOADS

9.2.1.5 HYDROSTATIC LOADS


Loads due to confined liquids or soils in contact
with the member are hydrostatic loads. The most
common example of a hydrostatic load imposed on
masonry would be liquid saturated soil behind a retaining
wall.
9.2.1.6 MATERIAL PROPERTY LOADS
Due to changes in temperature and moisture
content construction materials expand and contract.
Stresses are developed in the material if these
movements are restrained. Differential (very small)
movement between adjacent materials causes stress.
The behavior of each material and the interaction of
materials must be examined to consider these
additional stresses.

9.3 LOAD DISTRIBUTION


Wind loads and external lateral forces on a wall
are horizontal loads which transmit the forces to
horizontal and vertical supports. Vertical loads exert a
force that is transmitted through the floors, columns,
beams or walls and ultimately into the ground.
Due to non-uniform loading, the effect of torsion or
twisting of the structure must be taken into account.
All loads are transmitted through the foundation and
into the ground in one way or another.

The IBC has replaced the familiar


Seismic Zones
with Seismic Design Categories. In previous codes,
seismic zones were given a relative rating of Zone 0
(least seismic activity and wind governs minimum lateral
design) thru Zone 4 (most seismic activity that governs
minimum lateral design). This relative scale gave the
non-engineering professional an immediate and relative
understanding of the possibility of seismic activity over
the life of a structure. It also gave the non-engineering
professional a
feelfor whether wind or seismic loading
would govern the minimum design. Today, the IBC uses
contour maps of percentage of
g
. The percent
g
contours vary from 0 to 200. This high gradation blurs
the areas (zones) between low and high seismic loading.
The contour map is new and it will take many years for
the building industry to become familiar and comfortable
with equating a percentage
g
to a feel if wind or seismic
governs the design.
In areas of significant earthquake activity seismic
forces are of importance. During an earthquake, all
structural members are subjected to dynamic forces
caused by the resulting ground motions. Many factors
such as site geology, building shape, structural system
and mass, should be included in the design for
earthquake loads.

FIGURE 9.13

Load distribution.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Some factors in which forces are distributed to the
individual members include configuration, connection
of structural elements, the flexural resistance and
rigidity of the wall in both the vertical and horizontal
direction and the fixity or restraint at the supports.

Compressive force

Brick
Mortar

A rule of thumb is symmetry and center-line to


center-line connection of structural members thereby
giving structural efficiency to a building.

Brick

9.4 MASONRY STRESSES

Masonry is the assemblage of masonry units,


mortar and grout. The strength of a completed masonry
wall is based on all three of these working together.
Although the compressive strength of an individual brick
may be very high, this strength alone does not dictate
the compressive strength of the assemblage. The
strength of the mortar and the grout must also be
considered. Since these three items must be
assembled, how well they are assembled directly affects
the strength. The quality of workmanship, construction
detailing and the component dimensions are also
influencing factors.

FIGURE 9.14

Tensile stresses developed from


compressive forces.
member) occurs when the slenderness ratio increases
and reaches the Euler buckling phase. Slenderness
effects may be estimated from the ratio of the height to
the thickness or radius of gyration of the assemblage.

9.4.2 FLEXURAL TENSION STRESSES


Vertical loads which are not applied at the center
of the member, called eccentric loads, or out-of-plane
loads, will cause the assemblage to bend. One side of
the wall can be in tension with the opposite side in
compression during bending.

Load
Tension

Tension

9.4.1 COMPRESSIVE STRESS

Compressive force

Compression

There are two primary design methods which must


be considered, empirical and rational design
techniques. Stresses develop in the masonry element
as it resists the applied loads. The primary stresses
are shear and normal. Shear stresses are caused by
forces that are parallel to a surface. Normal stresses
are caused by forces perpendicular to a surface. Normal
stresses are described by their direction and by
how
they were created
. Normal stresses are compressive,
tensile (caused by direct pulling), or tensile (caused by
bending or flexure). Therefore, the primary types of
stresses can be further described as compressive,
tensile or flexural tensile and shear stresses. For each
of these stresses there is a corresponding strength
property of masonry: compressive strength, flexural
bond strength and shear strength. Each of these
strengths is influenced by the properties of materials
and the configurations of the assemblages.

91

Lateral force
Compression

FIGURE 9.15

Flexural tensile stress (Out-of-

plane load).
Mortar is put into tension or compression when an
axial load is applied to the assemblage. The bond
between the mortar and the brick transfers the
movement to the brick. This develops tensile stresses
in the brick, which can cause vertical cracking.
When masonry fails in this manner, it gives the
highest value of strength. There can be compression
failure at a lower value and this occurs when buckling
is the failure. Buckling (the bending of a compression

9.4.3 SHEAR STRESSES


In brick structures, there are two types of shear.
Shear stress is one type that results from sliding
action with the force parallel to the resisting area. Figure
9.16 shows that in the case of a brick shear wall the
load is in the plane of the wall and the wall resists this
force parallel to its bed joints.

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MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

9.5 EMPIRICAL DESIGN


Empirical Design is contained in Section 2109 of
the 2006 IBC. This section also references 2005 MSJC
Code, Chapter 5.
V

FIGURE 9.16

Empirical design is based on experience and what


has worked in the past. Empirical design is a very
quick design method, however, it is not necessarily
the most efficient method. The majority of the
requirements for empirical design are based on
limitations to wall dimensions. Several basic designs
are included, but only vertical loads are considered in
determining stresses.
Sliding action shear stress.

9.5.1 ALLOWABLE STRESSES


When bending is present, the second type of shear
stress occurs. As shown in Figure 9.17 in a cantilever
beam made of several sheets of material with a force
applied to the end of a beam, the sheets move relative
to each other.

If the vertical loading in the masonry is due to vertical


dead loads plus live loads (excluding wind or seismic
loads), then the empirical design values can be used
to design the masonry. The actual compression
stresses in the masonry are determined by dividing the
design load by the gross cross-sectional area. These
actual stresses must not exceed the permitted
compressive stress for the weakest combination of the
units and mortar in the masonry assemblage. 2005
MSJC Code Chapter 5 lists the permitted compression
stresses for masonry assemblages.

9.5.2 MINIMUM THICKNESS

FIGURE 9.17

Bending action shear stress.

No slippage planes would occur if this same beam


were made of a single material, and a shear stress
would develop in the material as depicted in Figure 9.18.
This type of shear stress is assumed in brick beams,
columns and walls which are subjected to bending.

FIGURE 9.18

Bending shear stress.

The empirical design method has requirements for


the minimum thickness of masonry. The minimum
thickness requirement varies depending on the type of
masonry construction. For example, bearing walls of
one-story buildings must have a minimum thickness of
6 in. (152 mm). Bearing walls for buildings more than
one story require a minimum thickness of 8 in. (203
mm). Parapet and shear walls must be at least 8 in.
(203 mm) thick and their height shall not exceed 3 times
the thickness.

9.5.3 LATERAL SUPPORT


Lateral support requirements for walls are given in
Chapter 5 of the 2005 MSJC Code. Walls must be
laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical
direction. The lateral support shall occur at intervals
based on the wall length to thickness ratio or the wall
height to thickness ratio. Fully grouted bearing walls
are limited to a h/t ratio of 20, where all other types of
bearing walls are limited to a h/t ratio of 18. Non-bearing
exterior walls have a maximum h/t ratio of 18 and nonbearing interior walls have a maximum h/t ratio of 36.
Lateral support can be provided by cross walls,
pilasters, buttresses or structural frame members when
the limiting distance is measured horizontally. When
the limiting distance is measured vertically, lateral

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


support can be provided by floors and roofs acting as
diaphragms or structural frame members. When
calculating thickness for these ratios the thickness of
the wall is the total wall thickness for solid walls and
the thickness of only the loaded width for cavity walls.

9.5.4 LATERAL STABILITY


Chapter 5 of the 2005 MSJC Code addresses lateral
stability of shear walls and roofs. Masonry walls must
be provided parallel to the direction of the lateral force if
the structure depends on masonry walls for lateral
stability. The lowest cumulative length of shear walls
provided in each direction is 0.4 times the long dimension
of the building. In the cumulative length, openings are
not included. The minimum length of shear wall
elements should be the story height.

9.5.5 BOND AND ANCHORAGE


Multi-wythe walls empirically designed must be
bonded with masonry headers, metal wall ties or joint
reinforcement. Depending upon one another for lateral
support, masonry elements that intersect must be
anchored or bonded at locations where they meet or
are connected by overlapping masonry units, steel
connectors or joint reinforcement. Anchorage of
masonry to floors, roofs and adjoining structural framing
is required.

9.6 CLAY BRICK DESIGN FOR


MOISTURE AND MOVEMENT
Many of the problems in masonry walls are due to
water penetration. If a wall has water in it, freezing and
thawing may cause cracking, spalling and
disintegration. Water in masonry can cause
efflorescence to appear on exterior surfaces, metals to
corrode and interior finishes to deteriorate.
Water, in the forms of rain and snow, contacts
building materials, wetting them. The materials can also
draw moisture from water vapor present in the air. Water
penetration must be controlled since water cannot be
completely eliminated.

9.6.1 MOISTURE RESISTANCE


The successful performance of a masonry wall
requires limiting the amount of water penetration and
controlling any water that enters the wall system. The
four important key factors for water resistance of a
masonry wall are: design, materials, construction and
maintenance. To produce a satisfactorily performing
wall, attention to all four factors is necessary.

93

9.6.2 SOURCES OF MOISTURE


Moisture is present in various forms such as rain,
snow, condensation, ground water, and humidity.
Rain - Depending on climate, topography and
building features, the exposure to which a masonry wall
will be subjected is variable. Wind driven rain is also a
concern since the wind can blow water into cracks or
holes.
Condensation - This is usually due to moisture
originating inside the building, whereas most sources
of moisture are external. The interior air is humidified
by moisture released from cooking, bathing, washing
and other operations employing water or steam and
moisture released by exhalation and perspiration of the
occupants. Gained interior moisture content increases
interior vapor pressure above exterior vapor pressure.
This increased pressure drives the interior moist air
outward from the building through any vapor-porous
materials that comprise the walls.
Condensation will occur when vapor comes in
contact with wall materials at temperatures below the
dew point of moist air. Vapor barriers should be placed
to stop moist air from reaching places in a wall
sufficiently cool to cause condensation. The vapor
barrier must be located on the warm side of the wall
insulation.
Ground Water - Rain and other sources, such as
moisture behind retaining walls, can wick upward into
the masonry unless adequate moisture penetrating
barriers are present.
Humidity - The typical environment contains a
certain amount of moisture which affects the moisture
content in a brick masonry wall.

9.6.3 SELECTION OF WALL TYPE


Under various exposures, no single wall type can
be expected to perform equally. Regardless of the
quality of the materials or the degree of workmanship,
a heavy wind-driven rain will penetrate a single wythe of
brickwork. Therefore, the wall system must control
the moisture once it penetrates the exterior wythe. The
drainage wall and the barrier wall are two basic wall
systems used for this purpose. Drainage wall systems
have the highest resistance to rain penetration.

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MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

9.6.4 WATER PENETRATION RESISTANCE

9.6.5 FLASHING

Quality materials used in the construction process


will improve water penetration resistance in brick
masonry. When water passes through a brick wall, it
also passes through voids and separations or cracks
between the brick units and the mortar. Under normal
conditions and exposures, large amounts of water do
not pass directly through the brick and mortar. Highly
absorbent clay masonry units will absorb water but do
not contribute to the flow of water through the wall.

Flashing is a thin impervious membrane, installed


at specific locations in a masonry wall system. Water
that penetrates the exterior wythe gravitates to the base
of the wall panel and flashing collects the water and
directs the moisture to the exterior through weep holes.
Flashing is essential in providing water drainage in
barrier wall systems.

The extent of bond between the brick and the mortar


is a key item in resistance to rain penetration in properly
built brick masonry. Extent of bond is defined as the
area of contact between the interface of the brick and
the mortar surfaces. On the other hand, bond strength
is a measure of the adhesion between the masonry
unit and mortar. High bond strength between brick and
mortar may not necessarily result in an extent of bond
that would provide high resistance to rain penetration.
Higher extent of bond results in increased water
penetration resistance of brick masonry. Extent of bond
between the clay masonry unit and mortar selected
can be increased by:

2005 MSJC Code, Chapter 6, requires flashing and


all construction documents should specify the type of
flashing and show its exact location. In brick masonry
walls various types of flashing materials may be used.
Typically, flashing materials are formed from sheet
metals, bituminous membranes or plastics. Flashing
directly affects how a masonry wall performs and the
selection is largely determined by cost and suitability.
To avoid leaking in the brick masonry walls, superior
quality materials should be selected since replacement
in the event of failure will be expensive.
Many types of materials are available for flashing,
however, not all materials are recommended. The
following is a list of flashing materials with various
recommendations.

1. Using Portland cement-lime mortar.


2. The cement content of the mortar should be in
the range of 1:1/4 to 1:1, cement-lime.
3. Mix ing m ortar f or compatibil ity with
workmanship. This means using maximum
amounts of water and retempering as
necessary. The ability to retemper is based on
many f actors including the ambient air
temperature.
4. Applying pressure when laying brick units.
5. The Initial Rate of Absorption (IRA) of the clay
masonry unit when laid should be less than
30g/min/30 in.2. For high absorption units, this
may be obtained by prewetting the units.
Effectiveness of bond between the mortar and clay
masonry unit may be reduced by:
1. Increasing the mortar air content beyond 12%.
2. Low (< 60%) water retentively of the mortar.
3. Smooth (die skin) texture of the bed surface.
4. Using brick with heavily sanded bed surfaces.

Copper is an excellent flashing material,


durable and available in special, pre-formed shapes.
Typical copper flashing is made from 10 to 20 oz.
sheet copper.
Plastic flashings are durable, resilient
materials, which are highly resistant to corrosion.
Performance records of the material should be
evaluated and where possible, test data to ensure
satisfactory performance because the chemical
compositions of plastics vary widely. Typical
thickness of plastic flashing is 20 mil. to 60 mil.
Stainless steel is an excellent flashing
material. It is impervious to moisture and resists
chemicals well. The minimum thickness should
be at least 0.01 in. (0.25 mm).
Combination flashings, such as metal foil,
glass fiber reinforcement, copper and plastic, were
developed to utilize different materials to produce a
moderately priced flashing with good properties.
For the various flashings available, manufacturers
literature should be consulted.
Asp halt-impregnated felt is not
recommended as a material to be used for flashing
in masonry construction. During installation, it can
be easily damaged and in many cases, turns brittle
and can degrade with time.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Aluminum should not be used as a flashing
material in brick masonry construction. The caustic
alkalis present in mortar will attack aluminum.
Lead is susceptible to corrosion in mortar. Lead
should not be used as a flashing material in brick
masonry.
The location of flashing is as important as the
material. Moisture that enters a wall gradually travels
downward. Proper design requires flashing at shelf
angles, heads of openings, window sills, spandrels,
wall bases, projections, tops of walls, recesses, and
roofs. The locations noted above are either tops,
bottoms or horizontal interruptions of walls.

95

Flashing at tops of walls limits the amount of


moisture entering the wall. Flashing at the base of a
wall diverts moisture to the outside of the wall. To divert
the water to the exterior, continuous flashing must be
placed above grade at the base of walls. Base flashing
prevents water from rising up into the wall system due
to capillary action. When the designer has determined
the elevation for placing base flashing in the wall
according to plans, care should be taken so flashing is
not installed below grade.
Flashing should be placed under all sills and turned
up at the ends to form dams. Special flashing
considerations may be required for soffits and deep
reveals.

Wall ties

Flashing

Sealant

Weep holes

Metal anchor
Flashing turned up
beyond end of sill

15 min.
Concrete or
stone sill
1 in. (25 mm) min.

Flashing
Weep holes

Wall ties
Flashing
Sealant
Weep holes
Wood or
steel frame

Flashing

15 min.
Weep holes
1 in. (25 mm) min.

Wall ties

FIGURE 9.20

Flashing

Flashing should be installed at the top of all


openings. The flashing should be placed directly on
top of the lintels and turned up at the ends to form
dams.

Weep holes

FIGURE 9.19

Base flashing details.

Sill flashing details.

96

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Coping

1 in. min.
W aterproof
sheathing

Ties

Elastic
sealant

Grout
Steel stud
back-up

Flashing
Brick veneer

1 in. min.
air space

Flashing
Steel angle
Weep holes

Reinforcing
steel

Metal ties

Flashing
Rigid
insulation

2 in. min. air


space

Sealant
Dovetail tie

Open head joint


@ 4o.c. for air
circulation

Insulation

FIGURE 9.21

Shelf angle at concrete support,


steel stud back-up.
In frame buildings, continuous flashing is necessary
at shelf angles supporting brick masonry.

Variation from
specified position
in plan
Adjustable
anchor

Alternate
position of
flashing with
weep holes
shifted
upward one
brick
Weep holes @
24o.c.

FIGURE 9.23

The tops of all walls and parapets should have a


sloped cap or coping. Flashing must be placed beneath
the coping when masonry units, stone or concrete are
used. When metal coping is used, it should extend 4
in. (102 mm) onto the face of the masonry. Metal
copings do not require flashing beneath.
Rowlock coping with dowel
rod and anchor pin
Flashing and counterflashing

Shims

Roofing
Sealant

Face of
beam or
slab

Concrete cap flashing detail.

Sheathing
Purlin anchor

Sealant
back-up
Clear for
vertical
movement or
provide
compressible
material

Joist hanger
Ledger with anchor bolts as required
for vertical and horizontal forces
Bond beam or chord reinforced
as required for lateral loads

FIGURE 9.22

Shelf angle anchored to beam

or slab.

FIGURE 9.24

Projections and recesses provide a surface to


collect water. They should be sloped away from the
wall to drain and have flashing as close to the sloped
surface as possible.

Roof penetrations must be designed and installed


with great care to avoid moisture penetration. Flashing
design depends upon the type of roofing used.
Counterflashing should extend through the outside
wythe and overlap the roof flashing a minimum of 4 in.
(102 mm).

Masonry cap flashing detail.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Metal cap
Roof membrane
Roofing
Sheathing
Joist anchor to wall a positive
connection

Joist hanger
Ledger with anchor bolts as required
for vertical and horizontal forces
Bond beam or chord reinforced as
required for lateral loads

FIGURE 9.25

Metal coping detail.

There are other considerations regarding installation


of flashing which the designer must address in addition
to specific location information.

97

All flashing should extend beyond the face of the


wall to form a drip. To ensure that any collected water
completely exits the wall system, flashing must extend
through the wall. Flashing, which ends behind the
exterior face of the wall may allow water to re-enter the
wall around and under the flashing.
Flashing around corners should be continuous. The
pieces of flashing, to achieve this continuity, may need
to be cut, lapped 6 in. (152 mm) and sealed to conform
to the shape of the structure. Flashing should be sealed
when it is necessary to cut, puncture or interrupt the
flashing.
A layer of gravel a few inches deep or material
specifically designed to catch mortar droppings on top
of flashing in the cavity will aid in preventing mortar
droppings from falling directly upon the flashing and
clogging the weep holes. Rounded gravel about 3/8 in.
(9.5 mm) in size will avoid blocking the weep holes and
puncturing the flashing. A bed of mortar conforming to
the curve of the flashing should be placed under the
flashing for extra support of the gravel bed.

Typically, flashing is not available in one long,


continuous sheet. Therefore, pieces should be lapped
at least 6 in. (152 mm) and the laps sealed with mastic
or an adhesive compatible with the flashing material.
As shown in Figure 9.26, where the flashing is not
continuous, such as over and under openings in the
wall, the ends of the flashing should be extended
beyond the jamb lines on both sides and should be
turned up into the head joint at each end to form a
dam.

Flashing
Gravel
Weep holes

End dam

Mortar bed

FIGURE 9.27

Drainage detail using gravel.

Gravel should not be placed on top of flashing which


covers bolted shelf angles without a supporting mortar
bed as the weight of the gravel on the flashing may
cause tearing or puncturing at the bolt head.

FIGURE 9.26

End dam detail.

In order to direct moisture to the building exterior,


flashing must be higher on the inside of the wall than
the outside. The inside edge should be fixed to the
backing or embedded in a reglet in concrete or the
mortar joint of the interior masonry wythe. The change
in height of the flashing should be at least 8 in. (203
mm).

Flashing influences the force necessary to cause


sliding of masonry on its support. For masonry on
concrete, the static friction coefficient is approximately
0.59 for in-plane loads and 0.86 for out-of-plane loads.
When plastic flashing is used, these values are reduced
by approximately 15%. Paper-backed copper flashing
lowers the coefficient of static friction to 0.43 in-plane
and out-of-plane to 0.45. Masonry on steel gives a

98

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

static friction coefficient of 0.58 in-plane and out-of-plane


loads. Plastic flashing increases this coefficient by
approximately 18% while paper-backed copper flashing
reduces this coefficient by approximately 27%.

9.6.6 WEEP HOLES


Weep holes must be provided immediately above
the flashing in order to properly drain water collected
on the flashing. Weep holes can be formed by open
head joints, a removable rope or rod, a wick or drainage
tube. The least dimension of weep holes should be 1/4
in. (6.4 mm), although 2005 MSJC Code permits weep
holes as small as 3/16 in. (4.8 mm). Weep holes should
be spaced no further apart than 24 in. (610 mm) on
center horizontally even though 2005 MSJC Code allows
weep holes to be spaced up to 33 in. (838 mm) apart.
The maximum spacing should be reduced to 16 in. (406
mm) where a wick material is used as the weep hole.

9.6.7 VENTS
Two benefits provided by air vents in the exterior
wythe of a drainage wall are: air flow across the backside
of the brick wythe which aids in the evaporation of
moisture and the equalized pressure in the cavity which
reduces water sucked into the cavity.
W hen the exterior wythe is coated with an
impermeable surface such as glazed brick, air vents
are essential.
The vents should be placed at the top and bottom
of cavities. Vents spacing should not exceed 24 in.
(610 mm) on center horizontally. At the base of the
cavity, non-wicked weep holes may serve as vents.

9.6.8 COATINGS
Clear exterior masonry wall coatings, which reduce
the amount of water entering the wall, fall into several
broad material groups: silicones, silanes, siloxanes,
gum waxes, acrylics, resins, rosins, paraffins, oils,
polymers and various combinations. Typically, these
materials are available in two types of solutions: waterbased solutions and solv ent-based solutions.
Environmental considerations severely limit the use of
solvent-based solutions.
Coatings resist water differently and they are often
grouped together. The broadest groups of coatings are
those which form a protective skin and those which
change the angle of contact of water from suction to
repellency. Generally, the second group, made up of
penetrating materials such as silanes and siloxanes,
gives better performance with fewer problems than film
forming coatings. The film forming coatings may trap

moisture which may lead to spalling of the brick through


successive freeze-thaw cycles or surface efflorescence.
When moisture tries to move through the coating,
clouding or whitening of the coating may occur. The
water vapor permeance of the coating must be close to
that of the brickwork for proper performance.
There is no recognized standard set of tests to
evaluate coating suitability for exterior brick masonry.
ASTM E 514, Standard Test Method for Water
Penetration and Leakage Through Masonry, can be
used to compare the effectiveness of a water repellent
coating by testing uncoated and coated walls.
Clear water repellents will not eliminate water
penetration in all cases and other factors must be
considered, such as:
1. The majority of cracks or incompletely filled
joints cannot be closed by coatings.
2. Coatings will not completely stop staining and
efflorescence or may cover efflorescence
sufficiently to prevent its removal.
3. On areas already coated, successiv e
applications of water repellent coatings may
not be possible.
A careful and thorough inspection should be made
of the areas involved prior to considering any application
to masonry walls. This inspection should determine
the condition and suitability of caps and copings,
flashing, weep holes, caulking or sealant joints, mortar
joint conditions and general execution of details.
Frequently this type of examination will identify the
source of the problem and prevent further consideration
of water repellent coatings and their associated risks.

9.6.9 EFFLORESCENCE
Efflorescence is a white, powdery deposit of watersoluble salts left on the surface of masonry as the water
evaporates. The principal issue of efflorescence is the
objectionable appearance on the brick surface. Even
though an efflorescence problem is complex, it is not
difficult to remove and usually is not harmful to the brick
masonry.
Efflorescence occurs when water-soluble salts in
solution are present somewhere in the wall and are
brought to the surface of the masonry and deposited
there by evaporation. The salt solution may migrate to
the surface of the wall between the mortar and units,
through the mortar, or the masonry units.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


There are certain conditions which must exist in
order for efflorescence to occur.

99

stone, precast concrete, or other similar material.


These materials may contribute to efflorescence
on the face of adjacent brickwork.
Mortar and Grout - Mortar and grout can contribute
to efflorescence. The use of mortar and grout in
masonry construction provide sufficient water to
allow soluble salts to go into solution. The materials
of mortar and grout, aggregates, cement and lime
must be individually evaluated as sources of
efflorescence salts.

FIGURE 9.28

Efflorescence.

Soluble salts must be present within or in contact


with the masonry assembly.
There also must be a source of water in contact
with the salts for a sufficient length of time to permit
the salts to dissolve.
There must be migration of salt solutions to the
surface in an environment which allows evaporation.
The salt crystals can form within the bodies of the
units under certain circumstances. The pressure may
cause cracking and distress to the masonry when this
occurs. These conditions can occur when high vapor
resistant coatings are used.
The most common salts found in efflorescence are
sulf ate and carbonate compounds of sodium,
potassium, calcium, magnesium and aluminum.
Common sources of soluble salts include mortar, rainwater, ground water, concrete masonry, concrete, brick
or other sources, or from chemical reactions of these
materials. It is often erroneously assumed to be the
fault of the brick since efflorescence appears on the
face of the brick. A detailed description of some of the
most common sources of the salts is given below.
Backing - Masonry materials used as backing or
inner wythes of masonry walls may contain large
quantities of soluble salts. If sufficient water is
present to dissolve the salts and pathways are
provided for the solution to reach the exterior surface
these units may contribute to efflorescence on the
face of the wall. Condensation within the inner
wythe is a common source of water.
Trim - Building trim, such as caps, coping, sills,
lintels, or keystones can be natural stone, cast

Cement - Sodium, calcium and potassium are the


water-soluble alkalis common in cement. Alkalis
existing in Portland cement vary. Low alkali cement
may be specified to reduce efflorescence potential.
The sulfate content of the cement may be as
significant as the alkali content in contributing to
efflorescence.
Brick - Soluble salts may exist within the brick
due to the composition of the raw materials and
the high temperatures associated with the brick
manufacturing process. If sulfates are present in
the raw materials, additives, such as barium
carbonate, are used to immobilize and render the
sulfates insoluble.
The potential for brick units to effloresce may be
assessed by the efflorescence test described in
ASTM C 67, Standard Test Methods for Sampling
and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile. ASTM
Standards C 216, C 652, C 902 and C 1088 require
that the ASTM C 67 rating for efflorescence be
not
effloresced
.
Hydrated Lime - Lime does not generally
contribute to efflorescence. However, a cleaning
solution containing hydrochloric acid can react with
lime to produce soluble calcium chloride which can
migrate to the surface.
Sand - Sands with soluble alkali sulfates will cause
efflorescence unless the sulfates are removed. This
contamination may include: sea water, soil runoff,
plant life and decomposed organic compounds.
Sands commonly available and used in mortar
should be cleaned and washed.
There are other outside sources of soluble salts
that may contribute to efflorescence in addition to the
masonry materials. Various types of sources are
admixtures, calcium chloride used as an accelerator,
ground water and fertilizers. Chemically reacting with
masonry ingredients, cleaning materials or acid rain
may cause efflorescence.

100

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

If masonry could be constructed to contain no


water-soluble salts, or if no water penetrated the
masonry, efflorescence could not occur. The practical
approach to the elimination of efflorescence is to reduce
all contributing factors.

9.6.10 MOVEMENT
Every material used in the construction of a building
is in a constant state of motion. Building materials
expand and contract due to the changes in temperature.
Several materials move with changes in moisture
content. All materials change dimension due to stress;
some materials tend to flow when subjected to
sustained loads. Building elements are subject to loadinduced def lections. T hese mov em ents are
theoretically reversible for unrestrained conditions. It
is necessary to consider the effects of potential
differential movements of the various materials, since
different materials are used in today
s building structures.
9.6.10.1 T HERMAL MOVEMENT
Thermal movements of clay masonry units and other
building materials can be estimated from the thermal
coefficient of expansion determined by laboratory tests.
The 2005 MSJC Code lists the thermal expansion
coefficient, kt, for clay masonry as 4 x 10-6 in./in./F
(7.2 x 10-6 mm/mm/C).
9.6.10.2 MOISTURE MOVEMENT
Many building materials, metal excluded, expand
with increases in moisture absorption and contract with
moisture dissipation. These movements are reversible
for several building materials, with others they are not.
Due to moisture absorption, fired clay masonry products
expand slowly and this expansion is not reversible by
drying at atmospheric temperatures. The 2005 MSJC
Code lists the moisture expansion coefficient, ke, of
clay masonry as 3 x 10-4 in./in. (3 x 10-4 mm/mm).

This deflection may result in movement of the supporting


member. This movement can cause additional stresses
to develop in the masonry that the supporting member
is carrying. In order to limit the movement of the
supporting member, footings, beams and lintels
supporting brick masonry should be limited to a
maximum deflection of span length divided by 600 or
0.3 in. (7.6 mm), whichever is less. Rotation of the
support must also be considered.
Improper detailing of brick masonry can cause a
non-bearing wall to become a bearing wall (carry vertical
load), possibly causing cracking or collapse. When
brick masonry is built tight to the underside of a beam
or floor, the brick masonry will not allow the beam or
floor above to deflect. Since the beam or floor cannot
deflect, it transfers load directly to the brick masonry.
Thus the brick masonry now has a beam or a floor
bearing on top of it. Detailing of an opening of deflection
gap between the underside of a beam or floor and the
top of non-bearing brick masonry can be critical.
9.6.10.5 DIFFERENTIAL MOVEMENT
Historically, brick buildings were constructed using
thick, massive walls in the structure. These massive
walls, under heavy loading, could resist differential
movement with little distress. Many buildings
Joint free of all material
except for backer rod
and sealant

Stop longitudinal
wire at all brick
expansion joints

Exterior face of
4brick veneer

Brick expansion joint

Expansion Joint

Alternate position of
flashing with weep holes
shifted upward one brick

9.6.10.3 CREEP
Clay brick masonry undergoes a long term
shortening when subjected to sustained axial load. Long
term is measured in years or decades. This event is
known as creep. According to the 2005 MSJC Code
the creep coefficient, kc, of clay masonry is 0.7 x 10-7
per psi (0.1 x 10-4 per MPa). Movement caused by
sustained loads is calculated by the coefficient of creep
multiplied by the load-induced stress times the length
of the element.

Weep holes 24o.c. max.


or leave out head joint
mortar
Sealant
Sealant back-up

9.6.10.4 DEFLECTION
Members supporting brick masonry undergo
movement due to their physical properties and loads.

Expansion Joint Under Support Angle

FIGURE 9.29

Movement joint detail.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


constructed today are veneer walls with a steel or
concrete frame as the structure. The different properties
between the frame and the enclosure walls create
greater differential movement. The exterior brick wythe
is often thermally isolated from the interior by insulation
creating more thermal movement. Movement joints must
be installed to accommodate these differential
movements. Expansion joints and control joints are
two different types of movement joints used in masonry.
9.6.10.6 EXPANSION JOINTS
Expansion joints are used to accommodate brick
masonry into segments to permit large temperature and
moisture movements. The expansion joints are open
joints filled with a highly compressible material. A backer
rod and elastic sealant are used to prevent moisture
penetration. This type of joint allows space for clay
masonry
s movement which is principally expansion.
9.6.10.7 EXPANSION JOINT PLACEMENT
Expansion joints are both a structural consideration
and an aesthetic one. Variables such as sealant color
and location should be largely inf luenced by
architectural design. Available expansion joint colors
are as limitless as the colors of brick and mortar.
Expansion joint placement is flexible as long as
minimum calculated spacing requirements are met.
Often, in an attempt to disguise expansion joints,
designers specify the color of the sealant in the
expansion joint to match the color of the mortar.

101

Although this is effective for horizontal joints,


vertical expansion joints are not as discrete since they
typically break the running bond pattern of the masonry.
Many experienced architects agree that sealant which
matches the color of the brick provides better
camouflage.
Recently, it has become increasingly popular to
take a different approach to expansion joints. Expansion
joints are now commonly being accented by contrasting
color or a reveal and are used as part of the decorative
design of the building. Of course, this design approach
warrants close attention to the placement of the
expansion joints.
The placement of the expansion joints relative to
building elements, such as columns, windows and
corners, can affect the balance of a building
s facade.
Placement of horizontal expansion joints is rather limited
since they can only be placed under a working shelf
angle. Placing vertical expansion joints, however, does
allow some freedom although maximum calculated
spacing requirements must still be met. When hidden
expansion joints are desired, they may be placed at
internal corners or the jambs of windows and doors.
On the other hand, symmetry may be considered a
higher priority, especially when expansion joints are of
a contrasting color of the masonry.
9.6.10.8 LOCATION OF EXPANSION JOINTS
There are no suggestions on the positioning and
spacing of expansion joints that can be applicable to
all structures. Every building should be analyzed to
determine the potential movements and provisions
should be made to relieve excessive stress which might
be expected from such movement. Typical spacing of
expansion joints is 15 ft to 20 ft (4.6 m to 6.1 m) apart.
Spacing of expansion joints in a solid wall without
openings should not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m).
Factors such as restraint, shrinkage and plastic
flow of mortar, temperature at time of installation,
compressibility of expansion joint materials, age of
masonry and variations in workmanship will reduce the
actual movement. The majority of expansion joint
materials are typically 25% to 50% compressible. The
size of the expansion joints will depend on joint spacing
and the performance of the sealant. The actual joint
dimension must be twice the anticipated movement if
the expansion material can only move 50%.
The geometry of the structure affects the placement
of vertical expansion joints. Several typical locations of
vertical expansion joints include spacing at 25 ft (7.6
m) in long runs of walls, at or near offsets and at
intersecting walls and corners.

FIGURE 9.30

Expansion joint.

102

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Concrete masonry walls not only experience
expansion due to changes in temperature and moisture,
but also experience shrinkage due to initial drying first,
therefore, control joints act in both contraction and
expansion. Due to shrinkage in concrete and concrete
masonry, control joints create locations of weakness
that controls the location of cracks. Control joints are
placed in concrete masonry and are typically vertical.
Similar to expansion joints, they may be open, but may
also be partially filled with a non-compressible material.

FIGURE 9.31

Vertical expansion joint layout

example.
Typically, expansion joints can be placed on a
symmetrical basis with respect to openings and
elevations, at the jambs of openings or at building grids
such as column lines. Toothed expansion joints, joints
that follow natural vertical and horizontal mortar lines,
are difficult to install and may not permit proper
functioning of the sealant.
The location of horizontal expansion joints must
be directly under intermediate supports, such as shelf
angles, which are attached to the main structure. The
shelf angles are a natural interruption of the masonry
and thus a logical place for an expansion joint. Movement
between the veneer and the structural frame, including
seismic and wind, occurs at the shelf angles. The
vertical growth of the masonry beneath the shelf angle
is permitted by the expansion joint. Horizontal
expansion joints must be placed between the top of
brick walls where structural elements are located above.
9.6.10.9 CONTROL JOINTS
One additional consideration is the distinction
between control joints and expansion joints. Control
joints are placed in concrete or concrete masonry walls,
along with suitable joint reinforcement or bond beam
reinforcement, to control shrinkage cracking by
reducing restraint and accommodating wall movement
due to initial drying and long term shrinkage. Shrinkage
due to drying is not found in clay masonry construction.
This becomes obvious when one considers the clay
units are manufactured by a firing process which drives
off all moisture. Brick masonry expands while concrete
masonry shrinks. As a result, control joints are not
necessary in brick masonry walls. Expansion joints
are placed to accommodate the movement of masonry
brick walls due to change in temperature and moisture.

The shrinkage of concrete masonry causes the


masonry to
pull apartduring shrinkage, therefore
control joints may be used to control the location of the
cracks. The expansion nature of clay masonry has
opposite effect and control joints for cracking are not
required, however, brick masonry needs room to expand
and expansion joints are necessary. The distinction
between an expansion joint and a control joint is
apparent when this is considered.

9.7 HEAT TRANSFER


A large amount of the country
s fuel is used for
heating buildings. The major concern of the nation is
the energy conservation and fuel consumption. Using
solar heating systems helps to decrease this
consumption of non-renewable energy sources. Solar
energy is not always utilized. Through the use of thermal
storage materials, such as brick and by thoughtful
placement of windows, buildings can incorporate
passive solar design.
Active and passive solar energy systems are two
types that may be used to heat buildings. Active solar
heating systems require mechanical equipment for
operation. The use of mechanical equipment is not
necessary in passive solar heating systems. The heat
flow in passive solar heating solar systems is
accomplished by natural means. Passive solar systems
collect energy from the sun and store this thermal
energy in massive materials which make up the
structure. Brick masonry is an ideal material for use
in passive solar applications since it has a very high
capacity to store heat.
Buildings using passive solar energy can have a
conventional appearance without a higher initial cost.
The only required variations in the Northern Hemisphere
are: additional south-facing wall glazing, reduced glazing
on the east, west and north walls, sufficient overhangs
or shading devices to prevent overheating in the summer
and interior brick masonry for thermal storage. Floors,
accent walls and fireplaces are common uses of interior
brick masonry for passive solar systems.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Conduction, convection and radiation are the three
ways heat energy may be transferred from one place to
another. Conduction occurs when two materials are in
contact with each other. For example, conduction
occurs by replacing hands on a cool surface. When
hands are removed, the surface is warmer. When heat
energy from one material is transferred to another
material through a gas such as air, convection occurs.
A convective loop is formed when air is heated by a
warmer surface of an air space and rises until it transfers
heat to a cooler surface and begins to fall.
Heat transferred through radiation travels in the form
of waves which always travel in straight lines. The sun
heats the earth by radiation of heat through waves. This
is why shadowed areas, created by objects obstructing
the wave
s straight path, are cooler than sunny areas.
Table 9.1 Heat Transmission Coefficients of
Building Materialsa
Materials Description

Masonry Units
Face brick
Common brick
b
Hollow brick
4 in. (62.9% solid)
6 in. (67.3% solid)
8 in. (61.2% solid)
10 in. (60.9% solid)
c
Hollow brick vermiculite fill
4 in. (62.9% solid)
6 in. (67.3% solid)
8 in. (61.2% solid)
10 in. (60.9% solid)

Resistance (R)
Per Inch
For
Thickness Thickness
Listed
0.11
0.20
0.19
0.15
0.14
0.12

0.74
0.93
1.06
1.20

0.27
0.25
0.24
0.24

1.10
1.52
1.92
2.38

From ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, except as noted.


(Partial)

Calculated data based upon hollow brick (25% to 40% cored) of


one manufacturer. Based upon coring given.

R figures based upon coring and density of supplier using parallel


path method. Vermiculite fill in cores.

103

lieu of an engineered wall system there are two


calibrated values used to asses the thermal movement
(heat transfer) through a wall R-Value and U-Value.

9.7.1 R-VALUE
R-values are for a single specific material (e.g.
insulation) used in an assembly. R-values are found
using a testing apparatus with a separate chamber on
either side of the material to be tested. To produce a
steady heat flow through the material, the chambers
have set, non-changing, climatic conditions. Variables
including temperature, moisture content of air and
surrounding materials, wind speed and radiation are all
held constant.

9.7.2 U-VALUE
U-values may be used to give a single value to the
wall assembly, as opposed to a single material of the
wall assembly. The U-value of a given material or wall
assembly is the rate of heat flow through a unit area of
that material assembly. It is expressed in BTU
s per
hour per degree of temperature differential for the total
heat flow through a square foot of a given assembly,
including surface films, or, as more commonly stated,
air to air.
The lower the U-value, the higher the insulating
value. The U-value is applied to total combination of
materials for the complete element. For example, a
brick wall may be constructed with exterior faces of
brick and the interior may be grout or insulating fill.
This entire combination would have a single U-value.

One rule always applies in heat transmission; heat


is always transferred from a warmer object to a cooler
object. W hen two objects become the same
temperature and equilibrium is reached, heat cannot
be transferred.
Using standard test methods, heat transfer of wall
assemblages can be found by testing a given wall
assembly. Unfortunately, there are too many materials
and combinations to practically test all types of wall
assemblages. As a result a representative analysis
model is used to predict the heat transfer of a wall. In

FIGURE 9.32
sections.

Insulation configurations of wall

104

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The U-value is calculated by taking the reciprocal


of the sum of the thermal resistance of each of the
assemblage
s materials. The U-value analysis model
assumes a steady state of heat flow and therefore is
not accurate in predicting actual energy loss. Since
actual climatic conditions are dynamic, the model must
be modified to produce more accurate results.

9.7.3 THERMAL MASS


Thermal mass is demonstrated by the use of adobe
brick masonry in hot desert regions. Adobe brick
masonry has a low R-value and therefore would not be
a candidate for use in the hot desert because it does
not insulate well. While this is true, the adobe brick
has high thermal mass. This means it takes a lot of
energy to change the temperature of the adobe masonry
from one side (sunny and hot outside) to the other (shady
and cool inside). During the evening, the hot brick gives
heat back to the cool night air. The next morning the
sun has to start all over again in trying to change the
temperature of the adobe brick from one side to the
other.
The high mass of brick has a slower thermal
response when compared to lightweight materials such
as vinyl or wood siding. The difference in thermal
response will have a significant effect on the wall
s
performance under changing conditions. Massive
materials will perform better than the U-value model
predictions. Lightweight materials will come closer to
the U-value model prediction. The ASHRAE
s Handbook
of Fundamentals explains the modifications to the heat
loss and heat gain equations for dynamic performance
of walls. The ability of massive materials to absorb
and hold heat and the time necessary to transfer heat
are reflected in these modifications. The amount of
heat held is directly proportional to the weight of the
material.

9.8 ACOUSTICS
Sound waves are vibrations which spreads sound
energy through a medium, such as air. Absorption,
reflection and damping are three ways on which sound
energy, or perceived loudness, can be reduced from
one side of a solid wall to another. Absorptive materials
are porous and cause the sound waves to collide within
the pores. The sound energy is reduced through the
numerous collisions. Reflective materials are very hard
and act as a shield to divert sound waves. Damping
materials are very heavy and sound waves which do
not have enough energy to set the heavy material into
motion cannot be transferred.
Brick is very effective at reflecting and damping
sound waves. Brick masonry is considered an excellent

sound insulator although it is not a good sound barrier.


Common face brick reflect about 95% of incidental
sound.

9.8.1 DECIBELS
The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit used to
describe the ratio of the signal level. The decibel is the
smallest change in sound energy the human ear can
perceive. Based on a logarithmic scale, the
measurement of sound by decibels develops a ratio
between two sounds. A 1 dB increase corresponds to
an increase of 26% in sound intensity. Thus, 2 dB is
26% greater in intensity than 1 dB and 40 dB is 26%
greater than 39 dB.
The reduction of sound or noise through a wall
assemblage is measured as a decrease in decibels.
Judged by a typical human, a 6 dB reduction is
equivalent to a 30 to 50% noise reduction. High pitched
sounds are associated with high frequencies and low
frequencies with low pitched sounds. In the air, high
frequency sounds attenuate, or die out, much faster
than low frequency sounds.

9.8.2 TRANSMISSION LOSS


The energy loss as sound travels from one side of
a partition to another is known as transmission loss. A
partition does not have the same transmission loss for
all frequencies of sound. When the transmission loss
for all frequencies is known, a partition
s performance
can be fully described. To easily compare partitions, a
single number rating system is necessary. A simple
average of transmission losses at different frequencies
is not a good indicator of a partition
s performance as a
sound barrier. A high transmission loss at one frequency
will cancel a low transmission loss at another frequency
with a simple average. The result is a partition with a
good average transmission loss but which does not
perform acceptably at certain sound frequencies.

9.8.3 SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS


The Sound Transmission Class (STC) is commonly
used as an accepted single number rating system which
is not a simple average. The STC rating system is
based on a standard contour. This STC contour
represents equal perceived loudness at eleven different
frequencies. This STC contour is compared to a
partition
s contour obtained by plotting the measured
transmission loss at the same eleven frequencies. The
measured transmission loss at a frequency of 500
cycles per second on the STC contour is termed the
STC rating when the partition
s contour is fitted to the
STC contour.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

9.9 BRICK APPLICATIONS


9.9.1 STRUCTURAL BRICKWORKWALL TYPES
The type of wall best suited for a particular building
depends on a number of factors. These include:
The use of the building, such as for human
occupancy or for storage of materials;
Climatic conditions, such as temperature range
or moisture conditions; and
Structural load considerations, such as live
load, wind load and seismic forces.

105

Masonry bonded walls are based on variations of


the location of stretchers and headers. The English
bond consists of alternating courses of headers and
stretchers. The Flemish bond is laid with alternating
headers and stretchers in alternate courses lining
up vertically. The stretchers laid with the length of
the wall develop longitudinal strength, while the
headers, laid across the width of the wall, bond the
wall transversely.
The 2005 MSJC Code requires at least 4% of the
wall surface to be composed of headers when used
to connect two or more wythes. Headers connecting
adjacent wythes must be embedded a minimum of 3
in. (76 mm) in each wythe. W alls bonded with
headers are assumed to act compositely.

A brick wall depends on the design and construction


to determine its resistance to certain factors. Wall
structural performance is based on classification as a
composite or non-composite wall. The components of
a wall may be attached to each other using masonry
headers, metal ties alone or metal ties with a mortar or
grout filled collar joint. A separate classification is based
on how the masonry wall resists water penetration.
When considering environmental resistance alone, a
masonry wall is either a drainage or barrier wall. In a
drainage wall, any water that penetrates the wall is
channeled (drained) toward the exterior. For a barrier
wall, measures are taken to prevent water from entering
the wall.
9.9.1.1 COMPOSITE/NON-COMPOSITE WALL

Masonry Bonded Hollow Wall


(Composite Wall)

A composite structural wall, when resisting a load,


acts as a single structural element. A rigid connection
between the components is necessary for this sharing
of load. The rigid connection between wythes in a multiwythe wall can be achieved either with masonry headers
or metal ties combined with a filled collar joint. Stresses
are transferred between the connected wythes, when
composite action occurs and shear stresses developed
between the wythes can be resisted.
A non-composite wall always has an air space
separating a wythe of brick masonry from other
components. Metal ties are used to connect the
components. When a resisting load is applied to the
wall, the wythes act independently. Out-of-plane loads
are distributed to the wythes in relation to the relative
flexural rigidity of the wythes. In-plane loads are resisted
by the individually loaded wythe.
9.9.1.2 ATTACHMENT OF COMPONENTS
Masonry bonding, metal ties or the adhesion of
mortar or grout and metal ties are used to attach the
masonry wythes to other wythes or backing systems.

Cavity Wall
(Non-composite W all)

FIGURE 9.33
nents.

Grouted Wall
(Composite Wall)

Attachment between compo-

106

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Wall ties provide a connection between the masonry


wythe and the backing and transfer loads perpendicular
to the wall surface from the masonry wythe to the
backing. A tie system must:
be securely embedded in the masonry bed
joints of wythes and attached to the backing,
have sufficient stiffness to transfer loads,
have a limited amount of mechanical play,
be corrosion-resistant and
be easily installed.

Metal ties should be corrosion resistant and must


be made of steel. Corrosion resistant ties may be
stainless steel or hot-dipped galvanized.
The combination of mortar and grout with metal
ties in a collar joint bond two wythes of masonry
developing composite action. Collar joints filled with
grout have higher allowable shear stresses than collar
joints filled with mortar. The collar joint must be
completely filled in order to achieve assumed structural
strengths. Grout or mortar filled collar joints must be
accompanied by metal ties.
9.9.1.3 BARRIER AND DRAINAGE WALLS

All metal ties fall into one of five categories, even


though there are many different types of metal ties:
corrugated metal ties,
unit wire ties (rectangular ties),
adjustable unit wire ties,
standard joint reinforcement, and
adjustable joint reinforcement.
Adjustable ties are used to allow in-plane differential
movement and to adjust for unaligned coursing. Joint
reinforcement is a combination of reinforcement to
restrict in-plane stress and a tie to transmit load.
Drips or kinks in metal ties, which were originally
intended to impede moisture flow across the tie in
drainage walls, are not recommended. Drips do not
inhibit moisture migration, but significantly reduce the
stiffness of the ties and the ability to transfer load.

Corrugated Tie

Rectangular Tie

Adjustable Joint
Reinforcement

FIGURE 9.34

Metal ties.

Adjustable Tie

Joint Reinforcement

A barrier wall system requires a full collar joint


directly behind the exterior masonry wythe. Moisture
tries to migrate toward the interior wythes when a winddriven rain penetrates a barrier wall
s exterior wythe of
brick masonry. The joint is intended to act as a barrier
and inhibit inward movement when this migrating water
reaches the filled collar joint. Figure 9.35 shows how
water ideally flows back out of the wall system. The
key item to be an effective barrier is that the collar joint
must be completely filled with grout or mortar. Flashing
and weep holes are recommended but not required in
a barrier wall system. Detailed and constructed barrier
wall systems, when properly designed, are rated good
with respect to water penetration resistance.
Single-wythe masonry walls can be considered a
special case. The masonry wythe, in single-wythe walls,
is usually much thicker than a nominal 4 in. (102 mm)
thick exterior brick wythe, and, as a result, the added
thickness helps to prevent water from penetrating to
the interior of the wall system. Drainage wall systems
are more effective in preventing water penetration than
single-wythe walls or multi-wythe barrier wall systems,
but with careful detailing and quality construction
practices, single and multi-wythe walls can perform well.
Solid or hollow units are used in the design of singlewythe brick masonry construction.
To prevent water from entering the structure, a
drainage wall system relies on an air space behind the
exterior wythe, along with flashing and weep holes. The
drainage wall assumes that water from a wind-driven
rain may penetrate the exterior wythe of brick. When it
does, the moisture migrates inward to the cavity or air
space. Then it gravitates or flows down the back face
of the outer brick wythe, is collected on the flashing,
and is directed out of the wall system through the weep
holes. Properly detailed and constructed drainage wall
systems are rated excellent with respect to water
penetration resistance.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


There is also a seismic advantage to a drainage
wall system used in a veneer application. The veneer
should transmit only lateral loads to the backing through
the tie system. During seismic activity, the drainage
wall veneer system has room to slightly move out-ofplane, laterally, with little or no damage. The barrier
wall system also moves, however, the incurred damage
is significantly greater since it cannot move relative to
the backup system.

107

Solid masonry walls are fully grouted for single wythe


walls and act compositely for multi-wythe walls. All
solid masonry walls are barrier wall systems. Multiwythe, metal tied, solid masonry walls provide better
moisture resistance than masonry bonded or single
wythe walls since the masonry unit which extends from
the outside to the inside may act as a moisture bridge
between the exterior and the interior of the building.
Solid masonry walls may be constructed with steel
reinforcement included for added structural performance.
In the construction of single wythe reinforced grouted
brick masonry walls, hollow brick units are used. The
brick wythe is laid with the cells aligned to produce
continuous vertical cells. All cells with reinforcement
must be filled with grout. Multi-wythe reinforced brick
masonry walls consist of two or more masonry wythes
with reinforcing steel in a fully grouted collar joint. Figure
9.36 shows the wythes tied together using metal ties.

Grout

Drainage Wall
Reinforcing
steel

Barrier Wall

FIGURE 9.35

F IGURE 9.36

Reinforced grouted brick

masonry.
Barrier and drainage walls.

9.9.1.4 SOLID MASONRY WALLS


Solid masonry walls may be constructed with one
or more wythes of masonry. If a solid masonry wall
has more than one wythe of thickness, then it is a
composite wall. A solid multi-wythe wall must have a
full collar joint of either mortar or grout between masonry
wythes. Solid units or hollow units with the cores solidly
grouted may be used in the construction of solid
masonry walls. Multi-wythe solid masonry walls may
be masonry bonded or metal tied with a collar joint
filled with mortar or grout.

The masonry and steel work together for optimum


structural efficiency since reinforcing steel has a high
resistance to tension and masonry has a high resistance
to compression.
9.9.1.5 SINGLE-WYTHE BEARING WALLS
A renewed interest in alternative building systems
for residential housing is due to the increasing cost of
wood framing members. One alternative is the use of
light-gauge steel framing. Another is the use of single
wythe brick bearing walls. The use of brick masonry
as the load-carrying element of a structure provides
several benefits over alternate systems. Using brick

108

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

as both the building


s exterior skin and the structure
capitalizes on brick masonry
s strength and other
inherent values. Brick gives a home permanence and
beauty. Due to fire resistance characteristics, brick
homes have lower maintenance costs and often lower
insurance rates. Brick homes are more energy efficient
than comparably insulated vinyl-sided or wood-sided
homes by virtue of thermal mass properties. All of these
reasons give brick homes a higher resale value.
Counter to a veneer system, where structural
backing system (wood stud, steel stud, or separate
masonry wall) is required, the brick masonry, in a single
wythe brick bearing wall system, serves as both the
structural system and the exterior facing. The interior
walls and space of the single wythe wall easily
incorporates the wall, floor, and roof materials of
traditional wood framed homes. Additionally, attractive
features such as brick masonry fireplaces and special
brick details can be readily incorporated into a brick
masonry single wythe bearing wall system.
The same as other types of wall systems, single
wythe brick load-bearing walls should include the same
design considerations. The minimum thermal
performance requirements and the necessary fire
resistance of the wall system are beneficial. The
designer must also consider resistance to moisture
penetration and detailing of interior finishes since a brick
bearing wall system forms the building envelope.
The sizes of the building
s structural members are
dictated by model building codes and associated
structural loads. According to model building codes,
empirical and rational are two methods of design. For
load-bearing masonry, the minimum wall thickness and
maximum wall height or number of stories allowed for
empirical design are contained in the International
Building Code.
Typically, the limitations of empirical design are not
applicable to buildings which have been rationally
designed. However, even a rational design will include
some prescriptive detailing requirements. Brick
masonry walls should be designed in accordance with
the IBC and related standards, the MSJC Code and
MSJC Specification. Alternately, residential masonry
walls may be designed and constructed in accordance
with the International Residential Code (IRC). The
following is an excerpt of the 2006 IRC regarding
residential masonry construction.

IRC SECTION R606


GENERAL MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
R606.2 Thickness of masonry. The nominal thickness
of masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of
Sections R606.2.1 through R606.2.4.
R606.2.1 Minimum thickness. The minimum
thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one
story high shall be 8 inches (203 mm). Solid masonry
walls of one-story dwelling and garages shall not be
less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness when not
greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height, provided that
when gable construction is used, an additional 6 feet
(1829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable.
Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either
the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals as
required by Section R606.9.
R606.2.2 Rubble stone masonry wall. The minimum
thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone
masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm).
R606.2.3 Change in thickness. Where walls of
masonry of hollow units or masonry bonded hollow
walls are decreased in thickness, a course of solid
masonry shall be constructed between the wall below
and the thinner wall above, or special units or
construction shall be used to transmit the loads from
face shells or wythes above to those below.
R606.2.4 Parapet walls. Unreinforced solid masonry
parapet walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm)
thick and their height shall not exceed four times
their thickness. Unreinforced hollow unit masonry
parapet walls shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm)
thick and their height shall not exceed three times
their thickness. Masonry parapet walls in areas
subject to wind loads of 30 pounds per square foot
(1.44 kPa) located in Seismic Design Category D0, D1,
or D2, or on townhouses in Seismic Design Category
C shall be reinforced in accordance with Section
R606.12.

When rationally designed, load-bearing brick


masonry houses may be built with walls less than 6 in.
(152 mm) in nominal thickness. Vertical steel reinforcing
bars and horizontal reinforcing bars or wires are generally
required in these walls. Vertical steel reinforcing bars
are used to resist lateral loads and horizontally reinforced
bond beams are used to attach floor and roof members.
In areas or categories of high seismicity, additional
reinforcement is required.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


The properties of the materials necessary to meet
the structural requirements of the design must be
specified by the designer of the brick bearing walls.
One material property of the brick masonry is the
compressive strength of the assembly, f
. Mortar and
m
grout type or properties shall be identified. If used,
type, size and grade of reinforcement, shall also be
specified.
The requirements to ensure acceptable thermal
performance of the building envelope are contained in
model building codes. When addressing heat gain and
loss, insulation may be required. Residential frame
wall systems differ from the type and installation of
insulation in a single wythe brick bearing wall system.
Batt insulation is generally placed between the wood
studs in all wood frame residential structures. For brick
bearing wall homes, rigid board insulation is often
placed on the interior face of the brick wythe and has
the advantage of easy installation and provides high
insulation values. Installation of the insulation board in
the interior of the brick wythe is coordinated with the
interior finish materials and with the flashing and
drainage system used to control water penetration.
Square or shaped furring strips, mechanical fasteners
and adhesives are some options for attaching rigid
insulation. Alternately, insulation may be placed in the
cells of hollow brick units, however, this application is
limited to large hollow units commonly used in
commercial brick bearing wall buildings. In addition,
such installation is generally not as effective as a
continuous layer of insulation placed on the inside face
of the single wythe wall due to the discontinuity of the
insulation at the webs of the units. Insulation cannot
be placed in grouted cells.
One concern in homes is air leakage through the
building envelope. In brick homes there will be some
leakage through weep holes and at the top of the
brickwork even though the brick wall provides an effective
air barrier. To prevent air leakage, building paper or
sheet membrane materials are commonly installed over
exterior sheathing materials in wood frame construction
but these materials are not appropriate for direct
application on brick bearing walls. Alternate approaches
to further limit air leakage are the use of either foilfaced rigid board insulation or so-called
air-tight
drywall
. These approaches rely on the air penetration
resistance of the paper or other films on the insulation
or gypsum board. The joints between the sheets of
insulation or gypsum board must be sealed or taped to
achieve an impenetrable air barrier. Additionally, joints
between different materials and joints around door and
window frames should also be sealed.

109

In any exterior wall system water penetration is a


primary concern. In single wythe construction,
resistance to water penetration of the brick masonry
wythe is important. Full mortar joints and good extent
of bond between units and mortar can help reduce water
penetration.
A single brick masonry wythe may not prevent water
penetration entirely. Wherever possible, provide a
drainage cavity with flashing and weep holes. A
bituminous, damp-proof coating should be applied to
the inside face of the brick bearing wall prior to
installation of the insulation and finishes when a drainage
cavity is not used. Material compatibility of the coating
with adjacent materials should be considered. The use
of a clear water repellent coating on the exterior face
wall built with quality workmanship and proper details
may be appropriate with this type of wall in areas exposed
to large amounts of rainfall or severe wind-driven rain.
In a load-bearing brick home, the installation of
plumbing, heating and electrical systems will vary from
placement in conventional frame construction. There
is no cavity between studs for the placement of piping
or conduit, and it may be inappropriate to place piping
or conduit within the brick wythe. Alternately, piping or
conduit for the plumbing, heating and electrical can be
installed between furring strips on the interior face of
the brick bearing wall, in the floor or ceiling, or in the
interior frame walls. The location of interior systems
will influence the type of foundation. With slab-on-grade
construction, the easiest way to route the mechanical
systems is through the ceiling space. In brick homes
with basement or crawl space foundations, it is possible
to locate mechanical systems between floor joists.

9.9.1.5.1 MATERIALS
WALLS

FOR

SINGLE-WYTHE BEARING

The selection of masonry materials for a singlewythe brick bearing wall system should consider
structural, energy and other performance requirements,
as well as aesthetic appeal.
Solid or hollow brick in single wythe bearing wall
structures may be used. Since the bricks will be
exposed on the exterior face, solid units should meet
the requirements of ASTM C 216 Standard Specification
for Facing Brick. Hollow units should meet the
requirements of ASTM C 652 Standard Specification
for Hollow Brick. Structural and model building code
requirements, aesthetics, availability and cost will
determine the minimum unit compressive strength, type
and sizes of units used.

110

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

There are many brick sizes manufactured today.


Solid units are commonly manufactured in nominal
widths of 3, 4, and 6 in. (76, 102 and 152 mm). Hollow
units, which are less than 75% solid, are manufactured
in nominal widths of 4, 5, 6 and 8 in. (102, 127, 152,
and 203 mm). Nominal 5 and 6 in. (127 and 152 mm)
wide hollow brick are the most common units used to
construct reinforced brick bearing wall homes.
In reinforced brick bearing walls, hollow brick are
common because they hav e cells which can
accommodate vertical reinforcement and grout. The
applicable building code dictates the minimum size of
cells in hollow units intended to be reinforced. Larger
vertical bars, horizontal reinforcing bars and coarse grout
require larger cell sizes.
In the design and construction of reinforced loadbearing masonry walls, uniform spacing of vertical
reinforcement is important. The cell sizes and unit
length should be coordinated to provide cells which align
vertically for ease of grouting and uniform spacing of
reinforcing bars. The majority of hollow brick designed
to accommodate reinforcing bars have masonry unit
lengths equal to twice the masonry unit width so that
cells align vertically when the masonry is laid in half
running bond.
The mortar selection depends on the strength and
water penetration resistance requirements of a brick
bearing wall. Portland cement-lime mortars with air
content less than 12% are recommended for their
superior bond strength and resistance to water
penetration. In unreinforced load-bearing masonry, the
codes allow flexural stresses which are reduced
approximately 50% for assemblies made with masonry
cement mortars or Portland cement-lime mortars with
air content in excess of 12%. In addition, the IBC and
MSJC Code restrict the use of Type N mortar for lateral
load resisting systems in Seismic Design Categories
D and E. Type M or S mortar may be used in loadbearing brick masonry, although Type S is
recommended for use in reinforced brick bearing walls.
Mortar should meet the proportion requirements of
ASTM C 270 Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit
Masonry.
To provide resistance to lateral loads, vertical steel
reinforcement is often used in brick bearing walls. Size
and spacing of reinforcement required are a function of
design loads, unit size, compressive strength of the
masonry assemblage and cell spacing. Both the IBC
and the MSJC Code limit the size of reinforcing steel
that can be used in masonry. When designing by
Strength Design, the maximum allowable reinforcing
bar size is a #9 (M #29) bar and with Allowable Stress
Design the reinforcing bar size is limited to #11 (M #36).

Also, the maximum bar size should not exceed


the nominal thickness of the wall in inches to ensure
proper development of the reinforcement. For example,
a maximum reinforcing bar size of No. 8 (M #19) is
recommended for nominal 8 in. (203 mm) walls.
Steel reinforcing bars must conform to ASTM
Standard A 615, A 706, A 767, A 775 or A 996 depending
upon the type of bar used. Joint reinforcement, if used,
should comply with ASTM A 951 and be hot-dipped
galvanized or made from stainless steel to reduce the
possibility of corrosion.
A load-bearing brick wall often contains vertical steel
reinforcement uniformly spaced along the length of the
wall and horizontal reinforcement in bond beams.
Vertical reinforcement may also be necessary around
openings and at building corners. Figure 9.37 shows
one example of incorporating vertical reinforcing bars
in a wall built with solid units.

Horizontal joint
reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement in grout


pocket

FIGURE 9.37

Solid brick with grout pocket.

Brick bearing walls built with solid units may


incorporate pilasters (Figure 9.38) to provide the

Vertical reinforcement
in grout pilaster

FIGURE 9.38

Metal ties

Solid brick pilaster.

111

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


confinement of vertical reinforcement. The advantage
of using pilasters in this manner is that no forms are
required. However, if located on the interior side of the
wall, they may occupy a significant amount of floor
space.
Figure 9.39 shows masonry walls constructed with
hollow units and vertically reinforced within the
dimensions of the wall. Hollow brick bearing walls can
optimize the wall section by providing the necessary
reinforcement within the cells of the unit. The design
and detailing of reinforcement should follow the
provisions of the governing code. Special attention, in
some cases, may be necessary to accommodate
multiple or hooked reinforcing bars within the confines
of the hollow brick cells, such as termination or splices
of vertical reinforcing bars.

Vertical reinforcement in grouted


cell

Interior finish

Brick bearing
wall

Furring anchor
Furring with insulation
Finish floor
Slab on grade

Reinforcement
as required
Flashing

Vapor retarder
Weep holes
24 in. (610
mm) o.c.

FIGURE 9.40

Slab-on-grade foundation.

The floor joist system may be supported directly


on the foundation wall (Figure 9.41), corbeled brickwork
(Figure 9.42) or on a ledger joist bolted onto a bond
beam (Figure 9.43) if a crawl space or basement is
present .

Furring with
insulation
Furring anchor
Interior finish
Finish floor

Brick bearing
wall
Reinforcement
as required
Flashing

FIGURE 9.39

Reinforced hollow brick.

Bond beams, which are horizontal reinforced


grouted elements, are used to anchor bolts for attaching
ledgers and plates and span wall openings. Bond
beams are formed by using special U shaped units or
by removing part of the cross web of hollow brick.
Necessary anchor bolts and reinforcement are placed,
and the bond beam is grouted solid. The depth of the
bond beam required will depend on the design loads for
the structure, the material properties of the masonry
and the amount of reinforcement used.
Poured concrete, concrete masonry or brick
masonry foundation walls are the supports for brick
bearing walls. The foundation wall may be built as
shown in Figure 9.40 if the construction incorporates a
slab on grade.

Weep holes
24 in. (610
mm) o.c.
Floor joist
Intermediate
blocking
W aterproofing
below grade

Foundation
wall

F IGURE 9.41
foundation.

Basement/crawl space

112

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Insulation
Interior finish
Finish floor

Brick
bearing wall
Reinforcement
as required
Flashing
Weep holes
24 in. (610
mm) o.c.

The floors above the first story may be anchored


to the brick bearing walls or be supported on slightly
corbeled brickwork. Anchor bolts cast into a
continuous, reinforced, grouted brick bond beam at
the floor support levels are often used in multi-story
construction. Figure 9.44 shows a continuous wood
ledger is bolted into place, and the floor joists are
attached to the ledger with joist hangers.

Floor joist
Metal ties
Intermediate
blocking
Waterproofing
below grade
Foundation wall

F IGURE 9.42

Basement/ craw l space


foundation corbeled support.
The details of support will vary depending upon the
size of foundation wall and the width of the brick bearing
wall above the foundation. A minimum bearing of 3 in.
(76 mm) should be provided for floor joists which bear
on the foundation wall. Masonry waterproofing should
be provided on walls below grade.

Insulation
Bituminous coating
Interior finish
Base trim
Floor joist

Hat
channel
screwed
to
z
clip

Rigid insulation

Brick bearing
wall
Reinforcement
as required

Vertical
reinforcement
as required

Interior
finish

Two-piece
flashing
insulation and
carried below
ledger

Subflooring

Bond
beams as
required

Floor joists
Anchor bolts in
bond beams
Ledger joist

FIGURE 9.44

Floor connection.

Flashing should extend a minimum of 8 in. (203


mm) above the ledger and at least 3 in. (76 mm) below
the ledger.
The top of the bearing wall supports the roof to
minimize eccentric loading. Also, the roof must be
anchored to the top of the brick bearing wall to resist

Flashing
2 x _____ wood
plate with anchor
bolts in grouted
cell

Weep holes
24 in. (610
mm) o.c.
Grouted
bond beam

Ledger joist

Reinforced
grouted
bond beam

Interior Finish
Hat channel

Foundation wall
Waterproofing
below grade

F IGURE 9.43

Basement/ craw l space


foundation bond beam support.

Rigid insulation

Brick bearing
wall
Vertical reinforcement in grouted
cell

FIGURE 9.45

Roof connection.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


lateral forces and uplift forces on the roof. Using
anchor bolts embedded in a bond beam or masonry
below, a wood plate is attached to the top of the wall.
A reinforced concrete bond beam or a reinforced and
grouted brick bond beam may be used, as depicted in
Figure 9.45.
The anchor bolts, in this case, should extend a
minimum of 12 in. (305 mm) into the grouted cells in
the wall below and finish with a standard hook. Figure
9.46 presents one alternative for use in unreinforced
bearing walls, which is to thread anchor bolts through
the core holes of the solid units and attach the bolts to
a steel plate embedded in the masonry.

113

Brick wall

Insulation

Flashing

Interior finish

Weep holes
24 in. (610
mm) o.c.

Steel lintel

Sealant

Lintel

Insulation
Interior finish
Flashing

Wood plate
Brick bearing
wall

Furring anchor
Furring with
insulation
Interior finish

FIGURE 9.46

Brick wall
Horizontal reinforcement

Anchor bolt
with steel plate
grouted into
core

Roof connection.

The support for masonry over openings of


windows and doors may be loose steel lintels,
reinforced brick masonry lintels or brick masonry
arches. Flashing and weep holes should be provided
over the lintel when steel lintels are used as shown in
Figure 9.47.
Above many wall openings, load-bearing brick
masonry can be self-supporting. One alternative is
using horizontally reinforced brick masonry lintels. The
design of reinforced brick lintels should be in
accordance with the governing code.

Sealant

Jamb (Plan View)

Double hung
wood window
Sealant
Limestone sill
Insulation
Flashing
Interior finish

Sill

FIGURE 9.47

Window detail with steel lintel.

As illustrated in Figures 9.48 and 9.49,


reinforcement may be incorporated into voids in a
soldier course of brick or in a bond beam respectively.

114

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Interior finish

Vertical
reinforcement
as required

Hat channel
Rigid
insulation

Grouted soldier
course bond
beam

Bituminous
coating

Flashing
Steel lintel
Window or
door frame

FIGURE 9.48

Soldier course lintel at window.

Interior finish

Vertical
reinforcement
as required

Hat channel
Rigid
insulation

Grouted bond
beam

Bituminous
coating

Flashing
Window or
door frame

FIGURE 9.49

Flashing should always be placed at the base of


the cavity and at all interruptions in the wall, such as
over window and door openings. The result of flashing
location should be considered in the structural design.
Splices in flashing must be sealed and discontinuous
flashing must have end dams. Flashing should be
turned up a minimum of 8 in. (203 mm) and attached
with adhesive to the inside surface of the rigid board
insulation or outside surface of the gypsum board, or
nailed or stapled to furring strips. The flashing should
extend past or be cut flush with exterior face of the
brickwork. Through-wall flashing at the base of the
wall will be punctured by vertical reinforcing bars if the
brick bearing wall is reinforced. Flashing should be
sealed around all reinforcement with mastic at these
locations.

Bond beam lintel.

For long-term durability, any material in direct


contact with the brick wythe should be corrosion
resistant. With no direct contact at the brick wythe,
rigid board insulation can be adhered to the wythe, and
light-gauge (non-bearing) metal stud framing can be
attached to floor and ceiling joists. This forms a cavity
between the insulation and the interior finish which can
be flashed similar to that in brick veneer wall systems.
Since the insulation and finishes are installed after the
masonry is complete, a minimum 1/2 in. (12.7 mm)
cavity is adequate for this wall system. Any voids in
the mortar should be filled and to provide a clear, open
cavity, and any mortar protrusions should be removed.

The placement of weep holes should be directly


above all flashing locations. Weep holes should be
located above grade and spaced a maximum of 24 in.
(610 mm) on center when using open head joints or
brick vents, or 16 in. (406 mm) on center when using
wicks or plastic tubes. Open head joint weep holes
are preferred over rope wicks or tubes. To prevent
insects and rain from entering the wall, vents, copper
screening or stainless steel wool should be placed in
open head joints. Brick vents in head joints at the
base and top of each story are recommended if the
brick bearing wall is treated with a clear water repellent.
Interior finishes and the attachment of insulation
may be achieved in different ways. Attaching treated
wood or plastic furring strips to wall plugs inserted into
mortar joints as shown in Figure 9.50, at the top, bottom

Brick bearing wall

Wood insert

FIGURE 9.50

Wall nailing insert.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


and mid-height of the wall is one of the methods. The
use of a special attachment clip is another choice. This
clip is attached to the brick wythe at 16 in. or 24 in.
(406 or 610 mm) intervals on center horizontally or
vertically. As shown in Figure 9.51 the leg of the clip
extends beyond the rigid board insulation, and special
channels are screwed onto the clip. The interior finish
is then screwed to the hat channels.

115

Building codes contain several provisions regarding


mat erial testing, inspecti on of masonry and
workmanship to assure quality construction. To verify
compliance with applicable standards, brick units and
mortar may require testing. Verification of the assembly
compressiv e strength may be determined by
preconstruction testing of brick masonry prisms. The
prisms are constructed using the same materials that
are used on the project. The conservative unit strength
method in the MSJC Specification and IBC can also
verify the assembly compressive strength.

Brick bearing wall


Attachment clips

Vertical
reinforcement
as required
Interior
finish

Rigid insulation

FIGURE 9.51

Attachment clip.

Light-gauge (non-bearing) metal stud framing is


another finish attachment alternative. The framing is
used to form a cavity and to apply insulation and/or
finishes in a manner similar to that in brick veneer wall
systems. The installation of light-gauge metal framing
is accomplished by attaching a track to the floor and
ceiling joists at the desired distance from the brick
wythe. The location of rigid board insulation should be
between the metal framing and brick bearing wall, or
insulation may be placed between the studs. A plane
surface for applying the interior gypsum board or other
interior finish is provided by the framing. The brick bearing
walls are not supported by the framing . This allows a
considerable reduction in the size of the metal framing
members. One and one-half inch (38.1 mm) studs are
adequate for this application.
The construction quality of a brick bearing wall is
important for a number of reasons. The primary
structural system for the building is the masonry wall
which must meet the minimum strength necessary for
adequate performance. The expected strength of the
masonry may not be achiev ed without quality
construction. The primary barrier to water penetration
in a single wythe wall is the masonry and quality
workmanship directly affects water penetration
resistance of the masonry.

In reinforced brick masonry, maintaining clear grout


space during construction and properly locating the
reinforcement are important. The hollow brick cells
intended to receive reinforcing bars and grout should
be free of mortar protrusions greater than 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) and excessive debris. Inserting sponges into the
cells to be grouted at the beginning of construction is
one method of keeping the cells of hollow brick clean.
In this method the sponges are pulled upward by a
handle, wire or string as construction progresses,
leaving clean cells ready for grouting. When sponges
are not used, another method is to provide cleanout
openings at the base of the wall at all grout locations.
The cleanouts allow the excessive mortar protrusions
to be dislodged and the debris removed at the base of
the wall. Cleanout holes are sealed prior to grouting.
Cleanout holes may be provided by omitting the
face shell of a masonry unit. Prior to grouting, the face
shell is replaced. The cut piece is held in position to
resist pressure from the grout. Cleanouts are seldom
used in single wythe brick construction except with
large cell hollow brick or at pilaster locations. A
competent bricklayer possesses the skill to construct
a wall without significant mortar droppings and without
excessive mortar fins.
To resist water penetration, full head joints may be
used with hollow units and full head and bed joints are
required with solid units. Flashing and weep holes and
other moisture control measures should be properly
installed to control water which does penetrate the brick
masonry wythe.
The brick masonry is the primary structural element
in a load-bearing wall system. The installation may
begin as soon as the foundation is complete and
adequately cured. During construction, the bearing
walls should be braced until the floors connecting walls
and roof provide lateral support. Wen a story height is
complete, construction of the floor or roof systems
follows, which could serve as a work platform for the

116

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

following masonry work. During the masonry


construction, fasteners necessary for attachment of the
cabinets, insulation and interior finishes may be
incorporated. The interior frame walls may be built at
the same time with the exterior load-bearing brick walls
once the floors have been constructed,.
Brick bearing walls should reach sufficient strength
before any temporary or permanent loads are applied.
Curing conditions will affect the rate of strength gain
of load-bearing masonry. The masonry walls, if
sufficient moisture is maintained, should cure a
minimum of three days before supporting floor or roof
loads. The required curing periods of the reinforced
brick masonry beams are at least seven days. Poor
curing condi tions, such as exposure to cold
temperatures, may require longer curing times. The
floors and roof may be attached once the brick bearing
walls are cured. As soon as the masonry is complete,
the windows, doors, plumbing, electrical and heating
systems, insulation and interior finishes can be
installed.

Typically, one wythe of the wall is built up not more


than 16 in. (406 mm) ahead of the other wythe in order
to accommodate wall ties. Spacing of ties is not to
exceed 36 in. (914 mm) on center horizontally and 24
in. (610 mm) on center vertically. The 2005 MSJC
Specification requires at least one tie for every 41/2
square feet (0.42 m2) of wall area when W2.8 (MW
18) wire is used and at least one tie every 22/3 square
feet (0.25 m2) of wall area when W1.7 (MW 11) wire is
used. Joint reinforcement may also be used to tie the
two masonry wythes together.

9.9.1.6 DOUBLE-WYTHE GROUTED WALLS


Reinforced brick masonry has been used extensively
for the construction of lintels, beams, columns, walls
and slabs and the experience gained from this type of
construction is constantly utilized to refine design
procedures and construction techniques.
Perhaps the greatest use of reinforced brick
masonry in this country during the past sixty years has
been on the West Coast where all major structures,
including residential, are required to be designed to
resist seismic forces. For this reason, many of the
reinforced masonry developments in both design and
construction have originated in this area.
Double wythe masonry construction is common
for many applications, both load-bearing and non-loadbearing and for interior and exterior walls. These
systems are frequently used as exterior walls or other
applications when exposed architectural masonry units
are required on one or both sides of the wall. Such
walls are constructed with full collar joints between
wythes of masonry. One common double wythe wall is
the composite wall, which consists of a clay brick wythe
and a concrete masonry wythe with a 3/4 in. (19.1 mm)
minimum collar joint and brick headers or wall ties.
The collar joint is often difficult to fill with mortar but
may be filled by fine grouting. In high seismic areas,
reinforcement is a requirement and wider collar joints
are necessary to accommodate the reinforcement,
detailing (vertical reinforcement crossing horizontal
reinforcement) and minimum clearances.

Plan View

Section View

FIGURE 9.52

Typical grout tie and single


curtain positioner in place.
The grout space between the masonry wythes
should not be less than 21/2 in. (63.5 mm) when coarse
grout is used. Smaller spaces can be used when a
fine grout is used or when there is no horizontal
reinforcing steel. A minimum cavity of 1 in. (25.4 mm)
is recommended for fine grouting, in contrast to 3/4 in.
(19.1 mm) collar joint of the past. Code requirements
dictate the minimum size of grout space.
9.9.1.7 BEARING WALL T YPES
In theory, it is possible to obtain any nominal wall
thickness equal to or greater than 3 in. (76.2 mm) with
the various sizes of brick produced. The designer
should determine the brick sizes available in the local
geographic area prior to selecting a wall thickness,
since all manufacturers do not produce all of the
various sizes.

117

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

Figure 9.53 shows various wall types varying in thickness from 4 in. (102 mm) to 12 in. (305 mm). These
configurations will require reinforcement in the higher seismic design categories.
1

1
4 Brick Wall

6
8 Brick Wall

FIGURE 9.53

2
6 Brick Wall

7
10 Brick
Cavity Wall

Bearing wall types.

/ 2

3
61/2 Brick Wall
Metal - Tied

8
10 Reinforced
Brick Wall

4
8 Brick Cavity Wall

9
12 Brick
Cavity Wall

5
8 Reinforced
Brick Wall

10
12 Reinforced
Brick Wall

118

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

9.9.1.8 REINFORCED HOLLOW MASONRY WALLS


In the United States, hollow brick were first
developed and marketed in the Southeast under a
regional specification of
Jumbo Brick
. These units
have been used in thousands of buildings since the
1920
s. Hollow units of this type were more nearly
brick than tile, consequently, the special specification
and wide use of hollow brick occurred. These units
were made and marketed under several different
names, for example, Dubrick, Speedbrick, Jumbo
Brick, and others. They were typically 8 in. (203 mm)
nominal in thickness and had face sizes ranging from
nominal 21/4 by 12 in. (57.2 by 305 mm) to nominal 4
by 12 in. (102 by 305 mm).
Four types of hollow brick are described by ASTM
Standard C 652. The classification by types is related
to the appearance characteristics of the units. The
proper type is selected by the specifier depending on
the project and the intended use.
Reinforced hollow brick masonry may be designed
using the requirements of the MSJC Code. This
standard contains provisions for both double wythe
grouted reinforced masonry and for reinforced grouted
hollow cell masonry. In addition, there are provisions
for partially reinforced masonry. Reinforced masonry
is required to contain a minimum area of reinforcement,
based on the cross-sectional area of the wall, with not
more than two thirds of the steel in the principal
direction.
Masonry strength for reinforced hollow brick
masonry constructed in accordance with the IBC is
determined by one of three methods:
Method No. 1 (2006 IBC Section 2105.2.2.2)
provides a means of testing compressive prisms built
of similar materials, under the same conditions and in
stack bond pattern. Test prisms are constructed and
tested in accordance with ASTM C 1314 Standard Test
Method for Compressive Strength of Masonry Prisms.
Masonry prism strength of hollow brick masonry is
normally determined at 28 days after prism construction
by dividing the test load by the net area of the
assemblage.
Method No. 2 (2006 IBC Section 2105.2.2.1.1)
provides a means of assuming an ultimate compressive
strengt h of masonry, based on the net area
compressive strength of hollow units and the type of
mortar used for construction.

Method No. 3 (2006 IBC Section 2105.3) provides


for removing specimens, or prisms, from the constructed
wall and testing in accordance with ASTM C 1314.
Obviously, this method would be used only when
compressive masonry strengths have not been
satisfactorily determined by Method 1 or Method 2.
There is also a method recognized by the California
Division of the State Architect which acknowledges
compressive test results from core samples taken from
masonry. This is especially useful when marginal
results are obtained from recognized methods and
further limited testing for verification of compressive
strength of masonry is desirable.
A detailed knowledge of the material properties is
essential when any new material is offered to the
construction industry. Initial evaluation, such as with
International Code Council
s Evaluation Services, will
provide the designer and Building Official verification
that the new material complies with the intent of the
building code.
Hollow bricks are normally laid with only face shell
bedding and unreinforced hollow brick walls may show
a reduced masonry strength bearing capacity due to
the reduction of the amount of bedding mortar.
Fully bedded mortar (applied on all cross webs and
face shells) may increase the strength bearing capacity
in non-grouted brick walls. This allows webs to
contribute in resisting the axial, shear and bending
loads.
Typically, if the structural capacity and proper
material properties are provided, hollow brick can be
used where solid brick are used. Hollow bricks are
produced with the same outside dimensions as solid
brick and show no visual evidence on the face of
containing cores in excess of that found in solid brick.
An economic alternative to double wythe solid
construction or solid brick veneer construction is the 4
in. (102 mm) hollow brick.
Due to its use with reinforced brick masonry as
wel l as the adv antages of reduced costs in
manufacturing, transportation, and installation, hollow
bricks are widely available. They can be used under
the masonry provisions in the model building codes
and masonry design standards.
9.9.1.9 CAVITY WALLS
A cavity wall is two wythes of masonry separated
by a space varying from 2 in. (50.8 mm) to 41/2 in. (114
mm). The space between the wythes of brick may
contain insulation for thermal efficiency.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

Parapet details and movement joints are critical


in any masonry system and this is particularly true with
cavity walls.

2minimum air space


Insulation

Parapets are normally a cantilever element and


this makes parapets subject to cracking and
displacement causing a major source of moisture
penetration. The first rule is to make the parapet
structurally stable so that the parapet, including the
cap as a separate element, does not fall from the
building.

Wall tie

Weep holes
24o.c. (typ.)
Flashing

FIGURE 9.54

119

Insulated cavity wall.

The wythes are made of masonry materials, such


as solid or hollow brick, solid or hollow concrete
masonry units, or possibly concrete. When these
materials are combined with proper design, quality
materials and adequate workmanship, the final result
will render high performance cavity walls.

For structural stability, the parapet wall should be


dowelled into the structural roof deck with at least a
#3 bar spaced not more than 16 in. (406 mm) on center.
If the height of the parapet exceeds 3 times the
thickness, additional reinforcement will be required for
the dowels. Any expansion joints present in the wall
should continue to the top of the parapet. The cavity
should be continuous to the top of the parapet,
excluding the cap. The cap must be positively
anchored and a continuous metal cap will provide the
optimum moisture resistance. Often, designers prefer
a precast concrete cap, which is acceptable provided
that the connection is positive and a through wall
flashing is installed immediately below the precast cap.
Roofing materials should continue up the parapet to
the top to minimize the possibility of water intrusion.

Metal coping
Sealant
/16metal ties

The history of cavity walls extends back to ancient


Greek and Roman structures. Evidence can be found
in Pergamum, located in Western Turkey where a
masonry cavity stone wall can be found.

Horizontal reinforcement
Vertical reinforcement
2cavity
Counter flashing

There is evidence that the British rekindled the


cavity wall as historic plans in the early 1800
s show 2
wythes of brickwork connected by brick headers. This
is a type of unreinforced cavity wall that is still
constructed. There is more evidence (circa 1821) with
published information on the benefit of cavity wall
construction as a means to keep moisture migration
from entering a building. In the second half of the 19th
century, there is evidence of the British using wrought
iron for brick ties.
The Unit ed States started designing and
constructing cavity walls toward the end of the 19th
century. Evidence of this appears in professional trade
publications around 1899, but it was not until 1937 that
the cavity wall gained widespread recognition by the
building officials. Since then, extensive testing has
been performed revealing a great deal of information
on the properties and performance of cavity walls.

Base flashing

Dovetail anchor
slot and 1/4
flexible dovetail
anchor @ 16
o.c. horizontally

Soft compressible material

Joint reinforcement

FIGURE 9.55

Reinforced parapet wall.

120

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Sloped coping with drips
both sides

Dowel rod and anchor pin


Raked joint and
sealant (optional)

Raked joint and sealant


(optional)

Raked joint and


sealant (optional)

Flashing

Flashing
Brick

Horizontal joint
reinforcement

Weatherproof membrane
Horizontal joint
reinforcement

Brick

Inner Face

Outer Face

FIGURE 9.56

Brick

Concrete block

Outer Face

Parapet coping detail.

Movement joints should be considered for all


buildings. Since cavity walls are an integral and large
spanning building element, there are movement joints
associated with these walls. One requirement is that
any movement joint in the foundation should follow
through the wall. The movement joints should meet,
not be offset, as offset movement joints have been
historically problematic.
A movement joint may be a control joint or an
expansion joint. These two different joint types exist
for opposite reasons. A control joint allows for material
contraction, therefore a weakened joint in the plane of
the wall will maximize the probability that the crack
will occur in that weakened joint. A control joint may
also be a joint void of any incompressible material since
the shrinkage stresses will also be relieved. On the
other hand, an expansion joint must be free of any
incompressible material in order to be effective. There
may be compressible material in the expansion joint
which would allow for the wall to expand into the void
space. Control joints are placed in concrete masonry
walls whereas expansion joints are placed in clay brick
walls.
Control joints are normally spaced in concrete
masonry walls at about 25 ft (7.6 m) or a panel ratio
not exceeding 11/2 times the height. For a 10 ft (3.0 m)
high concrete masonry wall, control joints should be
spaced at 15 ft (4.6 m). The spacing of vertical
expansion joints is typically 30 ft (9.1 m) maximum for
walls without openings.

Horizontal joint reinforcement

Premolded compressible filler and sealer

Rake mortar
back 3/4to
form control
joint and
apply sealant

Horizontal joint
reinforcement
(discontinuous)

Plan View

FIGURE 9.57

Movement joints at corner.

Premolded compressible
fillers and sealant

Horizontal joint
reinforcement
(discontinuous)

Backer rod and


caulking between
CMU

Plan View

FIGURE 9.58

Tab tie

Movement joint.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

/16wall ties @16o.c. vertically

121

Elastic joint sealant

Elastic joint sealant and


premolded compressible filler

Bond break material

Shear key is not mortared


Premolded compressible filler

/16wall ties @16o.c. vertically

Elastic joint sealant and premolded


compressible filler
Joint reinforcement
Elastic joint sealant an premolded
compressible filler

/16wall ties @16o.c. vertically

Anchors @16o.c. vertically


Elastic joint sealant and
premolded compressible filler

Metal ties @ 16o.c. vertically


Elastic joint sealant an premolded
compressible filler
Continuous single wire
reinforcement around corners
each wythe @ 16o.c. vertically

Plan View

FIGURE 9.59

Movement joints.

Particular requirements must meet all structures


and be detailed accordingly. Details that are acceptable
on one structure may not work on another, however,
certain details can usually be found that will increase
the performance of masonry walls by resisting
cracking, efflorescence, and water penetration.
Differential movements of elements supporting
cavity walls must be kept to a minimum or serious
distress may result. In masonry walls, differential
movement of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 15 ft (4.6 m) has been
considered sufficient to cause cracking. On masonry
cavity walls, observations have shown that differential
movements in the foundation of more than 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) in 15 ft (4.6 m) could occur and yet the walls
remain with no cracks.

Plan View

FIGURE 9.60

Cavity wall movement joints.

9.9.1.10 MASONRY CAVITY BEARING WALLs


Cavity walls have been used primarily in one and
two story buildings of load bearing design. Buildings
taller than two stories may also use cavity walls. Quite
often, the greater demand on the loadbearing walls will
require reinforced grouted masonry walls.

122

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Primary reasons for the popularity of cavity walls


include:

Concrete block
Drywall

Superior resistance to rain penetration,


Excellent thermal properties,
High resistance to sound transmission, and
Exceptional resistance to fire.

The fire resistance ratings for brick cavity walls are


unequaled. A double wythe cavity wall using 3 in. (76.2
mm) deep units will provide a 4 hour fire rating as listed
in 2006 IBC Table 720.1(2). This characteristic makes
brick cavity walls one of the safest fire protection
elements available. Unlike systems that depend on
mechanical engagement, such as fire sprinklers, the
brick cavity wall is 100% dependable in fire resistance.
Concrete masonry provides an excellent backup
to a masonry cavity wall. The concrete masonry backup
is relatively stiff and provides rigidity to the wall system.
In turn, the concrete masonry backup carries a greater
share of the lateral load, providing for superior
performance of the cavity wall.
Cavity wall construction is a series of building one
story walls on top of each other. The cavity wall will
provide both the building finish and the structural
support. When properly coordinated, the building may
be constructed at a full story each week which may be
more economical than other building systems.
The combination of floors and shear walls provide
necessary resistance to lateral forces. This type of
resistance is an excellent application for buildings such
as hospitals, schools, multi-unit family housing, motels
and hotels.
The design professional must be aware that detailing
requirements will vary from building to building. A
superior design will generate details that may apply to
a number of different buildings and may eliminate
possible damage to the building when subjected to
unusual lateral loads, such as wind and seismic.
The concrete masonry wythe of the cavity wall may
support concrete plank floors as detailed in Figure 9.61.
In this application, the walls and floors are connected
by using a #3 bar turning into both the wall and floor.
Floor planks should always be installed prior to erection
of additional masonry above the floor line. The project
schedule may allow for the masonry and planking to
rotate back and forth a half floor at a time thereby
keeping the continuity of both trades.

Horizontal joint
reinforcement
at 16o.c.
vertically

Drywall channel

Required bearing
pad
Continuous bond
beam
#3 reinforcing bar in
grout key grout core
at reinforcement

Brick

1minimum
air space

Precast concrete
plank

FIGURE 9.61

Polyisosyanurated
rigid board
insulation

Bearing wall section.

Concrete planks may bear on masonry walls in a


number of ways as shown in Figure 9.62. Two of the
three examples show the plank partially bearing on
the masonry wall and the bearing surface should be
at least 4 in. (102 mm). Plank should be set in fresh
mortar to accommodate any irregularities in the
concrete masonry wall. Mortar under the plank will
also accommodate any camber that exists. Note that
this is not a positive connection and that the lateral
resistance is limited.
A bond beam may be used for the concrete block
masonry at a window head in lieu of a steel lintel. The
exterior wythe will likely be supported with a steel lintel
as illustrated in Figure 9.63. For moisture protection,
flashing is installed above the lintel with the ends of
flashing extending beyond the opening and the ends
of the flashing turned up. Ideally, the window size and
spacing will be complementary with the masonry bond,
thereby limiting cuts and making the system
aesthetically pleasing.
Base flashing should always be designed and
properly installed. The cavity wall is intentionally
gathering moisture and allowing that moisture to
gravitate to the base. Figure 9.64 shows a properly
detailed cavity wall base which includes continuous

123

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Brick
Flashing

Continuous
bond beam or
precast
concrete lintel

1minimum air space


Polyisosyanurated rigid board insulation
Concrete block
Concrete topping

Weep holes
24o.c.

Continuous bond beam

Sealant

Shelf angle

Concrete plank
Bearing plate and
mortar bed as required

(1)

FIGURE 9.63

Window head detail.

Concrete block
Rigid insulation

Concrete block filler

Horizontal joint
reinforcement at
16o.c. vertically

Concrete topping
(if required)

Brick
Concrete
block
Concrete plank
Bearing plate and
mortar bed as required
Continuous bond beam

(2)

Flashing
membrane
all ends and
joints lapped
and sealed

Concrete block with cores grouted

Weep holes

Deformed bars or steel strap


2minimum above grade

Concrete topping
if required

FIGURE 9.64

Base flashing.

9.9.1.11 MASONRY CAVITY WALLS


FRAME
Concrete block filler

Continuous bond beam

FIGURE 9.62

(3)

Non-bearing wall details.

flashing, weep holes at 24 in. (610 m) on center and


placement of the bottom of cavity wall at least 2 in.
(50.8 mm) above surrounding finish grade. The raised
elevation of the cavity wall minimizes moisture infiltration
due to capillary action. The weep holes must be kept
clear during the construction and landscaping
processes.

WITH

CONCRETE

Concrete frame structures of mid-rise and highrise are natural applications for masonry cavity walls.
These structures may be designed with the concrete
slabs exposed on the building exterior, that is, the slab
is supported by both wythes of the cavity wall, or may
be supported by the inner wythe only with the exterior
wythe continuous. The advantage of a continuous
exterior wythe is that the cavity will also be continuous
and less susceptible to moisture penetration to the
interior of the building. Also, thermal bridging is
reduced making a more energy efficient building.
Shelf angles may be required. Although the MSJC
Code does not require shelf angles for concrete backed
systems, the designer may elect to consider the

124

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

differential material properties between clay and


concrete and elect to isolate the brick into panels. Shelf
angle rotation and deflection must also be considered.
The design illustrated in Figure 9.65 shows the
concrete floor supported by one wythe of the cavity
wall, thereby reducing thermal bridging. Modular layout
has also been considered allowing for full units
immediately below the concrete slab.

Concrete
block

Horizontal joint
reinforcement at 16
o.c. vertically

Concrete
slab

The given illustration shows a concrete masonry


infill system, which is tied into the concrete frame. This
is accomplished with a dovetail tie system into the
concrete. There are other methods to achieve this
anchorage, but the anchors should be flexible enough
to accommodate the inevitable movement, yet rigid
enough to support the concrete masonry wall.
Perimeter connections may also follow this rule, or the
designer may prefer to decrease the spacing between
ties, since the spacings listed in the MSJC Code are
maximum dimensions.
Properly designed hollow unit masonry walls may
also serve as the veneer backup system. The backup
system must meet deflection criteria and be able to
support and transmit any imposed lateral loads from
the veneer.

Dovetail slot

Drywall
Brick

Flexible anchors
set into dovetail
slots
1minimum air space

Wedge anchor
if required

Rigid insulation

Concrete block
back-up

Concrete frame

FIGURE 9.65

Typical wall section.

FIGURE 9.67

Ties for lateral support.

Brick
Concrete
block

Flashing
Taper back
insulation
5 x 5 x 5/16
shelf angle
Weep holes
24o.c.
Sealant

Wedge insert
with 3/4bolt

Precompressed
expanding foam
filler (optional)

FIGURE 9.66

/2compressible filler with


adhesive
surface
1

Shelf angle detail.

Structural steel lintels may be used at window heads


for support. For wide openings, the lintel may be
coordinated with the concrete floor so that the lintel
may be bolted to the concrete. For openings with shorter
spans, lintels may span the openings provided the
deflection limits (l/600 or 0.3 in. maximum) are not
exceeded.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

125

together and distribute any strain over a longer length


of wall. This can also be achieved by a closer spacing
of the horizontal joint reinforcement in both wythes at
the bottom of the wall. These procedures will contain
any vertical cracks that may begin at the bottom of the
wall.

Flashing

Existing shelf angle


(zinc coated)
Weep hole

In seismic design areas, this bond break may not


be acceptable for load-bearing structures.

Sealant

Sealant
Flashing

FIGURE 9.68

Window head detail.

When masonry cavity walls are utilized in hotels


or multi-family housing, cavity walls may also be part
of the balcony design. In this case, a positive
attachment must be provided for the safety of the
occupants. Reinforcement to the interior wythe is an
excellent means of providing the positive attachment
and is illustrated in Figure 9.69.

Horizontal joint
reinforcement
16o.c.
Coat concrete
with asphaltic
material

Grout below upper


flashing
Flashing
Insulation

Reinforcing dowel
drilled in place
Weep holes to be
kept clear of mortar
at slab surface

Flashing

FIGURE 9.70

Weep hole
24o.c.
Sealant
Required shelf angle

FIGURE 9.69

Weep holes @ 24o.c.

Balcony section.

9.9.1.12 CAVITY WALL CONNECTIONS


A typical foundation detail is shown in Figure 9.70.
The bond, in this case, is broken between the base of
the cavity wall and the top of the concrete beam by
flashing. In the foundation the transfer of movement
to the wall is reduced. Bond breaks also permit
differential thermal and moisture movements without
distress to either the brick wall or the concrete
foundation. Furthermore, by placing reinforcing bars
and filling the cavity with grout, a bond beam or tie
beam can be formed at the bottom of the wall. This
will attach the inner and outer wythes of masonry

Foundation detail.

When the actual cause is the expansion or curling


of the concrete slabs bearing on the walls, thermal
strains or other movements are frequently cited for
cracking in masonry walls. The curling of the concrete
slab has been known to pick up the brick wall below.
In detailing the structure, this behavior of concrete is
often overlooked by the designer. A typical detail that
will relieve this condition is shown in Figure 9.71. In
this design, the bond is broken between the concrete
slab and the brick wall by building paper. With respect
to the wall, this allows the slab to have some freedom
of movement. Further, it permits the longitudinal
thermal and moisture movements to occur without
distress. The slab is thickened into a beam over the
interior wythe to help stiffen the slab and reduced
curling. Provisions must be made for insulation under
certain climatic conditions.
Once again, this detail may not be seismically
compatible due to lateral restraint requirements. Lateral
restraint can be provided by clips or channels at the
top of the masonry wall.

126

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Lubricated bearing surface
and slotted holes in bearing
seats of steel joists
Concrete slab over steel
decking and steel joists
Bond break materials

Metal ties

FIGURE 9.71

Metal ties

Concrete roof slab detail.

Standard practice has been to positively anchor


the joists or steel into the masonry. Lubricating the
bearing surfaces and providing slotted holes in the
seats of the steel members can improve this design.
A structural system using steel joists bearing on
masonry wall is shown in Figure 9.72.
Wood floor joists must bear at least 3 in. (76 mm)
on the interior wythe of a cavity wall. Joists can form a
ledge which may create a moisture bridge across the
cavity if the ends project into the cavity.

2typical cavity

FIGURE 9.72

Steel joist structural floor

assembly.
The building codes require joists to be anchored
to masonry walls at specified intervals in an approved
way. Anchors engage 3 joists at intervals not exceeding
8 ft (2.4 m) where the joists are parallel to a wall. Cavity
wall ties are usually required within 8 in. (203 mm) of
joist bearing level. The floor is considered to provide
lateral support for the walls as shown in Figure 9.73.

Solid bridging
at anchor

Lateral
support metal
anchors @ 8o.c.
maximum

/16wall ties at first


course below joists
3

FIGURE 9.73

Anchored wood floor to cavity wall.

Joists anchors at
every 4th joist

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Figure 9.74 shows two of several methods to anchor
wood roofs to cavity walls. One method shows a means
to anchor to both wythes of brick while the other method
anchors the roof to grouted cells of hollow units in one
of the wythes. To provide positive anchorage, anchor
bolts are grouted into the hollow cells. Anchor bolts
holding roof plates should extend into the masonry a
minimum of 16 in. (406 mm), regardless of the method,
which is usually about six standard size brick courses.
The nut should be hand-tightened after the wood plate
is installed.

127

Care must be taken when masonry walls are used


to enclose steel-frame structures. The masonry should
be anchored to the steel frame in such a manner to
permit each to move relative to the other. Steel-frames
are more flexible than brick walls and will undergo
greater deflections. The frame and enclosing wall differ
in the reaction to moisture and in the magnitude of
thermal movement.

/4anchor

/4anchor

Wood plate
Compressible
filler

Section

Plan

Dovetail
slot
/16diameter
metal ties
3

Steel anchor bolt


with steel plate

/4anchor

2typical cavity

Plan

Section

F IGURE 9.75

Cavity wall anchorage at

concrete beams.
Wood plate
/4anchor

Brick header course

4hollow brick
or CMU
Steel anchor bolt
grouted into core

Plan

/16diameter
metal ties

Section

/4anchor

2typical cavity

FIGURE 9.74

Angle welded to
beam

Anchor of wood roof framing to

cavity wall.

Plan

FIGURE 9.76
beam.

Section

Cavity wall anchorage at steel

128

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Anchors should be flexible, resisting tension and


compression to tie walls to the structural frame to
provide lateral support, but not shear. This flexibility
permits differential movement between the frame and
the wall with no cracking distress. Typical methods
for anchoring masonry walls to columns and beams
with corrosion-resistant metal ties are shown in Figures
9.75 through 9.80. These anchorage methods allow
horizontal and vertical differential movements.

/4anchor

Dovetail slot

Compressible material
/4anchor

Brick and concrete


block cavity wall
Steel angle metal
tie holder
1
/4metal tie

Plan

Section

Dovetail
slot
Brick cavity wall

/4anchor

Plan

/16wall tie

Section

FIGURE 9.77

FIGURE 9.79

Anchorage detail.

Wall anchorage at concrete


/4anchor @16o.c. vertically

columns.

Horizontal joint reinforcement continuous


around corners where required

Wall ties
/4anchor

1minimum clearance between


columns and outer wythe

/4anchor rod
Rod offset

Section

Plan

/16metal wire tie

/4anchor rod
welded to column
1

Reinforced concrete column

/4anchor

Plan

Section

FIGURE 9.78 Wall anchorage to steel columns.

FIGURE 9.80
corner.

Concrete column and cavity wall

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Stock sizes of window and door frames should be
used in cavity walls. In cavity walls, solid masonry
jambs at windows and doors should be avoided. For
steel windows, the jambs must be partially solid to
accept most standard jamb anchors. Wood or steel
casings must be used to adapt non-modular steel
casement windows to modular cavity walls. Cavity wall
ties spaced at 3 ft (914 mm) or less should be placed
around all openings not more than 12 in. (305 mm)
from the opening.

129

Flashing
Weep holes
Reinforced
brick lintel

Caulking

Head
Wall ties

Flashing

Reinforced
CMU lintel

Steel angle lintels


Weep holes

Flashing

Jamb

Caulking
Caulking

Head

Caulking

Wall ties

Flashing

Sill
Jamb
Flashing

Caulking

FIGURE 9.82

Metal casement window.

Caulking

Flashing
Weep holes

Flashing

Steel angle
lintels

Weep holes
Caulking

Sill

Head
Flashing

FIGURE 9.81

Wall ties

Double hung wood window.

9.9.1.13 BRICK MASONRY RAIN SCREEN WALLS


The building envelope can be damaged by rain
penetration through walls. Some examples of the
problems related to moisture penetration are:
efflorescence of the masonry, staining, corrosion of
metal accessories in the exterior cladding, and damage
to interior finishes. The appearance of brick masonry
wall systems can be affected by water penetration.
Several methods have been used to prevent water
penetration of walls with some more effective than
others. Single wythe barrier walls rely on heavy mass
to inhibit moisture penetration. Brick veneer and cavity
walls are examples of drainage walls and provide

Jamb
Caulking

Caulking

Weep holes

Flashing

Sill

FIGURE 9.83

Commercial metal window.

130

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Interior pressure

Vent area

Cavity pressure

Using the rain screen principle can provide


moisture penetration resistance for exterior brick walls.
This idea is to introduce air into the cavity of common
drainage type walls to provide pressure equalization
so that the cavity works in resisting wind-driven
moisture penetration.

Exterior pressure

excellent moisture penetration resistance. The exterior


wythe cannot be made watertight. Requirements for
interior drainage are needed for these wall systems to
successfully work as intended.

The primary functions of the rain screen principle


include:
1. An exterior rain screen with protected
openings which allows the passage of air but
not water,
2. A restricted cavity behind the rain screen in
which air pressure is basically the same as
the external air pressure,
3. Insulation fixed to the outer face of the interior
wall system, if provided in design and,
4. An interior wall or barrier which will significantly
limit the passage of air and water vapor and
is able to withstand all required design loads,
such as wind and earthquake forces.
Anchored brick veneers and cavity walls are
drainage wall types which provide a space for drainage
of moisture that has penetrated the exterior wythe and
are often confused with rain screen walls. The question
frequently comes up of whether the wall system utilizes
the rain screen principle when the causes of rain
leakage problems are discussed. The cavity between
the exterior wythe and the interior wythe provides
drainage of moisture which has entered the wall. The
idea of drainage type walls has been around for many
years; however, the basic concept of the rain screen
principle is to control all forces that can drive moisture
through the wall system.
Pressure equalized rain screen wall is a term
that should be used. This accentuates the difference
from the common drainage type wall. The major
difference between a rain screen wall and a drainage
wall is the pressure equalization in the cavity behind
the exterior wythe. The best way of resisting water
penetration is provided by a pressure equalized rain
screen wall. When resistance to water penetration is
of major concern, means of resisting water penetration
should be used on projects located in areas which
receive high volumes of wind-driven rain.

Air space
Exterior cladding

FIGURE 9.84

Air retarder on
interior wall

Brick rain screen wall principle.

The major force which causes infiltration of air and


water on windward facades is the difference in air
pressure across the exterior cladding. Penetration of
air and moisture can be through the units, mortar joints,
hairline cracks, poorly bonded surfaces and other
openings that exist or develop over the life of the
structure.
As shown in Figure 9.84, a rain screen wall is
composed of two layers of materials separated by a
cavity.
The backing of an anchored brick veneer wall or
the inner wythe of a cavity wall is the interior wall or
inner layer. A pressure difference between the exterior
wythe and the cavity space is created when wind loads
are imposed on the wall assembly. This pressure
difference forces water on the surface of the exterior
cladding to penetrate any openings. The pressure in
the cavity increases until it equals the pressure
resulting from the wind load being applied. This is the
phenomenon of pressure equalization design. The
inner layer of the wall assembly must be airtight to
affect this air pressure transfer. This is accomplish by
applying an air retarder at some location on the backing
or inner wythe. At this location, the air barrier seal
should last longer since it is not exposed to the exterior
elements. Stack effect and mechanical ventilation
generated inside the building are effectively controlled
with the interior wall airtight. As the pressure difference
on the exterior cladding which drives rain into cavity is
reduced, rain penetration through the exterior cladding

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


should be reduced as well. The resultant wind load
will be imposed on the air barrier and interior wall.
Exterior cladding limits the passage of water and
wind and can also function as part of a thermal barrier.
The level to which the exterior cladding can be relied
upon to serve these functions is variable and the
exterior cladding is not considered to be the only air or
moisture barrier in the wall system.
For moisture penetration resistance, rain screen
walls using a brick veneer or cavity wall system should
be designed as a two-stage barrier. The exterior wythe
is the first stage and the second stage is the backing
assembly or the inner wythe. The exterior brick wythe
should be detailed and constructed to provide moisture
resistance so that the second stage is not continually
tested. If excess water penetrates the exterior brick
wythe, the backing system may become a single stage
which can lead to failure. Figure 9.85 shows a typical
brick masonry rain screen wall.

131

The first stage of the rain screen principle is the


exterior brick wythe with rain water running down the
face of the brickwork. Capillary action is absorbed by
some moisture in contact with the exterior wythe. The
moisture will be forced into the brick work if wind pressure
is applied to the face of the exterior brick wythe,
particularly at the mortar joints or openings. Some
difficulties in obtaining a waterproof exterior wythe
include the use of dissimilar materials, the presence of
mortar joints and the variations of workmanship. Some
moisture will penetrate the brick wythe and infiltrate
into the cavity space. As a result of air flow through
vent openings and weep holes, if the cavity space is in
equilibrium with the exterior air pressure, the only
moisture which will reach the cavity space is due to
gravity flow and capillary action. The rain screen
principle works efficiently when water which penetrates
the exterior brick wythe travels down the interior side
and is collected on flashing and discharged to the
exterior through weep holes.
Pressurization of the cavity and the provision for an
airtight barrier are important for the second stage to
work efficiently. The extent to which the cavity can be
pressurized will reduce the amount of moisture carried
through the exterior wythe by wind. An airtight system
will also decrease moisture penetration.

Exterior
brick wythe
Sealant

Vent

Full mortar bed


Rigid
insulation
Potential
internal
suction

Inner wythe
Air and vapor
retarders
Sealant

Wind

Metal tie
Air space
Flashing

Vent
Sealant and
backer rod
Shelf angle

FIGURE 9.85

Moisture may pass through weep holes and vents.


The air movement within the cavity can transfer
moisture to the interior wall and distribute it throughout
the wall area. Air leakage can then draw this moisture
into and through the backing or inner wythe. Tests
have shown that high air leakage through the backing
or inner wythe can cause moisture to climb up and
extend the area of wall wetness. The backing or inner
wythe should not permit air leakage to occur, thus vents
will not have to be oversized which could permit excess
rain penetration.

Brick rain screen wall.

The changes in temperature change the dimension


of all building materials. Several building materials
change dimension with moisture content. When
subjected to loads, materials will deform elastically.
Some materials with cement matrices will deform
plastically (creep) when loaded. The successful
performance of the pressure equalized rain screen wall
is due to the adequate allowance for deformation of
materials and building movements. When naturally
occurring mov ements are not recognized and
accommodated for in the initial design, problems can
happen. The air and vapor retarders must not be
disrupted by building movements, whether it be
material generated mov ements or the building
movement as a whole.

132

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

To prevent the passage of water and air without


limiting differential movement, sealing of movement
joints is required. The principal resistance to the
passage of water through joints in exterior elements
is the sealant. A backing material and/or filler is needed
for all movement joints.
In a brick veneer or a cavity wall system, the rain
screen wall equlized pressure will be subject to axial
and lateral loads. For the rain screen wall to perform
as intended, imposed loads must be taken into account
in the design of these new wall systems. Moisture
leakage, thermal and air retarder performance must
also be considered in other environmental loads. The
pressure equalized rain screen principle may be
affected by several parameters. These parameters,
which are often interrelated, include:

Rate of applied wind load,


Magnitude of applied wind load,
Cavity volume,
Stiffness of the interior wall and the exterior
cladding,
Compartmentation of the cavity wall and
Leakage areas of the air retarder and the
exterior cladding.
In theory, no wind load should be imposed on the
exterior cladding, which is an advantage of the pressure
equalized rain screen wall, however, wind is dynamic
and variable so that the pressures applied to the wall
are constantly changing. The perfect rain screen wall
would pressure equalize immediately. A pressure
difference occurs across the exterior cladding due to a
time lag between the imposed wind load and the
pressure equalization in the cavity.
In buildings, pressure differences from two main
sources have been encountered. The first is frequently
known as a stack effect which is created by temperature
differences between the exterior and the interior of the
building. The wind forces that are imposed on the
building envelope is the second. The pressure
differences across a wall system at the top and sides
may be a combination of both and is not the same for
all parts of the building envelope.
The movement of air into the cavity causes pressure
in the cavity to increase and match the external pressure
applied when positive pressure is applied to the exterior
cladding. Depending on the volume of the cavity is the
volume of air required to achieve pressure equalization.
When the cavity volume increases, the vent openings
in the exterior brick wythe must be increased in order
to permit more rapid pressure equalization. The
pressure equalization. The pressure difference across

the exterior cladding is the driving force causing air to


enter the cavity. This pressure difference decreases
as the air enters the cavity. The flow rate is proportional
to the pressure difference and when the air flows into
the cavity, the flow decreases.
As shown in Figure 9.86, the wind pressure flowing
around a building creates a distribution of positive and
negative pressures over the building exterior cladding.
The lateral flow of air in the cavity will occur if the cavity
of the rain screen wall is continuous, horizontally or
vertically. The pressure equalization will not occur if air
is permitted to flow laterally in the cavity. Moisture
penetration into the wall assembly might not be reduced
when this occurs.
The cavity must be compartmented to prevent lateral
airflow. The size of the compartments should
be based on the pressure differences across the exterior
cladding. The greatest pressure differences are
experienced at the corners and tops of buildings,
consequently, the compartments located in these areas
should be small. The compartments can be larger where
pressure differences are small, such as near the center
of the exterior cladding.
Recommendations by designers are that these
compartments should be no more than 4 ft (1.2 m)
parallel to tops and corners of the facade for a 20 ft
(6.1 m) wide perimeter zone as shown in Figure 9.87.
There must be a series of openings to connect each
cavity space to the exterior of the wall system to provide
pressure equalization in the rain screen wall. The
openings should be placed at the top and bottom of
each compartment. To avoid airflow loops in the cavity,
all openings at the top and bottom should be placed at
the same height.
No specific guidelines exist for the required amount
of openings for each compartment. The area of openings
depends on the airtightness of other components of
the cavity, such as the air retarder system and the cavity
closures. The recommendation, if completely sealed
compartment closures are used, is a 10:1 ratio for
cladding air leakage to air retarder leakage.
The cavity closures will not form an airtight seal of
the individual compartments. Therefore, the required
opening area should be larger. A proportion of 25 to 40
times more air flow volume through the openings in the
exterior brick wythe than air leakage through the interior
wall is recommended by some studies. Consequently,
the less the area of openings in the exterior cladding
required for pressure equalization of the cavity, the
tighter the compartment. Testing of a mock-up wall
compartment may be required to obtain the airtightness

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

133

Positive pressure on windward face


Opening
Exterior brick wythe
Cavity (Partially pressurized)

Interior wall

Potential leakage of water carried by


air leaking from pressurized cavity
Internal suction

Open cavity at corner defeats rain screen

Positive pressure on windward face


Cavity blocked with closed-cell compressible filler bonded to outer wythe
Openings should be kept away
from corners of buildings

Dry air leak if air leak


is sufficiently small
Internal suction

Cavity with corner blocking; rain screen functions properly

FIGURE 9.86

Moisture movement caused by wind.

20 ft. perimeter zone at


rain screen compartments
@ every 4 ft.

20 ft. perimeter zone at rain


screen compartments @
every 4 ft. (typ.)

20 ft. perimeter zone at rain


screen compartments @ every
4 ft. (typ.)
Compartments every 10
ft. to 20 ft. from center
of facade in both
directions

Compartments every 10
ft. to 20 ft. from center of
facade in both directions

FIGURE 9.87

Compartmentation of rain screen walls.

134

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

value of the interior wall construction since little


information on the range of airtightness of several fieldapplied air retarder components is available. The
openings in the exterior cladding should be established
to fit the recommended ratio after having evaluated the
airtightness of the interior wall.
9.9.1.14 VAPOR AND AIR BARRIERS
In the building industry, there has been a great deal
of confusion about the functions of vapor and air
retarders. Vapor retarders control transmission of water
vapor through building materials. A vapor retarder always
serves as an air retarder. The amount of air flow through
wall assemblies is limited by the air retarders. An air
retarder may or may not serve as a vapor retarder.
Polyethylene film is commonly used as a vapor retarder
but will also act to resist the passage of air. Many
types of sheathing used as air retarders allow the
passage of water vapor. This can result in a common
problem wherein the wall system may have a two-stage
setup of retarders.
In the wall assembly of actual construction,
moisture may become trapped between the air and vapor
retarder installations if both are provided at different
locations. The duration of wetness and the amount of
moisture of certain important elements may make the
wall design vulnerable to premature deterioration and
distress. There is potential for corrosion of metal
accessories, deterioration of sheathing materials and
decrease in insulation capacity within the wall system.
When installing retarders, most difficulties occur
at wall openings. Several materials inserted in one
area can be complicated. Subsequent trades working
in the area may break or puncture vapor retarders.
Openings must permit field construction tolerances
which must be accommodated by field-fitting and sealing
of the retarders. Furthermore, attention to details of
the air and vapor retarders can help reduce direct heat
loss and other negative effects due to infiltration of air
movement within the wall system. The possibilities of
exfiltrating air in wall construction are shown in Figure
9.88. Air can circulate through spaces between studs
and cells of masonry units and exit a leakage path to
the exterior. A separate vapor retarder is not usually
required where the components of a building assembly
can be completely sealed to prevent air leakage and
the interior finish material provides the vapor resistance
needed.
Successful joint seal performance over the life of
the structure depends on the capacity of the material to
adhere to the surfaces and to deform without tearing,
delaminating or peeling under repeated cycles of
expansion and contraction. The air bubbles in the

W indow

Continuous sealant
around window
Electrical boxes
and other recesses
in interior wall must
be properly sealed

Condensation

Flashing should be set


in mortar on both sides
to prevent air leakage

Adhesive (also relied


upon as vapor retarder)

FIGURE 9.88 Sources of exfiltrating air movement.


sealant or air voids between the sealant and adjacent
materials must be avoided. For proper installation, sealant manufacturer
s information should be followed.
The exterior cladding and air retarder applied to the
interior wall will deflect under applied loads. Stiffness
of these elements will influence the volume of the cavity. This situation is very complex since these deflections also vary as the pressure differences vary.
The airtightness of the exterior cladding with respect
to that of the air retarder applied to the interior walls is
vital for the cavity to equalize pressure with the exterior
wind pressure. The pressure differences will not change
if the two layers have similar air leakage characteristics.
Each layer will transmit the same volume of air.
9.9.1.15 T HERMAL INSULATION
The components of the wall affect thermal
resistance of the assembly and contribute to the overall
R-value. Insulation provides a significant amount of
thermal resistance for masonry wall systems. The level
of insulation required must be chosen by the designer
as part of the tot al wall design with special
consideration given to geographical location and code
requirements.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Insulation type and location have an impact on the
design and installation of the air and vapor retarders.
Possible locations for insulation include:

In the cavity,
In the interior wall and
On either face of the interior wall.
Types of insulation used in drainage type walls
include rigid board insulation, fiberglass (batt)
insulation or loose fill.
Gaps between the insulation and the floor or ceiling
must be eliminated. The insulation should be
continued above the ceiling to the bottom of structural
slabs, with suspended ceilings or ceilings attached to
the bottom chord of joist construction. Air retarders
must be continued to the floor or roof above the
suspended ceilings for the pressure equalization to
occur. The insulation may separate from the backing
wall by air infiltration pressure if the retarder is not
continued. Proper abutment of the edges of the
insulation must be considered to minimize air circulation
from the interior of the building.

Insulation

135

The brick arch is an example of form following


function. The artistic application lies in many forms in
which it can be used to express balance, proportion,
scale and character. The structural advantage results
from the fact that under uniform loading, the induced
stresses are compressive. Since brick masonry has
greater resistance to compression stresses (as opposed
to tension stresses) the most efficient structural element
to span openings is often the masonry arch.
Terminology for masonry arches is unique, but
well-defined. Methods of selecting the type and
configuration of brick masonry arches most applicable
are presented with recommended material selection
and construction techniques.
9.9.2.1 T ERMINOLOGY
During centuries of use, many arch forms have been
developed, ranging from the Jack arch through the
Circular, Elliptical and Parabolic to the Gothic arch.
An arch is normally classified by the curve of its intrados
and functions, shape or architectural style.
Jack, Segmental, Semicircular and Multicentered
arches are the most common types used for building
arches. Figure 9.91 illustrates some of the many
different brick masonry arch types. Semicircular arches
are often used due to the natural structural efficiency
for very long spans and bridges.
Arches have developed a unique terminology
primarily due to the variety of components and elements.
Following is a glossary of arch terminology:

Vapor and air


leakage through
gaps

Suspended ceiling
Air retarder

FIGURE 9.89

Leakage above suspended

Abutment - The supporting wall or pier that receives


the thrust of an arch.
Arch - A curved or flat compressive structural member,
spanning openings or recesses.
Back - A concealed arch carrying the backing of a
wall where the exterior facing is carried by a lintel.
Blind - An arch whose opening is filled with
masonry.

ceilings.
Bullseye - An arch whose intrados is a full circle.

9.9.2 BRICK MASONRY ARCHES


In the late 19th century, an arch constructed about
the year 1400 B.C., was discovered in the ruins of
Babylon. This arch, built of brick and laid with clay
mortar, is perhaps the oldest known to man. Before
the Christian era, the Chinese, Egyptians and others
also made use of the arch. In the Middle ages (1000
A.D. - 1500 A.D.), more elaborate arches, vaults and
domes with complicated forms and intersections were
constructed by Roman builders.

Elliptical - An arch with two centers and continually


changing radii.
Fixed - Masonry arches are fixed arches by nature
of their construction.
Gothic - An arch with relatively large rise-to-span
ratio, whose sides consist of arcs of circles, the
centers of which are at the level of the spring line.

136

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Camber - The relatively small arch rise of a Jack arch.
Centering - Temporary formwork for the support of
masonry arches or lintels during construction.
Crown - The apex of the arch
s extrados.
symmetrical arches, the crown is the midspan.

In

Depth - The dimension of the arch at the skewback


which is perpendicular to the arch axis, except that the
depth of a Jack arch is taken to be the vertical dimension
of the arch at the springing.
Extrados - The curve which bounds the upper edge of
the arch.

FIGURE 9.90

Structural brick arches.

Horseshoe - An arch whose intrados is greater than


a semicircle and less than a full circle.
Jack - An arch having horizontal or nearly horizontal
upper and lower surfaces.
Major - An arch with spans greater than six feet.
Typical forms are Tudor arch, Semicircular arch,
Gothic arch, or Parabolic arch.

Intrados - The curve which bounds the lower edge of


the arch. The distinction between soffit and intrados is
that the intrados is a line, while the soffit is a surface.
Keystone - Wedge-shaped unit at the center or summit
of an arch or vault, binding the structure actually or
symbolically.
Label Course - A ring of projecting brickwork that forms
the extrados of the arch.

Minor - Arch with maximum span of six feet. Typical


f orms are Jack arch, Segmental arch, or
Multicentered arch.

Rise - The distance at the middle of an arch between


the spring line and intrados or soffit.

Multicentered - An arch whose curve consists of


several arcs of circles which are normally tangent
at their intersections.

Skewback - The incline surface on which the arch joins


the supporting wall.

Relieving - An arch built over a lintel, flat arch, or


smaller arch to divert loads, thus relieving the lower
member from excessive loading.
Segmental - An arch whose intrados is circular but
less than a half circle.
Semicircular - An arch whose intrados is a half
circle.
Slanted - A flat arch which is constructed with a
key stone whose sides are sloped at the same
angle as the skewback and uniform width brick and
mortar joints.
Triangular - An arch formed by two straight inclined
sides.
Tudor - A pointed, four-centered arch of medium
rise-to-span ratio whose four centers are all beneath
the extrados of the arch.

Skewback Angle - The angle made by the skewback


from horizontal.
Soffit - The exposed lower surface of any overhead
component of a building such as a lintel, vault, cornice,
or an arch or entablature.
Span - The horizontal clear dimension between
abutments.
Spandrel - A flat vertical face in an arcade bounded by
the adjacent curves of two arches and the horizontal
tangent of their crowns.
Springing - The upper and inner edge of the line of
skewback on an abutment.
Springer - The first voussoir from a skewback.
Spring Line - A horizontal line which intersects the
springing.
Voussoir - One masonry unit of an arch.

Venetian - An arch formed by a combination of Jack


arch at the ends and Semicircular arch at the
middle.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

Jack

Bullseye

Venetian

Triangular

FIGURE 9.91

Arch types.

Segmental

Semicircular

Horseshoe

Multicentered

Tudor

Gothic

137

138

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Extrados

Crown

Rise

Depth

Spring line
Intrados
Springing
Voussoir

Keystone

Skewback angle
Skewback
Abutment

Span

FIGURE 9.92

Arch terms.

9.9.2.2 STRUCTURAL FUNCTION

The arch will require support when it is not possible


for an arch to perform structurally. One method of
supporti ng brick m asonry arches i n modern
construction is provided by a steel angle. The steel
angle is bent to the curvature of the intrados of the
arch. To form a continuous support, curved sections
of steel angle are then welded to horizontal steel angles.
The angle is attached to a structural member or bears
on the brickwork abutments behind the wall. When an
arch is supported by a steel angle, the angle is designed
to support the entire weight of brick masonry loading
the arch and the structural resistance of the arch is
neglected. Figure 9.93 illustrates an arch supported
by a curved steel angle.

Flashing
Building paper overlapping
flashing

The structural function of an arch is to carry a load


by putting the material of the arch into compression.
Masonry is excellent in compression. As a result,
masonry arches have been constructed for centuries.
In many different applications, the brick masonry
arch has been used to span openings of considerable
length. Structural efficiency is natural to the curving of
the arch which transfers vertical loads laterally along
the arch to the abutments at each end. Transferring
vertical forces gives rise to both horizontal and vertical
reactions at the abutments. The cause of a
combination of flexural stress and axial compression
is the curvature of the arch and the restraint of the
arch by the abutments. Rise and configuration can be
manipulated by the arch depth to keep stresses
compressive. Brick masonry arches can support
considerable loads because brick masonry is very
strong in compression.
Arches have historically been constructed with
unreinforced masonry. Brick masonry arches continue
to be built with unreinforced masonry while very long
span arches and arches with a small rise may require
steel reinforcement to resist tensile stresses. Also,
reduction in the supporting wall and the thickness of
the arch may require incorporation of reinforcement
for sufficient load resistance. Complicated arches may
be prefabricated to avoid the complexity of on-site
shoring. Prefabricated brick masonry arches are
usually reinforced. These arches are built off site and
transported to the job or built at the site. Cranes may
be used to lift the arch into place in the wall. The
fabrication, transportation and handling should be
considered in the structural design of the arch.

Soldier brick

Adjustable
steel angle
Arch span center line

Two-soldier course in
a short span arch

FIGURE 9.93

Arch supported by curved steel

angle.
9.9.2.3 WEATHER RESISTANCE
In most applications of the building arch, water
penetration resistance is a concern. In the past, the
mass of a multi-wythe brick masonry arch was enough
to resist water penetration. Wall sections that are
thinner are now used to minimize material use for
economy and efficiency. The arch should provide an
efficient weather resistant facade. Several arch
applications do not require provisions for water
penetration and insulation. For example, arch arcades
and arches supported by porch columns typically do
not contain a direct path for water migration to the
interior of the building. If this is the case, provisions
for weather resistance need not be included in the arch
design and detailing.

139

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Preventing water intrusion at an arch in an exterior
building wall is just as important as at any other wall
opening. Resistance to water penetration can be
provided by using a barrier wall system or a drainage
wall system. A drainage wall system, such as a brick
veneer or cavity wall, is the most common brick
masonry wall system used today. In a cavity wall or in
brick veneer, the arch should be flashed with weep
holes provided above all flashing locations.
9.9.2.3.1 PROVIDING FLASHING

AND

Weep hole

Flashing

Masonry backup
End dam

WEEP HOLES

Installation flashing and weep holes around an arch


can be difficult. It is easy to install flashing with jack
arches due to the flat or nearly flat configuration.
Flashing should be installed below the arch and above
the window framing or steel angle lintel. Flashing
should extend a minimum of 4 in. (102 mm) beyond
the wall opening at either end and should be turned
up to form end dams. Weep holes should be provided
at both ends of the flashing and should be placed at a
maximum spacing of 24 in. (610 mm) on center along
the arch span, or 16 in. (406 mm) if rope wicks are
used.

Stud at jamb

Flashing

Building paper
overlapping
flashing
Interior
sheathing
Exterior
sheathing &
building paper

Window trim
Weep hole at each
end of tray flashing

FIGURE 9.95

Flashing may be bent along the curve of the arch


with overlapping sections if the arch spans are greater
than 3 ft (0.9 m). Figure 9.96 shows a combination of
stepped and typical flashing that can be used. To form
a step, the end nearest the arch should be turned up
to form an end dam, while the opposite end is laid flat.
A minimum of No. 15 building paper or equivalent
moisture resistant protection should be installed on
the exterior face of the backing over the full height of
the arch and abutments. The building paper or
equivalent must overlap the arch flashing.

4 in.
min.

Building paper overlapping flashing

End dam

FIGURE 9.94

Short span arches.

Tray flashing
Mini
mum
1
/3 sp
an

Step flashing

Flashing a Jack arch.

Flashing and weep holes can be placed in the first


masonry course above the arch if it is constructed with
reinforced brick masonry.
Installation of flashing with other arch types, such
as Segmental and Semicircular arches can be more
difficult. This is because most rigid flashing materials
are hard to bend around an arch with tight curvature.
One section of flashing can be placed in the first
horizontal mortar joint above the keystone if the arch
span is less than 3 ft (0.9 m), as shown in Figure 9.95.

Flashing

Arch span
center line
Weep holes at regular
spacing & at ends
Weep hole at end (typical)
Exterior sheathing & building paper

FIGURE 9.96

Long span arches.

140

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

W hen designing a structural masonry arch,


consideration of the effect of flashing on the strength
of the arch should be included. Flashing acts as a
bond break. The loading on the arch will likely be
increased, and the structural resistance of the arch
will be reduced if flashing is installed above the arch.
Installation of flashing at the abutments will affect the
structural resistance of the abutment and should also
be considered.

8 in. (203 mm) arch

9.9.2.4 DETAILING CONSIDERATIONS


The purpose of the brick masonry arch is to serve
as a structural element and also provide an attractive
architectural element to complement the surrounding
structure. Careful consideration should be given to
the options available for the arch, soffit and skewback.
For any successful arch design, proper configuration
of the abutments and location of expansion joints must
be taken into account.

12 in. (305 mm) arch

9.9.2.4.1 ARCH DETAILING


There are a variety of arch depths, brick sizes,
shapes and bonding patterns. The arch is usually
composed of an odd number of units for artistic
purposes. Figure 9.97 shows some of the more
common arch configurations.
16 in. (406 mm) arch

An arch that is typically laid in radial orientation


using brick of similar size and color to the surrounding
brickwork is the Arch voussoirs. The arch, however,
can be formed with brick which are thinner or wider
than the surrounding brickwork and of a different color
for variation. A different variation is to project or recess
rings of multiple-ring arches to provide shadow lines
or a
label course
.
Arches are constructed with two different types of
brick masonry units. The first is tapered or wedgeshaped brick. These brick are tapered in the
appropriate manner to obtain mortar joints of uniform
thickness along the arch depth. The second type of
unit is the uncut, rectangular brick. The mortar joints
are tapered to obtain the desired arch curvature when
rectangular brick are used. A combination of units is
used in a few cases. One example will be the slanted
arch which is formed with a tapered keystone and
rectangular brick. The slanted arch is similar to a Jack
arch, but it is more economical since it only requires
one special-shaped brick.
Tapered or rectangular brick selection can be
determined by the arch type, arch dimensions and by
the appearance desired. If uniform mortar joint
thickness is desired some arch types require more
unique shapes and sizes of brick. The brick sizes and
shapes, from the abutment to the keystone in a

Three course Jack arch

Four or five course Jack arch

FIGURE 9.97

Typical arch configurations.

traditional Jack arch or Elliptical arch, are all different.


On the other hand, the voussoirs of a Semicircular
arch are all the same size and shape. Arch types with
a sufficient quantity of brick shapes and sizes should
be special ordered from the brick manufacturer rather
than cut in the field.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


When selecting the arch brick, the arch span should
also be addressed. For short arch spans, tapered brick
are recommended to avoid wide mortar joints at the
extrados . Larger span arches require less taper of the
voussoirs and can be formed with rectangular brick and
tapered mortar joints. Mortar joint thickness between
arch brick should be a maximum of 3/4 in. (19.1 mm)
and a minimum of 1/8 in. (3.2 mm). Consideration should
be given to the use of very uniform brick that meet the
dimensional tolerance limits of ASTM C 216, Type FBX,
or the use of gauged brickwork when using mortar joints
thinner than 1/4 in. (6.4 mm). Determination of the
minimum Segmental and Semicircular arch radii
permitted for rectangular brick and tapered mortar joints
is shown in Table 9.2. Uniform thickness of mortar
joints is more aesthetically appealing if tapered brick
are used.
1

Table 9.2 Minimum Radius for Uncut Brick


Nominal Face
Minimum
Dimensions
Permissible
of Arch Brick, in.
Radius of Arch
(height by width)
to Intrados ft. (m)
(mm)
2
4 x 2 /3 (101.6 x 67.7)
3.3 (1.0)
2

8 x 2 /3 (203.2 x 67.7)

10.0 (3.1)

13.3 (4.1)

12 x 2 /3 (304.8 x 67.7)
16 x 2 /3 (406.4 x 67.7)
1

4.0 (1.2)

8.0 (2.4)

4 x 3 /5 (101.6 x 81.3)
8 x 3 /5 (203.2 x 81.3)
1

12.0 (3.7)

16.0 (4.9)

12 x 3 /5 (304.8 x 81.3)
16 x 3 /5 (406.4 x 81.3)

6.7 (2.0)

4 x 4 (101.6 x 101.6)

5.2 (1.6)

8 x 4 (203.2 x 101.6)

10.3 (3.1)

12 x 4 (304.8 x 101.6)

15.5 (4.7)

16 x 4 (406.4 x 101.6)

20.7 (6.3)

Based on /4 in. (6 mm) mortar joint width at the intrados and


1
/2 in. (13 mm) mortar joint width at the extrados. If the
mortar joint thickness at the extrados is 3/4 in. (19 mm), divide
minimum radius value by 2.

The depth of the arch will depend upon the size


and orientation of the brick used to form the arch. The
arch depth should be a multiple of the brick
s width. A
mini mum arch depth f or st ructural arches is
determined from the structural requirements. Any arch
depth may be used if the arch is supported by a lintel.
Based on the scale of the arch in relation to the
scale of the building and surrounding brickwork the
depth of the arch should also be detailed. The arch
depth should increase with increasing arch span to
provide proper visual balance and scale. Since

141

aesthetics of an arch is subjective, there are no hard


rules for proportion. The following rules-of-thumb,
however, will help provide an arch with proper scale.
The arch depth designed f or Segmental and
Semicircular arches should equal or exceed 1 in. (25.4
mm) for every foot (305 mm) of arch span or 4 in. (102
mm), whichever is greater. In Jack arches, the arch
depth should equal or exceed 4 in. (102 mm) plus 1
in. (25.4 mm) for every foot (305 mm) of arch span or
8 in. (203 mm), whichever is greater. For example,
the minimum arch depth for an 8 ft (2.4 m) span should
be 8 in. (203 mm) for segmental arches and 12 in.
(305 mm) for jack arches.
The Jack arch depth will also be a function of the
coursing of the adjacent brick masonry. The springing
and the extrados of the Jack arch should coincide with
horizontal mortar joints in the adjacent brick masonry.
Usually, the depth of a Jack arch will equal the height
of 3, 4 or 5 courses of the surrounding brickwork,
depending upon the course height.
The keystone may be a single brick, multiple brick,
stone, precast concrete or terra cotta. Avoid using a
keystone which is much taller than the adjacent
voussoirs. As a rule-of-thumb the keystone should
not extend above adjacent arch brick by more than
one-third of the arch depth.
The use of a large keystone may have basis in
purpose and visual effect. The possible location of
the first crack when the arch fails, with most arch types,
is at the mortar joint nearest to the midspan of the
arch. The use of a large keystone at this point moves
the first mortar joint further from the midspan and
increases the resistance to cracking at this midspan
point. A large keystone aesthetically adds variation of
scale and can introduce other masonry materials in
the facade for additional color and texture.
When the keystone is formed with more than one
masonry unit, avoid placing the smaller unit at the
bottom. Small units are more likely to slip when the
arch settles under load. Also, the arch crown (the top
of the keystone) should coincide with a horizontal
mortar joint in the surrounding brickwork to give the
arch a cleaner appearance.
9.9.2.4.2 SOFFIT DETAILING
One attractive feature of a structural brick masonry
arch is the brick masonry soffit. Several bonding
patterns and designs can be used to form the arch
soffit. Deep soffits are common on building arcades
or arched entranceways.

142

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Building paper
& exterior
sheathing
Wall tie
Inside face
of wall
Weep hole
Tray flashing
at arch crown

Jack Arch
Skewback

Semicircular
Arch Skewback

Keystone
Wall tie

Keystone

Regular mortar joint thickness

Metal tie @ 24 in.


(600 mm) max.
along arch ring or
as required

Cant brick

Segmental
Arch Skewback

Brick masonry

FIGURE 9.99
FIGURE 9.98

Structural arch soffit.

Arches on either wall face should be bonded to


the brick masonry forming the soffit. A bonding pattern
or metal ties should be used to tie the brick masonry
forming the soffit together structurally and to tie the
arches on either wall face to the soffit. If metal ties
are used to bond the masonry, corrosion resistant box
or metal wire ties should be placed along the arch span
at a maximum spacing of 24 in. (610 mm) on center.

Skewback.

The abutment at the springing should be cut or be


a special cant-shaped brick. This allows vertical
alignment with the brick beneath, producing more
accurate alignment of the arch.
The intersection of the arches may occur at the
skewback when two arches are adjacent, such as with
a two-bay garage or building arcades. A vertical line
between arches should be avoided. A special shape
brick can mesh the two arches properly.

The exterior wall face and the interior wall face of


the arch should be structurally evaluated at sections
through the soffit. Deeper soffits may require an
increase in arch depth. Connection of the brick
masonry forming the soffit to interior framing members
with wall ties or connectors may not be required if the
arch is structural.
9.9.2.4.3 SKEWBACK DETAILING
The most desirable spring line location coincides
with a bed joint in the abutment for flat arches and
arch types that have horizontal skewbacks, such as
Jack and Semicircular arches. For other arch types,
the spring line should pass about midway through a
brick course in the abutment to avoid a thick mortar
joint at the springing.

Special brick

Arch brick

FIGURE 9.100

Intersecting arches.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


9.9.2.4.4 ABUTMENTS
An arch abutment may consist of a column, wall,
or combination of wall and shelf angle. Failure of an
abutment occurs from excessive lateral movement of
the abutment or exceeding the flexural, compressive
or shear strength of the abutment. The lateral
movement of the abutment is due to the horizontal
thrust of the arch. Thrust develops in all arches and
the thrust force is greater for flatter arches. The thrust
should be resisted so that lateral movement of the
abutment does not cause failure in the arch. Rigidity
of the non-masonry structural member and rigidity of
the ties are important if the abutment is formed by a
combination of brickwork and a non-masonry structural
member. Adjustable ties, single or double wire ties are
recommended. Corrugated metal ties should not be
used in this application since they do not provide
adequate axial stiffness.

143

joints, if the arch is non-structural, may be at the arch


crown and also at a sufficient distance away from the
springline to avoid sliding. The location of an expansion
joint at the arch crown is not preferred because it
disrupts the traditional view of the arch as a structural
element. For suggested expansion joint locations for
structural and non-structural arches see Figures 9.101
and 9.102.
Horizontal expansion
joint or top of wall

Do not place vertical expansion


joint within shaded area

Vertical
expansion
joint

Vertical
expansion joint

Abutments

9.9.2.4.5 LATERAL STABILITY


When designing a masonry arch, gravity and outof-plane loads should be considered. The arch should
have sufficient resistance to out-of-plane loads or
lateral bracing should be provided. Lateral bracing is
provided by the backing through the use of wall ties in
veneer construction. To carry loads perpendicular to
the arch plane in addition to vertical loads, arches which
are not laterally braced may require increased masonry
thickness or reinforcement.
9.9.2.4.6 EXPANSION JOINTS
The use of expansion joints control the thermal
and moisture movements of brick masonry. Expansion
joints minimize cracking of the brickwork and also
reduce the size of wall sections. Reduction of wall
size has an important effect upon the performance of
structural brick masonry arches. The state of stress
in a structural brick arch and the surrounding masonry
is sensitive to the relative movements of the abutments.
The differential movement of abutments can cause
cracking and downward displacement of brick in the
masonry arch and surrounding masonry if an insufficient
number of expansion joints are provided.
Care should be taken not to affect the integrity of
the arch by detailing expansion joints too close to the
arch and its abutments when the arch is structural.
Vertical expansion joints should not be placed in the
masonry directly above a structural arch. This area of
masonry is in compression, so an expansion joint will
cause displacement when centering is removed. Vertical
expansion joints should not be placed in close proximity
to the springline. The expansion joint will reduce the
effective width of the abutment and its ability to resist
horizontal thrust from the arch. Location of expansion

Minimum
distances
determined by
abutment
resistance to
arch thrust

Base of
wall

Structural Arch

FIGURE 9.101

Expansion joints.

Do not place
vertical expansion
joint within shaded
region
Horizontal
expansion joint
or top of wall

Expansion joint
spacing, typ.

Vertical
expansion
joint
Steel angle

Vertical
expansion
joint

Horizontal
expansion
joint beneath
steel angle
Minimum
distances
determined by
sliding resistance
along steel angle

Non-Structural Arch

FIGURE 9.102

Expansion joints.

Optional
vertical
expansion joint
at crown
of arch

144

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The design of expansion joints can be difficult with


very long span arches or runs of multiple arches along
an arcade. The arch structural analysis should
consider the location of expansion joints. Vertical
expansion joints, for the particular case of multiple
arches closely spaced, should be detailed at a sufficient
distance away from the end arches so that horizontal
arch thrusts are adequately resisted by the abutments
to avoid overturning of the abutments.
Expansion joints for long arcades should also be
placed along the centerline of abutments between
arches. The effective abutment length should be
halved and the overturning of each half of the abutment
should be checked so that horizontal thrusts from
adjacent arches will not be counteracting.
9.9.2.5 MATERIAL SELECTION
The arch must be constructed with durable materials
to provide a weather resistant barrier and maintain
structural resistance. The strength of an arch depends
upon the compressive strength and the flexural tensile
strength of the masonry. Selection of brick, mortar
and other materials should account for these properties
in the design.
9.9.2.5.1 BRICK
As with any brick system, hollow or solid clay units
may be used for the arch and surrounding brickwork.
Solid brick should comply with the requirements of
ASTM C 216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick.
Hollow brick should comply with the requirements of
ASTM C 652 Standard Specification for Hollow Brick.
The compressive strength of masonry is related to the
compressive strength of the brick, the mortar type
and the applicable grout strength. Brick should be
sel ected wit h consideration of the requi red
compressive strength of masonry for structural arches.
The compressive strength capacity of the brick
masonry will not limit the arch design.
Special arch masonry units can be cut from
rectangular units at the job site or specially ordered
from the manufacturer. The designer should determine
the availability of special shapes for the arch type, brick
col or and texture desi red bef ore specif ying
manufactured special arch shapes. Several brick
manufacturers produce tapered arch brick for the more
common arch types as part of their regular stock of
special shapes. In some cases, production of special
shapes may require a color matching process and
adequate lead time for the manufacturer. The
manufacturer
s lead time may be as long as several
months.

9.9.2.5.2 MORTAR
Mortar used to construct brick masonry arches
must meet the requirements of ASTM C 270 Standard
Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. The designer
should also be aware of mortar limitations in more
critical Seismic Design Categories.
The flexural tensile strength of the masonry should
be considered when selecting the mortar for structural
arches. The flexural tensile strength of the masonry
will affect the load resistance of the arch and the
abutments.
9.9.2.6 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKMANSHIP
The performance of a masonry arch relies not only
on quality materials, but also proper methods of
construction and workmanship. The design of the arch
prior to construction will help avoid poor spacing of
voussoirs, which results in uneven mortar joints and
unsymmetrical arches. Many applications of the
masonry arch require proper shoring and bracing
during const ruct ion, howev er, sev eral arch
applications, such as barrel vaults and domes, can be
entirely self-supporting, even during construction.
9.9.2.6.1 T EMPORARY SHORING
Structural and non-structural arches should be
properly supported throughout construction. Brick
masonry arches may be constructed with the aid of
temporary shoring, termed centering, or permanent
supports, such as structural steel angles.
Centering carries the weight of a brick masonry
arch and the loads being supported by the arch until
the arch has gained sufficient strength. The term

centeringis used because the shoring is marked for


proper positioning of the brick forming the arch and
usually centering is provided by wood construction.
Careful construction of the centering will ensure a
more pleasing arch appearance and avoid layout
problems, such as an uneven number of brick to either
side of the keystone.
Immediately after placement the keystone a very
slight downward displacement of the centering, termed
easing, can be performed to cause the arch voussoirs
to press against one another and compress the mortar
joints between the brick. Easing helps to avoid
separation cracks in the arch. Centering should not
be removed until it is certain that the masonry is
capable of carrying all imposed loads. Early removal
of the centering may result in collapse of the arch.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Centering should remain in place for at least seven
days after construction of the arch. When the arch is
constructed in cold weather conditions or when
required for structural reasons, longer curing periods
may be required. The structural resistance of the arch
and the arch loading will depend upon the amount of
brick surrounding the arch, particularly the brick
masonry within spandrel areas. The correct time of
removal of centering for a structural arch should be
determined with consideration of the assumptions
made in the structural analysis of the arch. Before
removing the centering it may be necessary to wait
until the brickwork above the arch has also cured.

145

9.9.3 BRICK PAVING DESIGN


The flexibility of brick paving ranges from a typical
flat walk approaching a single family residence to an
application of the steep, most crooked street in the
United States, Lombard Street in San Francisco.

FIGURE 9.104

Brick paving at Lombard Street

in San Francisco.

FIGURE 9.103

Brick masonry arch.

9.9.2.6.2 WORKMANSHIP
In an arch, all mortar joints should be completely
filled. All face shells and end webs must be completely
filled with mortar if hollow brick are used to form the
arch. Brick masonry arches may be constructed with
the units laid in a soldier orientation. To lay units in a
soldier position and also obtain completely filled mortar
joints may be difficult, but not impossible. The use of
two or more rings of arch brick laid in rowlock orientation
can help ensure full mortar joints.

Brick paving is classified by the type of base and


the method of installation. Brick Pavers should
conform to ASTM C 902 Standard Specification for
Pedestrian and Light Traffic Paving Brick or ASTM C
1272 Standard Specification for Heavy Vehicular
Paving Brick. There are three primary types of bases:
rigid, semi-rigid and flexible. There is also a suspended
diaphragm base used for structural roof and floor
assemblies of buildings.
A rigid base uses a reinforced or unreinforced
concrete slab on grade (Figure 9.105). Either mortared
or mortarless brick paving can be laid on this base.

146

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Reinforcement (if required)

4 in. compacted gravel


1

Min. 4 in. concrete slab

/2 in. to 1 in. sand bed

Bond break

15 lb. felt

/8 in. to 1/2 in. mortar setting bed

Flexible brick paving

Rigid brick paving

Compacted soil

Compacted base

FIGURE 9.106

Flexible base paving.

Compacted soil

9.9.3.1 T RAFFIC

FIGURE 9.105

Rigid base paving assembly.

A semi-rigid base would typically consist of


continuous asphalt. On this type of base only
mortarless brick paving should be used and may be
used for pedestrians areas such as malls or medium
to heavy vehicular traffic.
A flexible base consists of compacted earth
covered with gravel and sand, or a mixture of sand
and cement (Figure 9.106). Brick pavers for flexible
base should be at least 25/8 in. (67 mm) thick to reach
a good interlock if used in heavy vehicular traffic. This
thickness is ideal for any chamfers or rounded edges,
which should not exceed 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) in depth or
width. Some brick pavers are made with spacers or
lugs. The lugs are typically 1/8 in. (3 mm) providing an
even gap for the jointing sand. During compaction of
the pavers the lugs keep the paver edges from touching
each other reducing the chippage of the pavers. When
the pavers are subjected to heavy vehicular traffic, lugs
are necessary.
There are a number of issues that must be
addressed in brick paving design, including:

site
traffic
drainage
brick material
bond pattern
other materials
subgrade

A brick paving assembly must support vertical traffic


loads (live load) plus its own weight (dead load). The
brick paving must resist abrasion from traffic. Vehicular
traffic may impart horizontal thrust to the paving
assembly from braking, acceleration and turning action
of wheels. Resistance is provided by the inter-locking
bond pattern of the pav ing assembly. Three
classifications of traffic are light, medium and heavy.
Light traffic - Residential pedestrian traffic, such
as on patios, walkways, porches, gazebos and
pool areas.
Medium traffic - Commercial pedestrian traffic,
such as on city walkways, entranceways, shopping
malls and light residential vehicular traffic, such
as residential driveways and parking lots.
Heavy traffic - Commercial vehicular traffic, such
as on streets and commercial parking lots.
9.9.3.2 SITE
The site may range from a small residential patio
to a major urban renewal project. Successful
installations will depend upon proper subgrade design
and preparation. Remove all vegetation and organic
materials from the area to be paved. Areas containing
poor sub-base material should be removed and refilled
with suitable material which is properly compacted.
9.9.3.3 DRAINAGE
Surface and subsurface drainage are significant.
Exterior brick paving should be sloped at least 1/8 to 1/4
in. per foot (10 to 20 mm per meter). Large exterior
paved areas for malls and vehicular parking lots require

147

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


a greater slope. All paving should be sloped away
from buildings, retaining walls and other elements
capable of collecting surface water.
Mortar joints are less durable than the brick units
and standing water should be avoided. The long
dimension of the mortar joints should parallel runoff.
Mortarless pav ing requires bot h surf ace and
subsurface drainage. A significant moisture problem
is upward capillary action rather than the downward
drainage, particularly in areas with high water tables.
A capillary break should be used, such as a layer of
gravel, to prevent this upward flow of moisture.
Regions with relatively impervious soils, capable of
surface water retention, may require subsurface
drainage systems.
Sand should not be placed directly over gravel.
Sand will sift into the voids of the larger granular
material when drainage occurs. An impervious
membrane, such as geotextile fabric, can separate the
two materials.

9.9.3.5 INSTALLATION
There are three basic methods for installing brick
paving with mortar joints.
The first method is by the conventional use of
troweled mortar. For durability, type S or M mortars
are recommended for use in brick paving, with type M
used in locations subject to freezing. Brick pavers are
buttered with mortar and pushed into a leveling bed of
mortar. The joints between the units should be
completely filled to maximize moisture penetration
resistance. The width of the mortar joints is typically
3
/8 to 1/2 in. (9.5 to 12.7 mm). Joints should then be
tooled with a concave jointer when mortar becomes
thumbprint hard.
Turf

Paver
1sand
Compacted
aggregate base

9.9.3.4 EDGING

Top soil

Pave edge
Spike

A method of containment must be provided around


the entire perimeter of the paved area to prevent
horizontal movement of mortarless brick paving units
and the base over which they are installed. This may
be a brick soldier curb set in concrete or mortar, or a
special edging manufactured specifically for the
purpose of brick paving. Landscaping timbers or
railroads ties may serve as an edging material. An
existing concrete curb, building or retaining wall may
also be used.
4 in. compacted
gravel base
2 layers of 15 lb.
building felt
1

/2 in. to 1 in.
sand bed

Expansion joint
Weep holes
@ 16 in. o.c.
Gravel
perimeter
drainage

Flexible brick
paving

Compacted earth
Soldier course
edging embedded
in concrete footing

FIGURE 9.107

Edge drainage.

Compacted subgrade

FIGURE 9.108

Paver restraint system.

The second method involves placing each brick unit


on a mortar leveling bed with a 3/8 to 1/2 in. (9.5 to 12.7
mm) open space between the units. The space is filled
by pouring a fluid mixture of 1 part Portland cement
and 3 parts of sand between the units. This is easily
accomplished by placing mortar using a grout bag.
When grout is poured into the joints, the units must be
protected to facilitate cleaning since grout will smear
the units, or immediately cleaned using sponges and
ample clean water. The joints should also be tooled to
a concave finish.
The third method uses a dry mixture of 1 part
Portland cement and three parts sand. Brick pavers
are installed on a damp cement and sand cushion with
open joints between the units. The dry grout mixture
is swept between the paving units. After sweeping
excess material from the paving surface, the paving is
sprayed with a fine mist of water until the joints are
saturated. The pavement should be maintained in a
damp condition for a period of two to three days. Mortar
joints should be tooled.

148

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

9.9.3.6 STUCTURAL BRICK FLOORS


Brick may also be used in self-spanning floor
systems by using some form of reinforcement. The
system may stand alone, that is, use brick, mortar,
grout and reinforcement, or work in harmony with other
elements, such as concrete or wood systems.

Bri ck pav ers, like all materials, change


dimensionally with changes in temperature. A slip
plane between pavers and a waterproofing membrane
may be placed to avoid disruption to the membrane.
For example, it may consist of a porous gravel cushion,
asphalt impregnated protection board or other material
capable of withstanding both horizontal abrasive
movement and vertical traffic loading.

9.9.3.6.1 SUSPENDED DIAPHRAGM BASES


9.9.3.6.4 BRICK PAVING DESIGN ASSEMBLIES
Certain special design factors must be used to
minimize the risk of deterioration and to assure long
term performance on a roof deck or suspended plaza.
A roof deck plaza application must be structurally
sound, aesthetically appealing, durable and economical
to install.
9.9.3.6.2 MOISTURE
To assure an effective moisture-resistant system,
proper design and installation of a horizontal
membrane is essential.
Adequate drainage is important to prevent damage
to or displacement of pavers due to water and/or frost
action. Sloping membranes in conjunction with porous
base layers permit water to percolate or run freely to
drains. Special all-level drains are available which will
handle both pavement surface and subsurface water.

The following illustrations show how brick paving


can be adapted to suspended diaphragm bases of
various types. These support bases may consist of
reinforced brick masonry slabs, reinforced concrete
slabs, steel decking, and wood framing.
The assembly in Figure 9.109 is suitable for
exterior pedestrian traffic. The pea gravel percolation
layer will permit rapid drainage, thus preventing
possible damage from freeze-thaw cycles of trapped
water.
Liquid waterproofing membrane
1
/8protection board
2pea gravel
Closed cell polystyrene insulation
Brick pavers

Consideration should be given to horizontal


differential movement between structural concrete slabs
and the waterproofing membrane. Built-up bituminous
membranes may have non-elastic properties. Seamless
liquid waterproofing and rubber sheet membranes are
typically elastic in behavior and are capable of adjusting
to differential movement that may occur in the
supporting base.
All level drain

9.9.3.6.3 T HERMAL CONSIDERATIONS


The thermal aspects of roof terraces are similar
to those of normal roofs. The position of roof insulation
is important relative to the temperature variation of
each element in a paved roof assembly. Insulation
may be placed directly over a membrane.
Roof deck insulation should be a non-rotting,
moisture resistant, closed-cell type of material capable
of retaining thermal resistance in the presence of water.
Traffic loading may be supported on insulation
materials in a deck assembly provided the insulation
material is structurally adequate.

FIGURE 9.109

Brick drain.

9.9.3.6.5 STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS


The structural design of the suspended base should
follow normal design procedures. As with any solid
masonry, the dead weight of brick pavers should be
considered when combined with other materials and
design conditions, such as live loads, vibration and
impact from traffic. The dead weight of mortared or
mortarless brick pavers may be taken at approximately
10 psf per inch of thickness for structural design
purposes. Brick pavers are available in various
thickness so their total weight will vary. The most
popular pavers are 15/8 in. (41.3 mm) to 21/4 in. (57.2
mm) thick, weighting approximately 16 to 22 psf (766
to 1054 N/m2), respectively.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Diaphragm action becomes important in order to
maintain the integrity of mortar joints for mortared
paving. The span for mortared paving should be limited
to a deflection of l/600 for mortared paving and l/360
for flexible paving.

149

designed to support a 50 psf (2.4 kN/m2) live load,


spanning about 6 ft (1.8 m). Turning a unit on edge to
increase the slab
s thickness, the design load capacity
can be doubled (100 psf [4.8 kN/m2]) and the span
increased to over 7 ft (2.1 m) using the same size hollow
brick and the same mortar.

9.9.3.6.6 REINFORCED CONSTRUCTION


9.9.3.6.7 BRICK ON SHEET STEEL FORMS
Reinforced brick paving can be used to span an
open space or over a fill which has the potential of uneven
settlement. Reinforcement in the masonry can eliminate
the necessity for a separate reinforced concrete slab
or other rigid base.

31/2

d = 2.75

Various types of reinforced brick masonry slabs,


as shown in Figure 9.110, can support a wide range of
live load conditions.

A corrugated sheet steel as a base is utilized as a


variation of reinforced brick construction. Reinforcement
of masonry can provide an economical solution to the
problem of constructing brick floors over open spans
while the steel serves as a form. Steel is placed near
the top of the pavement in grouted mortar joints for
continuous spans. Brick are placed on a bed of mortar
and vertical joints are filled with mortar or grout.

41/2

21/4 1/2

21/4 x 33/4 x 8 brick


(actual size)
/4clear

#2 @ each joint
51/2
/4clear

12

Top of mortar bed

31/2

d = 2.75

Section A-A

#3 @ each cell

71/2

d = 5.5

#4 gage transverse
wires @ 41/2o.c.

12

F IGURE 9.111

Corrugated sheet steelreinforced brick masonry slab assembly.

#4 @ each cell

9.9.3.6.8 HIGH-BOND MORTARED PAVEMENT

FIGURE 9.110 Reinforced brick masonry slabs.


Reinforced brick masonry slabs are practical,
particularly over relatively short spans. For pedestrian
and vehicular traffic the reinforced brick masonry slabs
may be capable of of satisfying design loading. 2006
IBC Table 1607.1 lists distributed and concentrated live
loads, most ranging from 50 to 100 psf (2.4 to 4.8 kN/
m2). A 21/4 in. (57.1 mm) thick hollow brick slab may be

Installing rigid brick paving with high-bond mortar


may be more resistant to water penetration than paving
with conventional mortars. The result of higher bonding
characteristics between the mortar and brick unit
causes this advantage.
Figure 9.112 shows an assembly suitable for
exterior pedestrian traffic and utilizes a bituminous
leveling bed.

150

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Waterproofing membrane

Steel decking

Rigid insulation
/4asphalt impregnated protection boards

Gypsum or wood fiber board


Multilayered 15 lb. felt embedded in hot asphalt

/4bituminous leveling bed with 2%


neoprene tack coat
3

Closed cell polstyrene insulation


Brick pavers
Expansion joint

FIGURE 9.112

Brick pavers

FIGURE 9.114 Brick paving on steel deck base.


Brick paving on reinforced

concrete slab.
The assembly depicted in Figure 9.113, utilizing
conventional built-up roofing, can be easily adapted
to flexible brick paving suitable for outdoor pedestrian
traffic.

Figure 9.115 portrays an assembly suitable for


mortarless pav ing used in residential f rame
construction. The designer must consider the
deflection of the wood frame support and the impact
on brick paving.

2 x _ solid bridging
Structural slab

Wood joists
Plywood subfloor

Cut back asphalt primer

2 layers 15 lb. roofing felt or


waterproof membrane

4 layers 15 lb roofing felt


with 43 lb. coating felt

Brick pavers
Brick pavers

FIGURE 9.113

Brick paving on reinforced

concrete slab.

FIGURE 9.115

Brick paving on wood framing

assembly.
The type of construction that may be designed as
a non-rated or rated fire resistive assembly is illustrated
in Figure 9.114 which shows only the general material
composition.

The assembly in Figure 9.116 is also suitable for


mortared paving used in residential frame construction.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

2 x _ solid bridging
Plywood subfloor
15 lb. roofing felt (waterproof
membrane) lapped 6
/2to 3/4mortar bed

Brick pavers

FIGURE 9.116

Brick paving on wood framing

assembly.
9.9.3.6.9 DRAINS AND WATERPROOFING
All level drains and waterproofing membranes should
be installed in strict accordance with the manufacturers
instructions and specifications for suspended decks
where control of surface drainage is required.

151

When care is exercised during brick installation


and mortar grouting, cleaning can be avoided or held
to a minimum. Mortarless installations should require
a minimum amount of attention. During the installation
process burlap bags may be used to remove excess
mortar. Use a cleaning solution if dry cleaning or
hosing with water fails to flush the surface clean. The
use of strong acid solutions should be avoided
whenever possible. Strong acids can dissolve mortar
from the joints and kill grass and shrubbery. These
acids may also cause
acid burndiscoloration on the
brick paving. Provide sufficient ventilation to dilute
the harmful effects of acid fumes when applied in
confined spaces.
Rigid or mortared paving should be allowed to set
in an undisturbed condition for a period of at least 3
days. Protect from staining and light impact loads
through the use of large sheets of plywood or
hardboard. Until the masonry has adequately cured
full service of the pavement should be avoided.
No curing time for flexible brick pavement is required. Spread damp sand in thin layers and permit
the sand to dry before sweeping sand into the joints.
Sand must be clean and free of clay to avoid surface

scummingof the finished paving.

9.9.3.6.10 INSULATION
Figure 9.112 depicts insulation required to support
a specific design live load. The insulation must also be
capable of withstanding the temperatures transferred
through the protection board from the application of hot
bitumen.

Usually brick floors and pavements are abrasion


resistant and hard wearing, therefore, coatings to
maintain surface appearance are not normally
required. Coatings and waxes may be desirable on
interior brick floors to enhance the appearance and
make the surfaces easier to clean.

9.9.3.6.11 MORTAR

9.9.3.6.13 MAINTENANCE

High-bond and latex modified Portland cement


mortars may vary among manufacturers, therefore,
the instructions for installation should be carefully
followed. Mortar joints should be properly tooled when
the mortar is thumb print hard.

Certain coatings on exterior brick pavement are


not recommended, as they may cause an extremely
slippery surface when wet during cleaning or in a
rainfall. Other coatings, such as non-slippery water
repellent sealants, may be beneficial for exterior
applications. For interior brick there are a few aspects
to be considered before applying any type of coating.

9.9.3.6.12 CLEANING
When cleaning high-bond mortared pavement,
cleaning should be done as soon as possible after the
mortar joints have been allowed to cure. A surface
applied bond breaker may be applied to the brick prior
to mortar application to assist in the cleaning process.

A common historic practice of applying a sealer


on brick paving prior to waxing has been satisfactory,
however, sealer and wax must be checked for
compatibility prior to final application.
Sealers typically have two purposes:

Steam cleaning is eff ective in melting any


protective paraffin coating and lifting excess mortar.
Drains should be protected from clogging during the
cleaning process. A visual inspection after cleaning
may reveal problem areas that require scraping or light
brushing with a stiff bristle brush. Do not use wire
brushes when cleaning masonry.

1.
2.

To lock loose sand in the cracks, and


To provide a protective finish.

152

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

When a sealer is used, it should be tested on a


small area and evaluated before full application. A
compatible wax should be selected, preferably a water
emulsion type which is recommended for brick floors.
The floor surface should be dry before a coating
is applied. To determine the most economical and
effective means for maintaining a brick floor, each
maintenance situation, whether it be with a sealer and
wax or a synthetic sealer-finish material (spry-buffing
process), must be judged on its own merit.

to the masonry and may be a source of efflorescence.


Use clean sand on the affected area to render icy
surfaces passable.
Where a metal snow plow blade is used to remove
snow, the blade should be rubber tipped or mounted
on small rollers and the blade edge should be adjusted
to a clearance height suitable to the pavement surface.
Needless chipping of the edges of the brick should be
avoided regardless of the method used.

9.9.4 LANDSCAPING
Removing snow on large or small areas of brick
pavement should not present any particular problem.
To preserve the character of the brick there are
precautionary measures that can be taken. Avoid the
use of chemicals and
rocksalt that aid in melting
ice. Using these materials will introduce soluble salts

Running bond

Basket weave or parquet

Stack bond

Stack bond

FIGURE 9.117

In landscape architecture brick plays an evergrowing role. Since it is made of natural earth materials
and available in a multitude of colors that are
harmonious with nature, brick is an ideal landscape
material. The designer is not limited in creativity when
using bond patterns of brick in an imaginative way.
Figure 9.117 illustrates a few basic patterns.

Brick paving patterns.

Diagonal herringbone

Herringbone

Diagonal running bond

Octagon and dot

Roman cobble

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

153

9.9.4.1 STEPS
The flexibility of small brick units often provides
solutions to difficulties when constructing brick steps
on a slope. The individual brick units permit flexibility
of design, such as adjustments of tread and riser
dim ensions, and t he construction of curv es.
Manuf acturers may stock brick speci f ically
manufactured for steps.

FIGURE 9.120

Screen wall.

9.9.4.4 GARDEN WALLS


Several types of brick garden walls with new
variations are constantly being created. Garden walls,
like screen walls, are typically used to separate areas
and are commonly used to define boundaries.

FIGURE 9.118

Brick steps.

9.9.4.2 PLANTER BOXES


Interior or exterior brick planters may be
constructed in a wide variety of designs. They protect
decorative plants from animals and facilitate elevated
gardening.

FIGURE 9.121

Garden wall.

9.9.4.5 FOUNTAINS

FIGURE 9.119

Planter boxes.

9.9.4.3 SCREEN WALLS


Brick screen walls offer beauty as well as privacy
without loss of light or air. A brick screen wall may be
used to conceal undesirable views and items and can
provide a handsome separation between areas.

Often, designers avoid the use of brick in


combination with water for fear of deterioration of the
masonry. There are, however, many examples of
successful brick projects with water including waterfalls
and fountains.
A succesful fountain will contain some key design
features. The most important is to reduce or eliminate
the saturation of brick particularly during freezing
weather. The fountains or pools must be drained of
water during cold weather. To drain rain or melting
snow, all brick surfaces must be sloped.

154

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Normally, mortar will deteriorate first in a brick wall.


Portland cement-lime mortar with a latex additive is
more durable and aids in bonding the brick which
minimizes moisture penetration.

FIGURE 9.122

Fountains.

9.9.5 FIREPLACES AND CHIMNEYS


For thousand of years fire has been a focal point of
human existence. Fire offers warmth in cold weather,
cooks food, and provides light in darkness. Fireplaces
also serve as social gathering points for friends and
families.
The chimney can be a dominant, interesting
architectural feature on the exterior of a home. As such,
a well designed home needs a fireplace and chimney
that are aesthetically and architecturally pleasing as
well as effective and energy efficient.

FIGURE 9.123

Chimneys.

FIGURE 9.124

Rumford fireplace.

The well-designed fireplace not only adds to the


beauty of a home, but also adds interest while in use.
Fireplaces and chimneys are important elements in
the design and construction of a home. Whether in
the living room or recreation room, the fireplace in the
home is a central feature around which to entertain
friends and enjoy good times.
There are several types of fireplaces used in
residential construction. The most frequently used is
the single face fireplace. This is a fireplace in which
the firebox faces the room and is in the same plane as
the wall. A variation of the traditional fireplace is the
Rumford fireplace which is a single-face fireplace,
featuring widely splayed sides, a shallow back and a
high opening. Recent performance tests indicate that
the heat projected in the room from a Rumford fireplace
is very high.
Multi-face fireplaces may have adjacent, opposite,
three or even all faces open to one or two rooms.
Quite frequently rooms lend themselves to locating
fireplaces in a corner to enhance a particular room.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE 9.127

155

Corner fireplace.

A functional fireplace makes a house into a home,


as it is difficult to imagine warming up to a forced air
outlet or a clanking radiator in the same manner as
cozying up to the amiable warmth of the hearth.

FIGURE 9.125

Three face fireplace (long front,

Many chimneys and fireplaces are built with


common brick or block and are given a special
architectural appearance with a veneer stone, brick,
marble or other selected material. The application of
veneer material to the fireplace or chimney must follow
applicable building code requirements.

short sides).

FIGURE 9.126

See-thru or double view

fireplace.

FIGURE 9.128 Fireplace opening with an arch.

156

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

9.9.6 MASONRY HEATERS


For centuries, throughout Europe and in nearly every
region of the world, masonry heaters have been used
to heat rooms. Masonry heaters differ from an open
face fireplace. There are many different styles, usually
named for the country of origin, such as Russian,
Finnish and German.

gases circulate through a maze of brick units before


being sent up the chimney. The heated mass is an
efficient heat sink that absorbs the heat energy, evenly
distributes it throughout its mass by means of the
flowing combustion gases through the winding flues that
absorbs much of the heat energy before the combustion
gases are released to the chimney.

9.9.7 PARAPETS
Parapets are walls built up higher than the roof line.
They can give added visual height to the building or
may hide HVAC units or elevator service enclosures.
In the event of fire, parapets are required in some code
jurisdictions to separate roof sections.

3
11

13

Brick parapet walls are usually not suggested


since problems associated with differential movement,
anchoring and moisture penetration require special
design consideration. If parapets are required on
masonry walls, they should be constructed of
reinforced masonry only. Stud walls should not form
the parapet support for a brick facia.

10

13

8
12

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Ashbox
Bypass Damper
Capping Slab
Chimney
Clean-Out
Combustion Air

FIGURE 9.129

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Smoke Chamber
Firebox
Firebox Door
Heat Exchange Area
Shut-Off Damper
Grate
Expansion Joint

Finnish or contra-flow brick

masonry heater.
Masonry heaters use the same burning material
as a fireplace, that is, wood is burned in a combustion
chamber. The principles used in a masonry heater differ
from an open fireplace where heat escapes through the
chimney and only a small amount of heat is radiated
into the room. The primary difference is that the hot

FIGURE 9.130

Parapet.

9.9.8 CORBELS AND RACKS


Corbeling and racking respectively, are projecting
and recessing successive courses of masonry. Both
may be used to accomplish a desired aesthetic effect,
increase or decrease wall thickness or create a
structural support.
Structural limitations set by the building codes must
be met and designers must ensure that the corbel does
not exceed certain limitations. Moisture penetration
problems may occur if corbelling or racking allows
cores or cells to be exposed in the masonry. Noncored units are often specif ied so that cores

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

157

There are a variety of methods of installing thin


brick units. For example, thin brick units may be
adhered directly to concrete block masonry or
concrete, as shown in Figure 9.132. Another procedure
involves bonding thin brick to a concrete block masonry
or concrete with surface preparation.

FIGURE 9.132
FIGURE 9.131

Corbeling.

will not be exposed. (Note that solid units are defined


as at least 75% solid in the plane of the bearing surface,
therefore a defined
solid
unit may be cored).

9.9.9 THIN BRICK VENEER


Thin brick veneer units are approximately 1/2 to 11/4
in. (12.7 to 31.8 mm) thick and similar in appearance
to face brick. The materials used to form thin bricks
are shale and clay and are kiln-fired. The appearance
of a thin brick wall is that of a conventional brick masonry
wall, since face sizes are normally the same as
conventional brick.
Thin brick are produced in various colors, sizes
and textures. The color for thin brick units are as
unlimited as those for other fired clay brick. The most
typical face size is the standard modular with nominal
dimensions of 22/3 in. by 8 in. (67.7 mm by 203 mm).
The color of kiln-fired brick depends on several factors,
such as:

Thin brick veneer.

Intensity of firing
Duration of firing
Composition of raw materials
Introduced additives

Thin brick texture depends on methods used by


the manufacture and the surface treatment used prior
to firing. Glazed thin brick units can also be provided
by some manufacturers.

Thin brick functions as an architectural wall covering


and also provides protection to the material over which
it is applied. Thin brick has less fire resistance, sound
resistance, structural strength, thermal mass and
insulation properties, but virtually the same aesthetic
qualities as conventional brick masonry.
Architects often prefer a raked joint for aesthetic
appeal. Although this method accents the brick, the
system performance is usually marginal since water
has direct access to the bond between the thin brick
and substrate, and subsequently, may cause bond
failure of the thin brick. An alternate method that
performs extremely well is to apply a colored concave
tooled mortar joint between the thin brick. This will
accent the individual brick and at the same time
substantially increase the moisture barrier.

9.9.10 BRICK SCULPTURE


Egyptian artisans experimented with brick
sculpture more than 5,000 years ago and the
Babylonians mastered it more than 2,500 years ago.
Ancient brick sculptures have also been found in China
and Mexico.
The brick used in brick sculptures add a touchable,
human dimension to images due to its texture, warmth
and rich colors. Even in exterior and high traffic
environments, brick
s permanence assures the
durability of the work. One of the most attractive
attributes is that brick sculpture acts as a harmonious

158

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

extension of the brick buildings on which they appear.


Used in conjunction with fine architectural detail the
art becomes part of the building, and the building
becomes part of the art to make a project stand out.
The design is the first step in creating a brick
sculpture. The design process starts with an idea, or
several ideas, then the architect and sculptor work
together to create a final design. Each idea is studied,
and after a process of elimination, one is chosen and
developed into a working design. The sculptor then
carves the design into the unfired clay brick. The brick
is coded for reassembly at the jobsite after the carving
is completed. The method of firing used in the carved
brick is the same used in the other brick. The brick
shrinks an amount approximately equal to one mortar
joint during the firing. The reassembly of the units
with mortar joints without distortion of the design is
allowed by this shrinkage.

into a transmitted path through the barrier


over a reflected path away from the residential
or commercial area
Sound can be reduced to tolerable levels by
changing different parameters, such as height and
mass of the wall. Brick aids in the reduction of the
noise since it is a massive material.

FIGURE 9.134

Sound barrier wall.

9.10 CLEANING
There are two prominent methods of cleaning both
new and old masonry. One is using an abrasive
blasting technique commonly called sandblasting. This
method is popular for Europeans who prefer to
maintain a historic look on their buildings. They are
very sophisticated with equipment and workmanship,
and perform an excellent job cleaning masonry.

FIGURE 9.133

Brick sculpture.

9.9.11 SOUND BARRIER WALLS


Public awareness of noise pollution mandated
some modification of highway boundaries. Sound
barrier walls are part of the solution with brick sound
barrier walls contributing a share Providing an
aesthetically pleasing appearance, brick sound barrier
walls reduce noise. The use of brick in this application
provides a human scale not found in other materials.
When strategically located between the traffic
noise and the adjacent residential or commercial
properties, sound barrier walls effectively distribute
noise:
into different paths
into a diffracted path over the top of the barrier

The American method prefers using cleaning


agents as a basis for cleaning masonry. Historic
masonry, which is far younger than European historic
masonry, can be returned to the pristine, new look
using specialized masonry cleaning solutions.
Technology continues to advance the cleaning agents
offering different products for the various colors and
textures of brick masonry.
The final appearance of new masonry is highly
dependent on how clean the brick is maintained during
construction and the efficiency by which the brick is
cleaned after construction. Ideally, the mason will clean
the brick as the work progresses, but there is always
some mortar debris left on the brickwork that should
be cleaned.

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Although not practical on many commercial
projects, a simple washing with a garden hose and a
fiber brush shortly after the end of the workday is a
highly effective method of keeping the completed brick
clean. Typically, the bricklayer will make an effort to
clean major mortar stains and droppings as the work
progresses. Taller brick walls will accumulate mortar
droppings as the work progresses and these are
cleaned at the end of the project. Water blasting will
normally remove these minor droppings in an effective
manner.
The contractor may be able to construct the scaffold
far enough away from the wall to mitigate the mortar
droppings that attach to the wall. Scaffold plank should
be kept reasonably clean to minimize the mortar debris
that will potentially come in contact with the wall.
Protection at the base of the wall will also keep the
mud and mortar spatter to a minimum and attention
must be given to the rainy season, where rain splatters
will spray the debris on the base of walls if unprotected.
When the brick are laid, a diligent mason will use
the trowel to capture protruding mortar and finish the
joints in the appropriate manner. After the joints are
tooled, excess mortar can be cut away with a trowel
or brushed away with a non-metallic brush. Using a
sponge with clean water on a very dense brick may be
an effective cleaning method.

159

When the brick construction is complete, the


project may require a general cleaning. When this is
necessary, the brick should be cleaned as soon as
practical, but not less than seven days, after the
brickwork is finished. The method of cleaning and the
cleaning agents should be the least required to
minimize the potential of irreversible texture and color
impact on the brick. When possible, water alone is
the preferred cleaning method.
Bef ore cleani ng the brickwork, t he brick
manufacturer should be consulted for recommendations
on materials and methods effective in cleaning the brick.
Such consultation will help in refining the general
methods and recommendations given in Table 9.3.
The cleaning agents should never dry on the brick
masonry surface. This is an issue that is particularly
important in hot weather. Hot weather cleaning may
require additional personnel to keep water on the wall
during the cleaning process, or coordination of cleaning
in small or shady areas.
Cleaning should be done when the temperature
is at least 50F (10C). This assures that the cleaning
agents will be effective in the cleaning process. Always
test the cleaning process on a small, inconspicuous
panel before the overall cleaning process.

Table 9.3 Cleaning Guide for Brick Masonry


Brick Category

Cleaning Method
Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush)

Red/Red Flashed

High Pressure Water Blasting


Abrasive Blasting
Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush)

Light Colored Units


(White, Tan, Buff, Gray,
Pink)

High Pressure Water Blasting


Abrasive Blasting

Light Colored Units with


Sand Finish

Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush)


Hand Cleaning (Bucket & Brush)

Glazed Units
Pressure Water Blasting

Comments
Water is the preferred method of cleaning. Specialty
detergents are available for specific application.
Consult manufacturer
s data for appropriate application
of cleaning agents.
Abrasive blasting can permanently alter texture.
Abrasives other than sand are available.
Water is the preferred method of cleaning. Specialty
detergents are available for specific application.
Consult manufacturer
s data for appropriate application
of cleaning agents. Muriatic acids solutions may cause
stains in brick with manganese and vanadium. Light
colored brick are susceptible to acid burn and staining.
Abrasive blasting can permanently alter texture.
Abrasives other than sand are available.
Use clean water and non-metallic brush. Stubborn
stains may require a specialty cleaning solution.
Abrasive blasting is not recommended,
Clean daily with sponge and ample clean water. If
necessary, polish with soft cloth. May also be cleaned
using water blasting using care not to clean at high
pressures that will permanently damage the texture.

160

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


splatters and smears become increasingly
difficult to remove.
Remove larger mortar debris prior to general
cleaning. Avoid the use of metal tools, although
scraping mortar debris off with a masons trowel
is acceptable.
Determine the appropriate cleaning agent and
test on a sample panel. Avoid the use of
muriatic acid which may cause staining and
acid burning.

FIGURE 9.135

Brick masonry restored by

Protect other materials and vegetation. Metals


are sensitive to acids and must be protected.
Use sufficient water for the job. Most cleaning
agents require the wall to be wet prior to
application and thoroughly flushed to rinse the
agent from the wall.

cleaning.

Abrasive cleaning may have permanent effects on


the texture and color of the brick and is not
recommended. Infrequently, abrasive blasting may be
preferred and should only be performed by an individual
with adequate experience and skill to perform the work.
Often, designers believe that a
lightsandblast is
appropriate for brick masonry, however, a
brush
sandblast
, which is less aggressive than a light
sandblast should be utilized. Also, soft abrasives should
be considered.

9.11 REINFORCED GROUTED


BRICK MASONRY
FIGURE 9.136

Power washing brick.

One issue that occurs on many projects is the


coordination of cleaning the brickwork. Naturally, the
primary contractor prefers to wait as long as possible
before cleaning the brick so that it will be pristine when
the project is complete. Waiting too long can cause
major difficulties since a cleaning agent containing acid
may be required. If the cleaning is performed after the
landscaping is in place, then there are significant issues
of protection.
The cleaning procedure should consider the
following:
Coordinate the schedule for cleaning. Cleaning
should always be performed when the
protection requirements are minimal. Wait at
least seven days for the mortar to sufficiently
cure and clean within one month of the
completed brickwork. After one month mortar

Structural brick masonry structures in seismic


regions must be reinforced to withstand lateral forces
during seismic activity.
Reinforced masonry has high dampening and
energy absorption characteristics. Reinforcing steel
improves the ductility and toughness of the masonry
system and holds a building together. With proper
design and construction, the reinforcement will transmit
forces to adjacent elements that will carry the forces to
the ground.
Additionally, reinforced masonry performs well
because the materials; steel, masonry, grout, and
mortar, work together as a single structural unit. The
temperature coefficients for steel, mortar, grout and
masonry units are similar allowing the different
component materials to act together through normal
temperature ranges. Thus, disruptive stresses are not
generated by temperature changes which would destroy
the bond and force transfer between the reinforcing steel
and the grout.

161

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Additionally, reinforced masonry materials work
together as a unit because the reinforcing steel is
locked into the masonry system. This mechanism is
developed through the grout.
Vertical reinforcement

Metal ties

Foundation
dowels

Wire mesh or reinforcement

1
6 5 /2

Slab on grade
Finish
grade

2 - #5
continuous
typ.

3clear

Details of reinforcing bar size and spacing is


dependent on engineering requirements. All
connections must be satisfactory to transmit the forces
due to the lateral and vertical loads. The elements
must be sufficiently tied together to act as a unit.

Brick wall

12

The design and construction of any building with


seismic exposure must take into consideration
connections to adjacent structural systems. If
connections hold together and make the structure
perform as a total system the structure will not only
surv iv e but also f unct ion, ev en after major
earthquakes.

Following are typical reinforced grouted brick


masonry wall details:

12

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 9.138

Continuous footing, exterior


wall slab on grade with a curb (Rectangular shape).
Vertical reinforcement

Metal ties

Brick wall
Foundation
dowels

Vertical reinforcement

Metal ties

Wire mesh or reinforcement


6

Slab on grade

Brick wall

Finish
grade

Foundation
dowels

Wire mesh or
reinforcement

12

12
24

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 9.137

Continuous footing, exterior


wall slab on grade (L shape).

3clear

3clear

2 - #5
s
continuous
typ.

Finish
grade

24

12

24

Slab on grade

2 - #5
s
continuous
typ.
6

12

24

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 9.139

Continuous footing, exterior


wall slab on grade (T shape).

162

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Vertical
reinforcement

Metal ties

Brick wall
Foundation dowels
Wire mesh or
reinforcement

16

Slab on grade

3clear

2 - #5
continuous typ.

16

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 9.140

Continuous footing, interior wall slab on grade (Rectangular shape).

1 - #4 nosing bar
12
1

71/2

FIGURE 9.141

Concrete steps on grade masonry side walls.

Wire mesh or
reinforcement

163

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION


Concrete steps

#4 nosing bar bend


18into wall

Brick wall

12

Finished grade

3clear

2 - #5
s
continuous typ.
16

FIGURE 9.142

Concrete steps on grade masonry side walls.

2 x 4 @ 16o.c.
16d @ 4o.c.
Concrete slab
on grade

Typical dimensions

2 x 4 plate
Lightweight concrete
/8plywood

2 x 4 @ 16o.c.
16d @ 4o.c.
Concrete slab
on grade

2 x 4 plate
Lightweight concrete
/8plywood

2 x 12
floor joist
2 x 12
blocking @
48 o.c.
6 x 65/16@ 48
o.c. w/13/4
diameter bolt
each leg

Metal ties

Barrier membrane
Anchor bolt
Vertical reinforcement

Brick wall

Barrier membrane
6 x 65/16@ 48
o.c. w/13/4
diameter bolt
each leg
Metal ties

Anchor bolt
Vertical reinforcement

Brick wall

Typical dimensions
Typical dimensions

FIGURE 9.143

Masonry wall and wood floor


connection at grade (Joist perpendicular).

FIGURE 9.144

Masonry wall and wood floor


connection at grade (Joist parallel).

164

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Brick wall

Vertical
reinforcement

Vertical
reinforcement
Brick
pilaster

Horizontal
reinforcement

#3 ties @ 16o.c.

1
- 6

Brick wall

1
- 8

w5 x steel column

Vertical
reinforcement

#5 dowels x 30
long @ 48o.c.
stagger weld
bars to column

Isolate steel
column from grout

Typical dimensions
/8diam. anchor
bolts @ 48stagger
5

Brick wall

#3 ties @ 16o.c.

Vertical
reinforcement

C w8 x steel column
Vertical reinforcement

16square brick column

Typical dimensions
Brick wall

#5
s @ 24o.c.
x 6- 0typ.

2 sets of #3 ties @ 16o.c.

6 vertical bars

16square brick column

Vertical
reinforcement

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 9.145

Brick masonry pilaster and


columns (Plan sections).

F IGURE 9.146

Brick masonry wall and


concrete column steel (Plan sections).

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

165

Metal ties

Metal ties

Vertical reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement
Metal strap

Metal strap

2 x _ @ 16o.c.

2 x _ @ 16o.c.

Anchor bolt

2 x _ blocking
@ 48o.c.
4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4
anchor bolts @ 48o.c.
Brick wall

Joist hanger
4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4bolts @ 48o.c.
Brick wall

FIGURE 9.150

Interior wall, joist parallel to


wall 4 x _ ledger, metal tie straps, no lightweight
concrete.

F IGURE 9.147

Exteri or w all, joi st


perpendicular to wall 4 x _ledger, metal tie strap,
no lightweight concrete.

2 x _ continuous
blocking

2 x _ @ 16o.c.

Metal ties
Vertical reinforcement
Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16
@ 48o.c. w/ 3/4
diam. bolt each leg

Metal strap

Anchor bolt
Vertical
reinforcement

2 x _ blocking
@ 48o.c.
Metal ties

Brick wall

2 x _ @ 16o.c.
Anchor bolt
4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4bolts @ 48o.c.

F IGURE 9.151

Exterior wal l, rafters


perpendicular to wall, roof overhang clip angle
rafters to wall.

Brick wall

FIGURE 9.148

Exterior wall, joists parallel to


wall 4 x _ ledger, metal tie straps, no lightweight
concrete.

2x_@
16o.c.

2 x _ blocking

Metal ties
Vertical reinforcement
Metal strap

Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16@
48o.c. w/ 3/4
diam. bolt
each leg

Anchor bolt

Vertical reinforcement
2x_@
16o.c.

Joist hanger
4 x _ ledger w/ 3/4
anchor bolts @ 48o.c.

Metal ties

Brick wall

Brick wall

F IGURE 9.149

I nterior wall , jo ist


perpendicular to wall 4 x _ ledger, metal tie straps,
no lightweight concrete.

FIGURE 9.152

Exterior wall, rafters parallel


to wall, roof overhang clip angle rafters to wall.

166

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


2 x _ continuous
blocking

Metal ties
2 x _ rafters

Vertical
reinforcement

Metal decking
Lightweight concrete

Anchor bolt

Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16
@ 48o.c. w/ 3/4
diam. bolt each leg

Metal ties

Vertical
reinforcement

Brick wall

Brick wall

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

F IGURE 9.153

Exterior wal l, rafters


perpendicular to wall sloped roof.

2 x _ blocking

W __ x steel beam
Plate embedded
in masonry

FIGURE 9.156

Exterior wall, metal decking


parallel to wall, decking supported by steel beams.

2 x _ @ 16o.c.
Metal ties
Vertical
reinforcement

Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16@
48o.c. w/ 3/4
diam. bolt each leg

Metal decking
Lightweight
concrete

Anchor bolt
Brick wall
Vertical
reinforcement

Metal ties

Brick wall

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

W __ x steel beam
Plate embedded
in masonry

F IGURE 9.154

Interior wal l, rafters

perpendicular to wall.
2 x _ @ 16o.c.

FIGURE 9.157

Exterior wall, perpendicular


metal decking to wall, decking supported by steel
beams.

2 x _ blocking

Metal ties
Vertical
reinforcement
Angle 6 x 6 x 5/16
@ 48o.c. w/ 3/4
diam. bolt each leg

FIGURE 9.155
to wall.

Lightweight
concrete

Anchor bolt
Brick wall
Vertical
reinforcement

Metal ties

Metal decking

Brick wall

Interior wall, rafters parallel

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

FIGURE 9.158
parallel to wall.

Light metal steel


joist
Plate embedded
in masonry

Exterior wall, metal decking

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

Metal ties
Metal ties
Vertical
reinforcement

Metal decking
Lightweight concrete

167

Metal decking

Vertical
reinforcement

Lightweight
concrete

Brick wall
Brick wall
#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

FIGURE 9.159

Exterior wall, metal decking


perpendicular to wall.

Metal ties

Metal decking
Lightweight concrete

Vertical
reinforcement

FIGURE 9.162

Plate embedded
in masonry

Exterior wall, metal decking

parallel to wall.

Metal ties

Metal decking

Vertical
reinforcement

Lightweight
concrete

Brick wall
Brick wall

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

FIGURE 9.160

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

Plate embedded
in masonry

Plate embedded
in masonry

Exterior wall, metal decking

parallel to wall.

FIGURE 9.163

Exterior wall, metal decking


perpendicular to wall.
Metal ties
/2diam. @ 24o.c.

Metal ties

Metal decking
Lightweight concrete

Vertical
reinforcement

Vertical
reinforcement
Brick wall

Metal decking
Lightweight
concrete

Brick wall

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

FIGURE 9.161

Plate embedded in
masonry

Exterior wall, metal decking


perpendicular to wall.

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
24 36

FIGURE 9.164
parallel to wall.

L 31/2x 31/2x 3/8


w/ 3/4anchor
bolts @ 32o.c.

Interior wall, metal decking

168

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Metal ties
/2diam. @ 24o.c.

Vertical
reinforcement

Concrete slab

Metal decking
Lightweight
concrete

Brick wall

#5 dowels @
24o.c.
24 36

L 31/2x 31/2x 3/8


w/ 3/4anchor
bolts @ 32o.c.

L 6x 4x 5/16
w/ 3/4anchor
bolts @ 48o.c.
slot bolt holes in
vertical legs

L 4x 5/16x 1- 0
w/ 3/4anchor
bolts @ 48o.c.
slot bolt to
masonry wall

Vertical
reinforcement

Metal ties

FIGURE 9.165

Interior wall, metal decking


perpendicular to wall.

Brick wall

#5 vertical

FIGURE 9.168

Brick wall, end connect-steel


angles and plates to concrete slab.

Concrete slab

Bond beam reinforcement


Brick masonry wall

L 6x 4x 5/16
w/ 3/4anchor bolts
@ 48o.c. each
leg and stagger
vertical slot holes
in vertical legs

FIGURE 9.166

Brick wall, and bond beam

Vertical reinforcement

Metal ties

corner.
Brick wall
Concrete floor

FIGURE 9.169

Brick wall, interior connectsteel angles and plates to concrete slab.

Vertical reinforcement
Metal ties

FIGURE 9.167
a concrete slab.

Brick wall

Brick wall, interior support of

BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

Horizontal steel

Horizontal steel
#3 vertical

1metal strap

Bond beam reinforcement

Brick wall

Brick wall

F IGURE 9.170
intersection.

Brick wall, bon d beam

FIGURE 9.171

Brick wall, intersection.

169

170

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Humanities Instructional Building, UC Irvine,


California.

Hospital Facility, Norwalk, California.

Watseka Parking Structure, Culver City, California.

UC Riverside Entomology Building, Riverside,


California.

Sherwood Country Club, Thousand Oaks,


California.

CHAPTER

10

CONCRETE BLOCK
10.1 GENERAL
From the beginning of the concept of construction,
masonry has been the medium from which the most
carefully crafted and highly prized buildings have been
created. Examples include the massive pyramids of
Egypt and Mexico, the inspirational elegance of the
Parthenon in Greece, the lofty European cathedrals
as well as the more familiar fireplaces, brick cottages
and walled gardens. Both new and old masonry
structures reflect the scale of the human hand and the
boundless power of that hand to create.
Masonry construction dates from prehistoric times,
but has been continually improved, engineered, and
enhanced to meet design requirements and at the
same time satisfy construction economics.
Concrete block masonry is frequently chosen as a
material of construction for its association with qualities
of permanence and solidity. It is chosen for the unique
colors, textures, and patterns; f ire resistance,
compliance with building code requirements and
economic advantages. Masonry creates a high
performance enclosed structure in a single operation
by one trade, bypassing the diff iculties of ten
encountered managing the numerous trades and
subcontractors needed to erect a comparable building
of multiple wall materials.
The masonry construction process is carried out
with small, relatively inexpensive, tools and machines
on the construction site. Compared to steel
construction, masonry typically does not require a large
and expensively equipped shop operation to process
major materials prior to erection. Compared to castin-place concrete, masonry does share the necessity

of special precautions that must be implemented to


avoid delays during periods of very hot, very cold, or
very wet weather. Since concrete block masonry uses
small standard-sized units to form an ultimately large
structure, extensive fabrication and extensive site
preparation is not required.
Buildings are designed with masonry for many
reasons, some of which are:

to be durable,
to be attractive and comfortable,
to keep out wind and rain,
to mitigate noise, and
for energy efficiency.

As a unit of design, concrete block masonry is ideal


for walls incorporating steps, curves and relief.
Concrete block
s texture, patterns and integral color
contribute to distinctive design compatible with both
building finishes and the natural environment.
Concrete block masonry walls can be designed to
meet security, visual and acoustical requirements. The
structural integrity of concrete block is ideal for retaining
walls and provides resistance to damage from wind,
water or vandalism.
Concrete masonry units are available as precision
block or with architectural finishes that range from a
smooth, ground-face finish to the stone-like facets of
split-face units, to colored and glazed block. Unlike
wood, concrete masonry does not burn and does not
need to be painted. One of concrete masonry
s biggest
adv antages is aesthetic v alue; another is the
adaptability to any design. Combining concrete
masonry unit walls with other materials for floors or

172

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

ceilings is a favorite approach of many architects. Left


exposed, concrete masonry is easily integrated into a
total living environment.
Concrete masonry is easily insulated and has a
high thermal mass. As a relatively heavy material, like
stone, it slowly absorbs and releases heating or cooling
energy. Concrete masonry can provide additional
heating or cooling hours in which the HVAC system
does not need to be utilized. Concrete masonry
s
inherent thermal mass makes it the ideal choice for
creating a more energy-efficient building.

10.2 LAYOUT AND ASSEMBLY

building dimensions and the cell layout must be able


to accommodate required structural members.
Further, cell aligment must be coordinated for the
required continuity of structural members.
There are many design solutions for the installation
of concrete block masonry. This chapter presents a
limited number of generic design approaches
considered to be the most typical. Using this infomation
as a foundation, the designer is encouraged to develop
details using the basic concepts of dimensioning,
detailing, and interfacing with other materials. If these
few general approaches are used, the designer can
be further assured that the mason can efficiently
implement the installation and any design can be
constructed with efficiency.

10.2.1 MODULAR CONSIDERATIONS


A significant cost in masonry construction is labor.
One way of reducing the amount of labor is using
dimensions that are based on the length of a concrete
block (a module). This is known as modular
dimensioning. Modular dimensioning allows for whole
units to be placed. This eliminates the labor and time
of field cutting and custom fitting any concrete blocks
to fit non-modular dimensions.
In addition to the assurance of economy, the quality
in concrete masonry construction is obtained when
modular consideration is given to details and layout.
The wall surface and unit module must match the

10.2.2 MODULAR DIMENSIONS


Table 10.1 shows the number of block units
required for certain lengths and heights. For absolute
precision, the number of stated block units will always
measure 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) less than the given in the
table. This dimension can be adjusted by the mason
during construction, particularly in long or high walls.
Figure 10.1 shows how the actual height
dimension of the concrete masonry unit and the height
of the mortar joint combined to form a modular
dimension.

155/8
/8

155/8

33/8for 4block
75/8for 8block

/8

FIGURE 10.1

Actual dimensions that form modular lengths.

CONCRETE BLOCK

3
1
3 /2
4
1
4 /2
5
51/2
6
61/2
7
1
7 /2
8
1
8 /2
9
1
9 /2
10
101/2
11
111/2
12
1
12 /2
13
1
13 /2
14
141/2
15
151/2

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
62

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
4
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Length

Height

Dim ensions
16" Unit

4" Unit

8" Unit

16
16 1/2
17
17 1/2
18
18 1/2
19
19 1/2
20
20 1/2
21
21 1/2
22
22 1/2
23
23 1/2
24
24 1/2
30
37 1/2
45
52 1/2
60
67 1/2
75
150
225
300

63
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
600
900
1200

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
60
75
90
105
120
135
150
300
450
600

21'-0"
22'-0"
22'-8"
23'-4"
24'-0"
24'-8"
25'-4"
26'-0"
26'-8"
27'-4"
28'-0"
28'-8"
29'-4"
30'-0"
30'-8"
31'-4"
32'-0"
32'-8"
40'-0"
50'-0"
60'0"
70'-0"
80'-0"
90'-0"
100'-0"
200'-0"
300'-0"
400'-0"

Figures 10.2 and 10.3 are examples of how the


modular dimension develops into the ov erall
dimension.

8total unit height

/8(5) + 75/8(5) = 3- 4

3'-4"
3'-8"
4'-0"
4'-4"
4'-8"
5'-0"
5'-4"
5'-8"
6'-0"
6'-4"
6'-8"
7'-0
7'-4"
7'-8"
8'-0"
8'-4"
8'-8"
9'-0"
9'-4"
9'-8"
10'-0"
10'-4"
10'-8"
11'-0"
11'-4"
11'-8"
12'-0"
12'-4"
12'-8"
13'-0"
13'-4"
13'-8"
14'-0"
14'-4"
14'-8"
15'-0"
15'-4"
15'-8"
16'-0"
16'-4"
16'-8"
17'-0"
17'-4"
17'-8"
18'-0"
18'-4"
18'-8"
19'-0"
19'-4"
19'-8"
20'-0"
20'-8"

Table 10.1 Modular Dimensions (English Units)

Table 10.1 Modular Dimensions (English Units)


Length
Height
Dimensions
16" Unit
4" Unit
8" Unit

173

75/8block
/8

FIGURE 10.2
height.

Example of vertical modular

174

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


As the figures are reviewed, note the following:

10.3 WALL AND OPENING


DIMENSIONS
Using the modular layout for 8 in. x 8 in. x 16 in.
(203 mm x 203 mm x 406 mm) Concrete Masonry
Units (CMU), the following figures show how the sizes
of openi ngs and reinf orcement spacing are
determined.

Modular Dimensions - Block sizes are 3/8 in. (9.5


mm) less in all dimensions so the addition of the
mortar joint will make multiples of 8 in. (203 mm).
Dimensions are in 4 in. and 8 in. (102 and 203
mm) multiples.
Actual Dimensions - Outside dimensions and
distances between openings are 3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
under the given dimension. Inside dimensions and
opening are 3/ 8 in. (9.5 mm) over the given
dimensions.
Multiples of 8 in. will always be in even feet (2'-0",
4'-0", 6'-0"); or in even feet plus 8 in. (2'-8", 4'-8",
6'-8"); or in odd feet plus 4 in. (1'-4", 3'-4", 5'-4").

16

16

75/8

The mason can make up the 3/8


short dimension in the mortar joints

FIGURE 10.3

Modular length dimensions.

See Figure 10.5


for Section

955/8or 7- 115/8

563/8or 4- 83/8

803/8or 6- 83/8

483/8minus height
of half course

See Figure 10.3

See Figure 10.6


for Section

FIGURE 10.4

Elevation of a running bond CMU wall with opening dimensions.

243/8
2- 03/8

235/8
9
- 115/8

403/8
3- 43/8

155/8

403/8

2- 75/8

3- 43/8

16- 0
*
Note: Actual dimensions based on 8nominal units.

/8difference can be adjusted with mortar joints.

FIGURE 10.5

Cross-section plan view of opening dimensions.

24
2- 0

CONCRETE BLOCK

37/16

FIGURE 10.6

32

16

24

24

24

175

37/16

Cross-section plan view of opening dimensions at Starter Course


.

10.4 FOUNDATION DETAILS


For an effective and efficient design (space,
material, and costs), proper planning is required.
Proper planning does not simply mean that CMU have
been engineered and the work is ready f or
construction, but it does mean that the designer has
considered details and dimensions that allow for
efficiency. Proper planning also means the designer
has provided conceptual details that clearly describe
the materials and layout required for construction. This
section provides a few typical details (masonry to
foundation) of construction that would assist a designer
in prov iding the proper initial design for CMU
construction.

In considering construction efficiency, the dowels


from foundation must be of sufficient length, but not
excessively tall. The foundation with vertical dowels
will be placed prior to the concrete block installation.
When open-end block are not used, the mason must
lift each block unit over the dowel and set the unit.
Minimum placement motion prior to the actual setting
of the unit will improve the installation quality.
The details presented intentionally show a
minimum distance above the foundation to enable the
mason to easily place the initial courses of CMU.
Alternately, if the reinforcing dowels protruding from
the footing are excessively tall, open-end units may
be used. Reinforcing dowels are hooked around
foundation reinforcement to prov ide additional
continuity.

8concrete block
8concrete block

Dowel
Concrete slab

Dowel from foundation


allows for short distance
threading the CMU over
reinforcement

Waterproof
membrane

3clear

Continuous
reinforcement

8(typ.)

1- 0

12(typ.)

Fill

Continuous
reinforcement

1- 8
4
Typical Dimensions

FIGURE 10.7

Exterior wall with slab floor.

10

Typical Dimensions

FIGURE 10.8

Exterior wall with slab floor.

176

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

8concrete block

8concrete block
Continuous horizontal
reinforcement

Vertical
reinforcement

Continuous horizontal
reinforcement

Dowel
Vertical reinforcement

Continuous
reinforcement

3clear

Continuous
reinforcement

1- 0

16(typ.)

Dowel

1
- 8(typ.)

FIGURE 10.9

Exterior wall on slab floor.

FIGURE 10.11

1- 8(typ.)

Exterior wall with raised slab

floor.

8concrete block
Continuous
horizontal
reinforcement

Dowel
Solid blocking

Vertical
reinforcement

Floor joist

Continuous
horizontal
reinforcement

Vertical
reinforcement

Dowel

Continuous
reinforcement
18(typ.)

FIGURE 10.10

Exterior wall with raised floor.

6min.
(typ.)
1- 0min.
(typ.)

Continuous
reinforcement
3min.

8
(typ.)

12min.
(typ.)

18min.
(typ.)

FIGURE 10.12

3min.
1- 8(typ.)

Interior wall with slab floor.

CONCRETE BLOCK

8concrete block

Dowel

Continuous
horizontal
reinforcement

177

Solid blocking

Dowel

Vertical reinforcement
Waterproof
membrane (typ.)

16

Typical dimensions

12masonry
foundation wall
grouted solid
8(typ.)

Compacted
gravel or
stone fill

Wood plates
with bolts

18min.
(typ.)

12

4concrete
slab (typ.)

18(typ.)

FIGURE 10.13

Interior wall - Bearing partition.

FIGURE 10.16

Interior wall with raised floor.

Vertical reinforcement
Continuous
horizontal
reinforcement

10.5 CONCRETE MASONRY


WALL ASSEMBLY DETAIL

Dowel

Gravel or
stone fill

16

FIGURE 10.14

4 4

Waterproof
membrane

Typical dimensions

Interior wall - Non-bearing

partition.

Studs

Blocking
Floor joists

Finished
grade

12- 1 story
15- 2 story
min. (typ)

4min.

2x 6foundation
grade redwood or
treated mud sill
Foundation
reinforcement dowel
9min. (typ.)

12- 1 story
15- 2 story
min. (typ)

FIGURE 10.15

Exterior wall with raised floor.

The nomenclature of concrete masonry is best


described in a wall assembly diagram. Figure 10.17
is an isometric drawing of a typical CMU wall system.
At the top of the wall is the bond beam. The bond
beam has the same function as the
double top plate
in light timber f raming. The bond beam is a
CONTINUOUS reinforced beam at the level where the
roof or floor frames into the wall. The bond beam acts
to give continuity to the building, similar to the metal
straps on a barrel. The bond beam also acts as
collector. It may collect in-place lateral forces and
transfer them to a shear wall through strut (axial
loading) action. The bond beam may also collect outof-plane lateral loads and transfer them to support walls
through bending (beam loading) action.
Surrounding all openings is reinforcement. The
reinforcement also limits cracking that may occur at
the edges of the opening due to temperature differences.
The corners of openings can be points of larger stresses
and the edge reinforcement helps mitigate corner
cracking. Reinforcement around the perimeter of
openings acts to hold the individual masonry units
together.

178

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Bond beam
Vertical steel
Parapet wall

Sheet metal cap

Combined
lintel and
bond beam

Horizontal
steel in
lintel

Beam
units

Vertical steel
each side of
opening

Vertical
steel

Sash units
Sill units
Horiz. bond
beam

Typical steel door frame

Horizontal bond beam


at 4- 0on centers
16x 16pilaster

FIGURE 10.17

Typical concrete masonry wall assembly.

Tie

CONCRETE BLOCK

10.6 FLOOR AND ROOF


CONNECTION DETAILS

179

Cricket (sloped section)


for water drainage
Ledger

10.6.1 TIMBER CONNECTIONS

Tension straps
connected
directly from wood
beam to CMU wall

One of the most important issues to avoid in timber


framing to masonry walls is cross-grain bending on
the timber ledger. Cross-grain bending has such little
strength that the National Design Specification (NDS)
for timber design does not give stress values. Crossgrain bending creates tension forces perpendicular to
the fibers of the timber member, in which timber is
extremely weak (Figure 10.18).
In Figures 10.19 through 10.25 the moment, which
causes weak axis bending in the wood ledger, is never
allowed to develop in the wood member. The force at
the top of the cross-section is given a load path directly
into the masonry wall through the tension strap.
Without this tension strap at the top, cross grain
bending could occur, as shown in Figure 10.18.

Hanger

FIGURE 10.19

Wood beam to CMU wall with

cricket.

Wood or masonry
Diaphragm nailing
Ledger

Hanger

Force diaphragm pulls the


top of the ledger away
F
Anchor bolt into
masonry resists
the force in the
diaphragm
F

Tension straps
connected directly
from wood beam
to CMU wall

A moment (equal and opposite


forces applied at a distance
apart) creates cross grain
bending
F

FIGURE 10.20
The moment causes the wood
section to bend. The bending
develops tension forces
perpendicular to the fibers

FIGURE 10.18 Cross grain bending on a timber


cross-section without strap (not recommended).

Wood beam to CMU wall.

180

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Vertical reinforcement
Ledger
Perimeter
Tension strap connected from wood
nailing
girder directly to CMU wall

/8plywood

Perimeter nailing
Tension tie

Vertical
reinforcement
5
/8plywood
Horiz.
reinf.

2 x 14 @
16o.c. (typ.)
8concrete block

Joist hanger

Pre-manufactured girder
and hanger
Horizontal reinforcement
8concrete block

FIGURE 10.21

FIGURE 10.24

Wood beam to CMU wall with

drag strut (2 sides).


Pre-manufactured wood girder

to CMU wall.
Perimeter nailing

Vertical reinforcement
Vertical reinforcement
Ledger
Perimeter
Tension strap connected from wood
nailing
beam directly to CMU wall

Strap @ 48o.c.
alt. each side

/8plywood

/8plywood

2 x 14 @ 16
o.c. (typ.)

Joist hanger

2 x blocking
@ 48o.c.
(typ.)

Horizontal reinf.
8concrete block
Horizontal reinforcement
8concrete block

FIGURE 10.22

Wood I-beam to CMU wall.

FIGURE 10.25

Wood beam to CMU wall (2

sides).

Perimeter nailing
Perimeter nailing
Tension tie
Vertical
reinforcement

/8plywood

Horizontal
reinforcement

Vertical
reinforcement

Strap @ 48o.c. (typ.)

/2plywood

8concrete
block wall
8concrete
block

2 x 14 @
16o.c. (typ.)

Horizontal
reinforcement

Joist hanger

FIGURE 10.23
drag strut.

Wood beam to CMU wall with

2 x roof
rafters (typ.)
Joist hanger

FIGURE 10.26 Wood rafter to CMU parapet wall


(rafter perpendicular to wall).

CONCRETE BLOCK

181

Perimeter nailing
Strap @ 48o.c. (typ.)
1
/2plywood

/2dia. @ 24o.c. (typ.)

Horizontal
reinforcement

Metal decking
Slab reinforcement
Concrete slab

2 x roof rafters (typ.)


Joist hanger

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
(typ.)

8concrete
block wall

Steel beam

8concrete block wall


Vertical reinforcement
Vertical reinforcement

FIGURE 10.28
Horizontal reinforcement

#5 @ 16o.c.
footing dowel
(typ.)

Steel beam (double angle conn.)


and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam and deck
flutes perpendicular to wall).

/2dia. @ 24o.c. (typ.)

Horizontal
reinforcement

Metal decking
Slab reinforcement

16

18

3CLR.

12

Concrete slab

8concrete
block wall
Typical dimensions

FIGURE 10.27

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
(typ.)

Steel beam

Full wall section one story

with parapet.

Vertical reinforcement

10.6.2 STEEL CONNECTIONS


Steel beams can be integrated with concrete slabs
and the system acts as a horizontal diaphragm to
transfer horizontal shear loads to vertical shear walls.
The shear loads are transferred to the vertical walls
through connections. The connections may be a wall
attachment, such as a bolted or welded plate
connection or may be a beam pocket in the wall with a
positive connection.

FIGURE 10.29 Steel beam (double angle conn.)


and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam perpendicular and deck flutes parallel to wall).

182

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Vertical reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement
Horizontal
reinforcement

Horizontal
reinforcement
8concrete
block
wall

Metal decking

8concrete
block
wall

Metal decking
Slab reinforcement

Slab reinforcement

Concrete slab

Concrete slab
#5 dowels
@ 16o.c.
(typ.)

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
(typ.)
Light metal joists

Bar joist

FIGURE 10.30

Steel beam and concrete deck


to CMU wall (beam parallel and deck flutes
perpendicular to wall).

FIGURE 10.32

Pre-manufactured steel truss


and concrete deck to CMU wall (b eam
perpendicular and deck flutes parallel to wall).

Vertical reinforcement
Vertical reinforcement
Horizontal
reinforcement
8concrte
block
wall

Horizontal
reinforcement
Metal decking
Slab reinforcement

8concrete
block
wall

Metal decking
Slab reinforcement

Concrete slab

Concrete slab
#5 dowels
@ 16o.c.
(typ.)

#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
(typ.)

Bar joist

FIGURE 10.31

Pre-manufactured steel truss


and concrete deck to CMU wall (beam and deck
flutes perpendicular to wall).

Plate embedded
in masonry

FIGURE 10.33

Concrete deck to CMU wall


(deck flutes perpendicular to wall).

183

CONCRETE BLOCK

/2dia. @ 24o.c.
(typ.)
1

Vertical reinforcement
#5 dowels
@ 16o.c.
(typ.)

Horizontal
reinforcement
8concrete
block
wall

Metal decking

Metal decking
Slab
reinforcement
Concrete
slab

Slab reinforcement
Concrete slab
#5 dowels
@ 24o.c.
(typ.)
Bar joist
Plate embedded
in masonry

Horizontal
reinforcement
Vertical
reinforcement

12Concrete
block wall

FIGURE 10.36
FIGURE 10.34

Concrete deck to CMU wall


(deck flutes parallel to wall).

/2dia. @ 24o.c.
(typ.)
1

#5 dowels
@ 16o.c.
(typ.)

Metal decking
Slab
reinforcement
Concrete
slab

Bar joist
Horizontal
reinforcement
Vertical
reinforcement

FIGURE 10.35

12Concrete
block wall

Pre-manufactured steel truss


and concrete deck (2 sides) to CMU wall (beam
and deck flutes perpendicular to wall).

Pre-manufactured steel truss


and concrete deck (2 sides) to CMU wall (beam
perpendicular and deck flutes parallel to wall).

10.7 CORNER PATTERNS


While maintaining the modular dimensions and
patterns on a straight wall can be accomplished with
relative ease, some issues can arise when transitioning
around corners. An 8 in. (203 mm) wide unit turns a
corner with ease since the 8 in. (302 mm) width is half
the unit length of 16 in. (406 mm). This simple
configuration is shown in Figure 10.42. Other wall
widths are a more difficult challenge in turning a corner,
but with the correct unit and placement, this challenge
can be overcome (Figures 10.37 through 10.41, 10.43,
and 10.44). This section provides some examples of
how the modular dimensions can be maintained at the
corner details.

184

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

4
16

Mo
du
le
of
8

4
+
le
du
Mo

Mo
du
le
of
8

16

16

16
16

du

le

6
8

16

16

14

16

16

Mo
du
le
of
8

16

16
4

8
Mo
du
le

16

FIGURE 10.37

16

o
M

Mo

16
14

+4

le
du
o
M
8

ule

4" (102 mm) wall to 4" (102

mm) wall.

FIGURE 10.39

6" (152 mm) wall to 6" (152

mm) wall.

16

6
16

12
16
4
16

16

6
16

8
6

8
16

16

12

16
8

FIGURE 10.38
mm) wall.

16

4" (102 mm) wall to 4" (102

FIGURE 10.40
mm) wall.

6" (152 mm) wall to 6" (152

185

CONCRETE BLOCK

Mo
du
le
of
8

16

Mo
du
le
of
8
e
l
u
d
o
M

16

16

16

16

16

16
14

16

16

16

16

16
16
16

6
ule
od
M
8

FIGURE 10.41

+6

6" (152 mm) wall to 8" (203

mm) wall.

16

Mo
du
le
of
8

8
8
of
le
u
d
Mo

FIGURE 10.43

8" (203 mm) wall to 12" (304

mm) wall.

16
8

Mo
du
le
of
8
e
ul
od
M

Mo
du
le
of
8
f
o
le
du
Mo + 4
8

8
16

16
8

16
8

16

16

16

8
16

16
16

16

16
Mo
du
le
of
8

FIGURE 10.42
mm) wall.

16

16

8
Mo
du
le
of
8

8
of
e
l
du
Mo

8" (203 mm) wall to 8" (203

FIGURE 10.44
mm) wall.

16

8
8
of
e
l
du
Mo

12" (304 mm) wall to 12" (304

186

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.8 VERTICAL STEEL


PLACEMENT

32
c
en
ter
s

One method of economically installing masonry


units is the use of open end units where reinforcement
occurs. The open end unit allows the CMU to be slid
into place as opposed to having the CMU lifted over
the vertical reinforcement. Figures 10.45 and 10.46
show typical details. One consideration of specifying
and using open-end units is the confinement of grout
in partially grouted masonry walls.

40
c
en
ter
s

16
c
en
ter
s

FIGURE 10.46

Arrangement of steel and open


end units - 32" (813 mm) and 40" (1016 mm) spacing.

10.9 PILASTER DETAILS


24
c
en
ter
s

FIGURE 10.45 Arrangement of steel and open


end units - 16" (406 mm) and 24" (610 mm) spacing.

Pilasters are columns built in a concrete masonry


wall. There is no single detail or method of constructing
pilasters. Figures 10.49 through 10.52 provide details
of typical CMU pilasters.

8 x 8 x 16

FIGURE 10.47

Four No. 6 and two No. 5


bars detailed

28" x 16" (711 x 406 mm) standard pilaster in 12" (305 mm) wall.

CONCRETE BLOCK

16pilaster
alternate unit

187

12x 8x 16

Four No. 5
bars detailed

Six No. 5 bars detailed.

FIGURE 10.48

FIGURE 10.51 12" x 16" (305 x 406 mm) pilaster.

24" x 16" (610 x 406 mm) open

center-centered.

4x 8x 16
Four No. 5
bars detailed

FIGURE 10.49

8x 8x 16
standard

16" x 16" (406 x 406 mm)

centered.

FIGURE 10.52 16" x 24" (406 x 610 mm) pilaster.


8x 8x 16

Four No. 5
bars detailed

FIGURE 10.50 16" x 16" (406 x 406 mm) pilaster.

188

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.10 WALL TO WALL


CONNECTIONS
A significant issue for masonry constructed in higher
Seismic Design Categories is connection of the
elements. If connections hold together and allow the
structure to perform as a total system there is an
excellent chance for the structure to survive even great
earthquakes. Providing a continuous load path assists
in holding connections together. Details of structural
reinforcing bar size and spacing are dependent on
engineering requirements. Figures 10.53 through
10.56 give typical layout of providing continuous
reinforcement at CMU wall intersections.

FIGURE 10.54

Typical wall connections.

11/2(38 mm)
Flange

mm
10
6
(
4

Metal strap

Metal straps at
4- 0(1.22 m)
o.c. vertical

2(51mm)

Shear wall

Grouted
cells

Metal Strap Anchorage


Bond beam at 4- 0
(1.22 m) o.c. vertical
maximum

As = 0.1 in2/ft
(211 mm2/m)

Grout and Reinforcement Bonding

FIGURE 10.53

Exploded isometric view of


reinforcing steel for intersecting walls.

FIGURE 10.55 Metal strap anchorage and grout


reinforcement bonding at wall intersection.

CONCRETE BLOCK

189

Cut joint reinforcement and


add lapping wire or use
welded intersections

FIGURE 10.57

Masonry beam spanning an

opening.

Vertical steel

2- 0lap

Bar in grout space

Continuous horizontal
reinforcement
Bond beam
units

Lintel
reinf.

FIGURE 10.56

Typical wall connections - Plan


of joint reinforcement showing intersection and
alternate lapping.

10.11 LINTEL AND BOND BEAM


CONNECTION
A lintel is a beam that spans over an opening,
typically a window or doorway. Reinforced CMU is an
easy and cost effective way to create lintels. One of
the key components in detailing a lintel is to extend
the lintel reinforcement past the edge of the opening
and into the wall. The design professional will
determine the exact distance of the rereinforcement
extension past the opening edge.

Lintel units

FIGURE 10.58

Lintel and bond beam detail.

10.12 CONTROL JOINTS


As with all construction, it is vitally necessary to
accommodate the possibility of movement in a
concrete masonry building. This movement can occur
from a number of sources:
1. Temperature changes,
2. Change in moisture conditions,
3. Loading conditions,
4. Foundation movement, and
5. Differential movement of the various
materials in a building

190

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Concrete will crack when movement occurs.


Concrete masonry units are no different and will also
crack under movement. Rather than letting the
concrete masonry crack in a random pattern, masonry
can be designed and constructed to maximize the
probability of forcing cracks into specific locations.
Vertical joints are installed at predetermined locations
with limited and specific spacing. The vertical joints
are weakened improving the probability of cracking at
the desired location. These joints are known as control
joints.
Control joints are not expansion joints. Control
joints are considered joints that will accommodate
shortening, shrinkage, and/or reduction in the length
of the wall, while expansion joints will accommodate
both expansion and contraction of the wall or increases
and decreases in length.
Control joints in masonry are vertical and spaced
at intervals so that when shortening occurs the
resulting cracks will be at the location of the control
joints. Table 10.2 provides maximum recommendation
for empirical spacing of control joints.
Joints in the wall, whether they are control joints or
expansion joints, must align with any joints that are
built into the roof system, the floor system, the spandrel
beams or other elements that are intended to
accommodate movement of the building.
When horizontal reinforcing steel is used in the
wall, either in bond beams or in the mortar bed with
joint reinforcement, the spacing of the control joints to
accommodate shortening of the wall can be adjusted
accordingly.
Vertical control joints should be located in concrete
masonry walls at the following locations:
1. At determined intervals and spacing for the
length of the wall,
2. At major changes in the wall height,
3. At changes in the wall thickness,
4. At control joints in the foundation, floor and
roof,
5. At wall openings, and
6. At wall intersections

Adjacent to
opening
At wall
intersections
At changes in
wall height
Adjacent to
opening

Maximum distance of
50% joint spacing

FIGURE 10.59

At pilaster

Typical control joint locations.

Control joints may be constructed with vertical head


joints, raking back the mortar at least one inch (25.4
mm) and interrupting the non-chord horizontal steel at
least every other spacing of reinforcement. To prevent
the wall from displacing perpendicular to the plane of
the wall, dowels may be installed across the joint
provided one end is encased in a plastic sleeve or pipe.
Solid grouted walls crack at the control joint and provide
aggregate interlock which prevents displacement and
slip. Primary structural reinforcing steel, such as
perimeter chord steel, must not be cut. In order to
keep the wall system waterproof, the control joint should
be caulked. Backer rod is placed in the cut joint before
caulking. This prevents the undesirable condition of 3sided contact of the caulking material and concrete
masonry.
Typical caulking compounds can stretch best when
the width of the joint is greater than the depth of the
sealant, similar to the rubber band. Manufacturer
s
recommendations should always be followed. The
usual practice is to place the caulking so the depth of
sealant is only half the width. Sealant depth is
controlled by using a compatible backup rod. Figure
10.60 shows two typical methods of detailing control
joints.

191

CONCRETE BLOCK
Flanged neoprene
control joint
continuous
vertically

/8

/2both sides

Stop horiz.
bars each
side of joint
except at
chord bars

Caulking
Gasket

Backer rod

Backer rod

1-vertical bar
each side of joint

Caulking sealant cont.


each side

Masonry wall

Plan View of Control Joint in CMU Wall

/2typ.

/8typ.

Backer rod

/2maximum control
joint width
1

For Ratings Up to and Including 2 Hours


Sealant

Plan View of Control Joint in CMU Wall


Intersecting Concrete Wall.

Caulking

Ceramic fiber
blanket

Backer rod

FIGURE 10.60

Typical CMU wall control joint.

Table 10.2 CMU Control Joint Spacing1.


Table 1 - Recommended Control Joint Spacing for
Above Grade Exposed Concrete Masonry Walls
Distance between joints should not exceed the lesser
of:
Length to height ratio
ft (m)
or
11/2
25 (7.62)
Notes:
1. Table values are based on the use of horizontal
reinforcement having an equivalent area of not less
than 0.025 in./ft. (52.9 mm/m) of height to keep
unplanned cracks closed.
2. Criteria applies to all concrete masonry units.
3. This criteria is based on experience over a wide
geographical area. Control joints spacing should
be adjusted up or down where local experience
justifies but no farther than 25 ft. (7.62 m)
1

NCMA TEK Note 10-2B

/2maximum
control joint width
1

For Ratings Up to and Including 4 Hours

FIGURE 10.61
control joints.

Typical fire rated CMU wall

192

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

24 ga galvanized
formed division
strip
Concrete
block wall

Caulking w/ urethane
foam backing (each
face). Caulking
color shall match
mortar being used for
adjacent wall.

#5 bar vertical
each side of joint
and doweled into
footing

All horizontal wall and


added reinforcement
shown on sections or
structural wall
elevations

For all door


frames use bond
beam block at
both jambs or cut
ends of block
open to allow
grout to fill voids
in steel frame
when pouring
grout

FIGURE 10.64 Exterior door jamb - Wraparound


method.

Masonry opening

Slacked control joint


from top of footing to top
of wall (typ)

Door opening

Door
Note: For control joints in head section over openings install division strips in 8sections with alternating key each side of
joint.

Stop
Sealant

FIGURE 10.62

CMU wall control joint with


reinforcement passing through the joint.

11/2rough buck

Shim space
/4frame

10.13 DOOR JAMB DETAILS


The details of this section provide suggestions for
attaching the doors to the concrete masonry. Details
show embedded mechanical devices required for
attachment. If no embedded devices are shown in a
detail, expansion bolts may be used.

FIGURE 10.65 Exterior door jamb (8CMU) No plaster.


Masonry opening
Door opening

For all door frames, use bond beam block at both


jambs or cut ends of block open to allow grout to fill
voids in steel frame when pouring grout.

Door

11/2rough buck
Shim space
/4frame

FIGURE 10.63
method.

Exterior door jamb - Butt

FIGURE 10.66
No plaster.

Interior door jamb (6" CMU) -

CONCRETE BLOCK

193

Plaster
Door
Door

FIGURE 10.67

Interior door jamb (6" CMU) -

No plaster.
Plaster
Door

FIGURE 10.71

Interior door jamb (6" CMU) -

Plaster both sides.

FIGURE 10.68

Interior door jamb (6" CMU) -

Plaster

No plaster.
Door
Masonry opening
Door opening

Door

Plaster

FIGURE 10.72 Interior door jamb (6" CMU) with

Shim space

plaster.
/4frame

FIGURE 10.69

Masonry opening

Interior door jamb (6" CMU) Metal frame wrap


around type

No plaster.
Plaster

Door
Door

11/2frame

Tee anchor (or wire anchor) in mortar


joint. Frame installed before block work

Sealant

Shim space

FIGURE 10.73
mortar joint.

FIGURE 10.70
Plaster one side.

Interior door jamb (6" CMU) -

Metal frame with tee anchor in

194

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Caulking

Rough header

Flashing

Aluminum frame
Masonry
opening
Shim space
1 /2frame

Door opening

FIGURE 10.76

Window jamb.

Door

FIGURE 10.74

Exterior wood door head (6"

CMU).
Aluminum frame
Caulking

FIGURE 10.77

Window jamb.

Rough header

Masonry
opening
Shim space
/4frame

Door
opening

Stop
Door
Caulking

FIGURE 10.75

Interior wood door head (6"

CMU).

10.14 WINDOW DETAILS

Aluminum frame

FIGURE 10.78

Window head.

Aluminum and wood sash windows are commonly


used in buildings. A logical construction sequence is
for the mason to provide the openings of the proper
size and location with the windows installed at a later
time.

Aluminum frame
Caulking

For specific details of types, styles, colors,


textures, opening arrangements and other product
information, consult the manufacturer.

FIGURE 10.79

Window sill.

CONCRETE BLOCK

10.15 RESIDENTIAL DESIGN


Concrete masonry has many advantages for the
home. One advantage is the high thermal mass
properties which is a sought after characteristic in
passive solar design. Figure 10.80 shows how a wood
stud wall (dashed green line) will start passing the heat
from the outside to the inside within 2 hours of the
days heat (solid blue line). The concrete masonry (thick
solid red line) takes 6 hours before outside
temperatures are felt inside. By the time the concrete
masonry heats up and is passing the outside heat to
the inside, the day is over and the direction of heat
movement reverses to cooler nightime temperatures.
Therefore, the heat of the day never makes it through
the concrete masonry to the inside of the building.
In addition to thermal mass, concrete masonry
offers excellent noise abatement and fire resistance.
Some insurance companies specifically ask if a home
is wood stud construction or masonry construction.
Masonry construction may be a factor in determining
home insurance premiums.

LEGEND

Finally concrete masonry significantly reduces the


cost of long-term maintenance. Wood siding must be
periodically painted and the threats of termite damage
or dry-rot damage are real issues. Concrete masonry
cannot rot and is not food source for vermin or mold.
If concrete masonry is not chosen as the actual
wall material, concrete masonry can still offer economy
by forming the foundation wall to the wood framing.
Concrete masonry does not require the formwork that
a concrete wall requires.

10.15.1 RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION


ISOMETRIC WITH DIAPHRAGM ROOF
Figures 10.81 through 10.93 are provided to show
how the elements of residential construction come
together to form and give support to the building. Some
notable items are the plywood shear wall gable
extending from the roof to the concrete masonry wall,
the location of reinforcing steel at all edges of openings,
and the use of cleanouts at the foundation level.

Masonry: 6 hr. lag


Studs: 2 hr. lag

Wood Stud Wall


Outdoor Temperature

D
a
m
p
i
n
g

Heat Gain

Heat Losses

Concrete Masonry Wall

3 am

6 am

9 am

Noon

3 pm

6 pm

Time

FIGURE 10.80

195

Masonry vs wood stud thermal lag time. (NCMA TEK Note 6-3).

9 pm

196

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Bond beam units form


continuous grouted
bond beam, reinforced
as required.

Window
opening
Door
opening

Bond beam
units form
continuous
concrete sill,
reinforced as
required

Reinforced grout
filled cell at 48
o.c. maximum
Cleanouts,
when required
Continuous bars
in foundation
8
Concrete slab
12

8
4

Waterproof membrane

18

um
nim ions
i
s
m
en
12
dim
l
a
pic
Ty

10
4

Ty
p

12 18
m
ini
ica
mu
ld
m
im
en
sio
ns

FIGURE 10.81

Compacted free draining blanket of


clean gravel or crushed stone

Splices in reinforcement to
be staggered and lapped
per code

Residential construction with diaphragm roof.

CONCRETE BLOCK

197

10.15.2 RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION ISOMETRIC WITHOUT ROOF DIAPHRAGM

Anchor bolts

Continuous 16 grout filled bond


beam formed with two bond
beam units reinforced as required

Door
opening

Continuous
grout filled
bond beam

Grout filled cells


reinforced as
required
Cleanouts,
when
required
8

Reinforcing bars
continuous in
foundation

Concrete slab
12
8
4

Waterproof membrane

2
10
4

Ty
p

12 18
m
inim
ica
um
ld
im
en
sio
ns

FIGURE 10.82

Compacted free draining blanket of


clean gravel or crushed stone

Splices in all reinforcement shall be


staggered and lapped per code

Residential construction without diaphragm roof.

18

um
nim ons
i
si
m
en
12
dim
l
a
pic
Ty

198

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.15.3 RESIDENTIAL WALL SECTION

Wood
frame
roof

Wood
frame
roof
2x 8plate and anchor
bolts as required

2x 8plate and anchor


bolts as required
Grouted bond beam
over all openings
reinforced as required

Grouted bond beam


over all openings
reinforced as required

8units

8units

W indow

W indow

Grouted reinforced bond


beam as required

Grouted reinforced bond


beam as required

Wood frame floor

Concrete slab floor


18minimum

12

Waterproof membrane

Fill

10

4
Reinforced as
required

8min.

18

Reinforced as
required

8min.
18

12minimum

12minimum

Typical dimensions

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 10.83

Residential wall sections.

199

CONCRETE BLOCK
10.15.4 RAISED WOOD FLOOR CONNECTION
FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION

2x 6foundation grade
redwood or treated sill

Min. lap per code

Studs

Vertical and horizontal


reinforcement as required by
design
Solid blocking - bolts
as required for
horizontal loads
Plywood

Floor joists
Floor joists

12min.

8min.

Solid blocking
w/bolts
#4 cont.

#4 cont.
12
minimum

Typical dimensions

FIGURE 10.84

Typical CMU foundation wall


perpendicular to floor joists.

FIGURE 10.86

Typical CMU foundation wall


perpendicular to joists.
Vertical and horizontal
reinforcement as required
by design

2x 6foundation grade
redwood or treated sill

#4 cont.

Plywood

Floor
joists

Joist
hangers

FIGURE 10.85

Grout fill
all cells

6
min.

#4 cont.

12min.

3 x ledger bolts
as required by
design
8min.

12minimum

Grout fill all cells

Solid blocking bolts as required


for horizontal
loads

Floor joists

18minimum

6
min.

Blocking

Min. lap per code

Studs

12
minimum

Typical dimensions

18min.

12
minimum

Grade

18min.

12min.

12minimum

Grout fill all cells

Grout all cells in


blocks below
floor line
Grade

6
min.

#4 cont.

18minimum

6
min.

Grade

#4 cont.

#4 cont.

Typical dimensions

Typical CMU foundation wall


parallel to floor joists.

12
minimum

FIGURE 10.87
parallel to joists.

Typical dimensions

Typical intermediate CMU wall

200

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.15.5 FOUNDATION DETAILS FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION

Vertical and horizontal


reinforcement as required
by design

If over 36special
design required

Min. lap per code

Expansion joint filler and


sealant if no dowels in slab

Dowels from slab to wall may be


omitted where design permits

#4 cont.

Grout fill all cells in


blocks below floor line

6
min.

12min.

Grade

#4 cont. min.

12minimum

FIGURE 10.88

Typical exterior wall - Slab floor.

Dowel

18minimum

#4 cont. top
and bottom

18minimum

Dowel

Grade

Vertical and
horizontal
reinforcement as
required by design

Min. lap per code

Min. lap per code

Vertical and horizontal


reinforcement as
required by design

12min.

10min.

Typical dimensions

#4 cont. top
and bottom
Typical dimensions
12minimum

Typical dimensions
12minimum

FIGURE 10.89 Typical exterior wall - Slab floor.

FIGURE 10.90 Typical interior wall - Bearing


partition, slab floor.

CONCRETE BLOCK

201

10.15.6 ROOF CONNECTION DETAILS FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION

Nails to blocking

Wood lintel beam


continuous - bolts
must be designed for
horizontal loads
Joist

Horizontal
reinforcement

Block at angle
Horizontal bars may act
as bond beam and lintel
reinforcement

Vertical wall bars in


grout filled core

Bars
continuous
between
openings
and at sill

8concrete block

Vertical
reinforcement

8concrete block

Horizontal
reinforcement

FIGURE 10.91

Typical joist parallel to wall.

FIGURE 10.93

Wood tie beam.

Plate 2x 4- bolt at 48o.c.

Saw block to
match roof pitch

Cripples
for gable

Gable end or interior


wall extend to roof

Brace 2x 6
Wall plate at 48o.c.
Horizontal reinforcement

Ceiling joists
2 x _ ledger
Horizontal reinforcement

Vertical reinforcement
Vertical reinforcement
8concrete block
8concrete block

FIGURE 10.92

Typical masonry gable.

FIGURE 10.94

Typical wood frame gable.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.16 GARDEN FENCES

8.

Mortar for laying concrete block shall be Type


S for SDC D and above. Type S mortar mix
by volume may be 1 part Portland cement,
1
/2 part lime and 41/2 parts damp, loose sand.

9.

Grout for concrete block wall to be 1 part


Portland cement, 3 parts sand to which a
maximum of 2 parts pea gravel may be added.
Suff icient water to be added to make
consistency for pouring without segregation.
The grout may contain up to 1/10 part lime,
based on volume of Portland cement.

10.16.1 GENERAL
This section provides typical designs for masonry
residential garden fences using concrete block.
Structural clay brick may also be used for garden fences.
Details are for typical free standing fence walls
not more than 6 ft (1.8 m) in height.
The walls are designed for lateral pressure of not
less than 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa) in
accordance with the minimum requirements stated in
ASCE 7-05, Section 6.4.2.1.1.

10. Block fence to be placed at center of


Itype
foundation and at either edge of
Ltype
foundation.

Designs are the common types used, grade beam,


and spread footing. Footings should be level. Use
step footings for uneven terrain with each step a height
to fit the masonry module, typically 4 in. (102 mm) or 8
in. (203 mm).

6- 0max.

A ten pound per square foot (479 Pa) wind


pressure is equivalent to the pressure caused by a
wind speed of approximately 70 mph (113 km/hr).

#4 vertical
reinforcement
@48o.c.

1-#4 horizontal at top

Joint reinforcement
or 1-#4 horizontal at
midheight

24lap length

202

10.16.2 GENERAL NOTES

#4 vertical dowels
@ 48o.c. in
foundation
Finished grade
2min.

Designs are not to be used for retaining walls and


are based on the following criteria:

1 - #4 horizontal
in foundation

1- 0

3CLR.

2.

Concrete block units shall conform to ASTM


C 90.

3.

Reinforcing Steel to be deformed and conform


to ASTM A 615, grade 40 or grade 60.
Minimum lap length shall be 24 in. (610 mm).

4.

When joint reinforcement is used, spacing of


joint reinforcement shall not exceed 16 in.
(406 mm) on center. Lap joint reinforcement
6 in. (152 mm).

5.

Center vertical reinforcement in the concrete


block cell.

6.

Concrete block units shall be laid in running


bond.

7.

Concrete block cells to have vertical continuity


of the cells. All cells containing reinforcement
shall be solidly grouted (vertical and horizontal
reinforcement).

1- 6

Alternate bend

FIGURE 10.95

6 in. concrete masonry block


wall fence with
Itype foundation.

#4 vertical
reinforcement
@48o.c.

1-#4 horizontal at top


Joint reinforcement
or 1-#4 horizontal at
midheight

24lap length

Concrete for footing to be f


= 2,500 psi (13.9
c
MPa) minimum at 28 days or optional 1 part
Portland cement, 21/2 parts sand and 31/2 parts
gravel with a maximum 71/2 gallons of water
per sack of cement.

6- 0max.

1.

#4 vertical
dowels @ 48
o.c. in
foundation
Finished grade
2min.

2 - #4 horiz.
in foundation

1- 0

3CLR.
2- 0

FIGURE 10.96

6 in. concrete masonry block


wall fence with
Ltype foundation.

CONCRETE BLOCK
11. When inspection is required, first inspection
to be after trenches are ready for concrete
foundation and all required steel is tied in
place. The second inspection shall be when
the vertical and horizontal steel is in place,
but not grouted.
12. Foundat ion m ust be pl aced agai nst
undisturbed soil with no appreciable slope
of side walls on all types of foundations.
13. Height of fences shall comply with all
provisions of the local building code.

10.16.3 CONTINUOUS FOOTING WALLS


Continuous footing designs are based on the
applicable Exposure Category as defined in IBC
Section 1609.4.
IBC Section 1609.4
1609.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction
considered, an exposure category that adequately
reflects the characteristics of ground surface
irregularities shall be determined for the site at which
the building or structure is to be constructed.
Account shall be taken of variations in ground
surface roughness that arise from natural topography
and vegetation as well as from constructed features.
1609.4.3 Exposure categories. An exposure
category shall be determined in accordance with the
following:
Exposure B. Exposure B shall apply where the
ground surface roughness condition, as defined
by Surface Roughness B, prevails in the upwind
direction for a distance of at least 2,600 feet (792
m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever
is greater.
Exception: For buildings whose mean roof height
is less than or equal to 30 feet (9144 mm), the
upwind distance is permitted to be reduced to
1,500 feet (457 m).
Exposure C. Exposure C shall apply for all cases
where Exposures B or D do not apply.
Exposure D. Exposure D shall apply where the
ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface
Roughness D, prevails in the upwind direction for
a distance of at least 5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20
times the height of the building, whichever is
greater. Exposure D shall extend inland from the
shoreline for a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20
times the height of the building, whichever is
greater.

203

The designs given for continuous footing walls


typically satisfy the design criteria for Exposure C.

10.17 RETAINING WALLS


The popular use of masonry in retaining walls is a
result of the ease of construction combined with the
inherent visual beauty. With proper engineering and
reinforcing steel, masonry retaining walls also provide
high structural integrity.
Retaining walls are built to restrain a mass of earth
or other material. They have the capacity to resist
overturning and sliding forces. Because overturning
and sliding can lead to catastrophic failure, the code
requires a 1.5 safety factor (2006 IBC Section 1806.1).
Sliding is resisted by the friction between the footing
and the soil, plus the pressure of any earth in front of
the wall. A key at the bottom of the footing can provide
additional resistance to sliding. In the 2006 IBC, Table
1804.2 lists allowable values for lateral bearing
pressure and the coefficient of friction, based on the
type of soil. Overturning is resisted by the weight
(vertical loading) of the wall, footing, and soil resting on
the footing.
The soil pressure is usually highest under the toe
(front bottom edge of footing) and should not exceed
the bearing capacity of the soil which it rests upon.
The wall must also be strong enough to prevent
failure at any point in its height due to the force of the
retained material, which is resisted by the reinforcing
steel in the masonry wall.
In order to reduce lateral pressure loads on a
retaining wall, drainage for water behind the wall should
be provided. This drainage prevents excessive
hydrostatic pressure from developing. Two common
methods of drainage to relieve hydrostatic pressure
are shown in the figures below. In Figure 10.97 gravel
is used to direct water into a plastic tube, with
perforations on top, that will channel the water out and
away from the wall. In Figure 10.98, a pre-manufactured
and proprietary geo-filter mesh is used to direct the
water down to a gravel channel. Water is then directed
through the base of the wall by weep holes or weep
joints.
If drainage is not provided, hydrostatic pressure
must be considered. The hydrostatic pressure could
double or triple the soil pressure.

204

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Gravel

Perforated pipe
(Top half only) to
channel water
around the wall

A designer familiar with local conditions can assist


in the choice of retaining wall type, and where
unfavorable soil conditions occur, such as silt or
quicksand, or where piling is required under a retaining
wall, the assistance of an engineer is essential in design.
Pilings are columns placed under ground to extend or
connect the bottom of a foundation to
bettersoil
conditions or bedrock deeper in the ground.

10.17.1 GRAVITY WALLS

Shear key as required

FIGURE 10.97

Cantilever retaining wall with


gravel and perforated pipe drainage.

Proprietary
geo-filter mesh

Gravel channel
with weep holes in
vertical joints only

The gravity type wall is simple in design and


construction and a good choice for small projects. It
is thicker at the base than cantilever walls and could
cost more to construct on the larger projects.
Cantilever retaining walls are designed with slightly
lower toe pressures than the gravity walls, and may
be a better choice where poor soils with low bearing
resistance are encountered. On the other hand, gravity
retaining walls have greater resistance to sliding
because of greater weight. There are many locations
where a simple gravity retaining wall is the most
satisfactory and economical choice.
The stability of a gravity retaining wall depends on
the weight of the wall and the weight of soil bearing on
the footing. As the height of the retaining wall
increases, or the amount of retained soil increases,
and the base thickness must also increase. Uplift
pressure at the back of the wall (the heel) is avoided by
designing the gravity retaining wall thick enough at the
base so that the resultant of all forces (overturning force
and vertical loads) falls within the middle one-third of
the base. The eccentricity of the resultant force is equal
to or less than one-sixth of the base width. When the
eccentricity (e) is equal to one-sixth the base width
exactly, the maximum footing pressure on the soil at
the front edge of the base (toe) will be twice the average
pressure on the soil.
Gravity walls are of mass masonry designed so
that no tension stresses developed in the wall under
most loading conditions. In some instances, low
tension stresses are permi tted by prov iding
reinforcement in the wall. These partially reinforced
walls are considered as semi-gravity walls.

FIGURE 10.98

Cantilever retaining wall with


geo-filter and gravel channel to weep holes.

The material used as cell-fill should be granular,


namely gravel or rock, in areas subject to freezing. In
warm climates, any fill material may be used that
increases the gross-unit weight of the masonry.

There are six basic types of retaining walls: gravity


walls, counterfort or buttressed walls, cantilever walls,
supported walls, segmental walls, and geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining walls. Selection of the
particular type of wall will depend on the site, size of
wall, loads, soil conditions, use and economics of materials and construction.

When used, mortar for gravity retaining walls must


be carefully considered. Mortar will provide shear
resistance to withstand forces exerted by the retained
soil. Mortar must also be durable, therefore, high to
moderate strength mortars are preferred.

CONCRETE BLOCK
Concrete footings for gravity retaining walls should
be placed on firm, undisturbed soil. In areas where
freezing temperatures are expected, place the base
of the footing below the frost line. If the soil under the
footing consists of soft or silty clay, place 4 to 6 in.
(102 to 152 mm) base of well-compacted sand under
the footing before pouring the concrete. Since the
retaining wall is non-reinforced gravity construction, it
is not necessary to place reinforcement in the footing.

Tensile tie
counterfort

205

Principal wall
reinforcement
is horizontal

Care should be taken to avoid exerting large


construction impact forces on the wall.
Provisions should be made to prevent the
accumulation of water behind a gravity retaining wall.
Water allowed to accumulate causes increased
pressure, seepage, and in areas subject to frost action,
an expansive force of considerable magnitude near
the top of the wall. Gravel backfill and weep holes
(located at a 4 to 8 ft (1.2 to 2.4 m) spacing) along the
base of the wall should be sufficient.

FIGURE 10.100

Counterfort retaining wall.

Principal wall
reinforcement is
horizontal

Compression buttress
or brace

Depends on weight
for stability

Cross-Section

FIGURE 10.99

Gravity retaining wall.

10.17.2 COUNTERFORT OR BUTTRESSED


WALLS
Counterfort or buttressed walls span horizontally
between vertical support members. If the vertical
supports are behind the wall and buried in the earth
backfill, they are called counterfort and are tension
members (Figure 10.100).
If the vertical supports are exposed in front of the
wall, they are called buttresses and are compression
members (Figure 10.101). In either case, the main
wall is considered as a continuous member supported
at each cross wall.
Counterfort and buttressed retaining walls have
been used to retain fills up to 25 ft (7.6 m).

Principal wall
reinforcement is
horizontal

Hearth
backfill

Compression buttress
or brace

Plan View

FIGURE 10.101

Buttress retaining wall.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.17.3 CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS


The most common type of retaining wall is the
cantilever retaining wall (Figures 10.102 and 10.103).
The tension stresses which develop in the wall are
resisted by reinforcing steel placed in the wall and off
center toward the soil side (tension face) of the wall.
The base resists sliding, overturning and rotating due
to the lateral loading and must also be large enough
to assure that the bearing capacity of the soil is
adequate.

Adjacent slabs are often tied into the foundation


(Figure 10.103(b)) reducing the need for a large
foundation. These slabs help resist sliding forces and
contribute to reducing soil bearing pressure and
overturning forces.

Property line

206

Stem

Toe

Heel

Tension face

Property line

(a) Retaining wall adjacent to property line

Reinforcing steel

Compression
face

Heel

Foundation
Toe
Adjacent slab
Shear key (as
required)

FIGURE 10.102

Heel

Cantilever retaining wall.

Toe

Cantilever retaining walls can be designed with a


minimum length of heel or toe, which is useful in limited
space areas such as near property lines and existing
utility lines (Figure 10.103). These walls require special
attention to assure they can resist the lateral earth
forces and overturning moment through their own weight
and strength. When there is no footing heel on a property
wall, there will be no resisting soil mass and thus the
wall foundation may be large and heavy.

(b) Retaining wall adjacent to property line with foundation


tied into floor slab to increase the sliding resistance.

Retaining walls must be designed to safely resist


overturning and sliding due to the forces imposed by
the retained backfill. The factor of safety against
overturning should ideally be at least 2.0 and the factor
of safety against sliding not less than 1.5. In addition,
the bearing pressure under the footing or bottom of the
retaining wall should not exceed the allowable soil
bearing pressure, or should provide a factor of safety of
at least three over the ultimate bearing capacity.

Cantilever retaining wall footings must be placed


on firm, undisturbed soil. In areas exposed to freezing
temperatures the base of the footing should be placed
below the frost line.

Provide at least a 2" (50.4 mm) footing extension to allow for


construction tolerances.

FIGURE 10.103

Property line type retaining

walls.

Backfilling against retaining walls should be


delayed for at least 7 days after placement of grout.
During backfilling, heavy equipment should not
approach closer to the top of the wall than a distance
equal to the height of the wall.

CONCRETE BLOCK
Care should also be taken to avoid exerting large
impact forces on the wall, such as dumping a large
mass of earth against the wall. Ideally, backfill should
be placed in 12 to 24 in. (305 to 610 mm) increments,
with each lift being compacted by hand equipment.
Prov isi ons m ust be made to prev ent the
accumulation of water behind the face of the wall and
to reduce the possible effects of frost action. In most
cases, weep holes spaced 4 to 8 ft (1.2 to 2.4 m) apart
along the base of the wall are sufficient.
Where heavy prolonged rains are anticipated, a
continuous longitudinal drain along the back of the wall
may be used in lieu of weep holes.
Climate, soil conditions, and type of construction
determine the need for waterproofing the back face of
retaining walls. Waterproofing is recommended in
areas subject to severe frost action; in areas of heavy
rainfalls; and when the backfill material is relatively
impermeable. The top of masonry retaining walls
should be capped or otherwise protected to prevent
water entry into hollow cores.

207

To give an indication of the material and size of a


retaining wall, Figure 10.104 provides two typical types
of cantilever retaining walls - Heel Dominate and Toe
Dominate. The heel dominate retaining wall has the
majority of the foundation extending into the retained
earth. The toe dominate retaining wall has the majority
of the foundation extending into the non-retained side
of the wall.
The design tables for the cantilever retaining walls
are for retained soil with no slope (level soil at the top
of the retaining wall). Design lateral pressures are for
30 psf per foot of depth and for 45 psf per foot of depth.
The design criteria for the tables is based on the
following material assumptions:
Masonry design strength,
Concrete masonry units,
Grout strength,
Footing concrete strength,
Reinforcement,

Surcharge loading

f
= 1,500 psi
m
ASTM C 90
3,000 psi
3,000 psi
Grade 60

Surcharge loading

Horizontal reinforcement
2clear

Vertical reinforcement

CMU

Drainage system
typically gravel and
perforated pipe

Vertical
reinforcement

Continuous #4
reinforcement (typ.)
Top reinforcement

12 (typ.)
Top
reinforcement
12 (typ.)

Continuous #4
reinforcement
(typ.)

Bottom
reinforcement

3
clr. D
3 16for no surcharge
24for 100 psf
clr.
surcharge

16for no surcharge
24for 100 psf
surcharge

12for no surcharge
18for 100 psf surcharge

Bottom
reinforcement
B

Heel Dominate
Cantilever Retaining Wall

FIGURE 10.104

Cantilever retaining wall.

Toe Dominate
Cantilever Retaining Wall

208

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 10.3a Reinforcement Requirements for Typical Cantilever Retaining Wall


1

Design Details and Steel Requirements No Surcharge Loading


CMU
Width

Lateral
Pressure
45 psf

Lateral
Pressure
30 psf

10
10
10
10
8
8
8
10
10
10
10
8
8
8

Foundation Foundation
Top
Bottom
Reinforce- Reinforcement
ment

8'-0"

#6 @ 8"

7'-4"
6'-8"

Toe Dominate
Vertical
ReinforceD
ment

Heel Dominate
Vertical
ReinforceD
ment

#5 @ 8"

5'-3"

1'-0"

#6 @ 16"

6'-3"

1'-0"

#6 @ 16"

#5 @ 8"

#4 @ 8"

4'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 16"

5'-9"

1'-0"

#5 @ 16"

#5 @ 8"

#5 @ 16"

4'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 24"

5'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 24"

6'-0"

#4 @ 8"

#4 @ 16"

3'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 24"

4'-6"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

5'-4"

#5 @ 16"

#4 @ 32"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

3'-9"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

4'-8"

#4 @ 16"

#4 @ 32"

2-6"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

4'-0"

#4 @ 32"

#4 @ 32"

2'-0"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

2'-3"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

8'-0"

#5 @ 8"

#5 @ 16"

4'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 16"

4'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 24"

7'-4"

#4 @ 8"

#5 @ 16"

4'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 24"

3'-6"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

6'-8"

#5 @ 16"

#4 @ 16"

3'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 24"

3'-3"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

6'-0"

#5 @ 16"

#5 @ 32"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

5'-4"

#4 @ 16"

#4 @ 32"

2'-6"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

2'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

2'-0"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

1'-6"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

4'-8"

#4 @ 32"

#4 @ 32"

2'-3"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

4'-0"

#4 @ 32"

#4 @ 32"

2'-0"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

Allowable values: Bearing = 3000 psf, Lateral Bearing = 200 psf with an increase of 100% per foot of depth, Coefficient of Friction = 0.35

Table 10.3b Reinforcement Requirements for Typical Cantilever Retaining Wall


1
2
Design Details and Steel Requirements 100 psf Vertical Surcharge Loading
CMU
Width

Lateral
Pressure
45 psf

Lateral
Pressure
30 psf

1
2

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
8
8

Foundation Foundation
Top
Bottom
Reinforce- Reinforcement
ment

Toe Dominate
Vertical
ReinforceD
ment

Heel Dominate
Vertical
ReinforceD
ment

8'-0"

#6 @ 8"

#5 @ 8"

5'-6"

1'-6"

#6 @ 16"

6'-9"

1'-3"

#6 @ 16"

7'-4"

#5 @ 8"

#4 @ 8"

5'-0"

1'-6"

#5 @ 16"

6'-3"

1'-3"

#6 @ 16"

6'-8"

#5 @ 8"

#5 @ 16"

4'-6"

1'-6"

#6 @ 24"

5'-6"

1'-3"

#6 @ 24"

6'-0"

#4 @ 8"

#4 @ 16"

4'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

5'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

5'-4"

#5 @ 16"

#4 @ 32"

3'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

4'-6"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

4'-8"

#4 @ 16"

#4 @ 32"

3
-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 32"

3'-9"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

4'-0"

#4 @ 32"

#4 @ 32"

2'-6"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

8'-0"

#5 @ 8"

#5 @ 16"

4'-9"

1'-0"

#6 @ 16"

4'-9"

1'-0"

#6 @ 16"

7'-4"

#4 @ 8"

#5 @ 16"

4'-3"

1'-0"

#5 @ 16"

4'-3"

1'-0"

#5 @ 16"

6'-8"

#5 @ 16"

#4 @ 16"

3'-9"

1'-0"

#6 @ 24"

4'-0"

1'-0"

#6 @ 24"

6'-0"

#5 @ 16"

#5 @ 32"

3'-3"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

3'-6"

1'-0"

#6 @ 32"

5'-4"

#4 @ 16"

#4 @ 32"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 24"

3'-0"

1'-0"

#5 @ 24"

4'-8"

#4 @ 32"

#4 @ 32"

2'-6"

1'-0"

#4 @ 24"

2'-6"

1'-0"

#4 @ 24"

4'-0"

#4 @ 32"

#4 @ 32"

2'-3"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

2'-3"

1'-0"

#4 @ 32"

Allowable values: Bearing = 3000 psf. Lateral Bearing = 200 psf with an increase of 100% per foot of depth. Coefficient of Friction = 0.35
Rankine value of 0.36 applied to the 100 psf vertical surcharge

CONCRETE BLOCK
10.17.4 SUPPORTED WALLS

209

Load

Depending on the type of support provided by the


floor and foundation systems, a supported wall could
be considered having either a fixed top and bottom, a
fixed base with simply supported top or a simply
supported top and bottom (Figure 10.105). Each wall
type must be designed and reinforced accordingly.
Note that the location of reinforcement may be on the
opposite face of a cantilevered retaining wall for
maximum efficiency. Continuity of the connections at
the top and the bottom must be developed by proper
reinforcement in order to provide the required degree
of fixity.

Tension face

FIGURE 10.106

Compression face

Basement walls and subterranean garages are


often laterally supported at the top by floor systems.

Load

Supported retaining wall.

prevent overturning and sliding. The units may also be


used in combination with horizontal layers of soil
reinforcement extending into the backfill to increase
the effective width and weight of the gravity mass.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) Simply supported top and bottom


(b) Simply supported top: fixed at bottom
(c) Fixed at top and bottom

FIGURE 10.105 Supported retaining walls with


various end conditions.

This type of retaining wall is considered a flexible


structure, therefore, the footing does not need to be
placed below the frost line provided there is enough
foundation bearing capacity.
Units used for segmental retaining walls conform
to the requirements of ASTM C 1372 Standard
Specification for Dry-Cast Segmental Retaining Wall
Units to assure that units delivered to a project are
uniform in weight, dimensional tolerances, strength, and
durability; features not necessarily provided in site cast
materials.

Basement or subterranean garage walls are often


subjected to both vertical and lateral loads since these
perimeter walls support the building above as well as
resist the earth pressure (Figure 10.106). The combined wall loading, vertical load plus lateral load, must
be considered in the design.

10.17.5 SEGMENTAL WALLS


An innovative type of wall for the purpose of
retaining earth is the segmental retaining wall.
Segmental retaining walls are gravity retaining
walls depending primarily on self-weight for stability.
The system consists of concrete masonry units which
are placed without the use of mortar and depends on
a combination of mechanical interlock and mass to

FIGURE 10.107 Segmental retaining wall units.

210

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The segmental retaining walls offer many design


advantages, which include aesthetics, design flexibility,
economics, ease of installation, performance and
durability.

the toe of the structure for stability. Shear capacity is


an important component to assure that the units act
together as a coherent mass, since the system consists
of individual units dry stacked upon each other.

The design of segmental retaining walls can be


conventional (gravity), soil-reinforced or geosynthetic.
Due to the concrete unit size, shape, batter, and other
conditions, the structural capacity of the segmental
retaining wall system will v ary. Manuf acturer
recommendations should be followed for design
information.

Shear capacity provides a means of transferring


lateral forces from each course to the adjacent course.
This is provided by the frictional resistance between
segmental reinforced wall units in the form of keys or
leading/training lips.

10.17.5.1 CONVENTIONAL OR GRAVITY


Conventional or gravity segmental retaining walls
can be constructed with either single or multiple depths
of units (Figure 10.108). The conventional segmental
retaining wall structure must have enough mass to
prevent both sliding at the base and overturning about

When using multiple depth walls, taller segmental


retaining walls can be achieved. These walls increase
the weight of the wall system and provide a steady
base and greater resistance to soil pressures.
The conventional or gravity retaining wall is usually
battered so that the wall steps back into the hillside.
The force of gravity on the heavy units resists lateral
soil pressure to form a functional retaining wall.
10.17.5.2 SOIL-REINFORCED OR GEOSYNTHETIC

Exposed height of wall

Total height of wall

Uniform surcharge loading

Soil-reinforced or geosynthetic segmental retaining


walls are not constructed with traditional steel
reinforcement surrounded by grout. The reinforcement
consists of a high density polyethylene or polyester
manufactured in a grid-like pattern. It is flatly laid into
the wall and the earth behind the wall in predetermined
layers and dimensions. Thus, it effectively helps to
hold the wall back into the earth. A diagram of this
system is shown in Figure 10.109.

Uniform surcharge loading


Wall
embedment depth

(a) Single Depth Wall

(b) Multiple Depth and Battered Segmental Wall

FIGURE 10.108

Conventional or gravity
segmental retaining wall.

Exc avation boundarie


s

Exposed height of wall

Total height of wall

Geosynthetic
reinforcement

Wall
embedment depth

F IGURE 10.109

So il-rein forced or
geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall.

CONCRETE BLOCK
The foundation, leveling pad, wall units, retained
soil and drainage fill are basic elements of the segmental
retaining wall system. The geosynthetic reinforcement
is the additional element for soil-reinforced segmental
retaining walls.
A designer who has technical knowledge of soil
and structural mechanics should prepare the typical
designs and specifications for segmental retaining
walls. The manufacturer for each segmental retaining
wall unit can provide prescriptive design information
related to that product which will specify the wall
heights, design conditions, and when a segmental
retaining wall should be designed by a qualified engineer.
The design flexibility of segmental retaining wall
systems means that these walls can be used in a
number of applications, including landscaping,
structural walls for changes in grade, bridge abutments,
stream channelization, water-front structures, tunnel
access walls, wing walls and parking area support.
The installation success of any segmental retaining
wall is based on complete and accurate field
information, careful planning and scheduling, the use
of specified materials, proper construction procedures
and inspection.

10.18 CONCRETE MASONRY


BASEMENTS
Building walls below grade are known as
foundation walls. These walls may serve as support
for above grade walls or other structural members,
such as enclosure walls around excavated areas or
as both supporting and enclosure walls.
Concrete masonry is excellent for basement and
foundation wall construction due to economy, durability,
strength, noise insulation, termite resistance and fire
resistance. These attributes justify the widespread use
of concrete block masonry for foundation walls and
basements.
Basements are typically built with standard gray
block which can be unfinished or used as a base for
other finish treatments such as plaster, paint or
wallboard on furring strips. Attractive finishes to the
interior walls of a basement can be achieved with
architectural units.

10.18.1 MAINTENANCE AND LOW COST


One of the advantages of concrete masonry
construction is the high quality and performance which
makes the concrete masonry units competitive with
other construction materials. In cases where the

211

basement walls are to be finished, this is particularly


true since square and plumb masonry walls are easily
furred out for gypsum wallboard finish. Competing
wall systems lack the precision of hand crafted
masonry walls. Where desired, architectural concrete
masonry units provide an attractive and inexpensive
finished wall surface.

10.18.2 STRENGTH AND DURABILITY


Concrete masonry can be easily and economically
reinforced making the system ideal for resisting soil
pressure imposed on below grade walls.
The durability of concrete masonry makes it
perfect for foundation basements and above grade
construction. Properly designed and constructed
concrete masonry buildings have continually withstood
disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes and
explosions.

10.18.3 TEXTURES AND INTERIOR FINISHES


The needs of the designer, the builder and the owner
are met with the wide variety of colors and textures of
concrete masonry units. Some additional options to
standard precision block surfaces are split faced, scored,
burnished, and fluted block. To achieve specific
patterns, color tinted units can be used in the entire
wall or in specific patterns or sections.

10.18.4 NATURAL LIGHTING


Windows and window wells of a variety of shapes
and sizes can easily be accommodated with the
modular nature of concrete masonry, providing
basements with warm, natural lighting. Glass block
units can be incorporated into the walls in lieu of
traditional glass windows for additional security and
privacy.

10.18.5 ENERGY EFFICIENCY


The consistent temperatures in basements are due
to the thermal mass of concrete masonry, consequently
providing a more comfortable area. Large windows wells
and walk-out basement doors may also contribute to
heat by allowing solar energy into basements.

10.18.6 FIRE RESISTANCE


Concrete masonry successfully resists the passage
of flames, smoke and heat. Building codes give high
fire ratings to concrete masonry walls, making efficient
fire walls for hotels, apartments and other structures.
These concrete masonry attributes are excellent for
basements to safeguard against the spread of electrical
and mechanical fires.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

10.18.7 AREAS OF REFUGE

2 x 4 @ 16o.c.

As a subterranean level, basements are naturally


protected from the flying debris associated with
hurricanes and high winds. This sheltered location
provides a natural refuge as recognized by the Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the
FEMA requirements for
saferooms during natural
disasters.

10.18.8 NOISE CONTROL

2 x 4 mudsill 5/8dia.
anchor bolts @ 48o.c.

11

#5 dowels @
16o.c.
3636

2 - #5
s

Concrete masonry is a superior noise control


material in two ways. First, concrete masonry walls
work as barriers which block sound transmission over
a wide range of frequencies. Second, concrete masonry
can be an efficient sound absorption material for
absorbing noise produced within a room.

8concrete masonry wall


#5
s @ 48o.c.
vertical
#5
s @ 48o.c.
horizontal

10.18.9 BASEMENT DESIGN


Basement walls are either partially or fully below
grade which encloses habitable or potentially habitable
space (Figure 10.110).
By contrast crawl space walls, which include
curtain walls and possible pier footings, do not enclose
habitable space (Figure 10.111). (Crawl space walls are
shorter than basement walls and are not supported by
a slab at the base.) Stem walls are foundation walls
that typically do not support unbalanced backfill loads
(Figure 10.112).
Crawl space walls and curtain walls frequently fall
into this large stem wall definition. The basement, crawl
space, and stem walls are laterally supported at the
top by a first floor diaphragm.
Residential basement walls may act more as a
cantilevered retaining wall if there is a large, open
adjacent stairway. Likewise, crawl space walls may
step down to become basement walls. These walls
must be designed to transmit any imposed loads from
the above grade structure into the surrounding soil and
resist the pressure exerted by the soil.
Typically, basement walls are designed to span
vertically between the basement slab or footing and
the first floor system. The load path at the bottom of a
basement wall can be transmitted through soil load
bearing and through passive or frictional resistance of
the footing with the soil. However, the connection at
the top of the wall may need careful detailing (Figure
10.113).

#5 dowels @
16o.c.
36
12

#4 dowels @ 32o.c.
24
31/2slab on grade w/
24
6 x 6 - 10/10 reinf.

2 - #5
s

2 - #5
s

12 18

18

3Clr.

212

Typical Dimensions
and Detailing

FIGURE 10.110

Typical basement wall.

Bond beam

Pier
Infill wall between piers
#5
s @ 48o.c.
vertical (typ.)

FIGURE 10.111 Crawl space wall.

CONCRETE BLOCK

213

Masonry wall s must be connected to all


intersecting walls that provide support. This can be
achieved by bonding the walls together horizontally with
metal straps or reinforced bond beams.

Beam

Vertical
reinforcement

10.18.10 WATER PENETRATION RESISTANCE

Stem wall

Basement walls must resist water penetration in


order to prevent water damage to adjoining storage
and habitable spaces. To mitigate below grade water
problems, three techniques are commonly and
collectively employed:

#5
s @ 48o.c.
vertical
Footing

FIGURE 10.112

1. A surface drainage system to collect and direct


water away from the foundation is installed.
2. Dampproofing or waterproofing systems are
applied to the masonry walls.
3. Drainage is provided to direct surface and roof
water away from the basement.

Stem wall.

Anchor strap

Uplift pressure
during strong winds

Plywood diaphragm
Floor joist

Vertical loads (dead


and live loads)

Blocking
Toe nailing

Joists

Joist hanger

Sill plate
Anchor bolt

Ledger beam
Basement wall reinforcement

FIGURE 10.114

Ledger beam connection at


top of residential basement wall.

FIGURE 10.113

Typical connection at the top


of residential basement wall.
Calculations may show that sill plates and anchor
bolts may lack the capacity to carry the expected
reaction from the soil loads, although wood sill plate
connection details have historically performed well.
Masonry basement wall connections to other floor
systems, such as cast-in-place concrete, can carry the
soil load reaction with mechanical connections or
typical reinforcement.

Joist anchor
Floor diaphragm
Blocking

Floor joist
Joist hanger
Basement wall reinforcement

Also, floor connections can be made using ledger


beams and straps or with sill plates and hanging the
joists to the sill plates.

FIGURE 10.115

Alternate connection at top


of residential basement wall.

214

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Moisture presence on the inside surface of


basement walls is frequently attributed to moisture
penetration through the walls when this moisture may
actually be due to condensation. Condensation may
form on the cooler wall surface when the indoor air
temperature is greater than the wall surf ace
temperature. Greater indoor humidity levels require
smaller temperature differentials to cause condensation.
When the wall temperature is significantly below the
air temperature, condensation may occur any time.
Minimizing the accumulation of surface water by
diverting it away from the foundation is the first line of
defense in creating a moisture free basement. This
may be achieved in many ways. The finished grade
should be sloped away from the foundation at least 6
in. (152 mm) within 10 ft (3.1 m) of the building. A
shallow trench or swale can be provided to intercept
the water and divert it if the topography of the ground
is such that the natural slope is toward the building.
Gutters and downspouts will collect water from the
roof of the building and deposit it away from the
foundation. When necessary, water from downspouts
should be directed onto splash blocks or carried away
using plastic tubing. With the use of roof overhangs,
balconies, and porches the soil that surrounds the
foundation may be protected from the direct exposure
of rain. To prevent infiltration of surface water, planting
of shrubbery or the placement of a thin layer of
impermeable soil over the backfill immediately adjacent
to the foundation wall will further help.

-0
8

10.18.11 CONSTRUCTION
Basement walls can be constructed in a variety of
ways using different materials, techniques and
methods. Basement walls, however, rely on the quality
construction in accordance with the structural design
and the project specif ications f or successf ul
performance.
For basement wall construction, concrete masonry
units must comply with ASTM C 90 Standard
Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units.
To provide a finished interior to the basement specific
colors and textures may be specified.
There are several types of concrete masonry units
av ailabl e to prov ide an ext ensiv e v ariety of
appearances. Also, there are a variety of units which
facilitate reinforced masonry construction, thereby
reducing the complexity and cost of construction.
Backfilling is one of the most critical operations in
basement construction. Proper backfilling will prevent
or minimize wall cracking during the construction
process. Walls designed to be supported at the top
may crack or even fail if not properly braced until the
lateral supports at the top of the walls are provided.
One bracing scheme which has been used for
residential basement walls is shown in Figure 10.116.
Considerably more bracing may be required for high
walls or large backfill pressures.

-0
8

2 x 10
plank

2x4
cleat

2 x 10
brace
2 x 4 strut
brace
Two 2 x 6 stakes
driven into firm soil
at least 12

FIGURE 10.116

Typical bracing scheme for concrete masonry basement walls.

CHAPTER

11

REINFORCING STEEL
11.1 GENERAL
The development of reinforced masonry parallels
the development of reinforced concrete. Both systems
are heterogeneous, meaning made up of more than
one material which have different properties, but the
system of materials is treated as homogeneous (one
material). Unreinforced masonry, like concrete, is ideal
for resisting compressive forces but is relatively weak
in tension. Reinforcing steel, on the other hand, is
excellent when used to resist tension forces but it can
be subject to buckling when placed under compression loads. Masonry (for compression) and steel (for
tension) combine to produce a structure capable of
resisting high compressive and tensile loads.

The qual ity of resisting bot h tensile and


compressive loading is ideal for areas of high seismic
activity. Seismic events create loading on a structure
that reverses direction. Thus, a structural member
that is in compression one second can go into tension
during the next second. Masonry structures must be
reinforced in order to provide the necessary capacity
to resist the load reversals and extreme stress
excursions that occur during earthquakes.
In addition to the high tensile and compressive
strength characteristics, reinforced masonry provides
high dynamic properties such as high dampening and
energy absorption. The reinforcing steel also improves
the ductility and toughness of the masonry system and
holds a building together through continuity of
connections between elements.
When a wall, beam or column is loaded and
deflects in a curved form, compression forces develop
on the concave side (inside of curve) and tension
forces develop on the convex side (outside of curve).
The forces are transmitted through the masonry, into
the grout and then through the grout into the reinforcing
steel (Figure 11.2).
The principles of reinforced masonry design given
in the 2005 MSJC Code, Section 2.3.1 & 3.3.2 (f), state
the tensile strength of the masonry (unit, mortar, and
grout) shall be neglected for tensile stresses. In the
structural analysis, this means only the steel
reinforcement is considered for carrying and resisting
the tensile forces.

FIGURE 11.1

28 Story Excalibur Hotel/CasinoLas Vegas, Nevada.

216

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Tension
Reinforcing
steel

Lateral Force

Reinforcing
steel

Compression

Tension

Lateral Force

Compression

11.2.2 WALL WITH LATERAL LOAD


Figure 11.4 depicts a cantilever retaining wall in
flexure (note the curve of the deformed shape). The
earth behind the wall exerts forces that pushes the wall
to the left. While the masonry on the left side of the
wall is being squeezed in compression, the reinforcing
steel on the right side of the wall, closest to the earth,
is being pulled into tension.

Grout

Grout

Concrete masonry

Brick

In Figure 11.4, note how the reinforcement is


placed closer to the tension side than the compression
side. This location is advantageous in a retaining wall
application since the load is always causing tension
on the right and compression on the left.

FIGURE 11.2

Forces transmitted through


masonry and grout to steel.

ddistance

Whenever a beam curves, a tension side and


compression side develop. The reinforcing steel must
be placed on the tensi on side of the curv e.
Continuous reinforcement is preferred to lapping bars
of reinforcement; however, lapping reinforcement bars
is acceptable when field conditions dictate.
Vertical load on beam

Tension

Tension
Compression

Compression

Tension

Compression

Flexural cracks
Flexural reinforcing steel

FIGURE 11.3

Beam supporting vertical load.

Compression side

The top of the beam shown in Figure 11.3 is


squeezing together in the center, placing the masonry
into compression. The bottom of the beam, however,
is pulling apart in the center, putting it in tension. When
the limited tension capacity of the masonry is
exceeded, masonry cracks and the steel reinforcement
resists the tension force. This combination of steel
reinforcement and masonry extends the application and
use of masonry for structures.

Tension side

11.2.1 BEAM WITH VERTICAL LOAD

Lateral earth pressure

11.2 TENSION STRESSES

F IGURE 11.4

Cantilever retaining wall


supporting lateral earth pressure.
For buildings subjected to wind forces, the load
can be applied on either side. Direct wind forces push
on a building while wind suction forces pull on the
opposite side of the structure. Figure 11.5, shows the
forces created on a building due to wind loading. The
wind direction can switch and thus the tension side on
the wall will switch (there will still be uplift on the roof).
Because tension can occur on either side of the wall,
the most economically reasonable location of the
reinforcement is in the center of the wall. Walls 10 in.
(254 mm), 12 in. (305 mm) and greater in thickness
may contain two layers of reinforcing steel, one near
each wall face, to obtain the maximum structural
efficiency. This configuration will place reinforcement
directly in the tension zone regardless of the direction
of lateral force.

REINFORCING STEEL
Uplift

Joist to masonry
wall connection
d
W in

Roof to joist must


resist uplift

Joist to masonry
wall connection
W in
d

Roof to joist must


resist uplift

For the wind direc tion


shown, tension is on right
side of each wall

Positive wind
pressure

217

Negative wind
pressure (suction)
For the wind direction
shown, tension is on
right side of each wall

Wall to foundation
connection

Wall to foundation
connection
Concrete slab

FIGURE 11.5

Wind loading on a building.

11.3 COMPRESSION STRESSES


Reinforcing steel can also be used to increase the
compressive capability of masonry columns.
Vertical load

Vertical reinforcing steel


Horizontal ties

In columns, the steel may act in compression along


with the compressive capabilities of masonry. The
modulus of elasticity of steel, ES = 29,000,000 psi
(199.9 GPa), is much higher than the modulus of
elasticity of the masonry which ranges from Em =
500,000 psi (3.4 GPa) to 4,000,000 psi (27.6 GPa).
Because of the higher modulus of elasticity of the steel,
the steel can be stressed at least
n(Modular ratio n =
ES/Em) times the stress of the masonry. The actual
stress in the steel will be much greater because the
masonry tends to move from under the load, shifting the
load to the reinforcing steel. This is called creep or
plastic flow.
Unsupported reinforcing steel bars in compression
may buckle, or move outward from the center. In order
to prevent the vertical column bars from buckling, they
must be encased with horizontal steel ties.
The importance of lateral ties is seen in the code.
Section 2.1.6.5 of the 2005 MSJC Code gives the
following general requirements for tie spacing in
columns.
1. For Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, the
minimum diameter of column ties shall be at least
1
/4 in. (6.4 mm) in diameter.

FIGURE 11.6

Reinforced brick column Properly tied vertical reinforcing steel assists in


carrying compressive loads.

2. For Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C,


spacing of column ties shall not exceed the more
restrictive of:
a. 16 diameters of the longitudinal (vertical)
reinforcement.

218

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Ties

Vertical
reinforcement
tied to dowels
projecting
from footing

As a rule of thumb, shear reinforcement is spaced


at a maximum distance of one-half the overall depth
of the beam minus 3 in. (76.2 mm) or 48 in. (1219 mm)
on center. The actual maximum distance is a little
less than one-half the beam depth (MSJC Code,
Section 2.3.5.3.1).
Load

Reinforced
concrete footing
d/2
Shear
cracks

FIGURE 11.7

Allowable shear stress exceeds actual stress. Shear


reinforcement not required.

Reinforced concrete masonry

column.

Shear reinforcement spaced as


required but spaced not more
the d/2 so that every potential
shear crack is crossed.

b. 48 tie diameters.
c.

Least cross-sectional dimension of the


column.

FIGURE 11.8

Beam reinforced for shear.

As an example, if vertical reinforcement of a 16 in.


(407 mm) square column were #5
s (5/8 in. diameter
[15.9 mm]) encased by 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) ties, then the
maximum spacing of the column ties would be the most
restrictive of the following:
Vertical Reinforcement

(5/8) x 16 = 10 in.

Horizontal Reinforcement

(1/4) x 48 = 12 in.

Least Column Dimension

16 in.

Most Restrictive (10 in.) applies.

Shear forc e f rom


wind or earthquake

Diagonal
tension
shear
cracks

3. In Seismic Design Categories D and above, the


minimum diameter of a column ties shall be at
least 3/8 in. (9.5 mm).
4. For Seismic Design Categories D and above,
spacing of column ties shall not exceed 8 in.
(203 mm) for the full column height.

11.4 SHEAR STRESSES


Although masonry has the capability to resist shear
forces, these forces in beams and walls are often large
enough to exceed the shear capacity of the masonry.
When this occurs, the beam or shear wall must be
reinforced with steel to resist these high shear forces.
The shear reinforcing steel is placed in the same
direction as the load causing the shear stress.

Reinforcement
to resist
overturning
tension
and compression
forces

Horizontal
shear
reinforcement

d/2 or 48
max.
d/4 max.

Hook design
requirements

FIGURE 11.9
pier.

Shear wall or shear reinforced

REINFORCING STEEL

219

11.5 SHRINKAGE AND


TEMPERATURE STRESSES

tension. Therefore there is need for continuous


rei nf orcement and in addit ion t o continuous
reinforcement; any required ties must be spaced closer
together.

Concrete block masonry walls shrink due to


moisture loss and hydration of the cement. This
shrinkage causes tension stresses to develop and the
masonry may easily crack if reinforcement and/or
control joints are not provided. Accordingly, horizontal
reinforcing steel or joint reinforcement is used to
accommodate shrinkage stresses and reduce vertical
cracking. Joint reinf orcement and def ormed
reinforcement may be used in combination to reinforce
the masonry system.

The close spacing of ties acts as a cage to hold


masonry together. This is known as confinement of
the masonry. Section 1613 of the 2006 IBC develop
seismic design requirements for buildings. The
formulation is based on the concept of Seismic Design
Categories (SDC
s) in lieu of the familiar Seismic Zones
contained in previous model codes. The relative scale
of seismic activity (0 minimal and 4 severe) of Seismic
Zones (Figure 11.11) has been replaced with SDC
s.
The new ground motion maps (Figure 11.12) of the IBC,
do not provide the immediate global insight gained from
viewing the seismic zones. The high gradation of the
ground motion maps (scale of 0 to 300), blurs the areas
between low and high seismic loading.

Masonry walls may also crack from expansion and


contraction caused by temperature changes. Joint
reinforcement and deformed reinforcing steel control
cracking and may allow wider spacing of movement
control joints.

11.6 SEISMIC FORCES


In high seismic risk areas, masonry structures
must be reinforced to provide adequate strength as
the structures undergo the reversal of stresses caused
during an earthquake. Figure 11.10 depicts the
deformed shape of a structure during a significant
earthquake. The placement of tension steel would be
on the convex side of the curved beams and columns.
However, the picture is only a snapshot in time during
a seismic event. In the next second, the building could
curve in the opposite directions where all tension sides
become compression and compression sides become

F IGURE 11.10
earthquake forces.

FIGURE 11.11

Uniform Building Code Seismic Zone Map.

Buil ding su bjected to

220

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Maximum Ground Motion for the Continental U.S. 0.2 sec Spectral Acceleration
(5% critical damping), Site Class B (2006 IBC Figure 1613.5(1))

Maximum Ground Motion for the Continental U.S. 1.0 sec Spectral Acceleration
(5% critical damping), Site Class B (2006 IBC Figure 1613.5(2))

FIGURE 11.12

Seismic ground accelerations.

REINFORCING STEEL

11.7 MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT


REQUIREMENTS
11.7.1 MINIMUM AREA OF STEEL
To assure adequate reinforcement in masonry, the
MSJC Code specifically states minimum reinforcing
steel spacing and amount based on Seismic Design
Categories.
Further, the Uniform Building Code has historically
stated and the MSJC Code strongly implies that plain
bars larger than 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) are not to be used in
masonry. Reinforcing steel of 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) and larger
must be deformed bars.
11.7.1.1 MINIMUM STEEL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW
SEISMIC EXPOSURE
The categories with virtually no seismic risk, SDC
A and B, contain no special provisions for reinforcement
in masonry. When masonry walls are not part of the
lateral resisting system, simple provisions of the IBC
and MSJC Code are followed, such as positive anchorage
at all connections and limits in lateral deflection.
Masonry may then be constructed without reinforcing
steel, and hence, without grout.
If SDC A walls are part of the lateral force-resisting
system (shear walls), walls may be designed
empirically in accordance with 2005 MSJC Code
Section 1.14.2.2. Lateral force-resisting walls in SDC
s
A and B shall have minimum reinforcement of 0.20
in.2 (129 mm2) in cross-sectional area and shall be
provided at corners, within 16 in. (406 mm) of openings

and within 8 in. (203 mm) of movement joints and the


ends of the walls. The maximum spacing of vertical
reinforcement is 10 ft.(3.1 m) on center. Minimum
horizontal reinforcement shall consist of horizontal joint
reinforcement of at least two W1.7 (MW11) wires spaced
not more than 16 in. (406 mm) on center, or deformed
reinforcement of at least 0.20 in2 (129 mm2) in crosssectional area for bond beams spaced at 10 ft (3.1 m)
on center maximum; at top and bottom of wall openings
and within 16 in. (406 mm) of the top of the wall. The
reinforcement shall extend at least 24 in. (610 mm) or
at least 40 bar diameters past openings.
When the seismic risk is increased additional
reinforcing steel is required for the performance of
masonry.
In addition to the requirements of SDC
s A and B,
SDC C contains specific seismic provisions contained
in 2005 MSJC Code, Section 1.14.5.2.3. This code
section states minimum vertical reinforcement of one
#4 bar at 48 in. (1219 mm) on center maximum, and
also within 8 in. (203 mm) of the ends of the wall.
Horizontal reinforcement has the same requirement
as vertical minimum reinforcement or two W1.7
(MW11) wire joint reinforcement at 16 in. (406 mm)
on center maximum for walls thicker than 4 in. (102
mm).
The required area of 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2), equates
to one #4 bar, which is 0.20 in.2 (129 mm2) in crosssectional area.
In addition to the above, columns require ties with
a minimum of two ties within the top 5 in. (127 mm) of
the column.
2

Top of roof

0.20 in2 reinforcement


area (minimum around
openings)

221

0.20 in reinforcement
area, (minimum each
way at spacing shown)

0.20 in2 reinforcement area min.


at top of wall & at roof and floor
levels
Top of
parapet

24minimum
but not less
than 40 bar
diameters

10
-0maximum spacing
of vertical reinforcement

FIGURE 11.13

10
-0max. spacing of
horizontal reinforcement

Minimum lateral force-resisting reinforcement for SDC


s A and B.

0.20 in2 reinforcement


area min. at base of
wall or in top footing

222

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


0.20 in2 reinforcement
area (minimum around
openings)

24minimum but
not less than 40
bar diameters

0.20 in2 reinforcement area min. at


top of wall & at roof and floor levels

0.20 in2 reinforcement


area, (minimum each
way at spacing shown)

Top of parapet

Top of
roof

4
-0maximum spacing
of vertical reinforcement

FIGURE 11.14

4
-0maximum spacing of
horizontal reinforcement

0.20 in2 reinforcement


area min. at base of wall
or in top footing

Minimum reinforcement for SDC


s D and E.

11.7.1.2 MINIMUM STEEL REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH


SEISMIC EXPOSURE

Parapet as
required

Seismic Design Categories D and E contain


provisions in addition to those required in SDC
s A, B
and C.
Seismic Design Category D requires that the
minimum amount of reinforcement in a wall be
calculated on the gross cross sectional area of the
wall and be uniformly distributed. The minimum
amount of reinforcement must be at least 0.002 times
the gross cross sectional area with at least one-third
of the reinforcement spanning the weak, usually
horizontal, direction. Stack bond masonry must be
fully grouted using open-end units or hollow units with
full head joints. When using solid units for stack bond
masonry, the head joints must be fully mortared.
Additionally, the maximum spacing of reinforcement
for stack bond masonry is 24 in. (610 mm) on center.
SDC E, contains additional requirements for stack
bond masonry. Stack bond masonry should be
constructed with open end units so that the void in the
head joint is eliminated. Bond beam units are ideal to
facilitate the flow of grout and spacing of reinforcement
should not exceed 16 in. (406 mm) for horizontal and
24 in. (610 mm) for vertical using 1/2 in. (12.7 mm)
reinforcement for the lateral force resisting system.
Type N mortar and masonry cement are not to be
used for the lateral force resisting walls in SDC D and
E.

Provide #4
reinforcement at
the top of wall and
at all floor and roof
levels.
Bolts in grouted
units as required.

Wall height

#4 bar @ roof level.


Horizontal joint
reinforcement shown
but a min. of #4 bars
@ 4- 0o.c. may
also be provided.
Vertical reinforcement
in grouted cells spaced
4- 0o.c. max.
#4 bar at base of
wall or at the top
of footing.
Dowel to match
vertical reinforcement.

FIGURE 11.15

Typical block wall section.

REINFORCING STEEL

11.8 REINFORCEMENT SPACING


Consideration must also be giv en to the
economical spacing of reinforcement. Reinforcing
steel spaced closely together will slow construction and
be costly. Table 11.2 lists steel size and spacing based
on approximately the same area of steel per foot.
Larger bars spaced at greater intervals are more
economical than smaller bars spaced close together.
As a rule of thumb, #5 and smaller bars can be readily
handled on the construction site. For #6 and larger
bars, field fabrication and placement becomes difficult
or impossible due to congestion.

distance is defined as the distance from center of


reinforcement to the compression (typically furthest)
side of the masonry as shown in Figure 11.17.
Walls are subjected to lateral forces from either
direction (wind and earthquake). Therefore, the
reinforcing steel should be placed in the center so that
when the wall receives lateral loads, the distance
d
is the same for both sides of the wall.
t

Table 11.1 Weight of Reinforcement


Bar Size
Lbs/ft
Lbs/20 ft. bar
#3
0.375
7.5
#4
0.680
13.6
#5
1.055
21.1
#6
1.500
30.0
#7
2.042
40.8
#8
2.688
53.8
Table 11.2 Equivalent Spacing of Reinforcement
1-#3 at 8" on center
= 0.165 square inches per foot
1-#4 at 16" on center
= 0.150 square inches per foot
1-#5 at 24" on center
= 0.155 square inches per foot
1-#6 at 32" on center
= 0.165 square inches per foot
2-#4 at 32" on center
= 0.150 square inches per foot
1-#7 at 48" on center
= 0.150 square inches per foot

No. 3 vertical bars at 8 in. (203 mm) on center


would make masonry construction difficult and
expensive. Using #5 vertical bars at 24 in. (610 mm)
on center is more economical.
Size and spacing of steel for an 8 in. (203 mm)
wide concrete masonry wall using minimum reinforcing
steel coefficient is given in Table 11.3 below.

223

FIGURE 11.16 Steel placed in the middle of wall.


If the wall is thick enough (10 in. (254 mm) or wider)
two layers of reinforcement can substantially increase
the maximum
ddistance and increase structural
efficiency.
The California Department of Transportation
normally designs freeway sound barrier walls using
the double steel configuration. The result was an
absolute minimal amount of failure of these tall
cantilev er walls during the 1994 Northri dge
Earthquake.
t

Table 11.3 Minimum Steel Ratios; Size and


Spacing for 8 inch CMU (SDC D and E)
As = 0.0007bt As = 0.001bt
As = 0.0013bt
#3 @ 16" o.c. #4 @ 24" o.c. #4 @ 16" o.c.
#4 @ 32" o.c. #5 @ 40" o.c. #5 @ 24" o.c.
#5 @ 48o.c. #6 @ 48o.c. #6 @ 40o.c.

11.8.1 LOCATION OF REINFORCEMENT d


DISTANCE
For walls primarily receiving loads from only one
direction (such as retaining walls), reinforcement placed
in the tension face is advantageous. The
d

d
d

FIGURE 11.17

Two rows of steel placed for


maximum ddistance.

224

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

11.8.2 TOLERANCES FOR PLACEMENT OF


REINFORCEMENT
For reinforced masonry to perform as designed,
reinforcing steel must be placed in the proper location.
The proper placement of reinforcing steel is stated
in MSJC Specification, Article 3.4 B. These allowable
tolerances are listed in Table 11.4 and shown in Figure
11.18.
Longitudinal reinforcement, typically vertical
reinforcement in a masonry wall, is allowed a tolerance
of + 2 in. (51 mm). This tolerance is not meant to be
cumulative since a condition of obstruction of
reinforcement by the webs in the masonry unit would
be created.

11.8.3 PLACEMENT OF STEEL


The placement of reinforcing bars in masonry
should conform to the recommended practice of
placing reinforcing bars in concrete. Principal steel
should be properly located and secured in position to
resist the forces for which it was designed. This is
particularly important in cantilever retaining walls,
beams and columns.
The 2005 MSJC Code and 2006 IBC merely state
that reinforcement shall be secured to prevent
movement of reinforcement, particularly during the
grouting process. Table 11.5 provides historic
requirements for maximum intervals of securing steel
reinforcement.
Table 11.5 Historic Intervals for Securing
Reinforcing Steel
Bar
Bar
Secured
Secured
No.
Diameter
Intervals
Intervals
112 x Bar
200 x Bar
1
2
Diameters
Diameters
#3
.375
3' - 6"
6' - 3"
#4
.500
4' - 8"
8' - 4"
#5
.625
5' - 10"
12' - 5"
#6
.750
7' - 0"
12' - 6"
#7
.875
8' 2"
14' - 7"
#8
1.00
9' - 4"
16' - 8"
#9
1.12
10' - 5"
18' - 9"
#10
1.27
11' - 10"
20' - 10"
#11
1.41
13' - 2"
22' - 11"

Table 11.4 Reinforcement Placement


Tolerances
Distance, d, from face of
Allowable
masonry to the center of
tolerance
reinforcing steel
1
d < 8"
/2"
8" < d < 24"
24" < d

1
1
1 / 4"

d distance

d distance

2000 IBC, Section 2106.6.2.2, SDC E


1997 UBC, Section 2104.5

CMU Beam

Brick Beam
6

SECTION VIEW
Tolerance see Table 11.4

d distance

Specified
spacing

Tolerance + 2

PLAN VIEW OF A WALL

FIGURE 11.18

Tolerances for steel placement.

Max. 6

FIGURE 11.19

Maximum slope for bending


dowel into position (ACI 318, Section 7.8.1.1).

REINFORCING STEEL

225

When footing dowels are not properly aligned, the


dowels may be bent to a maximum 6:1 slope as shown
in Figure 11.19. Vertical reinforcement can transmit
forces to the dowels even when the two bars are not
in direct contact.
Style:
6-1V-1H

New dowels can be installed into the foundation if


dowels are not supplied or if they are improperly
located. Dowels can be installed by several methods
including drilling over-sized holes and securing the
dowels with grout or epoxy. Installing expansion
anchors, cinch anchors, anchor shields, or some other
positive connection may also be used to anchor dowels
into the foundation.

11.8.4 REINFORCING BAR POSITIONERS


To assure that the reinforcing bars are in the
specified locations, vertical bars must be secured
against displacement. Wire positioners or some other
device may be used. Figures 11.20 and 11.21 show
typical bar positioners that can be used to locate and
hold vertical and horizontal steel in place.

Vertical
reinforcing steel

Horizontal
reinforcing steel

Style: 8-1V-1H

Style:
8-2V-2H used
as 8-2V-1H

Style: 8-2V-2H

D/A 815

D/A 817

Common gradle positioner styles and configurations

FIGURE 11.21

Reinforcement positioners for

concrete masonry.
Horizontal
reinforcing steel

Grout
space

PLAN
SECTION
Typical single curtain positioner
Vertical
reinforcing steel

Horizontal
reinforcing steel

Positioners must be lined up vertically in a wall so


the steel can be dropped through the proper slot in
the positioner after the wall has been built.
The first positioner is optimally located just above
the foundation dowel bars.

11.8.5 CLEARANCES
11.8.5.1 CLEARANCE BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT AND
MASONRY UNITS

Horizontal
reinforcing steel

PLAN

Grout
space

SECTION

Typical double curtain positioner

FIGURE 11.20
brick masonry.

Reinforcement positioners for

The effectiveness of reinforcing steel depends on


the amount of grout surrounding the reinforcement.
Code requirements are contained in 2005 MSJC
Specification, Article 3.4 B. Reinforcing steel must have
a minimum of 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) of grout between the
steel and the masonry when fine grout is used. When
coarse (pea gravel) grout is used, the clearance between
the steel and the masonry units must be at least 1/2 in.
(12.7 mm). This assures proper bond so that stresses
are transferred between the steel and the masonry.

226

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

/4min. for fine grout


/2min. for course grout

1
1

Spliced
bars

1or db min.

FIGURE 11.23

Minimum clearance of vertical


wall reinforcement in cell.

1or db min.
/4min. for fine grout
/2min. for course grout

1
1

db = Bar diameter

Alternate configuration

F IGURE 11.24

Minimum clearance of
horizontal reinforcement in a concrete masonry.

/4min. for fine grout


/2min. for course grout

1
1

1or db
min.

FIGURE 11.22

1or db
min.

Reinforcing steel clearances.

11.8.5.2 CLEAR SPACING BETWEEN REINFORCING


BARS
2005 MSJC Code Section 1.13.3.1 requires that
the clear distance between parallel bars be at least 1
in. (25.4 mm), or in the case of #9 through #11 bars,
the bar diameter. For columns (2005 MSJC Code
Section 1.13.3.2), the clear distance increases to 11/2
in. (38.1 mm) or 1.5 times the reinforcement diameter,
whichever is greater.

F IGURE 11.25

Mi nimu m cl earance of
reinforcement in a multiwythe brick wall.

REINFORCING STEEL

227

11.8.6.2 JOINT REINFORCEMENT AND T IES


Joint reinforcing steel can be used in mortar joints
that are at l east twice as thick as t he joint
reinforcement. There must be a minimum of 5/8 in.
(15.9 mm) of mortar cov erage f rom the joint
reinforcement to the exposed surface, which is typically
the mortar joint (Figure 11.28). 2005 MSJC Code
Section 1.13.4.2 reduces this minimum to 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) if the masonry is not exposed to earth or weather.

Min. spacing 11/2 or


11/2 db in columns

FIGURE 11.26

Minimum clearance between


reinforcement in a column.

/8 min. exterior exposure


/2 min. interior exposure

5
1

11.8.6 REINFORCEMENT COVER


11.8.6.1 DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT
Reinforcing steel must be completely embedded
in mortar or grout with a minimum cover to assure
protection. Where masonry is not exposed to earth or
weather, a minimum cover of 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) is
sufficient (2005 MSJC Code Section 1.13.4). When
the masonry is exposed to the exterior (earth or
weather) MSJC Code requires a minimum protective
cover of 2 in. (50.8 mm) for reinforcing bars larger
than #5 and 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) when the bar size does
not exceed #5.

11/2
recommended

2for bars larger


than #5, 11/2for
#5 bars and
smaller when
exposed to earth
or weather

11/2interior

2db min.

FIGURE 11.28

db

Cover of joint reinforcement.

11.9 ANCHORAGE OF
REINFORCING STEEL IN
MASONRY
In order to develop reinforcing steel in masonry,
sufficient embedment must be provided. This can be
accomplished by using a bar of sufficient length, or
when sufficient length is not possible, hooks may be
used. The term
develop
means providing holding power
by the masonry. For example, if the reinforcement has
a tension (pulling out of the masonry) of 1000 lbs. and
the reinforcement is only embedded 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) into
the masonry, failure would occur with less than 1000
lbs. of force. The tension force was not developed in
the masonry.

11.9.1 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH


11.9.1.1 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF STRAIGHT
REINFORCEMENT
To develop a reinforcing bar tension force, the bar

FIGURE 11.27
steel.

Minimum cover of reinforcing

must be extended an adequate distance or development


length, ld, into the masonry.

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The development length is based on the allowable


bond stress, the bar diameter, and the sum to be
developed in the steel bar.
2005 MSJC Code Section 2.1.10.2 requires
embedment length as:

Table 11.6

Standard Hook and Bend

db = bar diameter
D = Finished inside
bend diameter

Dimensions of
Standard 180
Hooks

ld = 0.0015dbFs for bars in tension


The minimum embedment for reinforcement is 12
in. (305 mm) and 6 in. (152 mm) for wire.

Bar
Size
#3

The term
hookor
standard hookused for tie
anchorage in SDC
s D and E means a minimum turn
of 135 degrees or 180 degrees.
A hook has the benefit of developing stress within
a very short distance.

J (in)

D (in)

A (in)

D (in)

40

2 /8

1 /8

5 /2

1 /8

40

3 /2

2 /2

7 /4

2 /2

#5

40

4 /8

3 /8

3 /8

#6

40

5 /4

3 /4

10 /4

3 /4

#7

40

6 /8

4 /8

12 /2

4 /8

7
1
1
3
3
1

#3

50/60

2 /4

2 /4

#4

50/60

#5

50/60

3 /4

10

3 /4

#6

50/60

4 /2

12

4 /2

#7

50/60

5 /4

14

5 /4

#8

50/60

16

#9

50/60

11 /4

9 /2

19

9 /2

#10

50/60

13 /4

10 /4

22

10 /4

24

12

According to 2005 MSJC Code Section 1.13.5, a

standard hook
is defined as one of the following:

#11

50/60

14 /4

11 /2

1
1

3. For stirrup and tie anchorage only, either a 90degree or a 135-degree turn, plus an extension
of at least 6 bar diameters.

Detailing dimension
db

Dimensions of
Standard 90
Hooks

Grade

#4

11.9.1.2 HOOKS

1. A 180-degree turn plus extension of at least 4


bar diameters but not less than 21/2 in. (63.5
mm) at free end of bar

D = 5db for #3 through #7, Grade 40


D = 6db for # 3 through #8, Grade 50/60
D = 8db for #9 through #11, Grade 50/60

180

D1

5
13

4 db or 21/2min.

45
max
.

228

FIGURE 11.29

Standard 180 hook.

At least 6d but not


less than 21/2 inches

2. A 90-degree turn plus an extension of at least


12 bar diameters at free end of bar, or

FIGURE 11.31

Standard 135 hook

Detailing dimension

Table 11.7 Minimum Diameters of Bend


Bar Size
Grade Minimum Diameter
No. 3 thru No. 7
40
5 bar diameters
No. 3 thru No. 8
60
6 bar diameters
No. 9 thru No. 11
60
8 bar diameters

db
90
A

FIGURE 11.30

12 db

Standard 90 hook.

MSJC Code Section 1.13.6

The diameter of bend measured on the inside of


the bar, including stirrups and ties, shall be not less
than values specified in Table 11.6.

REINFORCING STEEL
Hooks should not be placed in the tension portion
of any beam, except at the ends of simple or cantilever
beams or at the freely supported end of continuous or
restrained beams.
Hooks should not be assumed to carry a load
which would produce a tensile stress in the bar greater
than 7500 psi (51.7 MPa).
Hooks are not eff ectiv e in adding to the
compressive resistance of bars.
Any mechanical device capable of developing the
strength of the bar without damage to the masonry
may be used in lieu of a hook. Data should be
presented to show the adequacy of such devices.

11.9.2 SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR HIGHER


SEISMIC RISK
In SDC D and above, standard hooks for lateral
ties are defined as either a 135 degree standard hook
or a 180 degree standard hook. Other hooks must
conform to hooks as listed in Section 11.9.1.2.

11.9.3 LAP SPLICES FOR REINFORCING


STEEL
Often, it is not practical to build a reinforced
masonry wall using a single continuous length of
reinforcing steel. The reinforcement may be placed
using bars that have been cut to manageable lengths.
For these shorter lengths of reinforcement to function
as continuous they must be connected in some
fashion.
The usual method is to lap (also known as lap
splices) the bars a specified length. 2006 IBC Section
2107.5 requires that tension or compression lap splices
for Allowable Stress Design be a minimum of 12 in.
(304.8 mm) or in accordance with the following formula:

229

where:
K shall not exceed the lesser of the masonry cover,
clear spacing between adjacent bars nor 5 times db.
= 1.0 for #3 thru #5 bars
= 1.3 for #6 thru #7 bars
= 1.5 for #8 thru #9 bars
Further requirements of the MSJC Code include
a 50% splice length increase when epoxy coated bars
are used and noncontact splice bars are to be
separated by no more than 8 in. (203 mm) or one fifth
the required lap length.
Splices may be made only at certain locations and
in such manner that the structural strength of the
member will not be reduced.
Welded or mechanical connections shall develop
125 percent of the specified yield strength of the bar
in tension.

11.10 ANCHOR BOLTS


11.10.1 GENERAL
Anchor bolts are used to connect masonry to
structural supports and to transfer loads from masonry
attachments such as ledgers and sill plates. Some
examples for the use of anchor bolts are the
connections between masonry walls and roofs, floors,
ledger beams and large signs.
Conv entional embedded anchor bolts are
commonly specified as bent bar anchor bolts, plate
anchor bolts and headed anchor bolts. They are
available in standard sizes (diameters and lengths) or
can be f abri cated to meet specif ic proj ect
requirements.
Anchor bolts are commonly embedded at:

ld = 0.002dbfs

(Equation 21-2)

where:
ld = embedment length of lap of straight
reinforcement
db = diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm)
fs = computed stress in reinforcement due to
design loads, psi (MPa)
Strength design provisions are somewhat more
complex for determining reinforcement lap splices.
The following formula applies:
0.13d b 2 f y
l de
K f 'm

1. The surface of wallsfor connecting relief


angles and wood or steel ledger beams to the
walls,
2. The top of wallsfor attaching sill plates and
base plates to the walls, and
3. The top of columnsfor anchoring steel
bearing plates onto the columns.
Anchor bolts can be divided into two categories:
1. Embedded anchor bolts which are placed and
grouted during construction, and
2. Drilled-in anchors which are placed after
construction of the masonry.

230

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Anchor bolts are subjected to shear and tension


forces resulting from loads, such as gravity loads,
earthquakes, wind forces, differential movements and
dynamic vibrations. The magnitudes of these loads
can vary significantly.
The Uniform Building Code required that bent bar
anchor bolt must have a hook with a 90-degree bend
and an inside diameter of three bolt diameters, plus an
extension of 11/2 bolt diameters at the free end.

11.10.2 TIES AT ANCHOR BOLTS IN COLUMNS


Section 1.14.5.3.1 of the 2005 MSJC Code
requires confinement of anchor bolts at the top of
columns for SDC C and above. Anchor bolts are
placed within at least 2 No. 4 lateral ties, with the ties
located within the top 5 in. (127 mm) of the column.
Minimum cover 11/2 in.
for #5 and smaller
bars, 2 for bars larger
than #5

The effective embedment length, lb, for plate or


headed anchor bolts is the length of embedment
measured perpendicular from the surface of the
masonry to the bearing surface of the plate or head of
the anchorage, and lb for bent bar anchors is the length
of embedment measured perpendicular from the
surface of the masonry to the bearing surface of the
bent end minus one anchor bolt diameter. The 2005
MSJC requires a minimum embedment of 2 in. (50.8
mm) or 4 bolt diameters, whichever is greater.

Ties must surround


anchor bolts, and
column bars

Column
ties
Bend bar anchor bolt
Vertical column
reinforcing steel

Diameter of
bend = 3 db

***
db

FIGURE 11.33

lb*

***

**

db

**

Min. extension
= 1.5 db

11.11 COLUMNS

Plate anchor bolt

lb *

***

Anchor bolt ties at top of

column.

db

11.11.1 GENERAL

db

**
Headed anchor bolt

A column is a vertical member at least three times


as high as the least horizontal dimension. Although
columns can be designed to support lateral loads they
are primarily compression members supporting
girders, beams, trusses or similar structural elements.

lb*
Grout

* Minimum embedment lenght lb = 4db but lb may not be less than 2 (51 mm).
** 1/4 for fine grout, 1/2 for coarse (pea gravel) grout
*** 1/2 Min. strength design

FIGURE 11.32

Anchor bolt detail.

In walls, if vertical reinforcement is not restrained


against buckling by ties, reinforcement is assumed not
to carry vertical compressive loads. Nevertheless, the
reinforcing steel will participate in carrying vertical
loads, thus providing an added factor of safety in wall
design.

REINFORCING STEEL
In the design of columns, however, vertical
reinforcing steel significantly contributes to the load
carrying capacity of the member when ties prevent the
compression reinforcement from buckling.

16

Nominal 8CMU
75/8square actual

Column Ties

4-#3 bars

24

Column ties

231

12-#10 bars

FIGURE 11.34

Minimum column size and

reinforcement.
Columns may be categorized by location, that
is, they may be isolated (free standing), projecting
from a wall (pilaster), or flush in a wall (buried). The
least dimension of columns by 2005 MSJC Code
definition is 8 in. (203 mm).
The required area of vertical column reinforcement
is at least 0.0025 times the net cross sectional area
of the column, and not more than 0.04 times the net
cross sectional area of the column (2005 MSJC Code
Sections 2.1.6.4 and 3.3.4.4.1). At least four vertical
bars are required in each column.

FIGURE 11.35

Maximum amount of steel in

a 16" x 24" column.

Min. s pacing between vertical bars


is 11/2 bar diameters
or 11/2 in. whichever
is greater

11/2 in. min. for #5 bars


and smaller
2 in. min. for bars larger
than #5

11.11.2 COLUMN TIES


.
max
45

11.11.2.1 COLUMN T IE REQUIREMENTS


All longitudinal bars for columns shall be enclosed
by lateral ties. Lateral support is provided to the
longitu-dinal bars by the corner of a complete tie
having a 90 or 135 turn plus an extension of 6 bar
diameters. The corner bars shall have such support
provided by a complete tie enclosing the longitudinal
bars. Alternate longitudinal bars shall have such
lateral support provided by ties and no bar shall be
farther than 6 inches from such laterally supported
bar as shown in Figure 11.36.

6
max.
Column reinforcement
Max. area = .04 bt
Min. area = .0025 bt
Min. size #3
Max. size #11(ASD)
Max. size #9 (SD)

FIGURE 11.36

Tie anchorage
6d min.

Reinforcing tie details.

232

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

11.11.2.2 T YPICAL LAYOUT OF T IES AND MASONRY


UNITS FOR COLUMNS
Alternate courses

FIGURE 11.39

Typical brick columns.

11.11.3 TIE SPACING FOR ELEMENTS THAT


ARE PART OF THE LATERAL SYSTEM
Alternate courses

11.11.3.1 T IE SPACING FOR LOWER SEISMIC RISK

FIGURE 11.37 Masonry columns using pilaster

Lateral ties of at least 1/4 in. diameter (6.4 mm)


should encase the longitudinal bars or be placed in
the horizontal bed joints provided the ties are not more
than half the height of the mortar joint. Space ties not
more than 16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 tie
diameters or the least dimension of the column. Figure
11.40 illustrates the general column tie requirements
for SDC A, B and C.

units.

Alternate courses

FIGURE 11.40

Ties at 16 bar diameters, 48 tie diameters, or least


dimension of column, whichever is less.

Tie spacing

Alternate courses

Maximum tie spacing in


columns with lower seismic risk.

FIGURE 11.38
standard hollow unit.

Masonry columns using

REINFORCING STEEL

233

11.11.4 NON-PROJECTING WALL COLUMNS


Table 11.8 Tie Spacing 16 bar diameters
Longitudinal
Maximum Tie
Bar. No.
Spacing, in. (mm)
3
6 (152)
4
8 (203)
5
10 (254)
6
12 (304)
7
14 (355)
8
16 (406)
9
18 (457)
10
20 (508)
11
22 (559)

Table 11.9 Tie Spacing 48 tie diameters


Maximum Tie
Tie Bar. No.
Spacing, inches (mm)
2
12 (304)
3
18 (457)
4
24 (610)

Columns that are contained within a masonry wall


may benefit both the owner and the contractor. Wallcontained columns permit faster construction since
there are no projections from the wall and no special
units are required. The reinforcing steel must be tied in
accordance with the code requirements.
12minimum overlap

Tie in mortar joint


135 bend on tie

11.11.3.2 T IE SPACING FOR HIGHER SEISMIC RISK

Ties at 8 in. (203 mm) maximum, with a minimum size


of #3 tie for reinforcement.

Tie spacing

Maximum tie spacing for SDC D and above is 8


in. (203 mm) and the ties must be at least 3/8 in. (9.5
mm) in diameter. Additionally, the ties must be
embedded in grout.

FIGURE 11.42

Non-projecting wall brick


columns with ties in mortar joint.
Ties in grout space

Stagger ties

FIGURE 11.43

Non-projecting wall brick


columns with ties in grout space.
Wall ties

Wall ties

FIGURE 11.41

Maximum tie spacing in


columns with higher seismic risk.

FIGURE 11.44

Non-projecting wall concrete


masonry wall columns.

234

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

11.11.5 PROJECTING WALL COLUMNS OR


PILASTERS

column capacity, columns called pilasters are often built


projecting from the face of the wall.

Heavily loaded girders which frame into a wall may


require substantial base plates in the column. In order
to provide a convenient girder seat and adequate

Projecting pilasters also serve to stiffen the wall if


adequately supported at the top and bottom. The wall
between pilasters can then be designed to span
horizontally allowing very high walls to be built using
only nominal masonry thickness.

Vertical reinforcement

Lateral ties
Webs of pilaster units partially
removed to permit placing of
horizontal reinforcement

Horizontal bond beam


reinforcement

Place metal lath or wire screen


under and above bond beam
in partially grouted wall

FIGURE 11.45

Construction of reinforced concrete masonry pilaster with continuous bond beams.

Reinforcement in curved masonry wall.

Reinforcement for masonry column.

CHAPTER

12

NATURAL STONE
12.1 GENERAL

12.2 TYPES OF STONE

Natural stone has been in extensive use for many


centuries as one of the most widely accessible building
materials available. Over long periods of time its
properties, applications, and behavior, constitute a
story that is unbelievably complex.

Through the years, stone has been used as a


structural material and a finish material. Stone requires
considerable thickness. Solid stone is rarely used for
structural purposes due to the increased cost of stone
and installation labor. In today
s modern construction,
stone is used in thin slabs for countertops, stair treads,
flooring, exterior and interior finish and various types
of trim pieces in masonry construction.

Stone is the primary building material of the earth


s
crust. Since the beginning of civilization, stone has
stimulated the artistic sense and has appealed to man
s
most primitive needs. Extraordinary stone sculptures,
pyramids and obelisks of early cultures reached
ast onishing perf ection both in excel lence of
workmanship and in technique of stone transport.
The improvement in quarrying and finishing stone
has made this building material recuperate popularity
among architects. Stone offers the architect a wide
variety of applications and unlimited combinations of
textures and colors.
Rock is a geologic term that means solid and
unconsolidated material in the earth
s crust, but small,
quarried pieces of rock are called stone. This is a
material made from various types of naturally occurring
rock.
There are three classifications of rock: igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic. The most common
types of stone for construction are:
Igneous rock (granite),
Sedimentary rocks (sandstone, limestone, and
travertine),
Metamorphic rocks (marble and slate).

Table 12.1 lists the most common uses for granite,


marble, limestone, slate and sandstone.

12.2.1 RUBBLE AND ASHLAR STONE


In buildings and residential construction, stone can
be used in two different ways. Stone may be laid in
mortar, like brick or concrete block, to make walls,
arches, and vaults. This use may be structural or
architectural. Stone may also be purely an architectural
function, mechanically attached in large sheets as a
thin facing over the structural frame and walls of a
building. This is known as a stone curtain wall.
In describing the appearance of field stone, there
are two simple distinctions useful in classifying patterns
of stone masonry:
Rubble masonry, which is composed of
unsquared pieces of stone and
Ashlar masonry, which is made up of squared
pieces.
Both rubble and ashlar masonry may be laid as
coursed stone masonry which has continuous
horizontal joint lines or as uncoursed or random which
does not.

236

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 12.1 Stone Application


Stone Type
Uses
Exterior wall panels
Granite

Marble

Limestone

Slate

Sandstone

Interior finish panels


Thresholds, flooring
and stair treads
Base and trim
Countertops
Water courses
Lintels
Window sills
Hearths
Sculpture
Chips for terrazzo
Exterior wall panels
Interior finish panels
Thresholds, flooring
and stair treads
Base and trim
Tabletops
Toilet partitions
Hearths
Window sills
Sculpture
Chips for terrazzo
Coping
Lintels
Sculptured trim
Flooring and stair treads
Countertops
Roofing
Exterior panels

Exterior paving
Flooring

The meaning of the terms are very general and there


can be some variation in usage even among those
experienced in the field of stone masonry.
The irregular shapes and sizes of the rubble stone
require the mason to select each stone carefully to fit
the available space, and occasionally to trim a stone,
normally with a mason
s hammer. Similar in many
ways to brickwork, ashlar stonework has unique
problems. The stones must be lined and placed by a
hoist when they are too heavy to lift manually.

Several types of devices are commonly used for


this purpose, such as attaching a hoisting rope to the
sides or top of the stone block avoiding interference
with the mortar joint. To avoid any uneven positioning
of the stone due to the quicker drying and hardening of
mortar at the face of the wall, mortar joints in ashlar
work are usually raked out after setting the stones.
After the mortar in a wall has cured, the masons return
to point the wall by filling the joints out to the face with
mortar and tooling to the desired profile. Stone is
stronger and more weather resistant in the horizontal
direction so rubble or ashlar masonry should be laid
with the quarry bed or grain of the stone running in the
horizontal direction.
Some building stone, particularly marble and
limestone, deteriorate rapidly in the presence of acid.
Stone application may be restricted in regions where
the air is heavily polluted. Unlike clay brick, using acid
for stone cleaning may not be a viable option. During
construction, special care should be taken to keep
stonework clean. Also, the work should be covered
as much as possible. High standards of workmanship
should be implemented and nonstaining mortars
should be used. Masonry flashing must be nonstaining
metal or plastic. Stonework should be cleaned with
mild soap, water, and a soft brush.

12.2.2 STONE COURSING


The coursing of stone is dependent on the type of
stone. Rubble stone is used with little or no shaping.
Squared stone is a stone with slightly shaped edges
resulting in vertical joints. Ashlar is a highly shaped
stone. Also, ashlar may consists of thick pieces of
stone and therefore be referred to as cut stone.
There are several methods used to place stones in
a wall. These methods are classified into range
(coursed), broken range (semi-coursed) and random
(uncoursed). When stones are placed in uniform
courses for the entire length of the wall it is called
range masonry. Stones are coursed for short distances
in broken range masonry. Stone coursing in random
masonry does not exist, therefore there are no aligned
vertical joints. Figures 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3 show some
common stone wall patterns.

NATURAL STONE
12.2.2.1 RUBBLE STONE MASONRY PATTERNS

237

12.2.2.3 SPLIT STONE MASONRY HEIGHT PATTERN

Uncoursed Fieldstone
One-Height Pattern (Single Rise)

Uncoursed Ledge Rock

Two-Height Pattern

Uncoursed Roughly Square

FIGURE 12.1

Rubble stone patterns.

12.2.2.2 SPLIT STONE MASONRY PATTERNS


Three-Height Pattern

FIGURE 12.3

Split stone height patterns.

12.2.3 STONE FINISHES


Coursed Ashlar-Running Bond

Random Coursed Ashlar

Random Broken Coursed Ashlar

FIGURE 12.2

Split stone masonry patterns.

There are a wide variety of available finishes for


the different types of stone used in construction. Each
type of stone has its own nomenclature. For example,
does a
shot-groundfinish apply or give the same
finish as a
shot-sawed
? The nomenclature of
marble, granite and limestone are summarized in Table
12.2.
The selection of stone f inishes should be
appropriate for the conditions under which they will be
used. Surfaces highly polished, for example, are not
appropriate for flooring or stairs where a small amount
of water will make the surface very slippery. In an
environment where dirt and pollution may collect and
be difficult to clean, rough finishes may not be
appropriate for exterior walls.

238

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 12.2 Stone Finishes


Granite Finishes
Polished
Honed
Fine-rubbed
Rubbed
Shot-ground
Thermal (Flame)

Sandblasted, fine stipple


Sandblasted, coarse stipple
Sawn

Marble Finishes
Polished
Honed
Sandblasted
Abrasive
Wet-sand
Limestone Finishes
Smooth finish
Plucked
Machine tooled
Chat-sawed

Shot-sawed

Split face

Rock face

Mirror gloss, with sharp reflections


Dull sheen, without reflections
Smooth and free from scratches; no sheen
Plane surface with occasional slight trails or scratches
Plane surface with pronounced circular markings or trails having no regular
pattern
Plane surface with flame finish applied by mechanically controlled means to
ensure uniformity; surface coarseness varies, depending upon grain structure of
granite
Plane surface, slightly pebbled, with occasional slight trails or scratches
Coarse plane surface produced by blasting with an abrasive; coarseness varies
with type of preparatory finish and grain structure of granite
Relatively plane surface, with texture ranging from wire sawn (a close
approximation of rubbed finish) to shot sawn, with scorings 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) in
depth; gang saws produce parallel scorings; rotary or circular saws make circular
scorings; shot-sawn surfaces are sandblasted to remove all rust stains and iron
particles
Glossy surface which brings out the full color and character of the marble. (Not
recommended for floor finishes)
Satin-smooth surface with little or no gloss (Recommended for commercial
floors)
Matte-textured surface with no gloss (Recommended for exterior use)
Flat, nonreflective surface suitable for exterior use, stair treads, and other
nonslip surfaces
Smooth surface suitable for stair treads and other nonslip surfaces
Machine finish producing a uniform honed finish; uses only select grade or
standard grade
Rough texture produced by rough planning the surface of the stone
Finish made by cutting parallel, concave grooves in stone with 4, 6, or 8 grooves
to the inch; depth of the grooves range from 1/32 to 1/16 inch (0.8 to 1.6 mm)
Coarse, pebbled surface that closely resembles the appearance of sandblasting;
sometimes contains shallow saw marks or parallel scores; direction of score or
saw marks will be vertical and/or horizontal in the wall unless the direction is
specified
Coarse, uneven finish ranging from a pebbled surface to one rippled with
irregular, roughly parallel grooves; steel shot used during gang-sawing rusts
during process, adding permanent brown tones to the natural color variations
Rough, uneven, concave-convex finish produced by splitting action; limits stone
sizes to 1'-4" (406 mm) high 4'-0" (1,219 mm) long; available in ashlar or similar
stone veneer only
Similar to split face except that the face of the stone has been dressed by
machine or by hand to produced bold convex projection along the face of the
stone

NATURAL STONE

239

12.2.4 STONE CONSTRUCTION


Stone veneer supplied in thin slabs from 3/4 in. to
1 /4 in. (19.1 to 32.2 mm) thick can be used as cladding
over a structural support system. Improved cutting and
fabricating methods can be used to make very thin slabs
approximately 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) thick. For example, a
masonry or concrete wall could be the structural support
system and the stone veneer is applied to the wall with
mastic.
1

Mortar

Butt Joint
Typical wire anchor

Steps, trim, coping, and band courses are types


of stone work that use cut stone, regularly called
dimension stone. Understanding the application of
stone to the backup system as veneer will facilitate a
practical design. The attaching of cut stone and stone
veneer to masonry, concrete and steel construction
should be with metal clamps and anchors. Some
common methods of anchoring and forming corner
joints are show in Figures 12.4. and 12.5.
3/4
R

Shim

Corner Cove

Stainless steel
expansion bolt
Corrosion
resistant angle
Steel stud
structural support

Corrosion
resistant dowel
Stone veneer

Corner Block
Stone veneer
Steel stud
structural support
Two way cramp
strap anchor

FIGURE 12.5
Cement spot

FIGURE 12.4

Anchoring details.

Corner joints.

The space around the anchoring device between


the back of the stone and the structural wall should be
surrounded with plaster to hold the stone away from
the wall. For exterior use, gypsum plaster is not
appropriate. Non-staining and non-shrinking portland
cement mortar should be used to fill the joints of the
stone. Typical installation of stone veneer at the
parapet on a concrete frame building at the roof line is
shown in Figure 12.6.

240

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Coping anchor
Stone coping
Grout
Drip
Counter flashing

Lateral anchor
between panels
Dovetail slot
cast in concrete

Flashing

Stone veneer
panel

Flashing set
in reglet

Weep holes

Concrete insert

FIGURE 12.6

Parapet detail.

12.3 DIFFERENCES IN STONE


Since the beginning of civilization, stone has been
present in our building culture. Stone is a permanent,
durable, solid material used for shelter. Also, it is the
strongest natural resource that withstands centuries.
Building designs can be affected by the distinctive
physical characteristics of every stone. The most
common types of building stones are granite, marble,
limestone, travertine and sandstone.

12.3.1 GRANITE
Granite is an igneous rock and is made up of
sev eral diff erent minerals such as f eldspars,
amphiboles, biotites and other mineral combinations,
each having a different hardness. However, granite
owes its hardness and density to the fact that it has
been solidified deep within the earth under extreme
pressure. For this reason, the chemical composition
of granite is comparable to lava. The crust of the earth
has changed with seismic activity, forcing veins of
granite to the surface. Glaciers scraped off layers of
dirt, sand and rock to expose granite formations.

Granite is an excellent choice for building exteriors


and interiors due to its natural properties. These
properties make granite one of the most durable
building materials. Nonabsorbent and stain-resistant
granite requires low maintenance, and last longer than
other natural building materials. Designers and
architects can enjoy the design freedom with deep
colors, rich textures and amazing visual depth that can
enhance any of their designed buildings.
12.3.1.1 CHARACTERISTICS
Expansion
Granite stone expands and contracts with
temperature change. Usually the amount of change
is minor and not problematic.
Weathering
Stone, in general, and granite, in particular, posses
non-porous characteristics providing superior weather
resistance when compared to other building materials.
Weathering and airborne chemicals are not normally
issues of concern for granite.
In poli shed granite surf aces, f reeze/thaw
weathering is unusual. Thermal finishes of granites
are slightly permeable and granite could suffer minor
freeze/thaw weathering in the top quarter-inch (6.4
mm) of finish.
Permeability
Granite, although capable of absorbing moisture,
is significantly less porous than other building stones.
Granite is cut with a slurry of water and abrasive
material. The moisture absorbed during fabrication
gives the granite a different color than in its dry state
and occasionally, granite is shipped before it is
completely dried. Granite will return to its true color
after drying. Once dry, rain and humidity will not
normally penetrate the stone.
12.3.1.2 BUILDING APPLICATIONS
The requirements for each construction project are
different and unique. To create stone pieces exactly
sized for the project, architects and engineers must
work closely with design craftsmen and stone setters.
Modern quarrying and fabrication techniques
applied by stone producers have given architects a
wide variety of alternatives to consider when designing
with granite.

NATURAL STONE
Exterior
Enhancing the appearance with beautiful and
durable granite cladding is one of the best ways to
showcase a building. Designers may choose from a
wide range of granite cladding systems. The
application of a granite cladding system with striking
exteriors is a distinctive process to each building.
Depending on the project and application, specific
anchoring systems may be recommended by granite
producers.

241

The imagination of landscape architects to make


exterior settings, such as planters, benches, terraces
and fountains, inviting and useful as well as beautiful
is unlimited. Each building structure should be created
by designers that work directly with stone experts.
Elaborate elements contain idividual pieces numbered
in the manufacturing process enabling correct field
assembly. Landscape structures may be built with
concrete or masonry backup and use granite as a
veneer.
12.3.1.3 MAINTENANCE

Interior
Granite, for interior design, can be shaped to the
designer
s requirements. The use of granite in lobbies,
fountains, executive offices and stylish bathrooms is
unlimited. The architect or designer can have pieces
of granite virtually any size or shape fabricated
particularly for the required building. Lobbies and
atriums are open spaces where granite is used
extremely well. Also, the use of granite makes unique
fountains, benches and pilasters. Granite desks and
coffee tables make executive offices and boardrooms
distinctive and elegant. Stylish bathrooms are created
with beautiful, maintenance-f ree granite walls,
counters and vanities.
Landscaping
Granite is popular in exterior landscape design due
to its durability and beauty. Courtyards and gardens
can be enhanced with granite paving, benches
fountains and planters.

Acid rain and modern air pollution combined with


freeze/thaw cycles are eroding and staining marbles,
limestones and sandstones. The natural beauty of
structures can be damaged by these forces and the
structural integrity compromized. Granite is known to
be the hardest and most moisture-resistant of all
building stones and most resistant to these destructive
forces. Even granite, however, if subjected to staining
agents, can lose luster due to dirt and other normal
forces in high-traffic areas.
The high density of natural granite resists absorption
of staining materials and in many situations granite
surfaces are best left untreated with impregnating or
sealing agents. A mild solution of soap and water is
enough to clean dirt from the granite surface. When
thermal-finished granite is expected to be in regular
contact with stai ning agent s, an appropri ate
impregnator should be used to enhance stain
resistance. The surface texture or color of the granite
should not be altered by the impregnators. As usual,
when applying an impregnator, a sample area of the
granite should be tested to assure that there will be no
detrimental affect to the color or texture.
Stain resistance can be increased with the use of
sealers. Sealers can change the texture and surface
of thermal-finished stone. Also, sealers can create
layeres that build up on the surface and are less
durable than the granite. In exterior applications,
sealers are not recommended since they can catch
moisture within the top layer of stone. During freeze/
thaw cycles, this condition may lead to surface cracks
and a blurring appearance. Prior to its general
application, any sealer should be pre-tested on the
granite stone in a variety of conditions.

FIGURE 12.7

Exterior granite landscape.

The recommendation for cleaning granite surfaces


is to use a neutral detergent and water. Locations
subjected to tracking of outside dirt and grime, such
as high-traffic areas may require a stronger cleaner.
A polished preserver/restorer may be used for polished
and honed floors subject to heavy commercial traffic.
A list of granite maintenance tips is given in Table 12.3.

242

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Table 12.3 Granite Maintenance Tips
Condition
Cleaning Agent
General Construction Detergent and water
Mortar Stains
Phosphoric acid (Caution:
etches metal)
Paint

Paint & varnish remover

New Oil and Grease


Stains
Muriatic Acid
Rust and Metal Stains

Detergent and water for Minor


stains; Naphtha gas
or pyrene for major stains
Neutralize with caustic soda
Phosphoric acid compound

Old Oil & Grease


Stains

Hydrogen peroxide & Plaster of


Paris

Tar and Pitch

Naphtha gas or pyrene

Application Method
Sponge or wipe on with rag.
Apply with rag. Rub thoroughly
with fiber brush. Wash thoroughly
with clear water.
Rub on thoroughly with rag. Wash
with detergent and water. Wipe
dry.
Rub in thoroughly with sponge or
rag. Wash off with detergent and
water. Wipe dry.
Add residue
Rub on thoroughly with rag or
sponge. Wash thoroughly with
water and wipe dry.
Mix hydrogen peroxide and plaster
1
and apply in thick ( /2" +) patch.
Let cure for three hours. Remove
and wash with detergent and
water. Wipe dry.
Apply with rag. Rub thoroughly
with stiff brush. Wash off with
detergent and water. Wipe dry.

12.3.1.4 DETAILS
This section provides basic details and elevations
for a variety of exterior and interior granite applications.
These details serve as typical examples from which
drawings may be developed for specific projects,
however, the designer must consider issues for the
specific application.

Stone coping
Dowel
Concrete or masonry

Anchor

Dowels
Anchor

Stone

Stone

Stone coping
(sloped for drain)
Dowel
Concrete or masonry

Anchor
Stone

FIGURE 12.8 Steps.

FIGURE 12.9

Coping.

Stone

NATURAL STONE
Split edge
grout joint

Grout joint
Mortar
bed

Mortar bed

Anchor

Grout
joint

Anchor

243

Grout
joint

Stone

Stone
Grout joint
Level surface

Mortar bed

Stone

Sealant

Dowel

Sloped slab

Pedestal

Mortar bed

FIGURE 12.10

Base.

FIGURE 12.12

Paving.

Anchor

Steel truss

Anchor

Anchor

Clip angle
Face of
granite

Stone
Concrete

Anchor

Concrete

Strap anchor
Clip angle
Steel truss

FIGURE 12.13

Stone

FIGURE 12.11

Columns.

Steel truss system.

244

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Clip angle
Anchor
Shim
Anchor
Anchor

Clip angle
Leveling bolt

Face of
granite
Dowel

Face of
granite

Support
structure

Anchor bolt
Clip angle
Clip angle

FIGURE 12.16

FIGURE 12.14

Clip system.

Steel clip system.

Granite sill

Bond
breaker
Anchor
bolt

Self taping
metal screws

Face of
granite

Face of
granite

Precast
concrete

Masonry or
concrete
Kerf

Granite soffit
Continuous kerf

FIGURE 12.15

Curtain wall system.

FIGURE 12.17

Granite faced precast.

NATURAL STONE

245

12.3.2 MARBLE

Clip angle
Anchor bolt

Throughout the years, buildings with stone have


been used for artistic expression. Limited only by the
imagination of the designer who wants the artistic
features and permanence of the stone building, these
features are obtained through the assemblage of
essential pieces into a magnificent sculpture of a
building.

Shim

The crystalization of limestones or dolomites form


a metamorphic rock commonly called marble. All
calcareous rocks as well as some dolomitic and
serpentine rocks that are able to be polished are
commercially called marbles.
Face of
granite

Dowel
Support
structure

Anchor
bolt

Clip angle

Marble, with hundreds of varieties available and


each possessing varying physical characteristics, is a
product of nature. In the selection of marble, there is
nothing that can be done to change or modify the
conditions in which nature presents these varieties.
Therefore, size may become a limiting factor to
consider.
12.3.2.1 APPLICATION

Granite soffit

FIGURE 12.18

Anchor bolt

Granite faced soffit.

Marble has been successfully applied as an exterior


veneer on various types of buildings. The wide variety
of colors, textures, patterns, and sizes provides a costeffective way for the designer to achieve a unique
character to the structure.
In addition to dwellings, other buildings may require
use of marble in vast quantities. First and foremost
are commercial buildings, such as banks, premises
of important industrial companies and prominent
hotels.
For these buildings, a stone of high standing is
axiomatic. With hotels, marble expresses status and
great distinction which attracts the social elite.
This stone is also imperative, even though less
stringent, for public buildings, such as State
Departments, churches, hospitals, railway stations of
important cities, airports and other highly visible public
facilities.
For all of these buildings, no other material is more
appropriate than marble. Marble is particularly suitable
for outside walls in order to achieve the goal desired.
The choice of marble for an exterior application is made
on the basis of three fundamental criteria: durability,
color, and surface finish.

FIGURE 12.19

Stainless steel anchors.

246

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

FIGURE 12.21

Marble colors (salmon walls


and white entrance).

FIGURE 12.20

Marble entry.

12.3.2.2 CHARACTERISTICS
Durability
Durability is a characteristic of the material to
withstand climatological effects, resist atmospheric
agents, and endure attacks from pollutants.
A distinction should be made between weathering
and decay of marble. Not all changes by weathering
agents are necessarily undesirable or harmful since
they do not always destroy or materially alter the natural
integrity of the marble within a given length of time.
When exposed to the processes of weathering, all
material must ultimately decompose or disintegrate.
For example, some changes in color may not materially
affect the integrity of the marble but may be desirable
for architectural or aesthetic effects, giving an
appearance of age.
Color
Color is a particularly important feature in
architectural design. Selection of color can be aided
by contacting the marble or stone suppliers as the most
reliable source of information. A local contractor may
also be consulted to determine the availability of certain
colors and types of building stone in the area.

Surface Finishes
The marble surface may be finished in a number
of ways. Smooth finishes emphasize color and veining,
whereas rough finishes subdue the veining of
markings.
The desired finish bears relationship to final cost
as the smoother, more highly reflective surfaces
require more finishing and consequently more time.
The most economical finish for exterior use is the
abrasive finish.
Texture
The term texture, as applied to marble, relates to
the size, degree of uniformity and arrangement of
constituent minerals. The main component of most
marbles are grains of crystalline calcite with definite
cleavage planes which, when broken, show bright
reflecting surfaces. In most marbles, however, the
grains are elongated in one direction by the folding
and applications of the beds.
Strength
Marble, like many natural stones, varies in strength
from quarry to quarry and even within a quarry. Marble
should be tested to determine the strength. The
strength of a marble, which is a measure of ability to
resist stresses, depends on many factors such as:

NATURAL STONE

247

the degree of consistency,

Seismic Considerations

the rift and cleavage of the crystals,

Marble is a very brittle material and cannot


withstand large deflections. Any deflections in a marble
system must be minor or the deflections must occur
at the joints. In addition marble can be heavy
(dependent on thickness) which could induce higher
seismic forces. Seismic considerations require
engineering based on specific factors for each project
such as panel weight, wind load, back-up material,
structural flexure and seismic conditions.

the interlocking of the crystals, and


the nature of any cementing materials present
Thermal Expansion
The thermal expansion of marble is an important
consideration since its coefficient varies from one
variety to another. This consderation is due to the
marble use with different materials when forming large
units that are firmly attached. The quarries can provide
information for thermal characteristics of any specific
marble.

12.3.2.3 INTERIOR VENEER


With interior veneer applications, the aesthetic factor
is significantly important, therefore, colored and veined
marbles are usually used since they present many
decorative features.

Fire Resistance
Marbles, as any stone, are fire resistant. Heat
travels through marbles quite rapidly due to thermal
conductivity. The fire resistance of marble can be
improved with the use of insulating material.

In the architectural application of stone veneer,


there are many features that can be achieved
depending on the type of material. One features is
the pattern of panel placement.
Veneer Patterns

Abrasion Resistance
Marbles are recommended for floors and stairs,
particularly when the Ha (abrasion hardness valve) is 10
or more, due to wearing quality when exposed to
pedestrian traffic. The method for determining Ha is
contained in ASTM C 241, Standard Test Method for
Abrasion Resistance of Stone Subjected to Foot Traffic.
Translucency
One of the most interesting characterisctics of
marble stone is translucency. This attribute is not
possessed by all marble varieties. Translucency
depends on the following factors:
Crystal Structure - Marbles containing certain
crystal structure are able to transmit light.
Color - Marbles are more translucent with white
and lighter colors.
Thickness - When the thickness of the marble
stone increases, the light transmission is reduced.
Surface Finish - Translucency is more visible in
smooth finishes than in rough finishes.

Marble will lend i tself t o speci f ic pat tern


arrangements, such as side slip pattern and end slip
pattern. The natural folds and veins found in marble
create a distinctive marking trend throughout the stone
block that is necessary for a pattern.
Formal patterns require selectivity, which usually
increases the installed cost of the marble or stone
veneer.
12.3.2.4 INSTALLATION
Anchors
Based on specific factors, anchors should be
engineered separately for each project. The size of
anchors depends upon materials, codes and physical
conditions of the structure. All anchor ties must be
made of corrosion-resistant metal, such as stainless
steel, bronze and brass straps and copper. The type
of marble may dictate other anchor requirements. For
example, trade practices provide for a minimum of four
anchors per piece of marble up to 12 square feet (1.1
m2) of surface area, and two for each additional 8
square feet (0.7 m2).

248

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

UCramp Strap

Dovetail Strap

Gripstay

LStrap

UBar

Wire Tieback
(with Dowel)

ZCramp Strap

Dovetail Twisted
Two Way Strap

Dovetail L-Strap

Dovetail
Dowel Strap

Gripstay Two
Way Strap

LBar or
Hooked Bolt

ZBar

Wire
Tieback

Lewis Key
(Plug Anchor)

LStrap
with Dowel

Twp Way
Cramp Strap

Twisted Strap

Dovetail Two
Way Strap

Dovetail Strap
(with dowel)

Gripstay Strap
(with Dowel)

Eye Rod and


Dowel

Ring Lead Cinch


Anchor bolt

Tee

Bar Strap (with


Dowel)

Sleeve Type Expansion


Anchor Bolt

Plain

Threaded

Bent Rod

FIGURE 12.22

Spring Clip
(with Collar)

Relieving
Angle Clip

Shim

Dowels

Typical standard anchors.

Relieving Angles
All openings need relieving angles to support the
stone above. Additionally, relieving angles should be
placed at each story height or at a maximum of 20 ft
(6.1 m) vertical spacing. Angles must have the capacity
to safely support the load of the stone veneer.
Field Repair
During construction of any structure, changes are
needed to accommodate other trades and design
revisions. These changes may require field fabrication

and finishing of marble that can be executed by qualified


marble craftsmen.
Materials on site or during transportation can be
broken and repair or patching of marbles may be
necessary. The progress of the job can be maintained
when repairs are allowed to be made on site thus aiding
in the successful completion of the work. Repairs done
at the site by qualified marble craftsmen will not change
the desired appearance or strength of the completed
installation.

249

NATURAL STONE
Colored Grouts

Backing Rods

There are a wide variety of colored grouting


materials offered by many suppliers. Testing should
be done to determine the acceptability between the
colored joint filler and the stone before proceeding, since
some marbles are more porous than others. The
pigments contained in the colored grout should not stain
the stone.

Modern construction practice uses backing rods


placed between the marble veneer units with a caulking
sealant applied into the joint from the face side of the
veneer (see Figures 12.24, 12.25 and 12.26).

Typical Joint Designs and Caulking


Face of
stone

Joints between stone panels are a factor in the


design of successful building stone systems. This
detail is important since it must prevent stress
accumulation and provide relief of the stresses due to
movement of the stone or the backup system. At the
same time it must also furnish a weather-tight seal to
prevent water leakage through the joints. Joints can
be divided into normal joints and expansion/contraction
joints.
Normal joints are the ordinary joints between stone
panels, whereas expansion/contraction joints have the
specific duty of absorbing the expansion and
contraction movements of the structure of the building.
A normal joint may be capable of performing as an
expansion joint, but this quality only acts as a
redundancy in the system and is not to substitute for
the actual expansion joint.
When portland cement mortar is used to seal
joints, it should be placed as late as possible in the
construction process and after the joints have been
scraped clean and generously moistened.

Waterproof
caulking
Backing
rod

FIGURE 12.24

Flush wall joint.

Face of stone
Backing rod

Waterproof caulking
Sealant

Filler strip or backing rod

Compressed Joint
Sealant

Filler strip or backing rod

Expanded Joint

FIGURE 12.23

Expansion and control joints.

FIGURE 12.25

Butt joint.

Face of stone

250

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


3. It should be water, air and dust-proof
(impermeable);

Face of stone
Backing rod

4. It should neither stain nor corrode the stone or


adjacent material;
5. It should be plastic and not crack and should
maintain plasticity through time;

Waterproof
caulking

Face of stone

6. It should not be affected by chemical agents


which would normally be found in buildings,
such as mortar and cement alkalinity, or
maintenance substances;
7. It should be compatible with other fillers used
in the same joint.
8. Adhesion and stain tests are recommended.
9. Primers may be required.

FIGURE 12.26

Mitred joint.

An important feature in the determination of the


joint sealant is the selection of the filler. The joint filler,
or backing rod, performs three functions: it controls
the depth of the caulking sealant; if provides support
for the caulking sealant when compressed during
tooling; and it acts as a bond breaker for the sealant
to prevent three-sided adhesion (three-sided adhesion
can result in failure of the sealant).
Caulked waterproof joints are applied over joints
that have backing rods inserted. The backing rods
can be porous, called open cell, or the backing rod
can be non-porous, called closed cell, and are typically
made of polyetilene or polysteryne rope.

The depth of the caulking material in the joint


should be between 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) and 3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
deep, or approximately half the joint width. Caulked
joints in marble veneer are usually smaller than those
found in regular brick or concrete block masonry.
Typical joints are 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) wide, and in some
cases, such as interior marble veneer, only 1/8 in. (3.2
mm) wide. No caulked joint should be deeper than
the joint width.
Particular care must be taken to assure clean joints
for proper adhesion. Sealant application must be in
accordance with manufacturer
s recommendations. If
stone thickness and setting conditions allow, sealing
the back and front of the joint (double sealing) is
recommended.
To avoid possible smears in critical areas, tape can
be used along the joint edges.
Gaskets, when used as joint fillers, are usually
extruded or pre-formed for joint; slight pressure will
compress the gasket for efficient water protection.

Caulking
The best sealing is obtained with special caulking
materials called sealants. These are typically highly
plastic compounds, usually silicon or (poly)urethene.
A good sealant should sati sf y t he f ollowing
requirements:
1. It must provide resistance, through time, to
atm ospheric agents wi thout marked
alterations of physical and chemical qualities;
2. It must give constant adherence to the
materials to which it is applied;

Before applying the caulking sealant, all kerfs or


holes on the surface of the marble to which the sealant
will be applied must be filled with a high-quality nonstaining compatible sealant.
The caulking or sealant application of marble stone
veneer is one of the final steps in cladding construction.
The sealant compound must be compatible with all
other units to perform correctly. Proper caulking of
the joints prevents moisture penetration and avoids
the development of high stress from any movement
of the marble veneer.

NATURAL STONE
Mortar and Sealant Joints
Preventing the formation of stains on exterior
veneered stone will assist in maintaining the aesthetic
appeal of marble veneer. Cement used in mortar should
not contain noxious components, such as blast furnace
cements or a high alkaline portland cement. Also, the
aggregate should be carefully washed and free of clay,
iron and salt.
The compressive strength of the mortar used for
joint sealing must be less than the compressive
strength of the marble. This ensures that the mortar
will fail first, thus allowing time to correct and repair
the cause of the failure before the marble can be
damaged. See Figure 12.27 for typical portland
cement mortar joints.

251

Moisture flows through the natural faults and voids


in the stone at different rates, blocked off in some
areas, flowing readily through others, evaporating as it
reaches the face of the stone. The problem can be
aggravated by kerfs in the edge of the stone.
Lining kerfs with epoxy or polyurethane or applying
a hydrophobic sealer or the use of a material that can
prevent water being transmitted from the kerf edge to
the face of the stone is effective in eliminating the damp
appearance problem.
The visual effect of lining and sealing material on
the behavior of the entire veneer should be evaluated
prior to its use.
Flashing
Condensation also produces moisture, therefore
water must be permitted to drain from the setting space
behind the stone by using properly designed weep
holes and flashing. Flashing can be flexible material
installed between the stone panel and the structure,
one end higher against the structure and turned with
the other end lower in the stone joint as shown in Figure
12.28.

Concave
(Tooled)

Flush

Masonry or concrete
backup

Reglet

V - joint
(Tooled)

FIGURE 12.27

Raked
(Tooled)

Typical portland cement

mortared joints.
Epoxy Fill
Since the advent of thinner building stone, water
may penetrate stone veneer more rapidly than normally
expected. Areas with dark, damp appearance of
moisture may occur on the face of thin stone. The
darker area is the result of moisture in the stone.

Flashing
Caulked joint

FIGURE 12.28 Continuous waterproof flashing


(typical detail for concrete or masonry backup).
Commonly used flashing materials are waterproof,
rubberized fabric, polyethylene or soft neoprene sheets
or soft, thin gauge stainless steel or copper flashings.
Flashing should be placed over all openings, lintels
and continuous support angles with 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) weep
holes spaced every 24 in. (610 mm) along the flashing,
even though the 2005 MSJC Code allows for 3/16 in. (4.8
mm) diameter weep holes spaced at 33 in. (838 mm) on
center.

252

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Copings

Drilled undercut
anchor hole

Moisture must be prevented from entering the top


of a stone wall. Many designers use copings for this
purpose. A coping is usually a stone slab laid over the
top of a wall and designed to prevent water from entering
the wall system (see Figure 12.29).

Install second

Masonry or
concrete
Cement
spot

Drip (3/8min.
both ways)

/4

Stainless steel pins,


2 per stone

Install first
#8 brass, copper, or
stailess steel wire

Drip (3/8min.
both ways)
Full mortar bed
Sealant

Continuous
metal flashing

Masonry or
concrete

Impervious felt

Masonry or concrete

Cement
spot

FIGURE 12.29

Molded marble coping (typical


detail for concrete or masonry backup).
Anchor Details

FIGURE 12.30
Careful detailing of the anchoring system is
important. By considering different stone slabs and
how they are going to perform as a unit, the designer
can create an appealing and durable structure.
When developing anchor details, code requirements
must be met. A common type of anchor system is
known as
wire tied
. In this system, the marble veneer
is attached to a structural support system through a
combination of wire ties and portland cement spots.
The wire ties resist the tension loads and the portland
cement spots transfer compression loads. All anchor
ties must be made of non-ferrous or stainless steel
corrosion-resistant metal. Aluminum wire is not
acceptable. All wire anchors must be embedded in
portland cement spots. Gypsum casting plaster can
be used for interior installation only.

Mitred joint corner.


Cement spot

Face of veneer

Masonry or
concrete

U - cramp #8
wire anchor

Cement spot

/4to 3/8

Face of veneer
Caulk
Masonry or concrete

Face of veneer

Cement spot

U - cramp #8
wire anchor

Face of veneer
Cement spot

FIGURE 12.31

Corner detail.

NATURAL STONE

Non-ferrous 9 gauge wire (must be


encased with mortar or plaster)

Steel stud

Stone liner

253

Cement spot

Face of stone

Shim

Masonry or
concrete

Screw the channel


at each stud
Stone

FIGURE 12.34
Channel mount to
face of sheathing

L-strap anchor with dowel and

liners.
Veneer can also be mechanically installed directly
to the building frame without using backup mortar or
plaster as illustrated in Figures 12.35.

Rigid back-up board

FIGURE 12.32

Face of stone

In addition to the wire tied system, slab marble


stone veneer can be anchored in a variety of methods.
Stone veneer can be mechanically installed to backup
masonry or concrete with cement mortar or casting
plaster around the anchors, as shown in Figures 12.33
and 12.34.

Masonry or
concrete

Masonry or
concrete

Cement spot

L-strap anchor with dowel.

Masonry or
concrete
Anchor bolt

Dowel

FIGURE 12.35

Cement spot

FIGURE 12.33

Shim

Stone veneer on steel studs.

Lstrap

L-strap anchor clip with dowel.

254

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

As Figure 12.36 illustrates, thin slab marble stone


veneer can also be installed using woven wire mesh
and paper backup on steel frames or wood studs.

Wood studs
Shim
Face of stone
#9 gauge
copper wire

Screw at each
stud

Screw at each
stud
Wire reinforced
lathing

Channel mount to
face of sheathing
Wire reinforced lathing

Wood studs
Face of stone

Anchored stone veneer on wood studs with wire


reinforced lathing system using a channel mount to
face of sheathing with #9 gauge copper wire anchor.
Steel studs

Face of stone
Self tapping
metal screw
Self tapping
metal screw
Wire
reinforced
lathing
Wire reinforced lathing
Steel studs
Face of stone

Anchored stone veneer on steel studs with


wire reinforced lathing system using metal
strap and dowel anchor and grout spot
Concrete screw

Face of stone

Masonry or
concrete
backup

Concrete
screw

Masonry or
concrete
backup

Wire reinforced lathing


Face of stone
Anchored stone veneer on concrete with wire
reinforced lathing system using steel strap
and dowel system

FIGURE 12.36

Anchoring veneer to cement plaster.

Wire
reinforced
lathing
1min. air space

NATURAL STONE
Marble stone panels can be mechanically anchored
to a grid system as shown in Figure 12.37.

255

Figures 12.38 through 12.46 illustrate various other


methods of anchoring marble stone veneer.
2to 21/2

Head support

Marble veneer

#8 non-ferrous
wire

Attaching clip

Steel strut

Face of
marble slab

Horizontal Head Support

Blindside with
gooseneck anchor
Attaching clip
Veneer joint
Bearing tape
Marble veneer

Intermediate support

Horizontal Intermediate Support

Face of marble
veneer

Metal lath and scratch and


brown plaster coat. For interior,
5
/8drywall acceptable

Marble liner glued


to back of marble

Metal dowel
Attaching clip
Marble veneer

Steel strut

Soffit
Quirk corner

Marble veneer

Bearing tape
Soffit furring
channels 18o.c.

Horizontal Base Support

FIGURE 12.37

Mechanical grid mounted

Cement mortar
spots

system.

Soffit

FIGURE 12.38

Attachment of marble veneer


to metal stud and plaster walls and soffits.

256

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Soffit furring
channel

Soffit furring channel

#8 non-ferrous wire anchor

FIGURE 12.42

/16diam.
hole
3

Bar strap with dowel soffit

anchor.

FIGURE 12.39

Intermediate lace tie anchor for


overhead installation.

non-ferrous wire
Marble liner epoxied
and doweled to marble
slab

Non-ferrous dowel
Clip angle attached to furring
channel or equivalent

FIGURE 12.43

Wire soffit anchor and liner.

Soffit panel
fastened to
concrete insert

Marble liner
epoxied and
dowelled to
marbled slab

FIGURE 12.40

Disk soffit anchor.

FIGURE 12.44

Soffit panel with marble liner.

Soffit furring channel

Cement spot
Marble
liner
Shelf angle
Masonry
or
concrete

U - cramp strap
type anchor
U - cramp #8
wire anchor

/4minimum

FIGURE 12.41 Eye rod and dowel soffit anchor.

FIGURE 12.45
soffit anchor.

U-cramp strap and marble liner

NATURAL STONE

257

Marble liner

Masonry or
concrete

Gypsum wallboard
(interior only)

Shelf angle

FIGURE 12.46

Gypsum plaster
spot (interior only)
or cement mortar

L-bar or hooked bolt soffit

anchor.
The
spot and tiemethod is usually the preferred
method used to install interior stone slab veneer. The
spot and tie method employs non-corrosive wire
anchors of brass or copper spaced a maximum of 24
in. (610 mm) on center around the perimeter of the
individual stone slabs. One end wire anchor is grouted
into a hole drilled in the edge of the stone and the
other end is bent and inserted into an inverted bellshaped hole in the backup wall. To ensure permanent
anchorage and alignment, cement mortar is used to
encase the anchor wires and at intermittent spots
between the back of the slab and the backup wall
(Figures 12.47 through 12.50).

FIGURE 12.49 Anchoring marble to wood stud


(interior detail).

Masonry or
concrete

Masonry or
concrete

Blind edge
anchor

Open edge anchor

Cement mortar spot

FIGURE 12.47

Intermediate lace or belly tie

FIGURE 12.50

anchor.

Connection of blind edge with

open edge.

Masonry or
concrete

Marble stone may be attached using frames. A


framing system is nothing more than a rigid support
for more than one piece of slab stone that is then
attached to the building.
The variety of possible approaches to assembling
a framing system is so large that it is impossible to
fully describe, therefore, some typical framing systems
are shown with the following typical anchoring details.
Cement mortar spot

FIGURE 12.48

Open edge anchor detail.

258

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Shim

Steel tube
frame
Steel plate,
welded (or
bolted) to steel
tube
Marble veneer

Marble liner
Dowel
Resilient
bearing tape
Caulked
joint

Steel
tube

Continuous
aluminum
extrusion

Not serrated using


screw attached @
each stud

Face of
stone

Extruded
aluminum
head
support

Special serrated
locking washer

Frame with contin uous

Caulked
joint

Intermediate
support

aluminum anchors.
Neoprene shim
Steel plate, welded
(or bolted) to steel
tube

Extruded aluminum offset

anchor.

Steel
channel
stud

Alternate

F IGURE 12.51

FIGURE 12.53

Marble face

Resilient
bearing
tape

Marble face
Resilient
bearing
tape
Caulked joint

Base
support

Resilient bearing tape


Extruded aluminum anchor

FIGURE 12.52 Extruded aluminum anchor with


bearing point.

FIGURE 12.54

Continuous extruded aluminum


anchors in continuous slots cut in the stone.

NATURAL STONE
Relieving angle (attached to
structure, frame, or studs by bolting
or welding)

259

Depth of concrete varies according to required strength


8-gage stainless steel
wire

Resilient bearing
tape (both sides)

Impervious
plastic or
membrane

Varies

Extruded
aluminum
intermediate
anchor
Non-continuous
slot

FIGURE 12.55

11/2- 2typical

Concrete

Intermediate anchor in non-

continuous slot.
Stone liner (epoxied and
doweled to stone slab)

Face of
stone

Face of stone
veneer

/16 x 1drilled
holes
3

FIGURE 12.57

Pre-cast concrete liner with


stone veneer facing.

Masonry or
concrete
Anchor bolt

Base support

Relieving angle

FIGURE 12.56

Non-continuous extruded
aluminum base support.
Another method of attaching marble stone slab
veneer is with concrete liners. This is simply a poured
concrete liner on the back of marble stone with No. 8
non-ferrous wire anchors or specialty stone anchors
connecting the concrete to the stone (Figure 12.57).
The advantage of this system is the use of thinner
marble stone slabs.
12.3.2.5 MAINTENANCE
Construction of any structure can be messy and
usually leaves residues of mortar, grout, dirt and other
contaminants on the newly installed marble. Marble,
like any other stone, needs regular maintenance
cleaning and since marble is expensive, one should
never risk damage by using homemade cleaners or
cleaners designed for other purposes.

FIGURE 12.58

Typical pre-cast concrete stone


anchors (sizes vary).
Polished Interior Marble
Polished marble has a glossy surface that
accentuates color and reflects light. Newly installed
marble needs cleaning to remove excess grout and grout
smears. When colored grout is used, the pigments
contained in the grout can stain the marble. The excess
grout should be removed immediately after grouting with
soft towels, sponges or cheesecloth and using clean
water. A mild proprietary detergent cleaner such as,
pH neutral, or slightly alkaline, should be used for driedon grout films. For construction dirt and other residues
a mild degreaser approved for marble is the best option.

260

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Frequent mopping of floors and sponge washing


of countertops is beneficial for keeping the polished
appearance in marble. Exercise caution when using
a scrubbing machine to avoid scratching the marble
surface. Normal cleaning products and acids are not
recommended for marble.
Typically, prev ention sav es time spent on
treatments and remedies, particularly since damage
to marble is irreversible.
Honed Interior Marble
Honed marble has a satin surface with relatively
little light reflection. Maintenance of honed interior
marble follows the guidance for polished interior
marble.
When honed marble is used as an exterior veneer,
excess mortar must be removed to provide the
appearance of a finish product. Specialty cleaners can
remove mortar and other contaminants without an
adverse effect on the stone. Care should be taken when
using honed marble as traffic surfaces, since the
accumulation of liquids or other materials would result
safety hazards and staining. Raw acids on marble
stones are not recommended, therefore, use cleaners
specifically designed for this purpose. When further
cleaning is needed, a professional should be consulted.
Floor Marble
Typically, the same practice of maintenance used
for polished and honed surfaces apply. Specific
questions or information on cleaning procedures
should be referred to professionals.
Floor marble subjected to traffic such as honed
finish floors, treads, and thresholds should be regularly
mopped or scrubbed in a manner that will not leave a
hazardous, slippery film.

First, wet marble surfaces with hot, clean water. A


mild household cleanser may be lightly sprinkled over
the wet stone. Then, mop and rinse the marble surfaces
thoroughly with clean hot water using a scrubbing
motion and dry with mop or cloth.
In many cases, special interior floor marble areas
should be protected where a polished finish is not
practical. Sealers, in this case, should be applied after
the floor marble has been cleaned to reduce
maintenance. Also, sealers prevent staining around
toilets and in food preparation areas such as
countertops.
For application the manufacturer
s directions
should be followed and sealers should only be applied
to clean interior floor marble.
Exterior Marble
Exterior marble is exposed to the ravages of the
environment elements and polluted water is perhaps
the greatest enemy of marble stone. Marble is
susceptible to biological staining that occurs in moist
conditions.
The cleaning of exterior marble should be performed
by a qualified professional with equipment, resources
and technical expertise to execute the cleaning work.
The use of a mild proprietary detergent cleaner that is
pH neutral or slightly alkaline is the best option.
12.3.2.6 DETAILS
This section provides basic details and elevations
for a variety of exterior and interior marble applications.
These details serve as examples from which drawings
may be developed for specific projects.

NATURAL STONE

Marble paver

Mortar or elastic
sealant joint

Cramp
Concrete slab

Mortar bed
Flashing

Drip

Full Mortar Bed Bonded

Filler strip

Elastic sealant filled


control joint

Marble paver

Mortar bed

Vapor barrier

Concrete slab

Full mortar
bed

Expansion material

Flashing

Full Mortar Bed - Control Joint

Mortar spots

Open joints for drainage


Bricks or
plastic pods

Marble paver

Dowel and
eye bolt

Bricks or
plastic pods

Concrete slab
Vapor barrier

Full mortar
bed

Drip

Flashing

Corner Spots

FIGURE 12.59

Paving details.

FIGURE 12.60

Coping details.

261

262

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Shim
Bolt to steel
framing,
concrete inserts
or to face of
concrete

Bolt to steel framing, beams, clip


angles, concrete inserts, etc.

/4min.

/4min.

Flat Strap Hangers

Shim

Angle attached to furring


channel or equivalent

Spacer

/4min.

Joint sealant

Plug and Wedge Type Hangers

L-Type angle

/4min.

Spline Type Hangers

FIGURE 12.61

Soffit details.

Support angle

NATURAL STONE

Marble liner epoxied


and doweled to
marble veneer

Shim

Bend and shape


if required

Bolt to steel or
concrete inserts

Sealant and
backer rod

/4min.

Edge Type Hangers

Marble liner epoxied


and doweled to
marble veneer
Soffit panel fastened
to concrete insert

Shim

Sealant and
backer rod

Soffit Panels with Marble Liners

FIGURE 12.62

Soffit details.

/4min.

263

264

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Insert

Shim
/4x 3/4bar welded
to clip angle (typ.)
1

Rod welded to clip angle


Insert
Shim

L - strap dovetail in
vertical joint

Insert

Joint min. 1/4

Joint min. 1/4

Dovetail anchor inside


of marble veneer

Concrete
dovetail
slot

L - strap dovetail anchor

Cement spot

Insert

Rod welded to clip angle

Clip angle

Joint min. 1/4


Shim

Shim
L - strap dovetail in
vertical joint

/4min.

Drip

L - strap dovetail in
vertical joint

Insert
/4x 3/4bar welded
to clip angle
1

Shim

Insert

Clip angle across


vertical joint

Joint min. 1/4


Shim
L-strap dovetail anchor
Cement spot

Drip

FIGURE 12.63

Anchorage details.

NATURAL STONE

265

Cement spot
L-strap with dowel
Cement spot

U cramp bar anchor

Cement spot

Straps, or wire anchor

Straps or wire anchor


Marble liner epoxied and
doweled to marble vener

Bent strap anchor

Clip angle
Wire anchor

Cement spot

Cement spot

Cement spot
Cement spot
Twisted strap anchor
Two way cramps strap
anchor

Cement spot

FIGURE 12.64

Anchorage details.

266

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Dovetail L - strap anchor


Dovetail strap with dowel

Clip angle
Shim

Insert
Cement spot

Dovetail L - strap anchor


Cement spot

Dovetail L - strap anchors


inside of marble veneer
Dovetail L - strap

Dovetail L - strap anchor


inside of marble veneer
Clip angle
Shim

Insert
Cement spot

Two way dovetail


strap anchor

Dovetail L - strap anchor


inside of marble veneer
Cement spot

Clip angle with dowel


Shim

Expansion shield
Cement spot

FIGURE 12.65

Anchorage details.

Cement spot

NATURAL STONE

267

/2

Bent strap anchored to


marble veneer with
expansion shield and
bolt

Masonry or
concrete
/2

Drip
/4

Marble veneer

Butt Joint
/4

L - strap anchored to
marble veneer with
expansion shield and
bolt

Masonry or
concrete

Standard Reglet
U cramp strap anchor
Note: Stagger anchors
to clear each other

11/2

Marble veneer

Quirk Joint

/2

Standard Reglet

Masonry or
concrete

Backer rod

Backer rod

U bar cramp in
horizontal joints
/4min.

/4min.

/16min.

Quirk Joint

Masonry or
concrete

Sealant

Compressed Joint

Bent two way strap


anchor in vertical joint.
U cramp also required
at horizontal joints

Sealant

Expanded Joint

Marble veneer

Quirk Joint

FIGURE 12.66

Veneer details.

268

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Masonry or concrete

Wire tie back anchors

Masonry or concrete

Wire tie back anchors

Cement spot

Cement spot
Moulding plaster spots

Masonry or concrete
Masonry or concrete

Wire tie back anchors


Wire tie back anchors

Cement spot

Cement spot

Masonry or concrete
Masonry or concrete
Metal feature strip
Drywall partition
Epoxy to base
Wire anchor
Thin set cement
Solid grout

FIGURE 12.67

Base details.

269

NATURAL STONE

Flooring

Door

Marble threshold

Stainless steel
dowel

Masonry or
concrete

Flooring

Cement mortar setting bed

Mortar Set Method

Vent tube
(plastic tube not
recommended)
Marble
flooring

Marble threshold
Door

Isolation joint
Flooring

Shim

/4min.

Vent tube in
vertical joint at
intersection of
panels
Mortar setting bed over concrete

Sealant

Full Mortar Bed Method


Backer rod
Door
Relieving
angle

FIGURE 12.68

Flooring

Marble threshold
Thin bed cement
Flooring

Thin Set Method

Cavity venting detail.

FIGURE 12.69

Threshold details.

Abrasive (non-slip) inserts

Marble treads
Marble treads
Dowel
Anchor clip

Mortar setting bed

FIGURE 12.70

Stair tread details.

270

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Marble tile

Marble tile
Marble tile
Mortar bed
Dry set cement

Mortar bed

Sub slab

Reinforcement
Membrane

Sub slab

Marble tile

Marble tile

Marble tile
Adhesive

Adhesive
Mortar bed
Sub slab

Reinforcement
Membrane

Setting Methods

FIGURE 12.71

Flooring details.

Structurally
sound wood
subfloor

NATURAL STONE
12.3.3 LIMESTONE
Limestone is considered clastic sedimentary
stone. Some limestones are almost white in color and
are nearly pure calcium carbonate. Textures vary from
f ine to rough and f ossilif erous due to natural
characteristics, which include f ossils or shell
formations, spots, honeycomb formations and grain
formation changes. Many limestones can be finished
in a number of ways such as polished, honed, smooth
and sawn. The color of this stone can be strongly
affected by the amount of foreign ingredients. The
iron oxides make the yellows, pinks and reds while
blues, grays and blacks contain carbonaceous
derivatives of organic matter. The potential chemical
activity must be considered when determining the
compatibility of interfacing material.

271

Select Grade - Fine to average-grained stone


containing a controlled minimum of the above
characteristics.
Standard Grade - Fine to moderate large-grained stone
permitti ng an av erage amount of t he abov e
characteristics.
Rustic Grade - Fine to very coarse-grained stone
permitting an above-average amount of the above
characteristics.
Variegated Grade - A mixture of selected, standard
and rustic grades permitting buff and gray colors.
12.3.3.2 DISCOLORATION
Alkali Stain

In all types of buildings, limestone


s quality of
endurance is well known and respected. Also, the
resistance to damage from the common accumulation
of dirt and soil carried in city environments has been
proven through more than a century of use.
On the stone
s visible surfaces, however, there are
several factors which may create stains. Stains have
no structural effect on the stone and often, through
the natural process of weathering, will either disappear
or become less noticeable.
12.3.3.1 CLASSIFICATIONS
Based on granular texture and other natural
characteristics, limestone is classified in two colors
and four grades. Specification of limestone should
identify the required color and grade as well as the
surface finish to be applied to the stone.
Color
Buff color ranges from a light cream shade to a
brown tinted buff.
Gray color ranges from a light silver gray to shades
of blue tinted gray.

A common problem in any new work is staining or


discoloration on limestone and may occur when certain
conditions exist. To avoid these conditions, proper
design and installation procedures should be
implemented.
This alkali stain is caused by alkali-charged
moisture which penetrates the limestone from the back
or bottom of the stone. Stain cannot be produced by
moisture absorbed through the stone
s exterior face.
One exception is when the ground moisture is
absorbed by the stone
s face below grade.
Concrete walls, floors or finish grade (soil) can be
sources of akali. The moisture may be excess water
in mortar, rainwater, or moisture from soil. This moisture
picks up water-soluble free alkali from various sources
as it migrates to an evaporation surface at the stone
s
face above grade. The stain that appears at the surface
of the stone is related to the moisture moving through
the stone and dissolves small pieces of organic matter.
When this material moves to the face of the stone,
moisture evaporates and the alkali and organic matter
left at the surface of the stone appears in the form of
stain.
Efflorescence

Grade
Limestone is formed by nature, thus, the limestone
classifications are based on the degree of fineness
grain particles and other natural characteristics.
Limestone is a natural stone that contains several
noticeable calcite streaks or spots, fossils or shell
formations, pit holes, reedy formations, open texture
streaks, honeycomb formations, iron spots, travertinelike formations and grain formation changes.

Efflorescence is the white, powdery scum that can


appear on the stone
s surface after construction and
depending on the type of salts can also be brown green
or yellow. Stain and efflorescent are similar in many
ways even though the components are different.
Typically, efflorescence producing salts found in
masonry are sulfates of sodium, calcium, magnesium,
iron and potassium.

272

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Efflorescence is more soluble in water than stain,


therefore it is easier to remove.
Efflorescence problems can occur when water
penetrates the lower part of the material surface.
Efflorescence can cause stresses on walls, which can
cause flaking or exfoliation.
Dampproofing treatments such as bituminous or
cementitious coatings can act as a moisture barrier
against groundwater and control or prev ent
efflorescence. Proper materials and details along with
quality construction also help to prevent eflorescence.
12.3.3.3 ANCHORS
Anchors are embedded in the limestone with
mortar, sealant or other non-expansive, stable material
and should be stainless steel, or other non-corrosive
metal. Masonry veneer, by definition, is a nonstructural element. In addition to anchors, which give
lateral support to the limestone veneer, supports
provide the bearing surface for the dead weight of the
stone. All supports f or l imestone shoul d be
manufactured from type A36 steel, 304 or 316 stainless
steel or other corrosion resistant metal.
12.3.3.4 MORTAR AND POINTING
Mortar consists of cementitious material and well
graded sand with sufficient fines. Mortar should be
tested on limestone prior to construction to assure that
it will not bleed into the stone, particularly when using
colored mortars. Mortar is used for many purposes
such as:
Bonding the units together
Setting material
Leveling the units
Providing shear and compressive strength
Sealing irrugularities of the stone
A typical mortar mix of 1 part portland cement, 1
part hydrated lime, 6 parts sand aggregate, or a
preblended mix, will provide adequate compressive
strength (ability to support vertical loads), bond strength
(ability to resist eccentric or lateral loads), and durability
(weather resistance).
Mortar used in pointing should be a soft, not strong,
mix. Any movement of the building can place
excessive stress on the edges of the stone and cause
chipping or spalling at the joints if a high compressive
strength mortar is used. Add only enough water to
make the mix workable.

Appropriate tooling compacts the mortar against


the sides of the stone and will improve the bond
between the mortar and the stone units.
12.3.3.5 COLD WEATHER PROTECTION
Protection of limestone during construction is
necessary if the outside temperature is 40 F or below.
In limestone, admixtures or anti-freezes should never
be used to lower the freezing point of mortar. Cold
weather provisions for masonry construction are
contained in Article 1.8 of the 2005 MSJC Specification.
Limestone may be covered with felt paper,
tarpaulin, or polyethylene. Units may be protected in
a tent-like environment, which would allow auxiliary
heating. When using salamanders, care should be
taken to prevent smoke under the covering.
Limestone should not be place on a snow or icecovered bed. Under this conditions bond cannot be
developed between the mortar bed and the frozen
supporting surfaces.
12.3.3.6 SEALANT SYSTEMS
Sealants provide a moisture protective barrier
similar to mortar systems. There are two types of
sealant systems, one-part and two-part. The common
one-part systems are the moisture-cure and air-cure
systems. Two-part systems use a catalyst or chemical
to cure. The setting of mortar can be considered similar
to curing, but in the construction process, sealants
must be handled differently since they are not intended
to support weight.
Sealants are normally supported by a backer rod.
A backer rod is placed in the joint to a predetermined
depth. The sealant should not adhere to the backer
rod, but to the parallel surfaces only. Omitting the backer
rod from the system may contribute to premature failure.
Prior to the application of the joint sealant, the
manufacturer may recommend a primer which must be
applied to the interior surfaces of the joint to assure
adhesion.
12.3.3.7 EXPANSION JOINTS
Expansion joints are used to accommodate
increases in length in long runs of walls and consist of
a premolded filler and sealant compound. The
premolded filler should be adequately compressible to
allow for structural and thermal differential movement
flexible enough to return to the original shape. Caulking
or compressible sealant should be completely elastic
and should be tooled to ensure maximum adhesion to
the contact surfaces.

NATURAL STONE

273

Typical examples of expansion joints:


Waterstop
Bondbreaker tape
Mortar
Sealant bead

Exterior Expansion Joints

/8typ.

Column Expansion Joints


Normal Condition

Waterstop

/2typ.

Pilaster Expansion Joints

Cold Weather Condition

FIGURE 12.73
/4typ.

Hot Weather Condition

FIGURE 12.72

Joint sealant design.

The expansion joint should be located at an offset


of a building, or where the junctions of the sections
contain a U, T or L shaped building. The number of
expansion joints depends on the horizontal surface of
the structure and placement between 150 and 200 feet
(45.7 m and 61.0 m) may be adequate.

Expansion joints.

12.3.3.8 CLEANING
Limestone is distributed as it comes from the last
process in the supplier
s plant and surfaces or joints
may be covered with dust or saw slush. Exterior
applications of limestone may not require stone cleaning
prior to erection, therefore, the job installation progress
would not be affected. Interior application, however,
requires that stone be thoroughly cleaned prior to
installation. Once installed, interior stone should be
protected from construction dust and other forms of
airborne or other debris.
Pressure washing is a method considered most
effective and successful in cleaning limestone. A
standard hose can give the required pressure when this
method is used. The machine water-pressure should
be not more than 1,200 psi (8300 KPa), when scrubbing
action is required and delivered by a wide-angle nozzle
from a distance not closer than one foot (300 mm) to
the limestone surfaces. Cleaning the limestone with
water at a lower pressure and at a greater distance
may also be effective and more efficient.

274

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

There are other methods that may be used. The


use of these methods may be dictated by the limestone
ornamentation, the use of trim with other materials and
by jobsite dirt. Basic acceptable methods are handscrubbing with fiber brushes, mild soap or detergent,
and clean water.
Acid solutions often used for cleaning or removing
smears from brick can burn and discolor limestone,
therefore, special care and protection should be provided
when limestone is used as a trim in brick walls. Prior
to cleaning the brick, plastic would be ideal to cover
the limestone or wetting the stone surface would be
the minimum protection required.
Usually, acids or chemicals methods are not
required to clean limestone. Normal rough cleaners
will usually remove stubborn dirt or other strange
material embedded in the limestone surfaces. Several
commercial cleaners are made specifically for
limestone when more drastic methods are required.

Flashing cap

Slip connection
Expansion anchor
Shim
Shim
Expansion anchor

12.3.3.9 DETAILS
This section provides basic details and elevations
for a variety of exterior and interior limestone applications.
These details serve as examples from which drawings
may be developed for specific projects.
Slip connection
Flashing cap

Flashing cap

Flashing cap
Nuts for lateral
adjustment

Hook rod anchor

Slotted holes
for expansion
bolts

Flashing cap

Flashing cap

Rod anchor

Nuts for lateral


adjustment
Twisted strap
anchor

FIGURE 12.74

Anchoring top panels.

FIGURE 12.75

Floor span.

NATURAL STONE

275

Adapter
channel
welded to
steel
1min./2
recommended

Grout anchor
in CMU

Stainless steel
split anchor

Bond beam

Adjustable

FIGURE 12.76

Steel or concrete frame anchor.

FIGURE 12.77

Anchors at horizontal joints.

276

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Dovetail
anchor

Grout CMU

Adjustable
insert

Weld
plate

FIGURE 12.79
FIGURE 12.78

Limestone panels structurally


supported at vertical intervals.

Anchorage to concrete frame.

NATURAL STONE

277

Flashing cap
Epoxied joint
Stainless steel
dowel

Wood cant

Masonry back-up
Epoxied joint

Soffit

FIGURE 12.80

Floor slab detail.

FIGURE 12.82
Liner block or
cleat

Drip

Roof detail.

Compressible
joint material

Setting bed
End adapter
welded to beam

Sealant and
foam rod

Flashing
Adjustable
disc type
anchors for
lateral stability
of both panels
Inserts cast
into concrete
Shelf angle

Flashing

Setting bed

Strap anchor
with dovetail
end

Sealant and
foam rod

Dovetail slot cast


into concrete

FIGURE 12.81

Bearing on concrete frame.

FIGURE 12.83

Copings.

278

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Flashing
Limestone panel

Strap anchor

Setting bed

Concrete
roof
structure

Stone lintel
Drip

Rake joint

Metal sash

Setting pads

Head

Standard strap anchor

Anchor
Anchor
bolt

Stone jamb

Limestone architrave

Caulk

Limestone facing

Jamb

FIGURE 12.85

Cornice detail.

Dowel at jamb
stones

12.3.4 TRAVERTINE
Limestone sill
Drip
Flashing

Sill
Wood sash
Caulk

Drip

Sill

Setting bed

Head

FIGURE 12.84

Window details.

Travertine is classified as chemical sedimentary


rock and displays similar characteristics to limestone.
This variety of limestone is a product of chemical
precipitation from cold lakes and streams, or hot springs.
The texture of travertine is created by the very porous
structure or cellularly layered, partly crystalline
limestones. Travertine voids are the channels left by
water once the flow has finished or evaporated.
Typically, travertines demonstrate a strong directional
veined appearance and corresponding directional
strength variations due to its formation by directional
flow.
There are a wide variety of colors of commercial
travertines ranging from light cream and brown to
maroon. Often, dense varieties with contrast are
preferred for exterior applications. Travertine originating
in Colorado, Utah and Idaho may replicate the color
variations and coarser bedding associated with
traditional travertine.

NATURAL STONE

279

12.4 SUMMARY
12.4.1 STONE ANCHORAGE
The main function of stone anchorage is to laterally
support the stone. Stone anchorage also resists all
the changes of climate, such as wind and rain, without
deteriorating or inducing stress back into the stone.
The stone anchorage design principles are the same
everywhere and can be applied evenly if the anchorage
attaches the stone to cold-form metal, mullion. Based
on typical practices, structural designers are capable
of analyzing and member-sizing these common backup
systems independent of the stone.

F IGURE 12.86

Travertine (Getty Center

museum).

12.3.5 SANDSTONE
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock made of rounded
or angular grains of sand, cemented and compacted
together to form a solid mass. Sandstone varies in
color from red to yellow to white based on the mixture
of minerals. Sandstone is divided in siliceous (light
color, hardest and toughest to work with), calcareous
(light gray color, easy to work with), and ferroginous
(reddish-brown color, also readily worked).
Sandstone is soft and easy to quarry and shape,
and is also susceptible to erosion and deterioration
from air pollutants. Some commercial sandstone
varieties are:
1. Quartzite, predominantly composed of quartz,
is a quartz sandstone or conglomerate.
Recrystallized metamorphosed quartz
sandstone may also be called a quartzite.
2. Bluestone is a hard, gray sandstone which
splits easily into thin slabs. The stone is
usually dark gray.
3. Brownstone is a sandstone that is very popular
in the East part of the United States even
though it is less durable than other stone. The
stone is brown or reddish-brown color.
4. Freestone is a sandstone which easily splits
into any desired direction. Also, due to
incomplete cementation of the sand grains,
this stone dresses easily.

One of the engineering design principles is to


understand the mechanics of the anchor when
connected to the stone. This is the primary and
fundamental key to preventing anchorage failure.
Understanding how anchorage can deform or move
to break the stone and accommodating these effects
in the design will prevent anchorage failure. The proper
sequence in designing an anchorage system is to
design the anchor to the stone first and then design
the backup system.
The following steps are a suggested process for
an effective design anchorage:
1. The stone sizes and joint layouts, which are a
product architect
s design, are unchangeable.
Depending on the quarry deposi t, the
capabilities of the stone should be verified with
the supplier since different colors and different
stone types have different maximum size
limitations.
2. Support points are to be determined from the
individual stone layout motivated by reducing
stone bending stress and at the same time
increasing force distribution. Forces flow
toward greatest resistance or where the
backup is solid.
3. Stone attachment systems should be designed
considering installation difficulties and
probable backup systems. Anchor design
should consider anchor strength, factors of
safety, probable failure planes and panel
support location reactions.
4. Attach anchorage devices to base building
wherever possible and provide room for potential
base building differential movements. These
movements must be resolved in oversized joints
or laps. Never accept movements where the
anchorage device connects the stone.

280

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

5. The anchorage capacity should be verified by


multiple tests of the actual anchorage. The
anchorage fastener connection to the backup
should be duplicated in the anchor test
apparatus. Revised anchor design if the
anchorage tests do not provide the capacities
needed.

There are many sealers available and some do not


have the ability to resist water penetration. These
coatings lie on the surface of the stone and provide
only shine or varnish to the stone
s surface.

Evidence frequently shows that when stone


anchorage fails, rupture occurs where anchors are
attached to brittle stone, not where the anchors are
connected to the backup. Alternative or backup
designs should always be re-evaluated as outlined
above for adequacy. Proper performance of the
stone
s supporting substrate is essential. Both the
backup and base design should be rechecked for
adequacy to assure long-term system performance.

Marble floors may be resurfaced to bring back the


original shine. The process involves specialized
machinery and technical expertise. This type of
procedure can be expensive so a reputable refinisher
for the project is advisable.

12.4.2 SEALING
Stone surfaces require careful maintenance to
protect them from stains and environmental pollutants.
Most stone requires little maintenance, which is simple
and economical.
Stone floors should be cleaned with warm water
and a liquid soap that will not leave a residue. Cleaners
containing acids or abrasive chemicals sould never
be used on stone. Avoid spilling sugary or carbonated
drinks as these may etch the surface of the stone and
remove the shine. The use of waxes on stone should
be avoided since waxes attract airborne dirt.
New stone floors, counters or cladding require the
use of a quality penetrating sealer immediately after
installation. There are a wide variety of sealers
available, and a specialty stone cleaner should be
used. Regular maintenance can be easier if a
professional initially seals the stone surface.
Granite
s natural high density resists absorption of
staining materials and requires little or no sealing. A
specialty penetrating sealer may be used to increase
stain resistance and will prevent absorption of liquids
and oils, which can darken the surface of the stone.
Marble should be sealed since it is vulnerable to
staining. A quality penetrating sealer will prevent water
rings left by glasses placed on the marble surface.
Limestone is more resistant to staining due to its
unusual characteristics. However, when limestone is
exposed to air over a period of time will weather and
become harder on the surface. A penetrating sealer is
recommended to prevent staining.

The process of removing stains from natural stone


is complicated and warrents professional guidance.

12.4.3 MAINTENANCE
One misperception is that natural stone is
maintenance free and resist the effects of time, however,
any contractor or building manager will disagree. The
maintainability of these natural products is one of the
major elements that affect the practicality of bringing
polished stone back into residential and commercial
buildings.
Successful use of natural building stone in any
residential or commercial projects is a result of correct
mai ntenance procedures. The cont ractors,
manufacturers and distributors must educate the enduser for proper care, cleaning and maintenance of the
stone. Long lasting beauty and appearance of natural
stone will guarantee continued demand.
The best way to understand guidelines in stone
care is to look at each natural stone and determine
what is needed and what should be avoided.
1. Natural stone is very susceptible to chemicals.
Major threats are acids, salts, and alkalis.
2. Natural stone needs a stone care system or
conditioning. The use of ordinary cleaners may
be harmful to the stone. These products dry
out the stone and pull the life out of the stone.
3. Natural stone needs regular cleaning. Damp
mopping will be enough to keep it looking good
and to prevent dirt and soil from clogging pores.
4. Natural stone requires protection against water
penetration. Moisture is the main factor
contributing to the decay of masonry. Moisture
contains soluble salts from polluted rain water
or chemically treated tap water, melted ice,
and adjacent masonry materials. The stone
s
natural components react to moisture and
efflorescence.

NATURAL STONE
5. Natural stone should be stain-proofed. Even
dense granite has a capillary structure, and
can therefore stain. There are no stain removers
that can successfully penetrate the fine pores
of the stone and stain, therefore, it is nearly
impossible to completely remove deeply
penetrated stains. In order not to permanently
harm the stone, only very mild, non-acidic stain
removers should be applied.
6. Natural stone must breathe. Thus, sealers
and maintenance products should not block
the pores of stone.
7. In order to preserve the natural polish of stone,
natural stone surfaces must be protected
against foot abrasion and other wear and tear.

281

The stone will wear if left unprotected. Even


an entrance mat helps in the protection of stone
floors.
8. Natural stone surfaces must be slip-resistant.
ADA regulations require a degree of slip
resistance which cannot be achieved with any
smooth natural stone.
9. Chemical cleaners may dam age the
environment and personal safety. Users must
be aware of possible property damage.
Chemical cleaners such as acids and alkalines
can cause serious injury and health hazards.
Carefully analyze Material Safety Data Sheets
and reject chemicals which endanger the
environment.

282

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


STONE MONUMENTS OF GREAT BRITAIN

Leeds Castle.

Westminster Abbey.

Windsor Castle.

Windsor Castle.

Bath Abbey.

CHAPTER

13

GLASS BLOCK
13.1 GENERAL
Glass blocks have been used over the years by
design professionals for exceptional design flexibility
in a wide range of applications. The combination of
aesthetics and functional properties make glass block
one of the favorite materials of architects, designers
and home builders.

condensation. Panels of glass block remove drafts


and assist to keep balanced comfort within the building.
A remarkable decrease of solar heat gain is offered
by the solar reflective glass blocks. Glass block panels
reduce and help control noise transmission. The sound
transmission loss through a glass block panel is 38
decibels, which is the average. Also, glass block
panels seal out flying dust and dirt.

13.1.4 SECURITY
13.1.1 DESIGN
The large range of varity patterns, styles, methods
of installation and sizes permit freedom of inspired
designs of the professional designer. Also, the pattern
selection permits controlled transmission of light from
the outside or from room to room. To meet the
requirements of the design, light may be directed,
diffused, reduced or reflected. Many glass blocks offer
additional design opportunities due to the degree of
translucence or transparency. Regularly, in several
applications, natural light and artificial light can be used
dramatically.

13.1.2 ENERGY CONSERVATION


A partial vacuum is created within the unit when
the halves of a glass block are combined together.
This insulating capacity reduces heat gain or loss and
provides thermal benefit which can conserve energy.

13.1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL
Glass blocks help the designer create a more
comf ortabl e env i ronment by control ling l ight
transmission and glare. In high humidity areas, the
glass block insulation capacity may eliminate surface

Solid glass blocks are durable and extremely


rugged. Glass block provides security without creating
a
closed-infeeling with its characteristics of
transparency and light transmission.
Aggresive attacks by vandals can be resisted by
solid glass blocks. The solid and regular glass block
panels are fire resistant.

13.1.5 MAINTENANCE
Glass blocks require little care. There is nothing to
paint and they are easy to clean. A sporadic hosing on
exterior surfaces and a damp cloth cleaning on interior
surfaces are all that is required. Glass block panels
are air-tight because they are typically mortared into
place.

13.1.6 CODE REQUIREMENTS


The installation of glass block is accomplished
using type N or type S mortar. Standard glass block
units are to be at least 37/8 in. (98 mm) specified
thickness, thin hollow units 31/8 in. (79 mm) specified
thickness and thin solid units 3 in. (76 mm) specified
thickness.

284

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Design Wind Pressure, psf

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Area of Panel, sq. ft.

FIGURE 13.1

Glass masonry design wind load resistance.

Panel size is limited by the 2006 IBC based on


wind pressure and absolute maximum dimensions and
areas. Figure 13.1 provides limitation on panel size
based on given wind pressure.
When the design wind pressure does not exceed
20 psf (958 N/m2), glass block panels may be designed
using the criteria of Table 13.1 providing none of the
maximum values is exceeded
Table 13.1 Maximum Glass Block Panel Size
Unit Type
Thin
Hollow
Units
Exterior Walls

Thin
Solid
Units

144
sq. ft.
20 ft.
25 ft.

100
sq. ft.
10 ft.
15 ft.

Standard
Units

Area
Height
Width

85
sq. ft.
10 ft.
15 ft.

Glass block panels must be reinforced with at least


two 9 gauge W 1.7 (MW 11) in the horizontal bed joints
at intervals not exceeding 16 in. (406 mm). When joint
reinforcement is lapped, the splices are to be at least 6
in. (152 mm).

13.1.7 INSTALLATION
Glass block panels give an attractive, air-tight,
light-transmitting panel that is completely finished on
both sides. In one operation, preassembled panels
can be set into openings. There is nothing to
deteriorate and the glass blocks require little care.

2
10

Interior Walls

Area
Height
Width

250
sq. ft.
20 ft.
25 ft.

150
sq. ft.
20 ft.
25 ft.

100
sq. ft.
20 ft.
25 ft.

Glass block panels must be laterally supported


against out-of-plane displacement. This can be
accomplished by providing panel anchors at the sides
and top of the glass block panels spaced not more
than 16 in. (406 mm) apart. Lateral support can also
be provided by using channel type restraints with the
glass block inset into the channels by at least 1 in.
(25.4 mm). Expansion joints of at least 3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
are also required at the ends and top of glass block
panels.

11

4
3
1

FIGURE 13.2

Glass block installation.

285

GLASS BLOCK

Sill area, to be covered by mortar, shall first be covered


with heavy coat of asphalt emulsion.

Adhere expansion strips to jambs and head with asphalt


emulsion. Expansion strips must extend to sill.

When emulsion on the sill is dry, place full mortar bed.


Do not furrow the mortar.

Set lower course of glass block units. All mortar joints


are full joints without furrows. Do not tap glass block
units into place with tools.

Install panel reinforcement in horizontal joints as follows:


a) Place 1/2 depth of mortar bed joint on top of glass
block.
b) Press panel reinforcement into place.
c) Cover the panel reinforcement with the other 1/2 of
the mortar bed and trowel smooth. Do not furrow.
d) Panel reinforcement is to be continuous. Lap panel
reinforcement a minimum of 6", as required. Panel
reinforcement shall not bridge expansion joints.

13.2.1 HEAD DETAILS

Interior
Finish

13.2 TYPICAL GLASS BLOCK


DETAILS

Exterior
Finish

The standard installation of a glass block window


is shown in Figure 13.2.

Place full mortar bed on joints not requiring panel


reinforcement. Do not furrow.

Repeat at each course.

Strike joints smoothly while mortar is still plastic. Rake


out spaces to be caulked. Remove excess mortar from
the face of glass block and wipe dry. Tool joints smooth
and concave before mortar sets.

AFTER the final mortar has SET, pack backer rod tightly
between glass block and jambs & head. Leave room for
caulking.

Expansion strip

Anchor screw
1 inch min.

Deflection
space

CMU lintel block

Steel 2 x 2 x 14 (typ.)
Sealant and backer
rod
Glass block unit

FIGURE 13.4 Cross-section of glass block head


joint at CMU wall.

10 Caulk panels per manufacturer.


11 Clean the glass block using sponge and clean water.
Change water often. Do not use a wire brush. Buff with
cheesecloth.

Steel stud

Sheathing
Weather-resistant
membrane
Flashing
Panel anchor

Tube steel
Steel lintel

Mortar

Weep holes

Expansion
strip

Horizontal
reinforcement

Steel channel

Glass
block
unit

FIGURE 13.3

Sealant and
backer rod
Glass block unit

FIGURE 13.5 Head - Glass block in steel stud


Glass block panel components.

wall with brick veneer.

286

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

13.2.2 TYPICAL JAMB DETAILS


Glass block
Mortar

1 inch min.

Exterior Finish

Asphalt emulsion
Sealant and backer rod

Interior finish
Precast conc.
sill

Glass block

Sill anchor
Metal flashing
Horizontal reinforcement

Steel tube

Steel 2 x 2 x 14 (typ.)
Anchor screw
Steel stud framing
CMU
Interior Finish

FIGURE 13.9

FIGURE 13.6

Jamb - Glass block in CMU wall.

Brick Veneer
Air space
Building paper weatherproof membrane

Sill - Glass block in steel stud


wall with brick veneer.

13.2.4 CONNECTION DETAIL


Sealant

Exterior sheathing
Horizontal
joint wire
reinforcement

Sealant and backer rod

Glass block
Tube
steel

Horizontal wire joint


reinforcement
Sealant

Glass block
Sealant
Tie
Backer rod

Insulation

Plan View

Steel stud

FIGURE 13.7

Structural support member

FIGURE 13.10 Intermediate horizontal support

Jamb - Glass block in steel stud

in multiple vertical panels.

wall.

13.2.5 MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR DETAILS


13.2.3 TYPICAL SILL DETAILS
Metal stud
Glass block

Gypsum board

Mortar

Solid blocking

Asphalt emulsion
Sealant
Expansion strip

Precast concrete
sill

Panel anchor
Interior finish

Glass block

FIGURE 13.11
FIGURE 13.8

Sill - Glass block in CMU wall.

Head - glass block in partition.

287

GLASS BLOCK
Metal stud
53/4

Solid blocking

Glass corner block

Sealant
Mortar

53/4

37/8

Glass block

Panel anchor
Horizontal reinforcement

/4

Expansion strip

Horizontal reinforcement

FIGURE 13.12

Jamb - Glass block in partition.

Glass block

13.2.6 PANEL ANCHOR DETAILS

37/8

PLAN VIEW

FIGURE 13.15

Glass block at corner.

Expansion
strip
Panel anchor
Expansion
strip

Sealant

Horizontal
reinforcing
Mortar

Glass
block

45 block

Glass
block

Glass block

PLAN VIEW

FIGURE 13.13

New construction.

FIGURE 13.16

45glass block at corner.

73/4

Mortar

37/8

Expansion
strip

Panel anchor
Expansion
strip

/4exp. bolts
two per anchor
1

Glass block

Glass
block

Horizontal reinforcement
Sealant
Bullnose finish
Glass
block

FIGURE 13.14

Existing construction.

PLAN VIEW

FIGURE 13.17

End block.

288

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Minimum 9 gauge (W 1.7) longitudinal


and cross wires

6min. lap

FIGURE 13.21 North Hollywood Police Station,


FIGURE 13.18

Glass block lap splice.

North Hollywood, California.

FIGURE 13.22
F IGURE 13.19

Norwalk Arts and Sport


Complex, Norwalk, California.

FIGURE 13.23
FIGURE 13.20

Metro Center Parking Garage,


Foster City, California.

El Cerrito Middle School,

Corona, California.

Employment Development
Department, Los Angeles, California.

CHAPTER

14

VENEER
14.1 GENERAL
Veneers are architectural facade coverings on a
building and are non-structural. This means that
veneers require a structural element and lateral support
to keep them in place. Veneers may be laterally
supported by structural masonry, reinforced concrete,
wood, steel studs, or structural steel framing. These
structural elements are located behind the veneer and
are known as the structural backup or simply
backup
to the veneer. The type of backup would depend not
only on the initial cost of the installation, but also on
the structural and serviceability concerns of the project.
There are numerous methods that have been
developed to secure masonry veneer to a structural
backup. Building codes have adopted systems as they
evolved and became standardized. Currently the 2006
IBC recognizes two basic methods to install masonry
veneer. One method is called adhered veneer which
secures the masonry units to the structural backup
using a bonding material. The other method, anchored
veneer, attaches the masonry to the structural backup
using mechanical fasteners called wall ties or anchors.
These two systems are contained in the building
code with prescriptive requirements that allow use with
little engineering design. However, the code also allows
the use of alternative engineered systems based on
engineering principles such as reinforced veneer,
masonry panels and stone panels on a structural frame
backup.
The success of any veneer system depends on
the proper design, selection of durable materials and
quality construction.

Details must be clear to assure that a moisturebarrier veneer system will perform to prevent water
intrusion into the building and a moisture drainage
veneer system will effectively shed any anticipated
water penetration.

FIGURE 14.1

Anchor veneer using ties.

Any anchored veneer system with an intentional


airspace between the veneer facing and the structural
backup is an example of a moisture drainage system.
A quality veneer system will prevent the moisture from
bridging the ties, thereby allowing water to gravitate to
the bottom of the system and exit through intentionally
provided and functional weep holes.
In order to achieve a successful moisture drainage
system, the components of flashing and weep holes
must be present and care must be taken in the
construction process for these elements to be

290

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

functional. Moisture must have a clear path to drain


through the weep holes, which must be open for
passage of moisture to the exterior of the veneer.
The corners, which can be particularly susceptible
to seismic damage, can perform well if the designer
understands wall movements relative to each other.
The anchored attachment system must have the
flexibility of allowing vertical and horizontal movement
relative to the backup system and at the same time be
capable of transferring the lateral wind and seismic
loads to the backup system for ultimate ground
distribution.
W hen properly designed and constructed, a
masonry veneer system will survive natural elements,
such as wind and earthquakes, with minimal or no
damage.
Masonry veneer systems can be constructed from
a variety of materials in a number of different ways.
The designer can select systems and materials to
achieve a desired look or texture.
This chapter presents the constructability of the
most important materials and systems that are used
in masonry veneer. Manufacturers of each product
should be consulted for more detailed information on
specif ic products and installation procedures
associated with their products.

A rigid system deflects little. Since the backup


system deflects very little and the veneer is attached
to the backup system, then veneer will have limited
deflection. The limited deflection of the veneer
reduces the possibility of water intrusion through
flexural cracks in the veneer.
Traditionally, structural masonry backup systems
have been constructed with Concrete Masonry Units.
Clay brick, or hollow clay brick, can also be used
to support veneer. This is seldom considered due to
the increased cost. Instead, two wythes of brick with
one wythe being the veneer brick facing have been
used.
Anchored veneer can easily be attached to structural
masonry with a variety of wall ties or joint reinforcement.
A prime advantage of this type of system is the ease in
which insulation can be placed in the cavity between
the wythes of masonry. Moreover, when properly flashed
and drained with weepholes, the system can prevent
water intrusion into the building.
Prior to placing the anchored veneer the structural
masonry backup must be waterproofed. Frequently,
this is done by painting the backup with bituminous tar
or by covering with 30 pound (13.6 kg) felt. This added
measure helps mitigate the moisture penetration
through the masonry.

14.2 STRUCTURAL SUPPORT


BACKUP MATERIALS

Seismically required horizontal


joint reinforcement
Anchor ties

The structural support of a veneer system should


have the same or very similar material properties as
the veneer. The reason is compatibility. If the veneer
and the backup system respond in similar manners to
changes in the environment, then the tendency for
cracking, movement differences, and the build up of
secondary stresses are minimized. One of the best
and obvious ways to assure the compatibility of
material is to build the backup system of the same
material as the veneer.

Weatherproof membrane
Reinforced structural
masonry back-up

14.2.1 STRUCTURAL MASONRY BACKUP


An easy and rigid method to support veneer units
is with a structural masonry backup. If the veneer is
brick, then the backup can be made of the same
materials and there is little concern about dissimilar
material properties.

Brick veneer
2recommended air space

FIGURE 14.2
system.

Structural masonry backup

291

VENEER
When clay brick veneer is installed with a concrete
masonry backup, a provision to allow for differential
movement between the materials must be included.
Clay masonry expands with moisture and
temperature over a long period of time while concrete
masonry shrinks and creeps. Accordingly, solidly
bonding clay masonry to concrete masonry is not
recommended except for small installations

Weatherproof membrane
Seismically required horizontal
joint reinforcement
2(50.8 mm) recommended
air space
Reinforced
concrete back-up
Dovetail
slot

A space or cavity should exist between the veneer


and the concrete masonry units. Wall ties, which allow
for minor differential movement between the materials,
are required. Expansion, shrinkage and isolation joints
should also be carefully located so that each material
can move relatively free of the other.

14.2.2 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE BACKUP


Poured and precast reinforced concrete structures
are often veneered with masonry. A few items require
special attention to avoid problems with concrete
backup walls:
1. When the veneer is to be adhered to the
concrete, remove all form release agents
(such as oil, wax or grease) or curing agents
that are present on the concrete. These
substances act as bond breakers and can
prevent the mortar from bonding to the
concrete. If any such substances were used,
the surf ace of the concrete should be
sandblasted or water blasted until all such
materials are removed.
2. As with masonry backup systems, movement
joints should be placed in the veneer at all
locations where movement joints occur in the
concrete backup.
3. For anchored veneer, cast the wire ties, anchor
slots and other embedded items directly into
the concrete when practical.
A dovetail tie system is shown in Figure 14.3. A

dovetail slotis embedded in the concrete and veneer


ties are inserted into the dovetail slot. The dovetail
slot allows for vertical adjustment during construction,
as well as vertical expansion movement.

Dovetail anchor ties

FIGURE 14.3

Concrete backup system.

14.2.3 WOOD STUD BACKUP


Wood studs are used to backup masonry veneer
primarily on residential structures and low rise
commercial buildings. Multistory wood framed
buildings can be veneered but accommodations must
be provided to allow for lateral load support, vertical
shrinkage and movement of the wood structure.
For single story buildings, wood studs are typically
located at 16 in. (406 mm) on center although spacing
of 24 in. (610 mm) may be used when the loads are
small or when larger studs are utilized. Deflections of
the wood studs should be limited to no more than h/600
or h/720 to reduce cracking in the masonry veneer.
Only quality (grade 2 or better), seasoned lumber
should be used. Wet and green lumber should not be
used since shrinkage due to drying may damage not
only the veneer but also interior drywall and other
surface treatments. Excessively warped, bowed or
damaged studs should also be rejected.
Design of the wood stud backup system must
comply with either IBC Chapter 23 or the National
Design Specification by the National Forest Products
Association.

292

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Plaster leveling course

Seismically required horizontal joint reinforcement


Recommended 2(50.8 mm) min. air space

Paper backed metal lath


weatherrproof membrane

Steel stud framing back-up

Wood stud
framing back-up

Anchor ties
Batt insulation
Exterior sheathing

Brick
veneer
units

Thin brick veneer

Thin set mortar

Weep screed
at base

Weep
holes

Building paper
with 6 in. (150
mm) minimum lap
Flashing

FIGURE 14.4

Wood stud backup system for

adhered veneer.

14.2.4 STEEL STUD BACKUP


Steel studs have been used to support veneer
construction for several decades. Initially, flexible and
light steel studs were used and little attention was paid
to properly waterproofing the veneer/steel stud system.
As a result of these initial practices, design changes
were quickly implemented and attention was given to
design and construction quality control thereby yielding
a reliable steel stud/veneer system.
Recommendations f rom the Brick Industry
Association, Technical Notes 28B, Brick Veneer / Steel
Stud Walls and Western States Clay Products
Association, Design Guide for Anchored Brick Veneer
over Steel Studs include:
1. The brick veneer/steel stud wall system should
be detailed as a panel wall, or fully supported
at each story height by the structural frame
through shelf angles.
2. Limit the deflection of the steel studs to h/600
of the height of the stud backup when
considered alone as a full lateral design load.
This ensures that the studs will be sufficiently
stiff so that the veneer will be adequately
supported with only minor cracking from
bending.

Foundation
Exterior
sheathing

Gypsum board
Batt insulation

Recommended
2 in. (50.8 mm)
minimum air
space

Steel studs

Building paper with


6 in. (150 mm)
minimum lap

Adjustable
ties

Foundation

Weep
holes
Flashing

FIGURE 14.5

Steel stud backup system.

3. Use at least 18 gauge (1.2 mm) metal studs


to allow for adequate screw thread grip.
However, the deflection criteria may require a
minimum of 16 gauge (1.5 mm) metal stud,
except for lightly loaded and dry areas, such
as building interiors where 18 gauge (1.2 mm)
studs may be adequate.
4. Steel studs should be galvanized coated to
conform to ASTM A 525, Grade G-90.

VENEER
5. Rigid sheathing should be securely fastened
to both sides of studs. The sheathing must
be properly detailed and attached.
6. Horizontal bracing at mid-height for added
stiffness is recommended.
The design of the steel stud system should meet
the requirements of either the IBC or the Metal Lath/
Steel Framing Association design criteria.

14.3 SHELF ANGLES

293

a simply supported beam where the maximum deflection


and moment would occur at the midspan.
Shelf angles can also be supported by bolting
directly to the structural backup. This is particularly
advantageous since the angle size can be minimized
by installing bolts at a relatively close spacing, such
as the stud spacing. This also reduces the overall
deflection of the angle so that only the deflection of
the projecting angle leg may be critical. Shelf angles
at floor levels must be supported in this manner so
that the load from the angle is not transferred to the
veneer below.

The horizontal leg of the angle must extend to


support at least two-thirds of the veneer thickness.
Angles must also support the veneer without excessive
deflection or rotation. Provide a more substantial angle
or a built-up structural steel member if deflections
exceed l/600 to l/720.

Avoid attaching heavily loaded shelf angles to steel


studs since the substantial bending moment created
by the large load and eccentricity could overstress the
relatively flexible studs. Any loads imposed upon the
studs must be considered in the design of the stud.

The deflection of the angle should be limited to


the lesser of l/600 or 0.3 in. (7.5 mm) and the rotation
of the edge of the shelf angle should not exceed 1/16 in.
(1.6 mm).

When installing shelf angles, a clear space of at


least 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) must be left at the ends of each
angle. This allows the steel angle to expand without
damaging the surrounding masonry.

Shelf angles over openings may be supported by


bearing on adjoining masonry, subject to building code
provisions. In this case, the shelf angle would act as

Similarly, space should be provided between the


ends of steel shelf angles at floor lines so each angle
can expand and contract independently.

Steel stud

Building paper,
weatherproof
membrane

Concrete floor

Seismically required
horizontal joint
reinforcement

Structural steel framing


Exterior sheathing

Anchor ties
Recommended 2 (50.8 mm)
air space

Weep holes

Flashing

FIGURE 14.6 Bolted shelf angle support system.

294

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Weatherproof membrane

Veneer back-up system

Exterior sheathing
Continuous metal flashing
Angled weep holes

Concrete floor
Veneer

Continuous reglet
Continuous
metal flashing

Wedge insert anchor

Recommended 2
minimum air space

Caulking
Backer rod

Compressible material

Shelf angle

FIGURE 14.7 Metal flashing system.

14.4 FLASHING

Flashing at lintel

In anchored masonry veneer, flashing is required


directly above all shelf angles, concrete foundations
and over door and window openings to interrupt the
downward flow of water.
CMU backing

Flashing must slope toward the exterior face of the


veneer so water can be shed through weep holes. To
prevent the expelled water from dripping down the face
of the masonry, flashing should extend beyond the face
and terminate in a drip edge. Otherwise water may reenter the masonry or cause staining.

Brick veneer
Foundation

Flashing must be continuous along the length of


the veneer with sufficient lap joints to prevent moisture
from migrating under the flashing. Where flashing
terminates at the end of shelf angles, end dams must
be constructed to direct the flow of moisture outward.
Plastic membranes designed specifically for
flashing are available. The membranes are thicker
than those previously manufactured and are reinforced
and resistant to ultraviolet light.

Flashing

FIGURE 14.8

Adhesive flashing system.

14.5 WEEP HOLES


Weep holes are installed above flashing to allow
water to readily exit the masonry cavity.
Weep holes are typically placed at approximately
24 in. (610 mm) on center, although, the type of weep
holes and the particular weather conditions may alter
this spacing.

VENEER
Possibly, the easiest form of weep hole is the open
head joint. Water can readily drain out of the open
head joints which also serve as vents in the wall,
allowing air circulation through the cavity. To prevent
insects or vermin from entering the open head joints
and infesting the cavity, vinyl vents, plastic grids or
sheet metal devices can be placed in the open head
joint to allow drainage and evaporation.

295

Long term expansion

Long term expansion

L2

L1

Expansion
joints
L1 + L2 Typical spacing between
expansion joints
L1 or L2 = 10 Ft. (3 m) Max.

FIGURE 14.9

Weep vent.

14.6 EXPANSION JOINTS


Any successful veneer system design will consider
expansion and contraction in the veneer system.
The need for vertical expansion joints depends on
the climate area in which the structure is located,
temperature change, type of structural frame and the
materials involved in construction.
Additional attention should be given to vertical
expansion joints in the following areas:
Corners In order to avoid buckling as depicted in
Figure 14.10 some type of vertical expansion joint
should be placed in close proximity of the corner.
A vertical expansion joint can be placed at the
corner of the veneer and this may be accomplished
by following a continuous seam up through a series of
attached vertical and horizontal joints. Normally, this
method is cost prohibitive.
Alternately, the vertical expansion joint can be
placed within ten feet of the corner. The distance from
the corner on the adjacent wall would be the maximum
calculated space between joints, less the distance on
the adjacent wall (Figure 14.10).

FIGURE 14.10

Expansion joints at corners.

Discontinuities - When the veneer encounters any


discontinuity, a vertical expansion joint should be
provided. Examples are changes in height, thickness,
and presence of any large openings, dissimilar
materials or abutment to other building elements.
Spacing - W it h all v ariables taken i nto
consideration, maximum spacing of the vertical
expansion joints should be calculated. The spacing
of the vertical expansion joints of clay masonry should
never exceed 30 ft (9.1 m), and a 20 ft (6.1 m)
maximum spacing is recommended.

14.7 SYSTEM DETAIL


REQUIREMENTS
This section describes masonry veneer systems
in detail along with specific requirements contained in
the 2006 IBC and the 2005 MSJC Code. Sections
and details are provided which show the minimum code
requirements along with recommendations based on
design principles and standard construction methods.

296

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Minimum thicknesses for various types of wall


coverings are contained in IBC Table 1405.2. The
given thicknesses are based on weather protection for
the material and application. Note that the requirement
for adhered masonry veneer is only 0.25 in. (6.4 mm),
whereas the anchored masonry veneer must have a
minimum thickness of 2.625 in. (53.3 mm). This is
based on the concept that adhered veneer is applied to
a system that already considers water management,
such as a plaster substrate. Anchored veneer, on the
other hand is the first line of defense for moisture
penetration. The units must also be adequately thick
for the mason to place the units with stability.

Typically, any veneer attached to a wood stud


system or a cold-formed steel framing system is limited
to 30 feet (9.1 m) abov e the noncombustible
foundation. This height limitation is increased to 38
feet (11.6 m) for a gable condition.

IBC TABLE 1405.2 (Partial)


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF WEATHER COVERINGS
COVERING TYPE
MINIMUM THICKNESS (IN)
Adhered masonry veneer
0.25
Anchored masonry veneer
2.625
Marble slabs
1
Precast stone facing
0.625
Stone (cast artificial)
1.5
Stone (natural)
2
Terra cotta (anchored)
1
Terra cotta (adhered)
0.25

Fire protection is considered in the noncombustible


systems, and masonry veneer is not a hazard in a
moderate fire.

The restriction on wood framing can be attributed


to fire safety. In the event of a fire, the veneer could
collapse if the wood stud frame backup disintegrates
and a fall of a system in excess of 30 feet (9.1 m)
could be catastrophic. There are also considerations
of differential movement, that is, a wood frame backup
shrinks over a long period of time, whereas, a brick
cladding will expand over a long period of time.

14.7.1.1 DEFINITIONS
IBC Chapter 14 contains definitions that are
specifically related to masonry veneer.
IBC Section 1402.1 (Selected Definitions)
1402.1 The following words and terms shall, for the
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this
code, have the meaning shown herein.

14.7.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


IBC Chapter 14, Exterior Walls, includes
masonry and the associated prescriptive requirements.
Additionally, IBC Chapter 14 references MSJC Code
Chapter 6 for other specific requirements associated
with masonry veneer.
The MSJC requires that the veneer backing
system be able to resist water penetration. More
specifically, any sheathing must be covered with a
water-resistant membrane, such as 15 or 30 pound felt,
unless the veneer backing uses water-resistant
sheathing with sealed joints.
Anchored veneer requires flashing and weep holes
at the base of the wall, or where any lintels support
the veneer above. Maximum spacing of the weep
holes is 33 in. (838 mm) which allows for four 8 in.
(204 mm) long brick between weep holes, with an extra
inch for tolerance. The weep holes are to be a
minimum of 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) in diameter. If using a
plastic tube for a weep hole, the inside diameter of the
tube must be 3/16 in. (4.8 mm). Alternate devices, such
as weep vents, are acceptable if they provide no less
passage area than the 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) diameter weep
hole.

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured and


supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding
material applied to an approved backing.
ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured
with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved
backing.
BACKING. The wall or surface to which the veneer is
secured.
EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that
is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a
fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or
greater with the horizontal plane.
VENEER. A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of
providing ornamentation, protection or insulation, but not
counted as adding strength to the wall.
Plain gypsum lath or gypsum board should never
be used as an exterior material on the backup system.

VENEER

The IBC contains prescriptive guidelines for the


installation of masonry veneer. The designer has the
option of following the prescriptive guidelines, or to
design the masonry veneer in a manner acceptable to
the building official.
Stone veneer (2006 IBC Section 1405.6) and terra
cotta (2006 IBC Section 1405.8) give prescriptive detail
requirements. The code provisions of the IBC and
MSJC allow for rational design, which means that the
veneer can be designed by engineering calculations,
notwithstanding the prescriptiv e requirements
contained in the code. An example of this is masonry
veneer designed and constructed as reinforced
panelized systems.
Dimension stone, thin cut stone panels, typically
installed as cladding on high rise buildings, is not
included in the provisions of the 2005 MSJC Code.
Dim ension stone system s should always be
engineered.
As defined, veneers are not a structural part of
the building system. The veneer is only to hold its
own weight and any lateral loading is to be transferred
to the backing.

FIGURE 14.11

Dead load (weight of


veneer) supported by
shelf angles

Lateral loads (wind, earthquake,


etc.) transferred to back-up
system through veneer ties

Surfaces to which veneer is attached shall be


designed to support the additional vertical and lateral
loads imposed by the veneer. One important design
aspect is the deflection of the backup system under
imposed lateral loads. Excessive deflection may allow
cracking in the masonry veneer.

Load flow of anchored veneer


system to backup system.

Figure 14.11 shows a typical load flow from the


anchored veneer to the backup system. The veneer
system supports only the weight of the veneer, which
is transferred to the noncombustible foundation, or to
the backup system through the shelf angles.
The code requires that lateral loads, such as wind
and earthquake loads, be transferred to the backup
system through the attachments. In the case of
adhered veneer, the adhesive material applied to the
back of the veneer transfers the loads. With anchored
veneer, the load is transferred through mechanical
systems such as wall ties or anchors.
In addition to lateral load transfer, consideration
must be given for differential movement between the
veneer and the backup system. This movement is
usually accommodated by the supports. Differential
movement is caused by many factors including
temperature changes, shrinkage, creep and deflection.
One guideline is that anchored veneer should be
designed to resist horizontal forces, such as wind or
earthquake, equal to twice the weight of the veneer.
This provision is taken from the Uniform Building Code
requirements and gives a good sense of quantification.
If a 4 in. (102 mm) nominally wide brick veneer system
weighs 40 pounds per square foot (1.916 kg/m2) and
has one brick tie for every two square feet, then the
tie should be able to withstand 160 pounds (72,600 kg)
force in tension or compression. Careful attention must
be given to the entire system, especially the connection
of the metal tie to the veneer system on one side, and
connection to the backup system on the other side.

Shear stress bond 50 psi (345 kPa) or greater

14.7.1.2 INSTALLATION

297

FIGURE 14.12 Adhered veneer shear.

298

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

2W
2 W = Min. horizontal force resistance

individual units are not to exceed 5 ft2. (0.46 m2) in area


and not more than 36 in. (914 mm) long in any face
dimension. The unit weight is not to exceed 15 lb./ft2.
(73 kg/m2), which is the same as previous building code
requirements.
Section 1405.9.1 of the 2006 IBC limits interior
adhered veneer to a maximum self weight of 20 lbs/ft2
(98 kg/m2) and the deflection to l/600.
Consideration must be given to brick masonry veneer
expansion and the building contraction of the backing
system. If expansion tolerances are not part of the
design process, then veneer damage may result.
Adhered veneer is secured by adhesion of a
bonding material applied over solid backing. Masonry
units used in this application are limited to a weight of
15 lbs/ft2 (73 kg/m2). This code also requires that the
bond of an adhered veneer to its backing must be
designed to withstand a shearing stress of 50 psi (345
kPa).
14.7.2.1 T HIN BRICK

W
W = Weight of veneer

F IGURE 14.13

An chored veneer fo rce

resistance.

14.7.2 ADHERED VENEER

Thin brick veneer is increasingly popular in


commercial, residential and do it yourself markets. The
decision to begin using this product was due to
marketing research which recognized remodeling and
re-veneering areas as substantial markets for a thin
clay veneer wall covering. Thin brick veneers are
installed using a variety of procedures. Some of the
common methods include:
1. Adhering directly to CMU or Concrete.

Adhered veneer may be designed and installed


without limitation to height and length; however,
consideration must be given for brick expansion and
building contraction. The code language states that
the consideration is to control restrained differential
movement between the veneer and backing.

2. Adhering to Concrete Block Masonry or


Concrete with surface preparation.

In order to satisfy this requirement, adhered


masonry veneer may be applied with vertical and
horizontal expansion joints between sections. The
vertical distance between horizontal expansion joints
would likely be between floors, or approximately 10 ft.
(3 m). The horizontal distance between vertical joints
should be compatible with the building design and
ideally not exceed 15 to 20 ft. (4.6 to 6.1 m).

5. Adhering to prefabricated panels, on the job site,


or any other selected location.

There is also a unit size limitation imposed by 2005


MSJC Code Section 6.3.2.1 which states that the
thickness of adhered units are not to exceed 25/8 in.
(66.7 mm). The section further requires that the

3. Adhering to a wood or metal stud system with


surface preparation.
4. Placing into forms and cast integrally with
concrete.

Thin brick varies in size, color and texture,


depending on the manufacturer. Common face
dimensions are approximately 21/2 in. (64 mm) by 75/8
in. (194 mm) with a thickness of about 7/16 in. (11 mm).
The thickness may be as much as 7/8 in. (22 mm),
which is preferred when a raked mortar joint is desired.

VENEER

299

Longer units of 111/2 in. (292 mm) are available and


extra consideration should be given to units of greater
thickness. Long thin brick veneer units may warp in
the firing process, which can cause difficulty for the
installer and dissatisfaction for the end user.
Thin brick can provide protection to the material
over which it is applied and functions as an architectural
wall covering. The texture of thin brick units depends
on the method of manufacture and the surface
treatment used prior to or after firing. The color also
depends on the chemical composition and firing
process that is used.
There are some advantages and disadvantages
of thin brick veneer:
Advantages of Thin Brick
1. Thin brick veneer is more durable than products
such as wood, vinyl siding or aluminum.
2. Installation is possible year-round.
3. Thin brick veneer can be applied by craftsmen
who are moderately skilled.
4. Prefabrication with thin brick veneer is easily
and economically done.
5. Thin brick provides additional sound and fire
resistance. Thin brick walls are lighter in weight
than conventional masonry veneer.

Disadvantages of Thin Brick


1. The durability of thin brick may not be
equivalent to conventional brick veneer.
2. The structural properties of conventional brick
veneer are not provided by thin brick veneer.
3. Conventional brick veneer has higher sound
and fire resistance ratings than thin brick
veneer.
4. Conventional brick veneer provides greater
thermal mass than thin brick veneer.

FIGURE 14.14

Honeycomb stone sample.

14.7.2.3 TERRA COTTA


Terra cotta comes in an infinite variety of shapes
and sizes, and most units are anchored.
Adhered terra cotta are thin masonry units, up to
11/4 inches (31.8 mm) in thickness, including back ribs.
The back ribs are necessary in order to provide a secure
bond with the mortar.
Adhered terra cotta should never be applied to
structural masonry since the masonry units will
significantly expand and contract during normal
moisture retention and drying cycles. A waterproof
membrane should first be applied to the concrete
masonry surface, then an expanded metal lath wire
mesh and a scratch and brown coat of plaster applied
prior to the adhered installation of terra cotta.
14.7.2.4 ADHERED VENEER INSTALLATION
Adhered masonry veneer is typically installed by
one of two common methods. The traditional method
is called the thick set method. More recently, the thin
set method has become quite popular and uses
advanced technology to address some of the traditional
shortcomings of adhered veneer installation.

14.7.2.2 HONEYCOMB STONE


There is a product known as Light Stone made by
cutting stone to a thickness of about 5 mm, and
attaching to aluminum honeycomb material. It can be
made in panels as large as 5 ft (1.5 m) by 9 ft 4 in. (2.8
m). The total panel thickness is about 20 mm and the
panels are widely used in elevators, since the weight is
less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m2), thus
having minimal affect on the capacity rating of the
elevator.

The thick set method may be used on backing of


masonry, concrete, wood or steel stud framing. When
applied directly to concrete or masonry, the wire lath
may be eliminated if the surface is heavily scarified or
roughened by sandblasting or other means.
The thick set method may use a setting bed of 1/2
in. (12.7 mm) to 11/4 in. (31.8 mm) where the units are
pushed into the setting bed.

300

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

The thin set method is more contemporary and uses


a latex additive in the thin set mortar. The setting bed
is typically 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) thick and set on a scratch/
brown coat of plaster backing.
Adhered terra cotta is installed by brushing a coat
of neat Portland cement and water onto the terra cotta
unit and a limited area of wall. The terra cotta unit
should be soaked prior to setting.
Then, spread half the mortar setting bed on the
wall and half on the terra cotta unit. Screed both mortar
beds with a notched trowel. The total mortar setting
bed should be about 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) thick.

No consideration made for


difference in expansion - contraction
between brick veneer and back-up
system

Firmly place the terra cotta unit on the mortar


setting bed and tap into place with a rubber mallet.
This should assure a full mortar setting bed. Finish
joints as appropriate.

WRONG

F IGURE 14.16

Adhesive

12(305 mm)

Veneer bu ckl ing due to


expansion of brick and creep/plastic flow of frame.

20(508 mm)*

Provisions are made for the different


coefficients of expansion between the
materials. Apply the masonry veneer in
acoordance with manufacturers
recommendations and allow joints for
expansion where necessary.

12
(3
05
mm
)

Maximum weight of 15
lbs./sq. ft2. (73 kg/m2)

Caulking for
expansion
Cement plaster coat

Proper joint allows the concrete backing structure to move, while


the caulking compresses. No stresses are transferred to the masonry veneer.

FIGURE 14.15 Adhered veneer with provision

36
(
0
Sin .9 m
* Maximum dimension in gl
e d ) ma
xim
this configuration. Maxiime
u
ns
mum dimensions and
ion m
maximum area (720
square inches (0.46 m2)).

for expansion.
Adhered veneer units shall not exceed 25/8 in. (66.7 mm) in specified thickness, 36 in. (914 mm) in any face dimension, nor more
that 5 ft2 (0.46 m2) in total face area, and shall not weigh more than
15 lb/ft2 (73 kg/m2).

F IGURE 14.17

L imit o f adhered stone


dimensions and weight.

VENEER
14.7.3 ANCHORED VENEER

Cement mortar of
plaster 1/2(12.7 mm) to
11/4(31.8 mm) or 1/16
(1.6 mm) latex set on
scratch/brown plaster.

Concrete

2006 IBC Section 1405.5 references 2005 MSJC


Code Sections 6.1 and 6.2 for masonry veneer design
and installation with some specific prescriptive
requirements for stone veneer, slab-type veneer, and
terra cotta.

or

All joints to be
filled with excess
mortar or grouted

Concrete block
Cleaned moistened
surfaces brushed with
neat cement paste
Type S mortar applied
to each face and units
lapped into place to
fill all the voids

or

Backing is defined as the wall or surface to which


the veneer is secured. The IBC has specific veneer
requirements including the materials permitted as the
backing to masonry veneer.
Specific height and weight limitations apply for
anchored masonry veneer under certain conditions.

Wood stud

Adhered veneer

or

Metal stud
Cement plaster
on waterproof
paper backed
wire lath

For exterior masonry veneer supported by


preservative wood treated foundations, the height of
the veneer is limited to 18 ft (5.5 m). Also, exterior
masonry veneer not exceeding 40 lb/ft2 (195 kg/m2)
may be supported on wood construction and is limited
to a height of 12 ft (3.7 m).
There is also a weight limitation for interior masonry
veneer of 40 lb./ft2. (195 kg/m2) when used as an interior
finish on wood framing.

Flashing

2005 MSJC Code Table 6.2.2.3.1 lists the maximum


height for anchored veneer with backing of wood
framing or cold formed steel framing as 30 ft. (9.14 m)
at the plate line and 38 ft. (11.58 m) at the top of a
gable. Movement joints allowing for vertical movement
directly under shelf angles should be installed.

Weep screed (at


slab or foundation)

VENEER

BACKING

Adhered veneer wall sections.

Each
story

FIGURE 14.18

Each
story

Shelf angle supports attached


to non-combustible corrosion
cold-formed framing

30(9.1 m)

Non-combustible, noncorrosive lintels over all


openings where veneer is
not self spanning. Lintel
deflections limited to l/600

Non-combustible
foundation

FIGURE 14.19
framing.

301

Anchored veneer with


a backing of coldformed steel framing
should be supported
by noncombustible
construction for each
story above the
height limit

Maximum height
for veneer
supported by
foundation

Anchored brick
veneer

Veneer system over 30 feet (9 m) in height with a backing of cold-formed steel

30(9.1 m)

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

38(11.6 m) for gable

302

Wood frame backup

Anchored brick
veneer system
Veneer supported by
non-combustible base

FIGURE 14.20

Waterproof sheathing

Height limit of wood frame backup system.

Height limit from foundation


Height at plate,
Height at gable,
ft (m)
ft, (m)
30 (9.14)
38 (11.58)

Brick veneer units may be made of clay or


concrete. Clay brick is by far the most popular masonry
material for veneer applications.
Provision made for different
expansion/contraction of veneer
and back-up system by providing
expansion joint at underside of
shelf angle

Since there must be a provision for expansion and


contraction at horizontal breaks, or more specifically,
directly under the ledger angles, airspace or a
compressible expansion joint material must be
provided.
For openings, such as doors and windows, where
the veneer is not self spanning, noncombustible,
noncorrosive lintels shall be used and the deflection
of the lintel shall not exceed l/600 or 0.3 in. (7.6 mm) of
the span under the full load of the veneer. This means
that for a 10 ft (3 m) opening, the deflection shall not
exceed 0.2 in. (5 mm).

Mortar bed

Figures 14.21 shows an example of an expansion


joint that will accommodate vertical movement and
Figure 14.22 depicts what could happen if vertical
movement joint is improperly detailed or constructed.

Flashing
Caulking
Backer rod
Expansion filler

The area and length of anchored veneer walls shall


be unlimited, except as required to control expansion
and contraction. This is implied in the 2005 MSJC
Code Section 6.1.5.3, General Design Requirements,
which states
Design and detail the veneer to
accommodate differential movement
.

Steel shelf angle

RIGHT

FIGURE 14.21 Anchored veneer with provision


for expansion.

VENEER

303

Brick veneer is commonly used over wood and


metal stud framing. Flexible metal anchors permit
horizontal and vertical movement parallel to the plane
of the wall and at the same time resistance to tension
and compression forces in the direction perpendicular
to the wall.

Brick damage due to lack of


expansion joint under shelf angle.
Adequate consideration must be
given for difference in expansion/
contraction between veneer
system and back-up system.

WRONG

F IGURE 14.22

The veneer system must transfer lateral loads to


the backing and metal anchors with their mechanical
fasteners can be the weakest component of the veneer
system. According to 2005 MSJC Code Section 6.2.2.4
anchored veneer units should be at least 25/8 in. (66.7
mm) in thickness.
Anchored brick veneer construction consists of a
nominal 3 in. (76.2 mm) or 4 in. (102 mm) thick exterior
brick wythe tied to a backup system with metal ties in
such a way that a 1 in. (25.4 mm) minimum clear space
is provided between the veneer and the backup
system. The brick veneer is supported on the
foundation and should not carry any vertical loads,
other than the weight of the veneer.

Anch or veneer w ith no


provision for expansion.

Metal stud back-up system

Installation fill
Weatherproof
sheathing

Seismic required
No.9 gauge (3.76
mm) wire or equivalent. Maximum stud
spacing at 16(406
mm) o.c .
Butt
splices in wire permitted, but 4(102
mm) lap rec ommended

Required 1(25.4 mm)


minimum air space

Corrosion resistant
anchors at least 0.3inc hes (0.8 mm
thick by 7/8 inches
(22 mm) wide

In high Seismic Design


Categories the tie must
have lip to engage the
horizontal joint
reinforcement

Ma
16 x. st
( ud
40 sp
6 m ac
m) ing
o.c
.

Ties spaced to anchor not


more than 2 square feet (0.2
m2) of wall area and not
spaced more than 16-inches
(406 mm) apart horizontally
Brick veneer 5(127 mm)
maximum
Weep holes
Building paper with 6 in. (152
mm) minimum lap
Flashing
Foundation

FIGURE 14.23

Seismic anchored veneer tie system.

304

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Some properties of brick veneer are:


Durability Consideration must be given to five
important elements that affect the durability of brick
veneer, namely, the height of the brick veneer, the
stiffness of the backing, the tie system, and the type of
brick and type of mortar used.
Fire resistance Typical anchored brick veneer
walls (4 in. (102 mm)) have a fire rating of up to 2 hours
(2006 IBC Table 720.1(2), Row 1).
Water resistance Anchored brick veneer walls
are drainage type walls. Walls of this type, which
include cavity walls, are recommended where maximum
resistance to rain and other water penetration is desired.
Careful consideration must be given to the design and
construction that permits water drainage.
Insulation Brick veneer walls can easily be
designed to obtain an energy efficient building
environment in any type of weather condition.
Acoustics Brick veneer walls reduce sound
transmission. The mass reduces sound transmission
by absorbing the energy of the sound vibration.
14.7.3.1 STONE VENEER
The application of stone as a cladding in
construction is a continually evolving process. Stone
was first used for shelter because it formed the walls of
caves in which early man took refuge from the ravages
of the elements.
Some features of stone construction include natural
beauty, the subliminal feeling of security and strength
that it creates. There are two basic types of natural
stone veneer:
1. Rubble or cut stone laid in mortar, and
2

Thin 10 mm to 30 mm stone slabs mechanically or adhesively attached.

Most low-rise residential and small commercial


buildings use mortar for the installation of stone.
Stone veneer may be applied by using the following
methods as described in 2006 IBC Section 1405.6.

FIGURE 14.24

Stone veneer.

IBC Section 1405.6


1405.6 Stone veneer. Stone veneer units not exceeding
10 inches (254 mm) in thickness shall be anchored directly
to masonry, concrete or to stud construction by one of
the following methods:
1.

With concrete or masonry backing, anchor ties


shall be not less than 0.1055-inch (2.68 mm)
corrosion-resistant wire, or approved equal, formed
beyond the base of the backing. The legs of the
loops shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in
length bent at right angles and laid in the mortar
joint, and spaced so that the eyes or loops are 12
inches (305 mm) maximum on center (o.c.) in both
directions. There shall be provided not less than a
0.1055-inch (2.68 mm) corrosion-resistant wire tie,
or approved equal, threaded through the exposed
loops for every 2 square feet (0.2 m2) of stone
veneer. This tie shall be a loop having legs not less
than 15 inches (381 mm) in length bent so that it
will lie in the stone veneer mortar joint. The last 2
inches (51 mm) of each wire leg shall have a rightangle bend. One-inch (25 mm) minimum thickness
of cement grout shall be placed between the
backing and the stone veneer.

VENEER

Veneer ties, corrosion resistant wire, minimum 0.1055inch gauge (2.68 mm), threaded thru exposed anchor
tie loops and with legs of minimum 15(381 mm) length
bent at right angles, laid in stone veneer mortar joint,
end bent in 2(51 mm) angle

Anchor tie, corrosion resistant wire,


minimum 0.1055-inch gauge (2.68
mm), formed as exposed eye extending
12 inch (305 mm) maximum on center
beyond backing face with legs of
minimum 6(152 mm) length bent at
right angles, laid in mortar joint.

Concrete

305

Anchor tie, corrosion


resistant wire, minimum
0.1055-inch gauge (2.68
mm), formed as exposed
eye extending 12 inch
(305 mm) maximum on
center beyond backing
face with legs of minimum
6(152 mm) length bent at
right angles, laid in mortar
joint.

Veneer ties, corrosion


resistant wire, minimum
0.1055-inch gauge (2.68
mm), threaded thru exposed
anchore tie loops and with
legs of minimum 15(381
mm) length bent at right
angles, laid in stone veneer
mortar joint, end bent in 2
(51 mm) angle
Ties spaced to anchor not
more than 2 square feet (0.2
m2) of wall area and not
spaced more than 16-inches
(406 mm) apart horizontally

Concrete back-up

1(25.4 mm) min.


cement grout
10(254 mm) max.
veneer

Stone veneer
10(254 mm) maximum
Recommended 1(25.4
mm) minimum

FIGURE 14.25
2.

Non-combustible
foundation

Anchored system with concrete back-up.

With stud backing, a 2-inch by 2-inch (51 by 51


mm) 0.0625-inch (1.59 mm) corrosion-resistant
wire mesh with two layers of waterproofed paper
backing in accordance with Section 1403.3 shall
be applied directly to wood studs spaced a
maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. On studs,
the mesh shall be attached with 2-inch-long (51
mm) corrosion-resistant steel wire furring nails at
4 inches (102 mm) o.c. providing a minimum
1.125-inch (29 mm) penetration into each stud and
with 8d common nails at 8 inches (203 mm) o.c.
into top and bottom plates or with equivalent wire
ties. There shall be not less than a 0.1055-inch
(2.68 mm) corrosion-resistant wire, or approved
equal, looped through the mesh for every 2 square
feet (0.2 m2) of stone veneer. This tie shall be a
loop having legs not less than 15 inches (381 mm)
in length, so bent that it will lie in the stone veneer
mortar joint. The last 2 inches (51 mm) of each
wire leg shall have a right-angle bend. One-inch
(25 mm) minimum thickness of cement grout shall
be placed between the backing and the stone
veneer.

The two methods contained in 2006 IBC Section


1405.6 are known as
wired tiedanchored veneer
systems. Figures 14.25 and 14.26 demonstrate the
systems.
Figure 14.28 shows the periphery dowels which
may be required by the Code. These anchors are to be
connected to the backing by wire or ties.
As with any anchored veneer system, ties must
be capable of resisting tension and compression
forces. Since there is no mortar spot bedding
requirement, the tie must resist the force, or the system
can be designed to place spot bedded mortar to
accommodate compressive forces.

306

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


Reinforcement, not less than 2x 2x 16 gauge
(51 mm x 51 mm x 1.57 mm) galvanized wire
mesh, 2 ply waterproofed paper-backed,
anchored to wood studs with 2(51 mm)
galvanized steel wire furring nails at 4(102
mm) o.c., and at top and bottom with not less
than 8d common wire nails at 8(203 mm) o.c.
or anchor to steel studs with equivalent wire
ties.

Studs at max.
16o.c.

Min. 11/8(28.6 mm)


penetration
Veneer ties, corrosion
resistant wire, minimum
0.1055-inch gauge (2.68
mm), threaded thru
exposed anchor tie
loops and with legs of
minimum 15(381 mm)
length bent at right
angles, laid in stone
veneer mortar joint, end
bent in 2(51 mm)
angle

Stone veneer

Ties spaced to anchor not more than 2


square feet (0.2 m2) of wall area and not
spaced more than 16-inches (406 mm)
apart horizontally

FIGURE 14.26

Wood stud back-up

1(25 mm) min.


cement grout
10(254 mm)
max. veneer

Non-combustible
foundation

Wired tiedanchored veneer system, wood stud backup with wire mesh and

waterproof paper.
IBC Section 1405.7

FIGURE 14.27
application.

Typical anchored stone veneer

1405.7 Slab-type veneer. Slab-type veneer units not


exceeding 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness shall be anchored
directly to masonry, concrete or stud construction. For
veneer units of marble, travertine, granite or other stone
units of slab form ties of corrosion-resistant dowels in
drilled holes located in the middle third of the edge of
the units spaced a maximum of 24 inches (610 mm) apart
around the periphery of each unit with not less than four
ties per veneer unit. Units shall not exceed 20 square feet
(1.9 m2) in area. If the dowels are not tight fitting, the
holes shall be drilled not more than 0.063 inch (1.6 mm)
larger in diameter than the dowel, with the hole
countersunk to a diameter and depth equal to twice the
diameter of the dowel in order to provide a tight-fitting
key of cement mortar at the dowel locations when the
mortar in the joint has set. Veneer ties shall be corrosionresistant metal capable of resisting, in tension or
compression, a force equal to two times the weight of the
attached veneer. If made of sheet metal, veneer ties shall
be not smaller in area than 0.0336 by 1 inch (0.853 by 25
mm) or, if made of wire, not smaller in diameter than
0.1483-inch (3.76 mm) wire.

VENEER

307

9 Gauge (3.76 mm) min.

/4to 1

d + 0.63max.

24(610 mm)
maximum

24
ma (61
xim 0 m
um m)

/3 t

t (maximum 2(51 mm))

Maximum panel size 20


square feet (1.9 m2 )

FIGURE 14.28

Anchored veneer doweling for 2 inch (51 mm) stone.

14.7.3.2 BLOCK VENEER, CONCRETE UNITS


Block veneer can be processed with quality control
standards that allow color and texture variations are
similar to clay brick. Since the manufacturing process
does not require the high firing temperatures associated
with clay products, block veneer is cost competitive.
Block veneer can also be made into a variety of
textures, such as smooth, slumped or adobe faced,
split faced and fluted.

Quite often, however, the application of block


veneer may be impractical. Alternatively, a wider
structural block may be used to achieve both a desired
surf ace appearance and a structural element
potentially yielding a substantial cost savings.
Block veneer may not be as readily available as
clay brick veneer units, especially in the smaller, more
traditional, clay brick sizes.
As with any product, communication between the
design team and the developer is the key in selecting
the most appropriate product to satisfy the end user,
while maintaining an efficient cost approach.

308

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

14.8 TYPICAL DETAILS


The following details are presented as a few of the
design possibilities of a veneer system.

Each project should be designed on its own merit


using details most beneficial for the application.

14.8.1 ROOF/PARAPET DETAILS

Horizontal and
vertical reinforcement

Continuous metal coping

Sealant
Sealant
Counter flashing
Metal tie

Dovetail slot and anchor


1(25.4 mm) minimum air space
Steel stud
Insulation
Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw
Interior finish

FIGURE 14.29

Weatherproof sheathing

Brick parapet on concrete frame building.

Roofing
Gravel-stop fascia
Dovetail anchor
Sealant
Adjustable anchor

Steel stud
Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw
Insulation
Interior finish

FIGURE 14.30 Roof detail without parapet.

Brick veneer

Adjustable wire tie

Weatherproof sheathing
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

VENEER

Roofing

/8(3 mm) min. air space

Wood plate
Wood studs
Insulation

8d nail
Interior finish

FIGURE 14.31

Weatherproof sheathing

Brick veneer
Metal tie
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Sloped wood roof detail.

Floor or roof slab

8(203 mm) CMU bond beam

Drip (typical)

Sealant joint

Joint reinforcement
@ 16(406 mm) o.c.

8(203 mm) CMU

Vertical reinforcement

FIGURE 14.32 Slab roof detail.

4(102 mm) face brick

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

309

310

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

14.8.2 SHELF ANGLE/FLASHING DETAILS

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Reglet

Flashing

8(203 mm) max.

Weep holes

Elastic joint sealant


Compressible material
below shelf angle

Adjustable wire tie

FIGURE 14.33

Flashing at shelf angle.

Lip brick

Caulking

1(25.4 mm)
minimum air
space
Reglet

Compressible
material
Backer rod

8(203 mm) max.

Flashing

Elastic joint sealant


Compressible material
below shelf angle

Adjustable wire tie

FIGURE 14.34

Flashing one brick above shelf angle.

VENEER

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Flashing

Lipped or lintel brick


Weep holes

Caulking
Compressible material
Steel shelf angle
or bent plate
4(102 mm) face brick
Embedded anchor bolt
8(203 mm) CMU

FIGURE 14.35

Shelf angle anchored to CMU backup.

Weatherproof sheathing
Tie
Steel stud back-up

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Brick veneer

Building paper

Flashing
Steel angle
Weep holes
Sealant

Insulation

Backer rod
Open head joint @ 4(1.2
m) o.c. for air circulation

FIGURE 14.36

Shelf angle at concrete support, steel stud backup.

311

312

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

Variation from specified


position in plan

Adjustable anchor
Alternate position of flashing
with weep holes shifted
upward one brick

Shims

Weep holes @ 24
(610 mm) o.c.
Sealant

Backer rod
Face of beam
or slab
Clear for vertical
movement or provide
compressible material

FIGURE 14.37 Shelf angle anchored to beam or slab.

4(102 mm) face brick


8(203 mm) CMU

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Joint reinforcement @
16(406 mm) o.c.

Vertical reinforcement

Flashing
Single or double 8(203
mm) CMU bond beam lintel
Weep holes

Steel angle

FIGURE 14.38

Shelf angle anchored to CMU backup.

VENEER
14.8.3 SILL AND JAMB DETAILS

Metal studs
Interior finish

Self-tapping corrosion
resistant metal screw

Metal casement window

1(25.4 mm) minimum


air space

Horizontal joint reinforcement


as seismically required
Brick sill

Weatherproof sheathing

Caulking or sealant

Metal ties

Building paper

PLAN VIEW

FIGURE 14.39

Window jamb, steel studs/brick veneer.

8d nail

Weatherproof sheathing
Interior finish

Wood stud

Metal ties

Brick veneer
Brick sill
Horizontal joint reinforcement
as seismically required

Caulking or sealant
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Building paper

PLAN VIEW

FIGURE 14.40

Window jamb, wood studs/brick veneer.

313

314

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space


Weatherproof sheathing

Brick ties

Steel stud

Brick veneer

Insulation
Building paper
Interior finish

Flashing

Weep holes @ 24
(610 mm) o.c. max.

Sealant

Steel angle lintel

FIGURE 14.41

Window/door soffit steel studs/brick veneer.

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space


Weatherproof sheathing

Insulation

Brick veneer

Building paper

Brick ties

Flashing
Weep holes @ 24
(610 mm) o.c. max.
Sealant and backer rod

FIGURE 14.42

Window soffit, wood studs/brick veneer.

VENEER

Double hung
wood window
Caulking or sealant

Weatherproof sheathing

Weep holes @
24(610 mm) o.c.

Insulation

Flashing
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Brick veneer

FIGURE 14.43

Window sill, wood studs/brick veneer.

Wood stool

Caulking or sealant

Brick sill

Channel
Weep holes @
24(610 mm) o.c.
Self-tapping corrosionresistant metal screw

Flashing

Metal ties
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Weatherproof sheathing

FIGURE 14.44

Window sill, steel studs/brick veneer.

315

316

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

14.8.4 FLOOR CONNECTION DETAILS

Interior finish
Insulation
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space
Weatherproof sheathing
Brick veneer
8d nail
Metal tie
Wood studs
Building paper

Flashing
Weep holes @ 24(610 mm) o.c.

Anchor bolt

Finish grade

Waterproof membrane

FIGURE 14.45

Floor connection detail.

Weatherproof sheathing
Insulation
Interior finish
Wood studs

Building paper
Brick veneer
8d nail
Metal tie
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space
Flashing
Weep holes @ 24(610 mm) o.c.
Finish grade

Anchor bolt

Solid grouted collar joint

FIGURE 14.46

Floor connection detail.

Waterproof
membrane

VENEER
14.8.5 WALL BASE DETAILS

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Interior finish

Steel stud

4(102 mm) brick veneer

Horizontal joint reinforcement


as seismically required

Building paper
Insulation
Weatherproof sheathing

Vapor barrier

Wall ties

Concrete floor
slab

Bond
break

Weep holes @ 24(610 mm) o.c. max.

Vapor barrier
Fill cavity w/mortar or grout up
to underside of flashing
4to 6(102 mm to 152
mm) capillary water barrier
Waterproof
membrane

Building paper

Reinforced concrete
foundation wall and footing

Flashing

FIGURE 14.47

Base of wall detail, concrete footing, steel stud backup.

317

318

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL

4(102 mm) face brick

8(203 mm) CMU

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Horizontal joint reinforcement


@ 16(406 mm) o.c.

W eatherproof membrane
Expansion
joint material
Concrete floor slab

Flashing

Weep holes
Grade

Vapor barrier
4to 6(102 mm to 152 mm)
capillary water barrier

Grout fill

Waterproof membrane

Concrete foundation

FIGURE 14.48

Base of wall detail, concrete footing, CMU backup.

VENEER

8(203 mm) CMU

4(102 mm) face brick

1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Horizontal joint reinforcement


@ 16(406 mm) o.c.

W eatherproof membrane

Expansion
joint material
Concrete floor slab

Flashing

Weep holes
Grout fill

Waterproof membrane
Vapor barrier

4to 6(102 mm to 152 mm)


capillary water barrier
CMU foundation

Concrete footing
Alternate bars

FIGURE 14.49

Base of wall detail, concrete footing CMU below grade, CMU backup.

319

320

MASONRY DESIGN MANUAL


W eatherproof membrane
Self-tapping corrosion-resistant screw
Metal stud
Weatherproof sheathing

Brick veneer
Wall tie
1(25.4 mm) minimum air space

Insulation
Interior finish

Flashing
Weep holes @ 24(610 mm) o.c.
Finish grade

Full collar joint

Concrete grade beam

FIGURE 14.50

Base of wall detail, concrete fo