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MARGARET MEDLEY

a handbook of

CHINESE ART

Bronzes / Buddhism / Ceramics / Decoration / Jade /


Hardstones/ Paintings / with 24 pages of illustrations

A Handbook

of

Chinese Art

is

a basic guide.
:,;

iO

profusely illustrated with hundreds of draw-

and

ings of art objects

details, for collectors,

dealers and students of Chinese art and anIn this book. Margaret Medley,
Curator of the Percival David Foundation of
Chinese Art. fills the widely felt need for a

tiquities.

handy guide

Each

section

duction to
tions,

of

to

Chinese

and

arts

consists

general intro-

of

crafts.

special area, followed

its

listed

Chinese

The

art.

sections of the

defini-

book cover

bronzes, the figures and concepts of

most important
nese

by

alphabetically, of the key terms

Buddhism

our understanding of Chi-

to

ceramics, types of decoration, jades

art.

and hardstones, painting. There are also tables


of the Chinese dynasties and reign period
marks, notes on pronunciation, and a selected
bibliography for each area of interest.

A Handbook
ing

welcomed

of
as

Chinese Art

to the vast field of

Chinese

"A handbook supplying


mation within
the

more

is

already be-

a standard reference workart:

a wealth of infor-

a single cover

so for the

most welcome,

is

pages of outline drawings

indicating shapes and forms.

7 The

Arts

handy book,

clearly laid out and


be a good reliable quick
reference for collectors and those coping with
the numerous descriptive terms, both Chinese

"This

is

easy to use.

It

will

WITH 24 PAGES OF ILLUSTRATIONS

bdek

fir

$5.00

co

UU5 NOT CIRCULATE

CENTRAL REFERENCE

S =

A HANDBOOK OF CHINESE ART

HANDBOOK

OF

CHINESE ART
for

and students

collectors

MARGARET MEDLEY

HORIZON

PRESS PUBLISHERS

NH'.V YOR--C

r_".

American edition 1965 published by

HORIZON" PRISS PUBLISHERS


i;':

New

Avenue

Fifth

York. X.Y. 10010

COPYRIGHT

1964 BY
LTD
York House. Portugal Street,
G.

Library*

AND

SON'S,

London

WC2

BELL

of Congress Catalog Card Number:

:::;:; i

:::

Great Britain

0366

PREFACE
The terminology of the arts and crafts of Europe is generally well
known, a number of excellent handbooks, primers and guides,
easily available to

over the

last

amateurs and students, having been published

few years.

we are less well


of Professor S. Howard

In the field of Chinese art

provided for despite the publication

of Chinese Art and Archaeology, which is


primarily intended for the student with some knowledge of the
Hansford's

Glossary

Chinese language and characters.

no such

The

familiarity, representing as

gap for the general reader.

it

present

handbook assumes

does an attempt to

The terms included

fill

are, in the

this

main,

which one might encounter in any book on


Terms are briefly, and I hope
explained,
wherever
possible illustrated in the line
clearly,
and
drawings associated with the seven sections into which the book

limited to those

Chinese

is

art written in English.

divided.

The study of Chinese


to attempt a

art

and culture

is

an expanding one, and

comprehensive dictionary of

art

terms and icon-

ography would be beyond the power of any one person. In the


it will be found that the sections on Buddhism
and painting are subject to severe limitations, such as are perhaps

present instance

less

obvious, but which nevertheless

One

exist, in

the other sections.

omission will inevitably be noticed by those concerned with

ceramics.

This

is

the absence of

all

but reign marks from the

only other marks included in either illustration or


which may be used as both marks and decorative
motives. It seemed to me that ceramic marks form a subject for
study on their own, and that they should be dealt with in a

illustrations, the

text are those

separate publication.

In order to compensate for these limitations an introductory

note

is

included with each subject, and at the end of each section

a short list of useful books has been added, which will, I hope,
prove helpful to those wishing to delve more deeply into the

subjects in

which they

are interested.

Only books

in English are

PREFACE

many of these

found to quote from sources


in other languages, especially in French and German.
An
admirable example of such a book is Martin Feddersen's Chinese
included, but

will be

Decorative Art.

In compiling the text I have drawn on many sources, but the


most useful single works for their own sections were Soothill
and Hodous' Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, Benjamin
March's Some Technical Terms of Chinese Painting, and the Chiehtzu yuan hua chuan, 'The Mustard Seed Garden manual of
painting'.
From this last work, of the late 17th century, I have
been able to take all the illustrations for the section on painting.
The illustrations are also from many sources, some are redrawn,
others original.
Of those that are redrawn I must thank Professor
Hansford for permission to use a number from his Glossary, and
at the same time acknowledge a debt to Miss Helen Fernald's

Chinese Court Costume, for

some decorative motives.

preparation of the Bronze section

help of Mr. A. H. Christie,

who

ductory note for that section.

In the

have been grateful for the

has kindly supplied the introI

have received

much

help,

and advice from friends and colleagues, and hope


that the book will prove useful to some, at least, of those who have

patiently given,

so generously given

me

their time.

Margaret Medley

CONTENTS

....

Preface

page

Chinese Dynasties and Reigns

ii

Note on Pronunciation

12

Bronzes

13

Buddhism

46

Ceramics

58

Decoration

91

Jade and Hardstones

106

Painting

112

Miscellaneous

125

Recommended Books; Periodicals;

Societies

Collections

and
131

ILLUSTRATIONS
Map

of China

8,9

Plates 1-9

Bronzes

Plates 10-11

Ceramics

Plates 12-14

Decoration

Plate 15

Jades

Plates 16-20

Painting

Reign Period Marks

15, 17, 21, 27, 31, 35, 37, 39, 43

61, 75
93, 97, 103

109
113, 115, 117, 119, 121
128, 129

Tun-huang

*uSa

--

?HU
<

v.

h
/

KUn-TTiirur

}^^ V U

KK

AW

KUE1CH0U

V?
/:

?
/

HUNA

s
/

^Vfunkang

Tehing

>

^Ting-chow

^u c

^ \ Chu-lu/Hsien

'
y Nanking]
'

f^-v/ANHUL
HanJ&w
Hangchou,

^Hsiang-huS ^.Yugi-chou,(Shao-hsing)
^hYu-yao
.
^^^J-S
iChing-teChen ^J

/)

(L^

l^

Lin-ch'iian
J

Li-shi+iJ&v'u-chou)

C" \\ ^Lung-Milan
A^Chien^ang

j[Chi-chou)' j

YThEKIANQT

Nan-ch'anq

*i

Chien^in
-hua%

Ch

"?0-c^

^W G
Canton

'Ctiuan-chou

TAIWAN

Hong-Kong
7O0
i

^00
_l

Miles
See overleaffor

Key

to the

map

500

KEY TO THE MAP


Archaeological

sites

Anyang (Honan), Bronze Age


Ch'ang-sha (Hunan), Bronze Age
Cheng-chou (Honan), Bronze Age
Hsun-hsien (Honan), Bronze Age
Lung-shan (Shantung), Neolithic
Shou-hsien (Anhui), Bronze Age
Yang-shao (Shensi), Neolithic

Buddhist

sites

Hsiang-t'ang Shan (Honan)

Lung-men (Honan)
Lung-shan (Shantung)
P'ing-ling Ssii (Kansu)

T'ien-lung Shan (Shansi)


T'ien-shui (Kansu)

Tun-huang (Kansu)
Yii-t'ang Shan (Shantung)

Yunkang

(Shansi)

Yiin-men Shan (Shantung)


Ceramic

centres

Chi-an (Kiangsi)
Chien-an (Fukien)

10

Chien-yang (Fukien)
Ching-te Chen (Kiangsi)
Chti-lu Hsien (Chihli)
Chun-chou (Honan)
Hsiang-hu (Kiangsi)
Ju-chou (Honan)
Li-shui (Chekiang)
Lin-ch'iian (Kiangsi)

Lung-ch'uan (Chekiang)
Nan-ch'ang (Kiangsi)
Te-hua (Fukien)
Ting-chou (Chihli)
Tz u-chou (Chihli)
Yi-hsing (Kiangsu)
Yii-yao (Chekiang)
Yueh-chou (Chekiang)
Historic ports

Amoy

(Fukien)

Canton (Kuang Tung)


Ch'ang-chou (Fukien)
Ch'iian-chou (Fukien)
Shanghai (Kiangsu)

Swatow (Kuang Tung)


Wen-chou (Chekiang)

CHINESE DYNASTIES AND REIGNS


Shang

(Yin)

c.

Chou

c.

Warring

Chin

Han

1500

Six Dynasties

c.

1028 b.c.

1027-249

b.c.

221-206

B.C.

b.c.-a.d.

220

States 481-221 B.C.

206

a.d. 221-589

Sui

581-618

Tang

618-906

Five Dynasties

Sung

907-960

960-1279

Yuan

(Mongols)

Ming
Hung-wu
Chien-wen
Yung-lo
Hung-hsi
Hsuan-te
Cheng-t'ung
Ching-t'ai

Tien-shun
Ch'eng-hua

1280-1368

1368-1398
1399-1402
1403-1424
1425
1426-1435
1436-1449
1450-1457
1457-1464
1465-1487

Hung-chih
Cheng-te
Chia-ching
Lung-ch'ing

Wan-li
4

T*ai-ch ang
T'ien-ch'i

Ch'ung-cheng

Ch'ing
Shun-chih
K'ang-hsi

Yung-cheng
Ch'ien-lung
Chia-ch'ing

1644-1661
1662-1722
1723-1735
1736-1795
1796-1820

Tao-kuang
Hsien-feng
Kuang-hsii

Hs iian-t'ung

1368-1644
1488-1505
1506-1521
1522-1566
1567-1572
1573-1619

1620
1621-1627
1628-1643

1644-1912
1821-1850
1851-1861
1862-1873
1874-1908
1909-1912
II

NOTE ON PRONUNCIATION
The pronunciation of Chinese words

is fairly straightforward
following selection of approximate equivalents is followed.

if the

Initial consonants

ch, k, p,

t, ts,

ch', k', p',

and

t', ts', tz',

hs, is a soft S

tz are hard, as j, g, b,

are

all soft as

t, ts,

in ch-, k-, p-,

produced by placing the

tip

dz in English.
t-, ts-,

dz-, in English.

of the tongue against

the front lower teeth,


j,

resembles the French

ssu

like a

is

but

is

long hissed S before

somewhat

is

je,

very slightly rolled


'sir'.

like

an R.

For practical purposes tzu

similar.

Vowels

always long.

a, is

like 'aye' in English.

ai, is

ao,
e,

is

en,

ow'

as in 'cow'.

and eng, with the

e usually resembling the

French eu

as in

'fleur'.
e,
i,

or eh, as in French

e.

as 'ee' in 'see',

has

ih,

no good English

equivalent, with the

'cheroot' being perhaps the nearest,


o,

almost equivalent to English

'or',

ou, as in 'although'.
u, like oo.
xi is

12

narrow

like the

French u in

'tu'.

first

syllable

of

BRONZES
Although,

as

Needham has shown, cast iron played a


China many centuries before its use in the West

Dr. Joseph

major role in
became general, it was copper in various alloys which provided
the main material for the makers of metal vessels, mirrors and the
The
like, coins, as well as weapons down to Han times at least.
also
and
fired
moulds,
iron
moulds,
clay
in cast
alloys were cast, in
by the cire-perdue method, and were finished when cold by various
standard metalworking techniques.
Copper (melting-point 1,083 degrees Centigrade) occurs
widely in China. The metal in its pure form is rather soft, but
alloyed with tin to
increased,

facilitates its

working.

fairly constant

ever,

make bronze

while the melting-point

its
is

hardness

is

substantially

lowered, a fact which

Conventional Eurasiatic bronzes show a

proportion of 10 per cent of tin.

In China,

how-

the tin content varied considerably and the practice of

adding lead to the alloy was

common.

This further reduced the

melting-point and produced an admirable casting metal which was


rather softer than the 10 per cent tin alloy.

The

lead which,

unlike the added tin, does not dissolve in copper, remains suspended in globular form in the melt and, by improving the flow,
greatly reduces the risk of surface bubble flaws in the casting.
A lead-tin alloy has the additional advantage of being easier to
work with gravers and chisels when cold. Chinese casters also
made use of copper-lead alloys, particularly in coinage, where
its

use

may

be ascribed to economic rather than technical con-

siderations.

In typical simple alloys the tin content of early Chinese bronzes


13

Animal Combat Motive

Axes
Lead may be included in

runs from 12 to 20 per cent.

20 per cent, while in the case of copper-lead

of the

may

latter

be

as

high

Animal Combat Motive

is

as

as-

sociated with the art of the pastoral

nomads of

the

Eurasian

including

the

Chinese

Steppe,

The

region of the Ordos Desert.

of two fairly
evenly matched opponents such
as two stallions, or a tiger and an
eagle, in violent combat.
The
interpretation of the motive is
vigorous and strongly linear.
See Ordos.
[la].
motive

consists

Animal

Style.

See

Ordos.

Animal Triple Band is


of the
the

k'uei

dragon

creature

is

a variant

(q.v.) in

which

distributed

into

three bands, the top one contain-

ing the

crest,

or horn; the second

band, the eye, ear and part of the

body, and the third one containing the nostril, lower jaw, foot or
claw, and the lower part of the
body. As a decorative element
it is confined to Shang and Early

Chou.

[16].

Animal Tsun,
the

form

of an

Many are known,


commonest

PLATE
Band,
i]

1.

c-f]

is

vessel in

animal.

[It],

and perhaps the

the elephant tsun.

BRONZES,

alloys, the

these

up

to

proportion

30 per cent.

The opening of this type of vessel


always in the centre of the back.
Confined mainly to Shang and

is

Early Chou,

Huai

style

re-appears in the

it

in a modified

(q.v.)

form.

Animals of the Four Quarters


are commonly found on bronzes
and lacquers of the Han period.
They are; the Sombre, or Dark,
Warrior [lc] (a tortoise with a
snake coiled round the body),
representing the North and Winter; its colour is black; the Green

Dragon

[1/],

representing the East

and Spring; the

Scarlet

Bird

representing the South and

[le],

Sum-

mer, and the White Tiger


representing

the

[Id],

West

and

Autumn.
Axes,

called ytieh, ch'i or fu

are

either tanged or socketed [lh]; the

socketed type

is

more

varied in

that the socket varies in length

tube to a ring. Both


have decorated

from

types

generally

tangs protruding

of the

shaft,

from the back

and, in the Shang

period examples, these

ornamented with

may

be

turquoise inlay.

Animal Combat Motive, b] Animal Triple


Animals of the Four Quarters, g] Belt Hooks, h] Axes.

Animal Tsun.

14

wine

BRONZES

-fr

j]

a]

Bird Tsun.

II

PLATE

Belt

Hook

The

Broad Figure Band

blades vary

form,

spatulate

that

may

form

ribbed, ro a

European

from

simple

be

with

battle-axe,

wide
some-

is

times decorated, and

also oc-

casionally perforated.

is

The tanged

type are mainly datable to Shang

Chou;

Early

type

current

is

the

socketed

throughout the

whole Bronze Age.

Hook,

Belt

hook

with

straight or slightly curving shaft,

with

a stud at

one end tor fasten-

ing into the belt, the

hook

at the

other end to catch a link,

The
along

its

be ornamented
whole length, or only at

from the

the stud end, farthest

hook.

[lg].

may

shaft

In profile they often

show

proportioned
vary consider-

a gentle, beautifully

S-curve.

ably

as a

The}'

often with a large butt end, that


carry very

complex decora-

tion, winch ma}- be gilt, inlaid


with gold, or silver, or turquoise,
or with several ot these together.
The hook itself may be in the
form of a bird's head, the goose
being
particularly
common.
They do not appear to have been

made
(in

before the 6th century B.C.

Huai

style),

and cease some-

time towards the end, or soon

PLATE
Chia.

c]

Cicad.

16

is

rai-kou.

Bent Ear Handles spring from


the body of the vessel below the
rim, round

which they are bent


upwards.
They make their
appearance
late Shang times

and become a common feature in


Middle Chou.

Bird Tsun, a wine vessel in th


form ot a bird, the head of which
in Shang and Earlv Chou examples iorms the cover [1/]: the
owl seems to have been the

commonest
periods.

when

bird

In

Huai

the type

is

in
style

these

two

examples,

revived, using

as a rule the

goose or pheasant, the

opening

in the centre ot the

is

back.

type from the long and

slender to the short and stubby,

may

end oi the Han period.

similar to the

arc-shaped blade, which

and

alter the

The Chinese name

BRONZES,

2.

J]

Chiao.

Ch une.

c]

Bottle

Horns occur both on

masks (q.v.) and on


dragons (q.v.). The horn
resembles a chianti bottle with a

t'ao-t'ieh

k'uci

mouth; found only


Shane and Earlv Chou.

slightly flared

in

Broad Figure Band, an element


of Middle Chou decoration,
which occurs in many variations,
of winch seem to derive
mately from animal torms.

all

ulti[2a],

Broad Figure Band. />] C and T Decoration


Cheng
Chiieh. /"] Chien. $] Chien sword.
/;]

k]

a]

Chih.

Bhca

PLATE

Bronze Disease

Chiao

Bronze Disease,
powdery

pale green
is

-fr

by

indicated

spots or lines,

the destruction of the alloy

by

presence of
which form an un-

contaminating

the

chlorides,

cuprous

stable

This

chloride.

continues to react even under ideal

museum

conditions,

destructive

the

chlorides,

it is

and to halt
of the

action

necessary to elimin-

them. Cuprous chloride is


not only insoluble in water, but
may also be inaccessible in its
greatest concentration in the deep
layers of the incrustation. Chemate

ical

treatments are

known and

museum

laboratories

used

in

specialising in

of

treatment

conservation, but
a

bronze

no

is

guarantee that a further outbreak

may

not occur.

diameter of which exceeds the


height of the barrel.

There are
and the decoration
usually consists of t'ao-t'ieh masks

no

bosses,

(q.v.)

on each

curving

slightly

nnd-section.

Middle Chou
period, when it makes its appearance, and of the Huai and Han
of the

Typical

bronze

vessels.

and

The

side.

straight

and hollow, perhaps for mounting on a pole.


Confined to Shang and Early
Chou. Some modern Chinese
handle

is

short

authorities attach the


this type.

name

nao to

[2h].

See Axes.

Ch'i.

Chia, a wine

vessel

resembling the chueh

somewhat
(q.v.)

but

generally larger and without spout

or backward extending Up.


has

instead

wide

circular

It

or

mouth with two


diametrically
capped columns
opposed and at right angles to the

rectangular

handle

Cabriole Leg, swelling and


rounded at the top with a slender,

BRONZES

lip axis.

In

some

cases the

may be hollow at least part of


way down. One small group

legs

the

rectangular with four legs, and


capped columns on the centre of

is

the short sides; there

may

in this

type be a cover with a bird-form

handle in the centre. The vessel


confined to the Shang and Early

is

Decoration,

term

Chou

periods.

[2c].

wine

vessel

introduced by Karlgren to distinguish one clement,


winch,
found together with several others,
is covered by the general name

'thunder pattern' (q.v.). It occurs


only in the Shang and Early Chou
periods.

[2b].

Cheng,

elliptical

18

clapperless
section,

the

bell

of

long

Chiao,

very like the

chueh (q.v.) but without capped

columns; the spout is replaced by


If a cover
a second extended lip.
survives it is usually found to be
in the form of a bird in flight, or
of an animal. The chiao only
occurs in the Shang and Early

Chou

periods.

[2d].

BRONZES

Chien

ft

Chien, a deep, wide, circular


basin, with two or more handles,
which may be ornamented with
animal heads and fitted with rings.
The vessel was either filled with
water, for use as a mirror, or was
filled with ice in which perishable
foods were stored. The latter
view is supported by modern
Chinese opinion, following an
early text.
that

It

is

also

suggested

was used for washing

it

was the p'an

(q.v.).

The hollow

foot

is

Chiieh

generally

Decoration tends to be
rather restrained on this type of
vessel, which is confined to the
splayed.

Shang and Early Chou periods.


chih for this vessel was
first applied in the Sung Dynasty,
and it is not certain that it is

The name

correct.

[2k].

Ching.

See Mirrors.

in, as

Surviving

Chio.

See Chiao.

Chiu.

See Kuei.

examples are of the Huai period


only.

[2/].

Chien,

bronze sword about 2

feet,

or 2 feet 6 inches in length

with

narrow smoothly tapering

blade having a pronounced central

The

rib.

largest

on record

is

length and the shortest 7

feet in

both exceptional. There


was no crosspiece and the hilt was
small and slender, with two
thickened bands of metal, equally
spaced along it. The pommel of

inches,

the

sword was often

as to

so fashioned

accept an ornamental disc of


In

jade.

some

cases the point

of

junction between the blade and


the hilt
fitting.

was decorated with a jade


This type of sword was

common

Chou period
Han Dynasty.

in the Late

and during

the

Chronology.

See Phase.

Chtieh, a wine vessel with a body

of narrow
section.

has a large open spout

for pouring,

and opposite

and extended

flattened
is

or circular

elliptical

It

a loop handle

on the

there

side

of the

body. The vessel stands on three


of triangular section, that

legs

At the root of
two short capped
columns, one on each side. If
spread a

little.

the spout are

the vessel bears an inscription, this

generally

appears

on

the

slightly flared

wide

with a
mouth and fairly

a drinking vessel

belly,

section,

but

usually

circular

occasionally

in

oval.

body

under the loop of the handle.

The flattened elliptical type is


more primitive form, and for

the
the

most part pre-dates the finds at


Anyang, and is perhaps datable
to a period before 1350 B.C.

Chih,

this a

lip;

type

made

as

The

whole was no longer

end of the Early


possible that most
of the surviving examples are of
after the

Chou, and

it is

19

Ch'un

Coiled Beast Motive

&

Shang date. The decoration may


be sparing or extremely lavish,
and flanges (q.v.) sometimes extend up the spout and on the
extended rear lip. [2e]
.

Ch'un.

See Tin.

BRONZES

ornamented with three rows of


three bosses each, which in late
examples might appear as coiled
serpents, making a grand total of
36 bosses. The bells were struck
with small bronze or wooden
drumsticks. This type of bell is

by some Chinese writers


have been made in the Shang
period, but the earliest surviving
examples date from Middle Chou.
Examples with complex animal
loops only occur in the Huai
believed

Chung,
forms,

a bell.

all elliptical

narrowing a
top.
is

occurs in three

It

little

In the

[2/].

in section,

and

towards a

flat

first

form

there

from the centre of


and near the base of

a shaft rising

the

flat

top,

the shaft

is

has a

narrow

loop in the centre of the


and the third type has
a complex loop consisting of two
confronted animals, sometimes
with their heads turned back over
the shoulder.
A graduated series
of these chung could be hung up
tall

flat surface;

as

chime in

frame, and

known.

sets

Very

stout

wooden

large

examples,

feet in height,

were usually hung up alone, and


were named t'e-chung, 'special
bell'.
The surface of the bell is
divided into three main panels on
with a decorative zone
bottom. The central panel,
narrowing towards to the top,
side,

at the

was usually left plain, or carried


an inscription; the two wider
panels on either side of this were

PLATE

3.

Cicada, a decorative motive of


the Shang and Early Chou styles.
It

in

from the most

realistic

form it may be used


banding element, and in its

its realistic

as a

stylised

form

usually

occurs in

Hanging or Rising Blade decoration (q.v.).

[2/].

BRONZES,

a]

Coiled Beast Motive consists of


a feline curled up with its head to

own

sometimes with the


feet,
ears and tip of the tail
similarly
ornamented, with a
repetition of this motive on a
minute scale. [3a]. The objects
on which the motive appears are
usually small and suitable for

its

tail,

personal adornment or as harness

ornaments, studs and buttons


being the most common. The
c] Cosb] Gourd Hu.
Hanging Blade Decoration,

Coiled Beast Motive,

mic Mirror, d] Fu. e] Flat Hu. f] Ho.


i] Ho, Huai type,
k] Hill Jar.
j] Fang-i.
20

varies

representation to the most stylised;

of up to 16 are

measuring about 3

each

style.

a loop for suspension.

The second type


rather

to

g-h]

PLATE

Compound Lozenge

with Spikes

motive is associated with the


of the Ordos (q.v.).

Fang-i

art

&

crocodile skin.

made

entirely

The second type,


of bronze, with a

wide horizontal

Compound

Lozenge

A rectangular decorative

Spikes.

element, having
lines

with

on each

from two

side,

to four

with a circular

BRONZES

striking surface,

has a slightly waisted cylindrical

drum head is, in some


ornamented with four

body; the
cases,

crouching

frogs.

The type

is

main field of decoraShang and Early Chou


periods only. The term was introduced by Karlgren in 1949.

with the bronze cultures


of Yunnan and North
Vietnam and date from about the
3rd century B.C. onward. The
Chinese associate this drum with
the name of the Three Kingdoms

Cosmic Mirrors

hero,

boss or spike in the centre.

It

occurs in the

tion in the

are

those

on

which the most prominent elements of decoration on the back


resemble the letters T, L, and V,
with the Animals of the Four
Quarters interspersed
between
them and probably with the
Twelve Branches (q.v.) arranged
round the central boss; with the
Animals of the Four Quarters
other smaller birds and animals,
and perhaps hsien (q.v.) may be
included. The
symbolism of
these mirrors is complex, and is
fully discussed by Yetts in The
Cull

Chinese

1939).

Bronzes, (London,

This type of mirror dates

from the Han period.

[3c]

associated

Early Chou, the name given by


Karlgren to the

See K'uei

Dragons.

Drums

are of two main types.


The first is a barrel set horizontally

on

with
hide; one celebrated example of
Shang date is made entirely of
bronze, the closed ends being
cast with a pattern that simulates
22

style current in

the bronze art of the period be-

tween
of

1028 and

c.

This style

c.

900 B.C.
of that

a continuation

is

Shang

(q.v.)

with

certain

modifications such as 'bent ears'


(q.v.),

hook

projections (i.e. flanges

that

(q.v.)

become

elaborately

broken up), birds with plume-like


tails, and finally the introduction
of the pan (q.v.). This style is so
much dependent upon that of
Shang,

that

the

distinction

be-

tween them is often difficult to


make, but generally speaking the
Early

Dragons.

Chu-ko Liang.

Chou style is more elaborate

and flamboyant, and the forms are


often heavier, lacking something
of the simple monumentality of
the earlier period.

a stand, the ends closed

Fang-i, a rectangular casketshaped vessel with a cover resembling a hipped roof, which is

surmounted by

knob of similar

bronzes

shape.
is

Flanges Gourd

^V

peculiarity

of the foot

hie presence of a semicircular

notch in the middle of the lower


edge of each side. The vessel
does not appear to have been

named in the
name it now

inscriptions

and the

was given in

bears

the Ch'rng period.

usually

It is

regarded as a vessel for the storage

of grain, but one modern Chinese


authority holds that it should be

among

included

wine

the

vessels.

Four-petal Flower Pattern. See

Square with Crescents.


Flat

Hu

sectionj

a vessel> rect angular in

confined to Shang and Early

and

Chou,

decoration

the

usually lavish, consisting

of

with

shaped,

t'ao-

dragons
(q.v.)
and
t teh
A few specimens carry
(q.v.).
only one or two narrow bands of
[3/1.

on

of the stan d ar d hu (q.v.)


appears a b ou t the 5th or 4th
century B c an J continues into
tion

vessels

phenomenon more common

Chou

amples.

held

the

Han

periocl>

[3^

Fu

&f AxE$

octangular food vessel with


fo ur an g ular ct at t he co e s
J
[
The cover is almost identical,
the

*?"' a

of the Shang and Early Chou


periods; they may be segmented, a
Early

This unusual varia-

rect angular.

Flanges are vertical rib-like projections often occurring

handles

ring

mounted on the narrow shoulders.


The mouth is circmar> but the foot

is

k uei

S-spiral pattern (q.v.).

body being moon_

the

It is

Hu

in

than in Shang ex-

Contrary to the beUef

by some people that these


an aid to good casting,

flanges are

only

some

difference being, in

^
^

?***> the
handles on the

manY c ver *> xt c

of two loop
sldes '

kk

so

^^

be
n
^
removal and used as another dish
This cla^ of vessel was introduced

m Mlddle

Chou

> dl

Glutton Mask.

See T'ao-t'ieh.

they are in fact a disadvantage,


since they

make

the

moulds more
is no doubt

complicated, but there


that

they

serve

to

make

the

of the moulds less


obvious, as any roughness in the
finished product can be rubbed
down easily, without in any way
harming the decoration. In the
Middle Chou style they occur
only on Li (q.v.) and are then

junctions

reduced to

little

more than

fins.

Gourd Hu,

a variation of the hu
shaped like an elongated

(q.v.),

gourd,
stead

circular

in

section.

of ring handles,

it

In-

has

chain fixed low down on the body,

body
below the Up; the cover,
where this survives, is sometimes
in the form of a squatting bird,
The type only occurs in the Huai
the other end meeting the

just

style (q.v.).

[36].

23

Green Dragon

Hook and Volute

Green Dragon.

P'u-t'ao,

horses and grapes, a

bronzes

Animals

with outspread wings, or even a

literally, sea-

boy balancing the incense bowl on


his hand stretched up above his
head. The 'hill' was often decor-

name given

ated with animals and hunting

See

of the Four Quarters.

Hai-ma

&

of bronze mirror produced in the T'ang Dynasty;


perhaps better known as Lion and
Grape mirrors.
to a type

and a few examples are


with gold. The type is confined to the Han Dynasty and its
scenes,

inlaid

origin

is

obscure;

two

possible

explanations have been put for-

Hanging Blade Decoration,

long narrow leaf-shaped motive,


the tip of which is directed downwards; it is usually filled with
cicada [3^] (q.v.), or with a variant
of the t'ao-t'ieh [3h] (q.v.), with or
without a spiral background.
Rising

blade

tip

the

Ho,
legs,

is

upwards. The motive belongs


mainly to the Shang and Chou
periods, but recurs on 18th and
19th century bronzes and cloisonne
imitating

objects

of

antiquity.

that

first,

mountain

the

represents the Five Sacred

Mountains of China, and second


that it represents Mount Sumeru,
the sacred mountain of the Buddhists.
See also Ceramics, Hill Jar.

directed

decoration

same, but with the

ward;

form

wine kettle on three or four


which in some cases are

hollow; the handle at the back


invariably

surmounted

by

is

an

animal head; the straight spout


of medium length. The cover

is

body by

generally linked to the

When

is

The terms were introduced by

short

Karlgren.

bears an inscription, this appears

Hill Jar, or hill-censer, called in


Chinese po-shan-lu. In bronze
these are surmounted by a roughly
conical cover with holes, so cast
and decorated as to resemble hills
piling

up

to a central peak.

The

occur behind each rising


and through these the incense

chain.

differ

from the earlier ones in three

respects; first, the legs are

arched over the cover,


spout is S-curved,
terminates in an animal's

handle

and
and

[3k],

The hemis-

which the incense


was placed, was supported in
various ways from the wide flatbottomed bowl; the support
might be a simple column, a bird
24

of the

cabriole type (q.v.); second, the

hill,

could emerge.

vessel

both on the body and on the inThis


side of the cover.
[3/].
in
all
stylistic
class of vessel occurs
periods, but Huai style examples

holes

pherical bowl, in

the

is

third, the

gaping jaw or bird's beak.

[3/].

Hook and Volute, a motive used


as a

background

and occamotive on

filler,

sionally as a border

BRONZES

Hsi

ft

inlaid bronzes, in the


It is

a triangular

curl at

Huai

hook with

style.

a tight

wine storage

vessel current

throughout the Bronze Age and

Han period.
In Shang and Early Chou two
One was
types were, common.
continuing into the

one end.

Hsi, a general name for a large


bowl or basin, with everted rim,
probably intended for ablutions.

Below the rim outside there may


be two mask-mounted handles, or
lugs with ring handles.

of vessel

Hu,

Huai Style

This type

may also be called p'en.

tall

and

slender, often

with a cover
and used as

that could be reversed


a bowl; this type

section

The other type

[4b].

in

elliptical

more

circular in

and often rather sparingly

decorated.

was

was

section,

made and

heavily

with

rather
usually

Hsien in bronze decoration are


semi-human figures, often termed

richly

immortals, with plumes flying out

cylindrical fittings

behind them from the upper arm


and shoulder, and from the thigh.
They occur in this form most

the vessels are often circular in

decorated

t'ao-t'ieh

Both types have


on the neck for
In Middle Chou
a carrying cord.
[4a\.

(q.v.).

commonly in the Han period.

with a larger belly than


the earlier ones, and there were
ring handles suspended from ani-

Hsien

mal

lugs

the

Huai

Hsu,

See Yen.

(vessel).

a rectangular vessel for food,

with rounded corners. The body


curves inwards a little towards the
mouth and the foot, and the cover
carries on the curving line initiated
in the contour of the body; on the
cover are four cumbersome-looking spurs, which, when the cover
is removed and reversed,
form
feet.
On the short sides of the

body are two handles, often surmounted by animal heads; the


splayed

foot

by

is

sometimes re-

section,

are

on

the neck.

style,

[4c].

In

the ring handles

sometimes replaced by vigor-

ous animal handles

set vertically.

Both Middle Chou and Huai style


examples were richly decorated.
In the

Han

ceases to
casting,

period, the decoration

be an integral part of the


and ring handles return,

suspended now from mask fittings.


See

Square Hu, Flat

Hu

and

Gourd Hu.
Huai Style

is

the

Karlgren to the

name given by
style

of bronze

The

decoration current from about 600

only in Middle Chou


and a modern Chinese authority
suggests that it was gradually

beginning of the
Han Dynasty in 206 B.C., the point
in time conventionally regarded
as marking the end of the Bronze
Age, although iron had been in

placed

four

animals.

vessel occurs

absorbed into the kuei

[44

class (q.v.).

B.C.

until the

25

Huai

Style

-Jingles

-fr

The

increasing use, for agricultural and


military

purposes,

through the

derives

from

the

is

water ewer, bearing a strong


resemblance to the old-fashioned

I, a

region of the Huai River, to the


north of the Yangtze River,

sauce boat.

where finds of objects in this new


style were first made; the term
must not be taken to mean a
purely local style, but one that
was common to a large part of
North and East China. The
decoration of this final period of
the Bronze Age is complex.
Especially characteristic of it are
the intricate interlocking and over-

[4e].

It

appears

first

Middle Chou period and


stands on four ornamented legs;

in the

examples made in the transition


period between the Middle

and the

Chou

developed Huai
style, may have slender S-curving
legs, and in the mature Huai style
there

is

foot at
ally

lapping patterns, sometimes based

fully

either a foot-ring, or
all.

The handle

is

no

gener-

ornamented with an animal


mouth biting the rim of

head, the

on geometrical motives, sometimes on animal forms. The

the vessel; late examples may only


have a simple ring handle. The
spout of the Huai style type is
sometimes in the form of a feline
head with gaping jaws.

with its prominent


gaping jaw, reappears, but instead of being in the
form of two confronted beasts

t'ao-t'ieh (q.v.),

and

eye-balls

standard of craftsmanship

generally of a high order.

The

greater part of this period.

name Huai

BRONZES

seen in profile, as so often in the

Shang and Early Chou,

now

it is

seen only as a full face view of

an animal mask. There is great


enrichment in detail and surface,
and the dragon forms assume a
serpentine quality not seen in
earlier styles.
Some of the patterns have names such as rope
pattern, plait pattern, cowrieshell,

hook

and

volute,

Interlocked T's, an element of


Shang and Early Chou decoration
in which the stem of each T forms
one half of the crossbar of another.

Jingles are of two kinds. The


simplest kind is an openwork
sphere, containing a small bronze

scale

ball,

dot

explanatory.

PLATE
g] Ladle.

26

to

filling,

(See

Triple LozVolute.)

Hook and

enge and

BRONZES,

4.
//]

a-c]

K'uei Dragons,

j]

Hu.

surmounting a socketed

shaft

on harness, or on a chariot.
The more complex form has two
of these openwork spheres with
balls, each on an arched shaft

and triple
lozenge, most of which are selfpattern,

fit

d] Hsii.

Jingle,

j]

Ko.

e]

k]

I.

/]

Ku.

Interlocked
/]

Kuang.

s.

PLATE

Ko Kuang

ft

from each end of a bowshaped bronze mount. The precise purpose of this more complex
type is not known, but it seems
likely that they were fixed to the
rising

front of the chariot as guides for

the reins, and not, as the Chinese


have recently suggested, for use
with the reflex bow of the Shang
and Early Chou periods from

which they

Ko,

date.

[4/].

bronze dagger-axe, either

socketed or tanged, hafted at right


angles to the shaft.
the

weapon

In either case

has a characteristic

Ku,

BRONZES

slender vessel with


trumpet mouth, narrow body and
high splayed foot. A peculiarity
of this vessel is the pair of cruciform perforations that occur in a
narrow undecorated band between the splayed foot and the
central zone of decoration; the
significance of these is not known,
but it has recently been suggested
that there may be technical reasons
for their presence.
Ku is thought
to be a vessel for drinking, but the
name may be wrongly associated
with this shaped object. The
type dates from Shang and Early
a

tall,

Chou

only.

Ku.

See

[4k],

projection to the rear of the shaft;


this

projection (nei in Chinese)

either straight

tangular,

curve.

is

or droops in a slight

The nei is often decorated,

and Shang examples are sometimes found with turquoise inlay.


In Middle Chou and Huai the
weapon
undergoes a radical
in
form,
change
the lower edge
being extended backwards and
downwards in a curve, to continue as a prolongation of the
blade parallel with the shaft; in the
Han period there may be a
similar

extension

upwards.

Huai examples both blade and

may
Han

be inlaid with gold.


period the

slender and the

weapon
main

In
nei

In the
is

rather

blade, in-

stead of being at a strict right

angle to the shaft,

with a

may

slight inclination

be cast
upwards.

Kuang, a jug-shaped
tical

vessel, ellip-

or rectangular in section, on
splayed

slightly

spout

is

foot.

The

wide and the cover often

overhangs the edge; the handle

may be large and


cover

is

elaborate.

usually in the

The

form of an

animal's head and back, with the


jaws over the spout; in elaborate
examples another head may occur
at the back, and sometimes, when
this happens, the lower part of the
jug represents the lower part of
the animal, with the limbs and
claws forming part of the decoraSome examples have a
tion.
ladle, which fits through a slot in
the handle end of the cover. The

decoration

is

often lavish; the type

occurs only in Shang and Early

Chou.
28

Drums.

and roughly rec-

[4/].

BRONZES

Li

&

Kuei

Kuei, a deep circular food vessel,


with spreading lip and foot-ring.
It

two

has

generally

handles,

sometimes four, and very rarely


none [5a, b]; the handles are usually
surmounted by animal heads.
One small group stand fixed to a
massive cube-shaped plinth. The
decoration varies from the sim-

In later times these bronze ladles

were

probably

lighter ones

lacquer.

superseded

made of

by

pottery or

[4g\.

Lei, a wine, and perhaps water,


vessel, either circular or rectangular in horizontal section.

It

has

vessel occurs in all periods of the


Bronze Age, but is less common
The Middle
in that of Huai.
Chou vessels, which are sometimes termed chiu, usually stand

wide sloping shoulders, with ring


handles suspended from masksurmounted lugs; the lower body
tapers elegantly to a hollow foot.
In the case of the round bodied
type, the cover is domed and has a
small knob; the cover of the

some

rectangular type closely resembles

have

On the
that of the fang-i (q.v.).
lower part of the body are animal

plest

on

to

three

specimens

The

most ornate.

the

small

of

feet

this

[5c];

period

covers.

in bronze decoration.

from which there


sometimes hang rings. Shang
and Early Chou, but some Chinese writers suggest that the round
type also occurs in Middle Chou.

referred to

[5h].

heads in

K'uei Dragons.
like animals,

in profile, as

Small dragonwith open jaws, seen


a secondary element

They are
by Karlgren simply as

'dragons', and he enumerates nine


main types in connection with the
Shang and Early Chou styles.
[4h].

They occur

relief,

Lei-wen,

See

Thunder

Pattern.

in a modified

form in the Middle Chou style,


and become somewhat serpentine
in the Huai style, by which time

Li, a vessel, with three hollow

been
be
retained for the sake of convemence.

which is peculiar to China, derives


from a pottery prototype of the
Neolithic period, and perhaps in
its ceramic form common to the

Ladles, associated mainly with


the Shang and Early Chou periods,

ally three conical vessels

their

lost,

original identity has

although the term

may

legs, in
[5 d, e].

which food was heated.


The form of this vessel,

Eurasiatic land mass.

are like cylindrical dippers

end

on

the

of long, well-ornamented
handles having a slight S-curve.

It is

basic-

merged

together into one about half-way

up the total height. This design


meant that the greatest possible
area was exposed to the heat of the
29

Lien

Ming

fire.

may have

It

In Shang and

Karlgren to the style current in


bronze art between c. 900 B.C. and
c. 600 B.C.
Many of the forms
and decorative motives differ
fundamentally from those of the

handles

earlier periods.

]peen used in

conjunction with a 'steamer'


Yen).

was

It

common

(see

to Shang,

Chou and Middle Chou,

Early

and perhaps Huai.

Chou

Early

the

rose

from the rim, but

directly

BRONZES

^r

in

Middle Chou they often sprang


from below the rim and were bent
round and upward.

sels

such

and Hsii
Kuei

Certain

as the

Fu

(q.v.) are

new ves-

(q.v.), I, (q.v.)

introduced; the

undergoes

(q.v.)

modification

by being

radical

raised

on

three or four feet; the Li (q.v.)

Lien,

a cylindrical vessel

small feet in the


bears; there

is

on

three

form of squatting

usually a cover with

a ring handle in the centre.

large

number of

derrated,

some

others

are inlaid

unand
with gold and
lien

are

perhaps other metals.

are

gilt,

The

vessel

have been used for


cosmetics, and appears first in the
Huai style. [5i],
is

to

said

becomes arched under the belly,


and the Ting (q.v.) becomes
shallower and in many cases

Chung bell (q.v.) is introduced.


Other changes include the replacement of cylindrical legs by
S-curved
cabriole

exhibiting

become

little

small bell of elliptical

not unlike the Swiss cowbell, with a loop for suspension or


holding in the hand. This type
is said to have been used for both
ceremonial and military purposes
section,

in

Shang and Early Chou.

[5/].

Lion and Grape Mirrors.


Hai-ma P'u-t'ao.

Mao.

more than

spiral horns, scale bands, vertical


scales, wavy line, broad figure
bands are the main decorative
motives (for examples see appro-

priate

PLATE

5.

h] Lei.

i]

30

number of

vessels disappear altogether; these

are the Square Ting, Li-ting,

Ku

and Tsun, Fang-i, Chueh, Chia and


Chi ao, and the Kuang.

Ming, an almost

spherical vessel

with short cylindrical mouth and


foot, and mask-mounted ring

name given by

BRONZES,
Lien,

entries).

handles
the

fins

(q.v.)

See

See Spearheads.

Middle Chou,

the
quite

Flanges

proportions.

different
(q.v.)

resembling

legs,

leg,

and occur only on the Li

Ling,

The

widens towards the rim.

a-c]

Kuei.

j] Scale Bands,

k]

on

the shoulder.

one of these
d-e] Li.

P'ou.

vessels

/] Ling,

l-m] P'an.

g]

has

Only
been

Shan Mirror.

;E>));~)Jfc^?([(S(

PLATE

Mirrors

P'an

BRONZES

-fr

certainly identified

by

its

inscrip-

was the one found in the


tomb of the Marquis Ts'ai in
An-hui, dating from the Huai
It was undecorated.
period.

Nao.

Cheng.

See

tion; tins

Nei.

first

in the 6th or 5th century B.C.

Prior to this date bronze bowls of


clear

known

water

as chien (q.v.)

The

Ordos.

semi-desert region

bend of the
Yellow River. The relics of the
art of this region are associated
with the Bronze Age animal style
within

Mirrors of high-tin bronze appear

Ko.

See

the

common

great

to Southern Siberia, the

The

whole Central Asian steppe and

true mirror, a metallic reflecting

South Russia to the shores of the


Black Sea. Most examples of the
bronze art of the Ordos are small,
intended for personal adornment
or as harness ornaments; knives
and short swords also display
animal style elements on the hilt,
especially in the ibex head ter-

are said to have been used.


surface with decorated back,

was

and very light,


with a small fluted loop on the
back for the passage of a silk cord.
at first small, thin,

Most mirrors are circular but a


few are square. As time went by
the mirrors became larger, thicker
and heavier, and the loop was
transformed

gradually

round

boss.

into

The rim of the Han

appears.

uncertain,

thick; this characteristic continued

nomadic

whole
changed.

T'ang Dynasty, when the

atmosphere

artistic

The

large central boss

remains, but the rim

or

foliated.

No

mirrors

inscribed before the

when

may be lobed
Han

were

period,

the practice suddenly be-

came very popular, especially on


Cosmic Mirrors (q.v.); in T'ang
times inscribed mirrors are comparatively rare.

After T'ang there

few bronze mirrors, but those


on T'ang
tradition in design, and partly on
free pictorial design; some are still

are

that survive rely partly

handle running
out from the rim is also found.
circular; a straight

32

The
is

which

common
of

races

rarely

the precise

style,

place of the origin of

period mirror was often wide and


until the

human form

the

minals;

to

is

the

whole

the

Eurasian plateau and goes back


into remote antiquity.

of the

style are

Examples

extremely

difficult

any precision owing


to the long persistence of motives.
In China they range from about
the 5th century B.C. to about the
to date with

5th century a.d. or

two

best

sistent

are

later.

known and most

motives in

known

this

The
per-

animal art

Animal Combat
and the Coiled

as the

Motive (q.v.)
Beast Motive (q.v.).
P'an, a wide

bowl

raised

on

circular,

shallow

a spreading foot

and used for washing the hands

BRONZES
[5/];

Patina

-fr

there are sometimes handles

of the bent ear type (q.v.). [5m].


Karlgren is of the opinion that the
type does not occur before Early
Chou, but recent finds suggest
A
that some could be earlier.
few early examples are decorated

Preying Animal Motive

generally
ology
have
been
employed. In the present book a
classification based on that of
Karlgren has been used, but the
term Shang (q.v.) has been preferred

Karlgren' s Yin.

to

appropriate equivalents are:


First Phase:

inside as well as outside.

The

Shang (Yin) and Early

Chou.
Bronze patina, familiar
to, and much admired by collectors, is the result of exposure to
oxidizing conditions, either of
The
burial, or of atmosphere.
first oxide layer, which is purPatina.

plish or red in colour,

This

cuprite.

may

later

is

Second Phase: Middle Chou.


Third Phase: Huai Style.
Descriptions of the main characteristics

of each of the four

the second

styles in

column may be found

under the appropriate entry.

called

become

Pien Hu.

See Flat

Hu.

encrusted with carbonates that are

or green in colour, and


correspond to azurite or mala-

blue

chite.

Owing

Plait Decoration, an element in

Huai

style decor.

to inadequate pol-

ing, or imperfect

mixing of the

Po-shan-lu.

.See

Hill Jar.

alloy, there are often considerable

variations

in

the

and
on any one
number of

colour

texture of the patina

There are a
problems in this connection that
have to be solved by future

piece.

research.

See

Water Patina

P'ou, a large round


tracted at the

with

vessel,

mouth and

con-

finished

is very
Confined to
Shang and Early Chou, but a few
may be later. [5k].

a plain rim; the foot

slightly

splayed.

and Bronze Disease.


P'en.

See Hsi.

Preying Animal Motive, like


the Coiled Beast Motive (q.v.), is
of nomadic origin to be found in the
whole area from the shores of the
Black Sea to the great bend in the
Yellow River. The motive consists of a predatory bird or animal
associated with the races

Phase. In 1936 W. P. Yetts


proposed a division of early
Chinese bronzes into three phases.
His system has been widely
adopted in Great Britain, but less
commonly in the rest of Europe.
In Sweden and America Karlgren' s classification and chronChca

attacking another animal, usually

though not invariably of


vorous

species;

a herbi-

thus an eagle or

33

Rising Blade Decoration

Spearheads

tiger attacking a stag or buffalo.

The motive

[6a],

papers Yin and Chou in Chinese


Bronzes (1935) and New Studies in
Chinese Bronzes (1937), in which

interpreted

is

with extraordinary sympathy and


pathos.

See

Ordos.

he

out his

set

their

See

The

chronology.

Hanging Blade Decoration.

sels

Rope

Li-ting, Yu,

for

the

styles

and

criteria

of bronze

classification

Rising Blade Decoration.

BRONZES

-fr

chief ves-

current in this period are the

Ting, including the Square Ting,

Huai

Pattern,

an element of

Chiieh and

style decoration.

Ku and

Tsun, Fang-i,

related

its

forms Chi a,

Chiao, and the Kuang; these con-

Band,

Scale

Chou

Middle
scales

an

element

decoration,

in

the

being arranged horizontally


[5/].

Scarlet Bird.

Animals of

See

Shan Mirrors

are a type in which


main element of decoration

resembles the Chinese character

is

after

'mountain'.

four

repeated

round the

which

Ting disappear

except the

all

(see the

appropriate

names

Karlgren

33

decorative motives, of which the

the Four Quarters.

shan,

Chou,

entries).

in bands.

the

tinue into the next period, Early

The element
or

five

central loop,

most important are the t'ao-t'ieh,


cicada, bird, whorl circle, hanging
blades and rising blades, 9 types of
dragon, circle bands, square with
crescents,
interlocked T's and
various spiral motives, mostly of
the

thunder pattern type.

For

details see the appropriate entries.

times

with the

long horizontal bottom stroke towards the centre. This type is

Sino-Siberian
Ordos.

Style.

See

datable to the 4th and 3rd cen-

Sombre Warrior.

tury B.C.; they are never inscribed.

Animals of the Four Quarters.

See

[5?]-

Shang, the name, based on


of the

first

historical

that

dynasty,

given to the style of the bronze art


of the period c. 1500-1028 B.C.;

two

called

Yin by Karlgren

names

are inter-changeable) in his

PLATE 6.
heads,

34

d]

BRONZES,

(the

a]

Spearheads of the Shang Dynasty


were generally wide-bladed and
of the socketed type. [6c]. After
the Shang period the head takes

on

narrow

in

the

last

Preying Animal Motive,

Square with Crescents,

leaf

generally becomes

few
b]

shape,

which

more

slender

centuries

Spoon,

e-f] S-Spiral Patterns,

c]

B.C.,

Spear-

g-h] T'ao-t'ieh.

30000

00000000000

Spiral

Horns

T'ao-t'ieh

&

BRONZES

acquiring an elegance, which con-

sometimes wholly dispensed with

imparted by the

in this type; at other times the


casting provides for inlay of gold,

ceals the strength

powerful central rib and the steep


bevel of the edges. The sockets
of those made just before and
during Han times might be
decorated and carry a small loop,

from which would


or

plume

flutter a

copper, turquoise or mala-

silver,

chite, or

has

vives,

These

Horns,

an element of
Middle Chou decoration occurring on free standing animal heads.

The

materials.

where

either

this

sur-

central

ring

known among

are well

Square with Crescents


out of the four corners

Chou and Middle Chou

the centre.

periods.

are rather

short,

wide handle, usually

flat

ornamented; they
originals

with

may

made of

a fairly

richly

be based

shell.

[8/].

is

essen-

square with large arcs cut

is

They

were not produced

vessels

the bronzes of the Shang, Early

on

lid,

before the Huai period.

tially a

Spoons

these

rectangular

handle, or four lugs at the corners.

tassel.

Spiral

combinations of two or

more of

there

[6d];

usually a small circular boss in

for this

'four-petal

origin

its

The Chinese name

motive
is

is

ssu-pan hua-wen,

flower

pattern',

probably not

but

floral.

[6b].

S-spiral Pattern usually occurs

Spring and

Autumn

Annals,
Period of. This term in connection with bronze design and
decoration

is

no longer

current,

since the period covered

by

the

Annals does not coincide with a


single style, but includes some
pieces of Middle Chou style and
some of the Huai style. The
term is, however, still found in
some Chinese publications and in
older books in European languages.

Square Hu,
hu

(q.v.)

a rectangular

with

ring

handles.

PLATE

7.

36

type of

mask-mounted
Decoration

BRONZES,

a-d]

is

as

band of S-forms placed very

closely together; this

known

form; or

it

is

may

the best

occur

background
Thunder Pattern

as a

variant in the

filling

known

(q.v.).

as

[6e, f]-

Ssu-pan Hua-wen.
with Crescents.

Tai-Kou.

See

See

Square

Belt Hooks.

T'ao-t'ieh is the name of an


animal mask motive. It is one of
the most important decorative
motives, associated mainly with

Shang and Early Chou, and occurs

ao-t'ieh.

PLATE

T'ao-t'ieh Tiger Tally


in

<&

number of variant
most of which can be

great

forms,

called feline or bovine,

mainder

the re-

indeterminate.

In practice

la].

h,

[6g,

being

it

Also called the Glutton Mask,


following the explanation of a
writer of the 4th or 3rd century
B.C.

may

occur as a full-face mask, or as


two animals confronted so closely
in profile as to produce an impression of a full-face mask.
If it
occurs as two animals, it consists
fundamentally
of two
k'uei
dragons seen in profile, displaying
an open jaw so that fangs show in

Ten Stems,

both upper and lower jaws; there


is a prominent eye, well-marked
eyebrow, a crest or horn, a
smoothly curving decoratively
drawn ear, a long body with one
paw or claw, and an upswept tail.

60-year cycle.

from the

differs

It

true

k'uei

dragon mainly in the size of the


head and the emphasis given to
the eyes and ears. In many
specimens the body

is

detached

from the head, and in some cases


the whole mask dissolves into a
series

of

parts.

[7&,

apparently

The

c].

unrelated

general ex-

to the benign.

from the ferocious


In Middle Chou

the motive

less

pression varies

is

common, but

ciated

in

to

make

resembles

more

it

five

The Stems occur

in bronze inscriptions

common

feature

mirrors of the

and are a
of some of the

Han

period,

Thunder Pattern.

Squared or
forming a backfilling
motive is the
commonest form, but tight S-

rounded
ground

spirals

curves as a decorative

filler is also

covered by the term. The pattern may not always be confined


to the background; it also occurs
on the bodies of k'uei dragons
(q.v.)
and on t'ao-t'ieh masks
(q.v.).
It is almost exclusively a
Shang and Early Chou motive,
but lingers on in a few Middle
the Chinese,

where

the

the 60-day cycle and the

Chou

style,

with

wood, fire, earth, metal


and water. The signs were
originally used for naming the
days, but were later combined
with the Twelve Branches (q.v.)
elements,

form

Huai

cyclical signs asso-

pairs

returns to popularity in a modified


in the

bronzes

pieces.

Called lei-wen

by

the full-face type,

remained a common decorative


motive down to modern times,

Tiger Tally, in two parts, which


fit together by the mortising of
It is made in the
lugs and slots.
form of a tiger, and down the

PLATE

e]

though
[Id].

i]

it is

often rather complex.

In a simplified

8.

BRONZES,

Square Hu.

38

form

j]

it

has

a-d] Ting,

Tiger Tally,

k]

Tsun.

To.
/]

f] Ting,

TLV

Mirror.

g]

Tou.

h]

Tui.

PLATE

Tins

Tou

->

which forms the

spine,

line

of

junction between the two parts,


is an inscription; this can only be
read

when

the correct halves are

Most of these
from the Han period
and many of them are gilt. They
vary in length from 2 or 3 inches
fitted

together.

tallies

date

much

to as

Ting,

as 9 inches.

[8/].

round vessel on three legs,

or a rectangular vessel with four

intended to contain food.


The type was produced through-

legs;

Bronze Age, though


modified in form and decoration
from one stylistic period to anout

The

rectangular

type

Bronze Age, and under the

the

influence of

Buddhism

func-

its

changed to that of an incense


burner for use in Buddhist
tion

temples.

TLV
in

Mirrors are those mirrors


which the dominant decorative

motives are elements resembling


the letters T, L and V; such
mirrors may be of the Cosmic
type (q.v.), in which case they
have the special elements that

Not

distinguish the type added.

the

other.

BRONZES

all

TLV mirrors

only

are inscribed,

few were made prior

Han period.

and

to the

[8/].

is

found only in the Shang and Early

Chou

periods

two periods

[8c];

during these

some round
form of
birds or animals standing on their
tails, and supporting the vessel on
there are

examples with

legs in the

the beak or snout [86]; in all other


cases
the legs are cylindrical.
[8tf].

the

In the Middle Chou period


form of the leg changes to a

slight

S-curving type, resembling

bowl of
becomes shallower.
The handles do not always
[8/].
rise directly from the rim, but
may spring from the body below
and bend round and upward. In
the Huai style period the vessel
acquires a domed cover, sometimes ornamented with crouching

To, a hand-bell with a clapper.


The handle is either socketed for
mounting on a shaft, or is long
enough to be held in the hand; the
latter

type

may

be perforated for

the passage of a cord, or

it

may

have a small loop at the end for


Introduced in
the same purpose.
the Middle Chou period and continuing through Huai.
[Se].

the cabriole leg, and the


the

vessel

animals; the legs retain their S-

curve.

[&d].

tinued to be

40

The vessel conmade after the end of

Tou,

wide bowl on

spreading foot in
Later the

more
foot.

its

high,

form.
high and

earliest

bowl gained

slender stem with a splayed


It

is

common

to

all

three

but only in the


appear to acquire a

stylistic periods,

Huai does it
which may be

made as
to become an additional bowl
when it is removed and reversed.

cover,

so

BRONZES

&

Triple Lozenge

Triple Lozenge, a group of three


diamond forms consisting of one
large one in the centre, with a
smaller one overlapping it on each
It may be a primary or
side.
secondary element in Huai style

Han
many

and in the
occurs in

bronze.

beside

by

originally

called

Karlgren,
it

as a rule

other way.

have

been

decorated in any

The type
used

Tsun,

generally

who

'zig-zag

Those that survive


date from the Huai and Han

periods.

[Sh].

Tui.

made

in

roughly spherical vessel

two

identical

massive

with

wine vessel,
broad body,

sloping

shoulders,

wide flaring mouth [8fe]; the


foot is of medium height and

and

spreading.

The

decoration tends

be lavish with t'ao-t'ieh (q.v.)


and k'uei dragons playing an
important part, though birdforms are also used. The shoulders are sometimes decorated with
free-standing animal heads.
In
to

some

cases the vessel has flanges

(q.v.) that

halves.

Both base and top have three lugs


or rings to stand on. Those that
survive often appear to have been

[9/J.

well-shaped

said to

military

purposes.

Introduced

cast to accept inlays.

is

for

it

other mediums
The term was

introduced
lozenge'.

and

period,

not

it is

Warring States

may come

right

up

to

during Middle Chou.

Twelve Branches,

or

Duoden-

ary Cycle of symbols, used to


divide
into

up the 24 hours of the day


periods.
two-hour
The

symbols are also equated with the


Chinese signs of the Zodiac and
the 12 points of the Chinese compass; they also combine with the
Ten Stems (q.v.) to make up the
60-day and 60-year cycles. They
occur as part of the decoration on
Cosmic Mirrors (q.v.) of the Han

of the mouth, or even


beyond. It does not appear in
this form after the end of Early
Chou, and most are of the Shang

period.

See also Animal Tsun,


Bird Tsun and ceramics, Tsun.

overlapping elements resembling


fish scales.

Tui, a clapperless bell for sus-

Warring

pension, oval or circular in section,

This

the edge

period.

and wide

at the top,

on which

is

an everted rim; the lower body


tapers slightly.

mounted on one

The top is surside by a freely

modelled animal, usually a

tiger;

Vertical Scales, a Middle

Chou

decorative motive consisting of

[9c, d].

States, Period of the.


term in connection with
bronze design and decoration is
no longer current, though it may
still be found in older publications.
The historical period of the Warring States coincides only with the

4i

Patina

:r

latter

Yu

BRONZES

of the J-Iuai

part

stylistic

period.

Water Patina

is the name commonly given to the thin, smooth


msb or greyish patina of hard
I

found on Chinese
This type of patina

e times

res.

appears to develop on pieces from

dry

,:.ia stable climate, in

which wide fluctuations of temperatute and humidity do not


usually occur.
Although the belief

is

widespread that

vulnerable

to

disease

it

is

than

less

an

addition of a small circle, either


intaglio, or in low relief.
[9e, f].

Ya-hsing,

The term

Ya-shaped.
given to a curious

literally
is

device inscribed on bronzes of the

Shang period.

This same 'shape'

occurs as the outline of the central

some of the royal


tombs oi the Shang Dynasty at
Anyang. [9 a].
coffin area in

Yen,
for

also called hsien, a

The

vegetables.

sembles the

base

re-

or the tino

(q.v.)

li

steamer

encrusted patina,

this may not in


be true once the piece is removed to an unstable clir.

(q.v.),

fact

not

situation, particularly if the 'skin'

the upper part having a grating

is

in

way damaged.

any

Patina.

Wavy

Line,

dulating

an

element

oi

pattern

often

inter-

spersed with debased k'uei dragons


[9a, b].

Tiger. See Animals of


tke Four Quarters.

Whorl

Circle is an element in
Shang and Early Chou bronze
decoration consisting of a low boss
with spirals curling in towards the
centre, usually four or five, the
centre of the boss sometimes being
given added emphasis by the

e-f]

42

is

usually

9.

Whorl

BRONZES,
Circle.

a-h]

g\ Ya-hsing.

parts,

If the vessel

is

cast in

one

piece,

the grating between

the

upper

and

usually hinged,

lower
It

parts

is

appears in

all

some of those of
Middle Chou being rectangular, and those of the Huai
stylistic periods,

the

on

having ring handles mounted

the sides of the upper bowl, in

place of the earlier ear handles.

m
Yu,

wine

to

varying a great

vessel,

deal in shape

from

tall

short and stout;

and slender

almost uni-

versal characteristics are, greater

width at the belly than at the neck,


The
a swing handle and a cover.

Wavy
h]

made in two

the base; the rim carries ear

style

White

PLATE

handles.

Middle Chou decoration; an un-

(q.v.).

at

according to whether or
legs are hollow.
The

the

Yen.

Line,
i]

c-d]

Vertical

Triple Lozenge,

j]

Scales.

Yu.

*mmm
e

PLATE

Yii

Zig-zag Lozenges

toot,

TT

when not broken up

birds' feet,

is

up

to 2 inches

into

with

high

bent

spreading.
The
and
slightly
swing handles are frequently surmounted by animal heads at the
point at which they connect with
Produced
the lugs on the body.
in Shang and Early Chou; those
ot
the latter period have a
tendency towards extremes in
ornate treatment of form and
decoration.

vessel

is

44

not

It

has

(q.v.).

common,

apparently

The body may be decorated with


Hanging Blades (q.v.) of a land
more commonly found on ku
(q.v.)

far

or tsun (q.v.) and never, so

as

is

known on

with which

this

kuei

vessel

is

times confused.
See Axes.

wide-mouthed wine or
a

cylindrical

flaring a little at the rim,

and

two
The

occurring only in Early Chou.

[9/].

water vessel with

body

handles

ear

Yiieh.
Yii,

splayed foot.

BRONZES

Zig-zag Lozenges.
Triple Lozenge.

See

(q.v.),

some-

BRONZES

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Foster, K. E.

A Handbook

of Ancient Chinese Bronzes. Claremont, California, 1949.

H. The Seligman Collection of Oriental Art, Vol.


and Luristan Bronzes, etc. London, 1957.

Hansford,

S.

Karlgren, B. Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes

in

1.

Chinese, Central Asian

the Alfred P.

Pillsbury

Collection.

Buckingham

Collection.

Minneapolis, 1952.

Karlgren, B. Yin andChou Researches. Stockholm, 1935.


Kelly, C. F. & Ch'en Meng-chia. Chinese Bronzes in

the

Chicago, 1946.

Kidder,

J.

Early Chinese Bronzes

E.

in the

City Art

Museum of St.

Louis.

St.

Louis,

1956.

Lodge, J. E.
of Art.

& others. A Descriptive Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes in the Freer Gallery


Washington, 1946.

Watson, W.
White, C.

W.

W. P.
Yetts, W. P.

Yetts,

Ancient Chinese Bronzes.

London, 1962.

Bronze Culture of Ancient China.

The Cull

Toronto, 1956.

Collection of Chinese Bronzes.

The George Eumorfopoulos


London, 1929-32. 3 vols.

London, 1939.

Collection of Chinese

and Corean Bronzes,

etc.

45

BUDDHISM

i5r

Buddhism, which developed in India during the 4th and 3rd


centuries B.C., began to reach China in the Han Dynasty, probably

The Chinese received the teaching


of both main schools, the Mahayana and the Hinayana to which
reference is made below; the Mahayana school became the most
during the

1st

century B.C.

popular and the one under the influence of which, the religious
art flourished

most vigorously.

The cave temple

of Tun-

sites

huang, Yiin-kang, Lung-men and T'ien-lung Shan are probably


the best-known
centuries,

monuments of sculpture from

the 4th to the 9th

with Tun-huang probably more famous for

its

paint-

than for its stucco sculpture. The great persecution of


Buddhism in a.d. 844-5 dealt a blow at stone sculpture from
which that art never fully recovered, although small gilt, or
lacquered bronze figures, as well as wooden ones continued to

ings,

be popular.

of the

In painting, and in the decoration of

industrial arts,

minor

Buddhist themes remained popular.

later periods, particularly in the

Ming and Ch'ing

objects

In the

dynasties, the

iconography became extremely complicated and often confused,


so that the identification of particular figures

is

frequently un-

certain.

The terms and names included in the following pages are no


more than a minimum basic list for those anxious to identify
For a more detailed approach reference
figures and themes.
should be made to the books listed at the end of this section.

46

BUDDHISM

Abhaya Mudra

ft

Abhaya Mudra.

See

Mudra.

Bodhidharma

Assault of Mara.

See Life of

Buddha.
Amitabha,

Chinese A-miin
simply Mi-t'o. The
Buddha of Boundless Splendour,
who presides over the Western
Particularly popular in
Paradise.
or

t'o-p'o,

Chinese Buddhism.

One of

Ananda.

the chief dis-

Buddha, he
was the master of hearing and
remembering; he is said to have
compiled the
Sutras.
He is
reckoned the second patriarch.
Dressed as a monk, he often
appears together with Kasyapa
(q.v.) in support of the Buddha.
ciples

of the

historical

Anjali Mudra.

Evil beings at

war with

One

the gods; demons.

class

of

supernatural being mentioned in


the Lotus Sutra (q.v.), and repre-

sented as small, ugly creatures.

See Amitabha.

A-mi-t'o-p'o.

Asura.

See

Mudra.

Avalokitesvara.

Chinese
Kuan-yin, Lord of Compassion.
A Bodhisattva (q.v.) depicted first
as a man, but by the
Sung
Dynasty (a.d. 960-1279) is usually

shown
as

woman, and

as a

Goddess

identifiable
(kalasa)

In

is

of Mercy,

by

known
usually

the ambrosia bottle

or the lotus flower held

and the small figure


of the Buddha in the diadem. In
late times she may be represented
with a fish basket, or holding a

in the hand,

baby.

Apsaras.

heavenly being, a
goddess, a term often used in

European

See Life of

Buddha.

texts to refer to celestial

musicians and dancers in attendance on Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

Arhat.

Bath.

worthy; an enlight-

type of saint

man. The highest


of Hinayana Budd-

hism

in

ened, saintly

(q.v.)

contrast

to

the

Mahayana
They are called

Bhadrasana.

Seated with both

legs pendent.

Bhumisparsa Mudra.
Mudra.

See

Bodhidharma.

In Chinese P'uTa-mo, the 28th


Indian and 1st Chinese patriarch.
Shown in two forms (a) a well-

Bodhisattvas (q.v.) of

t'i-ta-mo,

Buddhism (q.v.)
Lohan by the Chinese, who have
arranged them in groups of 16,

built,

18 or 500.

rosary in his hand, crossing the

sea

Asanas.

seat

or throne; also

mystic attitudes of the

legs.

(b)

sea

on

or

sword or

an emaciated

on

man

curly-haired

with a

a millet stalk;

man

a millet stalk

crossing the

and holding
47

Bodhisattva

Dvarapala
hand. He was
founder of Ch'an

a shoe in his right

reputed

the

Buddhism

in China and is
have arrived there in a.d.
520, but his existence has been

(Zen)

BUDDHISM

iT

Buddha,

is just one of a long


of Buddhas, with Maitreya
(q.v.) still to come.

line

said to

questioned.

Bodhisattva.

name

of
Buddha, or
ism (q.v.)

Chinese

In

ually referred to

P'u-sa.

in

us-

by the abbreviated
potential

Mahayana Buddh-

which

much

was

favoured in China, one who has


achieved perfect enlightenment

and

is

entitled to enter directly

into Nirvana (q.v.), but

who

nounces

to bring

this in

salvation to

all

order

first

re-

mankind.

suffering

Such

figures appear alone, or in

pairs

in

support of a Buddha.

who

Unlike the Buddha,

ways

simple

figure

is

al-

without

adornment, the Bodhisattvas are

Cakra. The wheel or disc, a


symbol of sovereignty, the Wheel
of the Law. The Buddha by his
enlightenment overcame illusion,
kharma (the sum of past lives) and
suffering.
When he expounded
his doctrine he demonstrated his
victory by 'setting in motion the
Wheel of the Law', the chariot
wheel of truth and salvation.
The wheel thus becomes a symbol
of enlightenment, and suggests
the domination of all by the
Buddha's law.

Chandaka.

The

personal

ser-

vant of Sakyamuni Buddha (q.v.)


up to the time of the Great Renunciation.
See Life of Buddha.

crowned and loaded with jewels.

The

best-known

Avalokitesvara

figures

(q.v.),

are

Manjusri

(q.v.),
Samantabhadra
(q.v.) and Mahastamaprapta (q.v.). Before his en-

(q.v.),

Ksitigarbha

lightenment the historical Buddha


is

often referred to as 'the

Cintamani.

The magic

jewel;

precious pearl, philosopher's stone.

Dharmacakra Mudra.
MUDRA.

Dhyana Mudra.

See

See

Mudra.

Bod-

The pose of
with le;s crossed.
Parvankasana and
called

Dhyanasana.

hisattva'.

meditation

Buddha.

The one who

fectly enlightened

Nirvana

(q.v.).

is

per-

and has entered


In

Hinayana (q.v.) admits of


only one in existence at a time.
Sakyamuni Buddha, the historical

48

Diamond

Pose).

Mahayana

Buddhism (q.v.), there are many


Buddhas in existence at the same
time;

Also

Vajrasana (the

Dvarapala.

Two

guardian figure.

such figures often stand at


the gate of a temple or a tomb.
With bulging eyeballs and horrific grins, armed with sword and

BUDDHISM

Eleven-headed Kuan-yin

-fr

ward

spear, they

off evil spirits

from the sacred precincts of the


Buddha Hall. They are sometimes shown stamping on the
demons of ignorance and illusion.

Kuan-yin.

Eleven-headed

of Avalokitesvara
especially connected with Tantric
Buddhism.

Ju-i

Buddha's family, which


with the passage of time has come

historical

mean

to

most

the

Buddha himself

He

instances.

is

Bodhisattva'

referred to

as

before

enlightenment.

the

'the

in

frequently

See

Life of Buddha.

manifestation

Enlightenment.
Buddha.

of

Life

See

Great Renunciation.
of Buddha.

The

Hinayana.
of

doctrine

See Life

'Small Vehicle'

Buddhism;

much

nearer to the original teaching of

Farewell
Life of

Kanthaka.

to

See

Buddha.

First Seven
Buddha.

Steps.

See Life of

Four Encounters.
Buddha.

See Life of

the

Buddha than Mahay ana

(q.v.).

Hinayana survives in Ceylon,


Burma, and Siam and is more
orthodox and in the direct line
than Mahay ana, which gives more
attention to metaphysical specu-

The term Hinayana


derogatory one coined by

lation.

Mahayanists,

Four

Guardian

Kings.

held that the

Hinayanist sought personal arhat-

Gods of fragrance

and the destruction of body


and mind and extinction in Nirvana, thus lacking the broad
universalism of their own doctrine.
The emphasis of Hinayana
ship,

Gandharva.

One

and music.

class

of super-

natural being mentioned in the

Lotus Sutra
as

the

See

LOKAPALA.

icians.

who

is

(q.v.).

They

musshown

Indra's

are usually

is

on the doctrine

the worship of the

rather than

on

Buddha.

small celestial figures similar to

apsaras

(q.v.)

with

or

censers

musical instruments.

Garuda.

The king of

mythical being.

Stories of the previous


of the Buddha in either
human or animal form.

Jatakas.
lives

birds,

Associated with

and is sometimes used


symbol of it.

fire

as

Ju-i.

when
Gautama.
Dhca

The name of

the

An

elongated

S-curved

symbol of discussion
often held by Manjusri (q.v.),

object;

debating with Vimalakirti

(q.v.).

49

Life of Buddha

Kalasa

-fr

The rain yase, or ambottle commonly held by

of Buddha.

Kalasa.

Life

brosia

events in the

Avalokitesvara

Buddha

(q.v.).

BUDDHISM

The major

of the

life

historical

are frequently depicted

and are

Kasyapa.
art

he

In Chinese Buddhist

usually accepted as the

is

chief disciple of the Buddha,

became

the elder, and

first

who

patri-

arch after the master's death.

In

he is shown as an
with a heavily lined
face
and often appears with
Ananda (q.v.) in support of the
Buddha, sometimes with two
Buddhist
elderly

art

monk

bodhisattvas (q.v.) as well.

Kinnara. Celestial
musicians
and dancers. One class of supernatural being mentioned in the
Lotus Sutra (q.v.) and represented
as small figures dancing with
scarves,

trailing

or

as

human-

headed birds with musical instruments.

the

Hell.

dressed as a

grim's

staff

rattle at the

carry

who

Bodhisattva,

from

remember
Buddha was
family

delivers

shown
Usually
holding a pil-

monk

(khakkara)
top.

with

He may

also

on one open upturned palm

the cintamani (q.v.) or jewel.

Kuan-yin.

Kapilavastu,

Avalokitesvara.

Kuvera.

See Vaisravana.

To

one leg pendent.


50

be seated with

Sakya

clan;

his

mother's

his

name

For these reasons he is


as Gautama, Sakyamuni(the Holy One of the Sakyas)
Siddartha.

often

known

and as Prince Siddartha. The


main events of the Life tend to be
arranged in groups of four or
probably corresponding in

eight,

some way with the doctrine of the


Four Noble Truths and the EightThe events making
fold Path.
up a group vary, but the Nirvana
never omitted.

Mayas Dream,
shown

as a

or the conception;

woman

asleep

on

with a small elephant,


sometimes ridden by a child
coming down towards her from
above, signifying the descent of
couch,

from the Tusita


where
he
has been awaitHeaven,
the Bodhisattva

ing the time of his re-birth.

The

ama,

who

from

his

of Gauthave sprung

birth

said to

is

mother's side while she


Lumbini Grove, is

rested in the

generally

Lalitasana.

historical

son of the Gautama

was Maya, and in his youth he


himself was known as Prince

Nativity.

See

the

in

the

that

was King Suddhodhana of

father

is

Ksitigarbha. In Chinese 77The Guardian of the Earth,


tsang.

set out in chronological


below. It is helpful to

order

shown

as

woman

standing with one hand against a


tree-trunk,

while

an

attendant

BUDDHISM

Life

^r

receives the child

from her

side.

times

the

servant

Chandaka

The Bath, usually presided over


bv the Nagas (q.v.), who make

well) back to the city.

a screen at the child's back.

bath-tub,

either

or

small

event seems to be peculiar to China.

in the direction

of each of the cardinal points to


which he announced the end of
birth, old age, sickness and death.
pacing forward, each pace being marked by
Illustrated as a child

a lotus flower.

Four

The

Encounters.

youthful

Siddartha secretly leaves

Prince

the palace

on four

meet for the

first

occasions to

time old age

(a

man leaning on a staff), sickness (a


man propped up in bed), death
(a man under a shroud),
and
poverty (a man shorn and shaved
carrying an alms bowl).
Renunciation.

the city gate, the hooves of his

horse being supported


(q.v.).

by

his

by

apsaras

He may

be accompanied
servant Chandaka.
The

fact that the

departure from the

took place at night is


sometimes indicated by additional
palace

figures lying asleep in a pavilion.

Farewell

ing

his

to

Kanthaka.

home

Gautama sends

at

After leavKapilavastu,

his horse

Assault ofMara.
is
seated under

either

(some-

side;

Bodhi-tree

the

these

represented as

inter-

The Bodhisattva

with the forces of the Evil


are

demons

One on
usually

in a state

of fury together with the beautiful and seductive daughters of


Mara. The Bodhisattva remains
unmoved in meditation, or he
may be shown with his right hand
in the Bhumisparsa mudra (q.v.).
Enlightenment.

achieved,

Gautama

Buddha-hood
is shown in

meditation under the Bodhi-tree.

Law, or the Sermon


Deer Park at Benares.
The Buddha expounds the doctrine of salvation for the first time.
Preaching the

in

the

This

The prince
is usually shown mounted on his
horse Kanthaka riding away from
Great

The

pretation in visual terms of this

Seven Steps, taken by the

Gautama

'kneeling' be-

fore the Bodhisattva.

to the Nagas.

infant

shown

as

horse

In

fountain, or a waterfall in addition

First

is

The

be

may

painted examples there

Kanthaka

of Buddha

is

Buddha

usually

shown with

the

seated with his hands in

dharmacakra mudra (q.v.).


be seated on a lotus
throne, or be supported by lions;
there may also be a pair of deer,
one at each side, symbolic of the
Deer Park.
the

He may

an end',
Buddha. He is
shown either alone, and apparently asleep, or with mourning
figures around him, and with
birds and animals coming towards him bearing flowers.

Parinirvana, 'brought to

the death of the

51

Lohan

Maya's Dream

Lohan.

-fr

See Arhat.

theistic

ana

Lokapala. The Guardian Kings


of the Four Quarters, Guardians
of the World and the Buddhist
faith.
They are usually of fearsome aspect and armed; they stand

Buddha

entrance to a

at the

The

known

best

Hall.

Vaisravana

is

(q.v.).

Lotus Sutra.

In Sanskrit Saddharma Pundarika Sutra; the fundamental text of Mahayana (q.v.)

and the key


Buddhist
viving
dates

much of

sur-

earliest

Chinese

into

An

a.d. 406.

from

Chinese

and

the

Sanskrit

The Lotus of

He

the

The

Bod-

representing

the

Amitabha

of

appears on the right

of Amitabha, while Avalokitesvara (q.v.) appears

on

This particular triad

is

the

left.

called the

Three Holy Ones of the Western


Region, Amitabha presiding over
the Western Paradise.

Mahayana.

52

Mandala.

magic

circles,

circle

or squares, in

which are painted Buddhist divinThe purpose


ities and symbols.
is to gather spiritual powers together to promote the operation
of the dharma, or law. A magic
diagram of either a Buddhist
hierarchy, or the imagined shape
of the cosmos.

Manjusri.

In Chinese Wen-shu,

the

Bodhisattva

often

shown

of

Wisdom,

riding a Hon.

'The Great Vehicle'

doctrine of Buddhism,
a strong

foregone con-

Maitreya. In Chinese Mi-lo, the


Buddha of the future.

divided into

Buddha-wisdom
(q.v.).

Nirvana

is

translation

Mahastamaprapta.
(q.v.)

from re-birth nearer, and


making entry into a transcendent,

in

Wonderful Law.

hisattva

either in painting or sculpture, the

clusion.

partial

title

series

merit gained offsetting the evil of


one's previous lives, thus bringing

paradisic

from the Chinese text has been


made by W. E. Soo thill in 1930
under the

Mahay-

of a

of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas and


that salvation may be gained by
invocations to them, so that entry
into Paradise may be regarded as
an
immediate
possibility.
It
asserts the unreality of the ego and
of all other things, and aims at
salvation for all.
Mahayanists
also held that merit could be
gained by the dedication of images

English

made by Hendrik Kern

1884,

in that

asserts the existence

release

The

translation

from

translation

that

to

art.

Buddhism

BUDDHISM

which had

hold in China.

It

is

Maya's Dream.
Buddha.

See

Life

of

BUDDHISM
Mi-lo.

Mi-lo

<&

See Maitreya.

Pagoda

Giving or bestow-

Vara mudra.

The arm is pendent,


hand, palm outward, has

the

ing.

Mi-t'o.

See Amitabha.

Mudra.

Mystic

the

fingers fully extended.

gestures

ritual

Discussion.

Vitarka mudra.

The

of the hands, signifying powers


and special actions. The follow-

hand held up, palm outward with

ing are the most important.

the index finger, or ring finger

touching

Abhaya

mudra.

assurance; the

Gesture

of

re-

hand held up, palm

gesture

thumb. This
be assumed by both

the

may

hands.

outward, with fingers fully extended.

gether as in the Christian attitude

Nagas. Snake spirits, especially


the hooded cobra, associated with
water. In China they are transformed into dragons, which have

of prayer.

a similar association.

Anjali

mudra.

Offering;

the

palms of the hands pressed to-

The BuddThe

Nativity.

mystic handsign of calling the

Nirvana.

Bhumisparsa

mudra.

See Life of

Buddha.

ha's earth-touching gesture.

earth goddess to witness his right


to the seat beneath the tree

wisdom.
tended,

The arm
the

is

of

fully ex-

hand palm down-

wards with the tips of the fingers


just touching the earth.
Dharmacakra mudra. The mudra
signifying the Preaching of the
Law. The hands are together
before the breast; the index finger
of the left hand touches the right
hand, the finger and thumb of
which are joined at the tip. The
gesture is sometimes called 'turning the Wheel of the Law'. See

from existThe complete

Liberated

ence; eternal

bliss.

extinction of individual existence,

and

the

of

cessation

re-birth.

Death, and in Mahayana Buddh-

ism

the

(q.v.),

entry

transcendental paradise;

into
for

ad-

Amitabha
meant the Western

herents of the cult of


(q.v.)

this

Paradise.

The

Padmapani.
a

lotus bearing;

term associated with Avalo-

kitesvara (q.v.).

Padmasana. The Lotus Throne,


for the Buddha and Bodhisattvas.

Cakra.

Dhyana mudra. Meditation; the


hands, palms upwards with fingers
extended, He one on top of the
other in the lap.

Pagoda.

stupa or reliquary.

tumulus or mound for the remains of the dead, or for sacred


relics or scriptures.
The Chinese
53

Parinirvana

Sastra

-&

pagoda, however, is nearly always an architectural monument,


either single or multi-storeyed.

Parinirvana.
See
Life
Buddha and Nirvana.

of

buddhism

Buddha and Bodhisattva

one leg pendent, and


the other raised and bent at the
knee, across which lies one outstretched arm.

Saddharma Pundarika
Paryankasana.

See

Dhyanas-

figures

seated with

See

Sutra.

Lotus Sutra.

ANA.
Sakti.

Buddhism and Hinduism,

who made

deity.

his

appearance in his

both

Literally 'energy'; in

Prabhutaratna. The
ancient
Buddha, long in Nirvana (q.v.),

sakti

is

the wife or female energy of a

stupa (q.v.) to hear Sakyamuni,

the historical Buddha,

expound

Sakyamuni.

the Lotus Sutra (q.v.).

The two

the

Buddhas may occur in art seated


side by side in a setting resembling
a pagoda, or Prabhutaratna

may

appear in a pagoda immediately

above the Buddha.

Preaching the Law.


of Buddha.

See Life

A title of the
Buddha. Sakya was
the clan name, and muni means a

historical

saint, a sage, holy man or monk.


The two names have been run
together and make up what is
probably the best-known name

for the

Buddha.

Samadhi.
Siddartha. The personal name of the historical
Buddha. His other names were
Sakyamuni (q.v.) and Gautama
(q.v.).
Before his enlightenment
he is often referred to as 'the

Prince

Bodhisattva'.

See Bodhisattva.

or meditation.

The

deepest

form

of Yoga meditation.
Chinese
Samantabhadra. In
of
Bodhisattva
The
P'u-hsien.
Benevolence; he is
usually shown riding an elephant.
Sariputra.

The

disciples before

P'u-t'i-ta-mo.

equi-

Tranquillity,

librium; a degree of dhyana (q.v.)

Universal

P'u-hsien. See Samantabhadra.


P'u-sa.

The Holy One of

Sakyas.

See Bodhi-

chief

whom

of

the

the Lotus

Sutra (q.v.) was expounded.

DHARMA.
Sastra.

Rajalilasana.
as

54

the

'royal

The pose known


ease',

describing

of

Text or manual of

craft

such

as

painting or sculpture.

rules

architecture,

BUDDHISM

Simhasana

<&

Vairocana.

Lion throne.

Simhasana.

the

Sleeping Buddha.
NIRVANA.

See Pari-

Sutra.

A sacred text, usually one

attributed to the

Buddha

himself.

See Vairocana.
See

Ta-shih.

Bodhidharma.
See

Mahastama-

prapta.

Light, representing, according to

Vaisravana. One of the Four


Guardian Kings, or Lokapala
(q.v.), Regent of the North and
God of Wealth; may sometimes
be referred to as Kuvera.

in

a.d.

647.

The

system aimed at the ecstatic mystic


union of the individual soul with
the world soul.
The Chinese
branch was established in a.d. 720.

The Thunderbolt;

Vajra.

wielded by Vajrapani, the Great


Protector and Giver of Rain, who
was one of the Lokapala (q.v.).

The
formulae,
Tantra. Mystic
a
term associated with the Yoga or
Tantra school,
which claims
Samantabhadra (q.v.) as founder.
The doctrine and system was
introduced into China by the
famous pilgrim
and
scholar
Hsiian-tsang

vajra itself also occurs as a

decorative motive in most

med-

means a
iums. The word
diamond, and thus hardness and
also

indestructibility.

Vajrapani.
Vajra',

who

'The holder of the

protector;

any figure

symbol, but strictly speaking one of the Four


Guardian Kings, the Lokapala
holds

this

(q.v.).

Vajrasana.
Ti-tsang.

Ta-jih,

Pagoda.

See

Ta-mo.

In Chinese

Buddha of All-pervading

some sects, the spiritual body of


the Buddha truth.

Stupa.

Ta-jih.

Vimalakirti

See

Dhyanasana.

See Ksitigarbha.

Vara Mudra.
Urna. The luminous curl between the eyebrows of the
Buddha, from which shone a ray
of light iUuminating all the worlds.

Vimalakirti.
disciple

to

have

of Sakyamuni
great

supernatural
visited

Mudra.

when

Weibeen a

In Chinese

Said

tno-chi.

man of
Ushnisha. The fleshy lump on
the top of the head of a Buddha.
One of the 32 marks of Buddhahood.

See

(q.v.).

learning,

having

He was
by Manjusri

powers.
sick

and other disciples of Sakyamuni, the occasion being marked


(q.v.)

55

Vitarka

by

Mudra

Yaksa

ft

between
men. The scene is
popular in both sculpture and
the

a great disputation

two

painting.

Vitarka Mudra.

See

Mudra.

(a)

Demons

buddhism

in the earth or

in the lower heavens,

air,

or

and
violent.
(b)
Attendants on
Vaisravana (q.v.) God of Wealth,
and then symbolic of abundance.
One of the classes of supernatural
evil

beings referred to in the Lotus

Yaksa.

56

There are two forms.

Sutra

(q.v.).

BUDDHISM

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Conze,

Buddhism.

E.

Davidson, J. Le Roy.

Oxford, Cassirer, 1953.

The Lotus Sutra

in

Chinese

art.

Oxford, 1954.

The Gods of Northern Buddhism. Oxford, 1928.


Johnston, Sir Reginald. Buddhist China. London, 191 3.
Getty, A.

Siren,

O.

Chinese Sculpture from the 4th

to the

14th Century.

London, 1925.

4 vols.

(1 text, 3 plates).

Soothill,

W.

E.,

& Hodous, L. A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist

Terms.

London,

1937.

Waley, A.
K.C.I.E.

Catalogue of Paintings Recovered from

Tun-huang by Sir Aurel Stein y

London, 193 1.

57

CERAMICS

Chinese ceramics are usually divided into three main groups

on the
1.

basis

of their body material.

Pottery varies in degree

of hardness and colour;

the application of glaze.


tures,

it is

generally

made impermeable by
It is fired at comparatively low tempera-

porous and always non-translucent.

It is

mostly between about 800 degrees Centigrade and 1,000

One

may

be used, or two or
though we believe that the Chinese
usually used only one clay for any one type.
2. Porcellanous stoneware is hard and varies in colour from black
to light grey or dirty white; it is impermeable and non-translucent.
It is usually glazed, the glaze used being of a different nature from
that used on pottery, and the ware is fired at temperatures
between about 1,150 degrees Centigrade and 1,300 degrees
degrees Centigrade.

more blended

Centigrade.

both

together,

The body

ball clay

clay alone

is

artificially constituted in the sense that

and China stone are combined in

their

proper

proportions.
3. Porcelain is

hard,

impermeable and
is

compact

translucent.

fired at temperatures

in texture, fine in grain, white,


It is

almost invariably glazed, and

from 1,150 degrees Centigrade upwards,

though the Chinese are not believed to have fired at temperatures


above 1,350 degrees Centigrade. The body material is composed of the white firing clay called Kao-lin, which is specially
prepared, and the white China stone, known as Petuntse, and

may contain

other ingredients as well.

The Chinese call pottery wa, and


word which in English we usually
58

the other

two wares tzu,

translate as 'porcelain', thus

CERAMICS

Ai-yeh

-fc

Birthday Plates

making no distinction between the two wares that are high


and resonant, and which unlike pottery are covered with a
feldspathic glaze; to the Chinese the colour of the body is of little

fired

importance.

See Artemisia Leaf.

Ai-yeh.

Artemisia Leaf, one of the Eight


Precious Obj ects [see Decoration)
but often found as a mark on
porcelains of the K'ang-hsi period
(1662-1722), when it was invari,

An-hua,

'hidden

or

'secret'

decoration', a type of decoration

Yung-lo

that first appeared in the

period

on

(1403-24)

rare

the

and is
from
the
found on many wares
'bodiless

ware'

(q.v.),

15th century onward.

It

takes

two forms; it is either very fine


engraving on the body, or it is
very fine slip applied before
glazing.

The second type

ually called 'an-hua

and

delicate

is

it

that

it

is

us-

is

So

slip'.

fine

only

possible to see the decoration

transmitted light;
like a

watermark

Apple

Green.

it

in paper.

It

is

ai-yeh.

often referred to in

by

catalogues

its

Chinese name,

[lOfc].

Baluster Vase, a vase with a


cylindrical neck
and trumpet
mouth sometimes described as a
yen-yen vase. Ch'ing Dynasty
and later. [10c].

by

then appears

out in underglaze

ably carried
blue.

Batavian

Ware

is

a trade

name

applied to wares of the K'ang-hsi

period (1662-1722) with a glaze


varying from coffee-coloured to
translucent

emerald green enamel applied


over the glaze as a 'self-colour'; in
some cases it is applied over a
crackled grey glaze.

old gold, combined with white

medallions or ornamental panels,

which

are

decorated

either

in

underglaze blue, or in overglaze

The name

owes its
Dutch
great quantities of these
trans-shipping them at

enamels.

origin to the fact that the

Vase. A globular vase


with a long cylindrical neck, at
the top of which are two cylindrical lugs.
The vase was used
for the 'arrow game' in which
arrows were thrown by com-

Arrow

petitors,

them
lugs.

who

attempted to get

into the vase or through the

[104

carried

wares,

their trading station at Batavia.

Birthday Plates, the name given


of plates decorated in
famille verte enamels (q.v.), with
the reign mark of K'ang-hsi on
the back, and four characters,
to a seres

59

Biscuit

Brush Pot

wan-shou

-fr

wu-chiang,

myriad

'a

longevities without ending', each

on

character in a separate panel

The series is
reputed to have been made for the
sixtieth birthday of the Emperor

the flattened rim.

K'ang-hsi in 1713.

A term applied to cera-

Biscuit.

mic wares

that

have been

Black Ting. A rare variant of


Ting (q.v.) with a similar white
body but a very glossy dense black
glaze, becoming very thin and
rim.

the

at

Known

ex-

amples are mostly conical bowls


about 7 inches in diameter, with
a small neatly cut, unglazed footring and base showing the hard,
fine paste

See Te-hua.

Bodiless Ware. A very fine


quality thin white porcelain, first

made

the

in

occurs

type

is

10.

period

when

[10/,].

Bridal Bowl, a bowl decorated


with two fish, either incised or in
relief.
Twin fish are symbolic of

wedded

See also Egg-shell.

CERAMICS,

a]

bliss.

Brinjal Bowls, about 8 inches or


less in diameter, with flared or
everted rim, roughly incised with
flower and leaf sprays, with
yellow, green and aubergine lead
enamels, in various

silicate

com-

binations, applied directly to the


biscuit (q.v.).

Brown Mouth,

describes

the

Kuan

rim of the best


which the dark
body shows through where the
glaze has run thin in the firing.
Not to be confused with the
characteristic
(q.v.)

brown

in

glazed

rims

on

wares

produced from about the middle


of the 16th century onward.

it

usually of the an-hua

(q.v.).

PLATE

Yung-lo

decoration,

(1403-24);

As a ceramic form it
probably appears first in the latter
part of the T'ang Dynasty.
The
Chinese call this form yii-huctiun ping, and this name may be
found in some modern writings.
flaring lip.

ware

of the body.

Blanc de Chine.

Bottle Vase. A pear-shaped


vase with contracted neck and

fired,

but not yet glazed. The temperature of this first firing varies
between about 800 Centigrade
and 1 ,300 Centigrade according to
the constituents of the body and
the type of glaze to be applied.

pale

CERAMICS

Arrow

Brush Pot,

flat-based

cylin-

drical jar.

Vase,

b]

Bottle Vase,

c]

Baluster

Chih-ch ui P'ing (Mallet Vase), e-f] Bulb Bowls, g] Brush


Hua. i] Bubble Cup. j] Garlic Vase, k] Artemisia Leaf.
Lien
Rest,
h]
///] Hill Jar.
//] Leys Jar.
/] Kuan Jar.
Vase,

6o

d]

Brush Rest

Chatter Marks

Brush Rest, an ornamental stand,


often made in the form of five

derived

mountains, perhaps representing


the Five Sacred Mountains of
China, arranged in a straight line

century.

on

laneous

with the
highest peak in the centre and the
a rectangular base,

others diminishing in size

on each

[%].

side.

CERAMICS

*&

from

iron.

became

It

popular in

especially

Canton Enamels.

the

18th

See Miscel-

section, p. 125.

Cavetto.

The

well of a large

dish.

Brush Washer. This is usually


a small shallow bowl with straight
often with a
out a foot-ring.
sides,

flat

base with-

Celadon.

A term applied broad-

ly to wares having a greyish or

brownish

body covered by

transparent, or opaque, olive or

The name
name Celadon,

greyish-toned glaze.

Bubble Cup.

name some-

is

derived from the

times given to small cups or bowls

the shepherd, in the stage version

of about 3 or 4 inches in diameter,


with high well-rounded sides
turning in a little towards the top;

of Honore D'Urfe's pastoral ro-

the

foot

rather

is

The

small.

(q.v.)

found mainly in Chun


and Lung-ch'uan celadon
and their later imitations.

They

are also

form
(q.v.)

is

named by some

people 'palace bowls'.

[10/].

Buckwheat Celadon.

SeeToBi

mance VAstree, who wore


bons of a

Among

rib-

grey-green tone.
the most important wares
soft

to which the term is applied are


Yueh, Northern Celadon and the
wares of Lung-ch'tian, each described under the appropriate

heading.

Ch'a-yeh Mo.

Tea Dust.

See

Seiji.

Ch'ai, a

Bulb Bowl. A wide shallow


bowl on three or four feet. They
were made from the Sung Dynasty onwards and are commonest
in Chun (q.v.), Kuang-tung (q.v.)
and glazed Yi-hsing wares

known

but are also

of others.

62

with

number

[10e,/].

Cafe-au-lait.
glaze,

in a

(q.v.),

A lustrous brown

wide range of tones,

lost

imperial ware

of

was reblue and very

the Five Dynasties.

It

puted to be light
thin, with fine crackle
source

states that it

Cheng-chou

Many

in

lines.

Honan

in

province.

attempts have been

to identify this ware, but

so far

One

was made

all

made
have

proved unsuccessful.

Chatter
ridges,

Marks

are

radiating

varying in prominence, on

CERAMICS

Chi-an

ft

the base of a circular vessel.


a

in

fault

It is

manufacture, which

occurs in cutting the foot-ring,


and is due to holding the foot

turning tool insufficiently firmly

or

wrong

at the

angle.

Ware

was made in loose


of the contemporary
Chien ware (q.v.) of the Sung
Dynasty. It was produced at
Yung-ho in the Chi-chou district
of Chi-an Fu in the province of
Kiangsi, and perhaps also at other
The bowls are of a coarse
kilns.
buff stoneware, crudely made and
often conical in form, with a
speckled brown glaze, with blackish brown decorations, usually of

Chi-an

imitation

bird

or

floral

motives;

decorations tend to run a


firing.
district,

these
little

in

Also produced in this


and often given the same

name, are some mottled tortoiseshell coloured bowls of similar


shape.
These display a double
glaze technique, the

being applied

first

brown

glaze

Ware

Chien Ware

commercial
producing Kuan wares (q.v.)
was established and operated from
about a.d. 1140 onward. The
site of the kiln was discovered
during road-making operations in
1934 and the kiln has always been
of

this altar that the

kiln

known by

name

the

Chiao-t'an.

In older publications the

name

is

often translated 'Suburban Altar*


kiln.

Chicken cups,

the

name given

wine cups of a type first made


in the Ch'eng-hua period (146587), the mark of which they bear,
that were decorated with a cock,
hen and chicks beside a peony in
full bloom, together with other
to

smaller plants, the decoration


being carried out in the combination of underglaze blue and overglaze enamel called tou-tsai (q.v.).

The type was


century,
also

imitated in the 18th

many of

bearing

the

the imitations

mark of

the

Ch'eng-hua period.

and the yellow

being splashed on afterwards.

Chicken skin

is

the

name given

to irregularities in the

form of

Chiang-t'ai, paste bodied' wares

small elevations in the glaze sur-

made from

a fine-grained

face.

firing clay,

often miscalled 'soft

white

These wares occur


mainly from the 18th century
onward.

paste' (q.v.).

Chien Ware, a dark coarsebodied ware, heavy in weight,


with a black glaze streaked with

brown
Chiao-t'an, 'Altar of Heaven',
which in the Southern Sung
period was at Tortoise Hill, near

Hang-chou;

it

was

in the vicinity

or blue-black, the glaze

frequently forming a thick welt

above the foot. The glaze


round the rim is usually thin and
of a deep brown tone, often with

just

63

Ch'ien

Chiu-yen

Mark

body perthrough it. The tea


bowls are famous and became
popular in Japan, where black

to a white porcelain

wares gained the name


Tetnmoku (q.v.).

in the hollows.

the roughness of

tjie

ceptible

glazed

Ch'ien Mark.

ceramic mark

based on the form of a copper


cash coin,

which

round with

is

square hole in the centre;

it

a
is

symbolic of wealth and is one of


the Eight Precious Objects.
See

Decoration.
Chih-ch'ui P'ing.
The term is
(q.v.).

A mallet vase

some

what

authorities for

also

used by
is

more

usually called a rouleau vase (q.v.).

See also Kinuta.

]10d].

decorated

underglaze

rather

in

blue,

dark,

dull

overglaze

red

enamel and gold, in imitation of


somewhat similar wares made at

from whence they


by the Dutch mer-

Arita in Japan,

were

carried

chants in the late 17th and early

18th centuries, through the port


of Imari on Nagasaki Bay. The
decorative motives are part Japanese and part Chinese arranged in
confused patterns over the whole
surface.

Chinese

glaze, slightly tinted blue or

green; this tinting

Lowestoft.

Chinese
white export porcelain painted
with pink roses at Canton.

'bluish white'.

This

literally means

The name

a clear

washy

easily

dis-

cernible where the glaze runs thick

The body

hard

is

and compact, and the decoration


is either incised or moulded; floral
designs are the most commonly
found. First made in the Sung
Dynasty at a large number of
kilns, it was to continue well into
the Ming Dynasty; it was an
important export ware for the
South-East Asian and Indonesian
markets.
Another name for this
ware is ying-ch'ing, 'shadow blue',
but the name ctiing-pai is used
in connection with the ware in
Chinese texts

14th

as early as the

Chen

Ching-te

is

given

great

the

is

ceramic centre in the province of


Kiangsi

which

in

southern

China at
were

the imperial wares

from the beMing Dynasty at

regularly produced

ginning of the
the

end

Long
had
and

of the

14th

century.

before this time the kilns

certainly

been in production

known how

early

they came into operation.

The

it

district

the

tion

is

is

raw

not

exceptionally rich in
materials for the

still

all

manu-

and produc-

continues.

Chiu-yen.
site

64

is

facture of porcelain,

Ch'ing-pai.

with

century and is the correct one.

An export ware

Chinese Imari.

CERAMICS

ft

The name of

a kiln

in northern Chekiang, about

30 miles from Hang-chou, where


Yueh wares (q.v.) were made

CERAMICS

from

the

Clair de Lune

Ch'u-chou

-fr

Han Dynasty through

the Six Dynasties period to the

end of the 6th century.


See Lung-ch'uan.

Ch'u-chou.

Chii-lu Hsien, a city in Chihli


north China, that was in-

in

undated in a.d. 1108, when the


Yellow River changed its course.
The site was excavated in the
1920's and revealed a wide range
of ceramic wares, some of the
finest being white porcellanous
wares of strikingly robust form

and quality, unlike the delicate


and sophisticated imperial wares
of Ting (q. v.)
Most of the white
pieces are stained brown and
yellow as the result of prolonged
burial, and tend to be rather
heavy in weight for their size.
The city was apparently a market
for the wares produced in the
.

locality; there

they were

Chiieh Mark.

earlier

pieces,

too,

are

more

dependent for their beauty on


form, and the colour and texture
of the thick intractable glaze, than
on the more brilliant flushing of
later pieces.
There is a green
type that

is

rather less

common

and probably early in date. The


ware was made at many different
kilns and it is thus natural to find
that the foot-ring, which is usually
the most important factor in
identification, varies a great deal

in both

form and finish.

A pair of stylised

yiieh-pai,

that

'moon

white'.

Jacque-

flushed with crimson or purple.

mart based his term on the bluishgrey and lavender-grey wares


that were being produced in the
Ch'ing Dynasty. The Chinese
term yiieh-pai, however, covers a
much greater range of colour and
may be applied to wares varying
in colour from pure white to a
pronounced lavender tone; in the
16th century it was also applied to
Chun (q.v.), Kuan (q.v.) and celadons in which a bluish tone was

The ware

apparent.

mic mark from the 17th century


onward. They are one of the
Eight

Precious

Objects.

See

Decoration.

to be smaller than the later ones,

which include massive flowerpots, bulb bowls and jars.


The

Clair de Lune. The French


term introduced by Jacquemart in
the 19th century for the Chinese

no evidence

rhinoceros horns, used as a cera-

made well into the Ming Dynasty.


The early pieces tend on the whole

there.

is

made

districts, Chun-chou, where


was made in the Sung Dynasty.
It was one of the imperial wares
of the Sung, but continued to be

of the

it

Ch'ui-ch'ing.
Blue.

Chun

is

See

a buff-bodied

a lavender glaze, in

Ehca

takes

its

Powder

ware with
some cases

name from one

65

Clobbered China

Clobbered

Earthworm Marks

China.

Chinese

underglaze blue, and occasionally


decorated

red,

'im-

porcelains

proved' in Europe by the addition


of green, yellow, red and other

enamels and gilding, often in such


a

way

began

body and

The

prac-

century onward for

fault,

it

its

decorative

Fine

openwork

effect.

des Indes.

made

Chinese

specifically

to

European order, and sometimes

name in
when other

design also, gained this


the late 17th century,

companies

India

Dutch began

than

Work.

Devil's
trellis

Compagnie

East

Technically a

was exploited by the Chinese


from the middle of the 12th

decoration in the form of delicate

in the 18th century.

porcelains

glaze during cooling in

the kiln.

overlap and disfigure

as to

the Chinese designs.


tice

CERAMICS

the

to take a large share

usually

patterns,

free

of

Bowls and cups made in


way were sometimes lined

glaze.
this

with silver for ordinary use. A


development of the 17th century,
although there are a few examples
that may be late 16th century.
Called ling-lung in Chinese.

in the Chinese trade.

Conch

Dogs of Fo,
Shell

Mark.

This

is

found on blue and white porcelain of the K'ang-hsi period (16621722);


lo

it is

mark.

often referred to as the


It

one of the Eight

is

Emblems of Buddhism and

is

thus ultimately of Indian origin.

See Decoration.

Coral Glaze.
used

as a

monochrome

glaze.

Crab Claw Markings,

form of

large irregular crackle that occurs

on wares of
particularly

Sung Dynast}',
Kuan (q.v.) The

the

name was introduced in the 18th


century, a time when many
imitations of the

Sung imperial

of a Buddhist
temple or on either side of a

beasts at the gates

Buddha
in pairs

statue.

with

They

are

made

their heads turned to

face each other.

In the ceramic

such figures are rarely

more than about 12

inches (30*5

cm.) in height and are usually


elaborately decorated in famille
verte, or famille rose (q.v.), enamels.

They

also

occur

as a

decorative

motive.

Earthworm Marks, the name


given to what we know as a firing
fault in the glaze

wares were being made.

(q.v.).

Crackle is a phenomena caused


by the unequal contraction of

glaze,

66

Pekinese

dogs, usually found as guardian

medium

Iron red enamel

mythical Hon type

resembling

of animal

They

of Chiin wares

are small irregular

partings in the top colour of the

probably due to a failure


of the intractable glaze to run

CERAMICS

Famille Noire

&

Egg and Spinach

when

completely,

the

critical

temperature in the firing has been

The marks

reached.

common on

larly

where there

bowls,

bulb

are particu-

the inside of
is

pronounced lavender blue line


breaking the smooth overall bluegrey of the glaze.

Egg and

Spinach, green, yellow


and white lead silicate enamel

on

glazes that occur together

same

piece,

ised

pattern.

It

decoration that
this

is

first

name during

occurs with

an

is

a variant

extremely

thin,

porcelain, sometimes

enamel back, when


bowls.

'bodiless'

t'o-t'ai,

or

It

it

called

is

by the

(q.v.)

the

separate

Enamel on

Biscuit.

application

of

soft

This
lead

is

the

from each
same way as do the
copper wires in cloisonne enamel
(See
Miscellaneous
section,
Cloisonne). This style of decoraother, in the

tion

may

also

be called san-tsai

(q.v.).

See Fa-lang.

Fa-lan.

Fa-lang. A term used primarily


for enamel decoration on metal of
the Canton type (see Miscella-

neous section, Canton Enamels),


but which is sometimes used with
reference to wares of the famille
rose group (q.v.).
Other terms
that are also used somewhat

that

is,

to

about

1,250 degrees Centigrade or above;


application

way for enamel-

on porcelain

lang,fu-lan

are fo-lang, fu-

andfa-lan.

silicate

enamels to a vessel that has previously been fired without any


glaze on it.
This initial firing is
often to the temperature required

the

of

the

Famille Jaune.

tinguished

by Jacquemart.

Fa-hua

colour

name given

to the

of

and later, in which the predominant background colour is


yellow. The group was dis-

hsi period (1662-1722)

the

group

enamel-decorated porcelains of
the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722)

enamels the piece was fired again


at a somewhat lower temperature.
The technique was used for Ming
fa-hua (q.v.) and Ch'ing san-tsai.
is

to

coloured

different

lead silicate enamels

ling

for porcelain,

serve

that

lines,

loosely in the this

Chinese.

after

incised

the K'ang-hsi

skin' (q.v.).

Egg-shell,
pure white
with a ruby
is used for

decorated porce-

of the Ming Dynasty, in


which the decorative motives are
outlined with threads of slip (q.v.),

of

type

period (1662-1722) and

of 'tiger

the

but not in an organ-

cloisonne-style
lain

Famille

Noire.

porcelains

made from

group of
the K'ang-

onward in
which the dominant background
is

black.

It

is

really

67

Famille Rose

Fen-ts'ai

variant

made from

since

ward, which

of famille uerte, (q.v.),


consists of a dull black
ground covered with a green
enamel. It was distinguished by
Jacquemart in the 19th century.
it

Famille Rose is a term coined by


Jacquemart in the 19th century
and applies to a group of overglaze enamelled porcelains which
begin about 1721. The delicate
rose pink which is characteristic
of the group is an opaque colour
derived from colloidal gold.

All

group are
opaque and stand up more in
relief than those of the famille
the

colours

in

verte translucent

the

type

(q.v.).

The

wider palette and more manageable qualities of these famille rose


enamels made a more meticulous
style of painting possible.
By
about the middle of the 18th
century Western subjects became
This group
a popular novelty.

of enamels
Chinese

also

is

name

CERAMICS

-fr

known by

its

yang-ts'ai, 'foreign

colours', or fen-ts'ai, 'pale colours'.

from

the 17th century ondiffer

much

in style

earlier wares.

The

subjects

of decoration are at first simple


designs of birds and flowers; these
start towards the end of the Ming
dynasty at the beginning of the
17th century. By the end of the
century the designs had become
complex and detailed, with landscapes and genre scenes, illustrations from legends, history and
romance, but they never achieved
the same minute and meticulous
style as the famille rose (q.v.), or

the even finer and

type

known
They

(q.v.).

more

delicate

Ku-yueh hsiian
have nevertheless

as

remained popular.

Fan-hung.

See Iron Red.

Fang Sheng Mark.

An

open

lozenge threaded with a ribbon.


The mark occurs mainly in the
K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722). It
one of the Eight Precious Ob-

is

jects.

See Decoration.

Fei-ts'ui, 'kingfisher colour', the

Famille Verte is a term coined


by Jacquemart in the 19th century and applies to a group of
translucent enamelled wares on
which the predominant colour is
green.
One colour, iron red was
opaque, but this rarely plays an
important part in the decoration.
The use of green enamel has its
origin in pieces

made

as early as

the 13th century, but the term


famille verte

68

is

applied only to types

name given

to a bright, almost

luminous turquoise-coloured glaze


derived

name

from copper;

for

it

is

another

'peacock green'.

See also this term under Jade and


Hardstones.

Fen-ting.

See Ting.

Fen-ts'ai, 'pale colours', a Chi-

nese

term for the famille

porcelains (q.v.).

rose

CERAMICS

Fish

"fr

Fish Roe Crackle, the name


given to the crackle on Ju wares
(q.v.) at the time when, in the
18th

imitations

century,

being produced at

were

Ching-te Chen

(q.v.).

These

mon

Roe Crackle

sets

Hare's Fur

are particularly

com-

and white and in


famille verte (q.v.); they were
popular in Holland in the 17th
century and were copied at Delft
and other continental ceramic
in blue

centres.

Flambe, a copper red


on a smaller or larger

streaking
scale

on

Gombroon.

See Rice Grain.

porcelains of the 18th century on-

ward.

It is

term

some
on Chun wares

also applied

by

writers to the crimson flush


(q.v.).

uncommon

Green Chun,

an

Sung ware with a

thick, rich grey-

green glaze, often finely crazed,


a Chun (q.v.) type body and
usually of similar form; a rather

on
Fo-lang.

See Fa-lang.

Fu-kuei Ch'ang-ch'un, 'riches,


honour and a prolonged Spring'.
A good wish mark sometimes
found on the base of an object; it
also occurs combined with other
of a decoration.
The implication of 'prolonged
spring', is prolonged youth.
motives

as part

Fu-lang.

flat,

narrow-rimmed

Hang-chou Celadon.
for

which

there

justification, for a

celadon that has

See Fa-lang.

saucer

is

the

best-known form. The ware is


related to Northern Celadon (q.v.)
as well as Chun and was clearly
made at the same kilns.

is

term,

but

little

type of crackled
affinities

Lung-ch'iian celadon

with

(q.v.).

Garlic Vase, a bottle-shaped vase


with

swelling

similar to a bulb

at

of

the
garlic,

mouth
some-

times even ribbed in the same

way.

[10/].

Garniture de Cheminee, a set of


arrangement on a
mantelpiece. Three pieces are
covered jars, one of which is
placed at each end with the third
in the centre, and the other two
are wide-mouthed beakers of Ku
form (see Bronzes; Ku), which
are placed between the jars.

five pieces for

Hard Paste.

Porcelain produced

from the appropriate proportions


of Kao-lin (q.v.) and Petuntse
and fired to a temperature of
about 1,150 degrees Centigrade
or above, so as to produce
(q.v.)

vitrification

and translucency.

Hare's Fur. A glaze effect that


occurs on Chien (q.v.) and on
some of the related black wares,
in which the black glaze is finely
streaked with brown or a metalliclooking purple or blue-black.

69

Hare Mark

Huang-pan-tien

Hare Mark.
mark in the

&

hate used as a

16th

and

17th

centuries.

never been located in


of this tradition, nor have
the wares produced at it been
has

site

spite

satisfactorily

Hawthorn Design.
mer

misno-

for prunus decoration.

Hawthorn Vases. A name still


commonly applied to large famille
and famille verte (q.v.)
with prunus

noire (q.v.)

decorated

vases

A squat, cylindrical jar

Hill Jar.

mounted on three small feet.


The jar is surmounted by a more
or less conical cover, moulded to
resemble

Han

mountains.

jars usually date

[10m],

from the

period (206 B.C. a.d. 220).

See also Bronzes.

celadon

The name of

economic one during

also

was not an
its

production, and that the

period of

work was

on commercial lines, and


which was already producing
what is now called Kuan. It has
run

been suggested that the distinction


between the products of the two
kilns was one of quality rather
than kind, and that it is unlikely
that the Hsiu-nei Ssu kiln will ever

be located.

its

where

Objects.

it is

traditionally believed

produced. The
body in early examples is often
covered in white slip (q.v.) before
glazing, and the rims of bowls
may be thickened.

have

Tradition

(q.v.).

suggests that the kiln

white
porcelain produced in the T'ang
Dynasty. It is named after the
district of Hsing-chou in Ho-pei
to

spite

of many attempts. The wares


would seem to have been some
form of Kuan (q.v.), or possibly

now
Hsing.

in

identified

taken over after a time by the


Chiao-t'an (q.v.) kiln, which was

branches.

Such

CERAMICS

Hua Mark.

lozenge-shaped

mark with ribbons

trailing

from

edge; one of the Eight Precious

See Decoration.

been

Hua

Shih,

white

plastic clay, related to the

kaolins,

'slippery

stone',

sometimes used instead of

kaolin (q.v.) in porcellanous wares,

sometimes used alone, and some-

on porcelain
smooth painting

Hsiu-nei Ssu, 'Palace Department of the Board of Works'.

times as a dressing

The name

surface.

is

traditionally asso-

with a kiln run by this


department which is said to have
been located at the foot of
Phoenix Hill at Hang-chou sometime after a.d. 1128. The kiln
ciated

70

to

provide
It

a
is

said

to

essential ingredient in the

facture

of

be

an

manu-

'bodiless wares'.

Huang-pan-tien,
low elaze.

variegated yel-

CERAMICS

Imperial

it

Imperial Yellow, a collector's


term for yellow monochrome
wares produced from the Ch'enghua period (1465-87) onward.
The colour does, however, have
a ritual significance, pieces of this

Jesuit China.

colour being used on the altars


dedicated to the Earth, Agri-

Jesuit

culture

and

Sericulture, etc.

The

yellow colour is derived from iron


or antimony, the latter giving a
purer and often brighter colour
than iron, which usually has a
slightly

brownish

tinge.

YellowJu

This is a term for


which there is no foundation in
fact, but which originated in the
belief that this ware,

decorated

with Western designs, was produced under the influence of the


missionaries.

The

earliest

wares of this kind were produced


in
the
K'ang-hsi (1662-1722)
period and were blue and white,
apparently executed at Ching-te
Chen (q.v.); the later wares of the
type, mostly plates and saucers,
were copied from engravings of
biblical or classical scenes, in black

Iron Foot describes the appearance of the foot-ring on the best


Kuan wares (q.v.) of the Sung
Dynasty, in which the ring shows
a metallic black or purple-black

where the body


Iron

Red,

is

an

bare of glaze.

enamel

is

gold; a few polychrome-enamelled


examples are also known. Most
of these last date from the Ch'ienlung period, though a few may be
earlier.

colour

derived from an iron sulphate;

or sepia enamels with touches of

it

also called 'coral red', rouge de

and, by the Chinese fan-hung.


The colour is used either as a self-

fer,

(q.v.) or in combination
with other enamel colours. Like
all enamel colours it is fired in a

colour

muffle kiln.

Ju is an imperial ware of the Sung


Dynasty, that takes its name from
the district in Honan where it was
first developed; the kiln site has
not yet been firmly identified.

The ware is generally believed to


have been made for the Northern
Sung court only from a.d. 1107
to 1127, the latter date coinciding

A dark
with a fine
metallic speckling produced in the

Iron

Rust

brown

to black glaze

Glaze.

with the enforced withdrawal of


the court to

south, as the result

The
The name

rather loosely to almost


jar that can

be used

is

applied

any large

as a

flower-

pot, or as a cover for such an


object.

in the

of the Chin

Tartar invasion from the north.

18th century.

Jardiniere.

Hang-chou

date a.d. 1107

on the

is

dependent

authenticity of a test ring

bearing an inscription with that


date

now

in the Percival

David

Foundation of Chinese Art in


London. The ware has a very
7i

Juan-ts'ai

Kraak Porcelain

-fr

fine closely-knit greyish or buff

body, with a thick opaque bluegrey glaze, that has a small


regular

Most

crackle.

pieces,

with Petuntse (q.v.) in the manuof porcelain.

facture

Kian Ware.

which were not as a rule large,


were fired on three or five spurs
of a whitish fireclay, the marks
always remaining visible on the
glazed base; these marks are called
by the Chinese 'sesamum seeds'.
Almost never decorated, it is

Kiln

valued for the exquisite form, glaze texture and

Kinuta.

one of the rarest and


most costly wares that survive.

has also

especially

colour.

It is

CERAMICS

See

Chi-an Ware.

Glost.
The fortuitous
appearance of glaze round the
shoulders of a vessel, that

other-

is

wise of an unglazed type.

It is

usually due to an accidental

fall

of

ash in the kiln during the firing.

The Japanese name for


Theterm
come to mean a fine

amalletvase(q.v.)[10J].

quality bluish toned celadon glaze

and reference is nowadays


not uncommonly made to celadons with 'kinuta glaze'. This
usage is wholly without justifica(q.v.),

Juan-ts'ai,
ese

'soft colours', a

term for famille

Kaki.

Chin-

rose (q.v.).

A Japanese word meaning

'persimmon', and by extension


'persimmon coloured' when used
with reference to a rusty brown
glaze colour.

Kao-lin,

china clay

by

white
first

firing,

plastic

discovered and

Chinese potters.
Compounded of silica (50 per
alumina (30 per cent),
cent),
potassium (2*5 per cent), approximations only, the rest being made
used

the

tion.

Ko.

term which has led to


much confusion and is now
ceasing to be current.
In older
books it refers mainly to a pale
brownish-grey glazed Kuan (q.v.)
ware, with a close crackle, but
may also be found with reference
to a variety of the Lung-ch'uan

celadon

(q.v.).

Kraak Porcelain.

The name

given to a type of blue and white

manganese

porcelain produced in the Wan-li

magnesium and
well
as
water, which is
sodium, as
The proportions of
lost in firing.

period (1573-1619) and throughout the greater part of the 17th

the constituents especially those of

out in panels and

up

of iron

oxide,

oxides,

lime,

century.

The

decoration

iron oxide, manganese oxide and

design repeating

sodium vary from one source to

two or

another.

Kao-lin

ingredient,

72

is

an

essential

when compounded

nate.

all

three designs

The ware

is

laid

may

be of one
round, or of

which

varies

alter-

great

deal in quality of body, glaze and

CERAMICS

Ku-yiieh Hsiian

^r

The name
Dutch name for

colour.

derives

the

from

Kuan

Jar.

Kundika

massive wine jar

called a 'carrack', one of


which was captured in 1603 while

with high shoulders and a rather


wide mouth. Mostly 14th century and early Ming. [10/].

carrying a rich cargo that included


The Kraak
this type of ware.

Kuan Ware.

Portuguese

ship

porcelain was the first Chinese


ware to reach Europe in any
quantity and it had a profound
influence on the history of European ceramics. The designs were
quickly copied by the potters of
Delft and then at many other
centres in Europe.

the Southern

which continued

mark 'Ku-ytieh

dark-bodied

thick,

opaque

Most pieces

Lii,

glaze,

The colour of the


from

glaze

brownish-grey

through grey to a delicate lavenderwidth of the crackle is


also variable, but the more blue
toned pieces tend to have a wider
crackle than brownish-grey pieces,
which used to be called Ko ware
This term Ko in connec(q.v.).
tion with closely crackled ware
of the Sung and later periods is
now obsolete. Imitations of Kuan
blue; the

ware were made in considerable


numbers in the 18th century.

are small.

Kuang-tung Ware,

'cucumber green',

strong

type of brown-bodied stoneware


with a thick blue-toned glaze,
often streaked and mottled with
greyish-green, white or brown,

from

in the vicinity of
Other products of the
include imitations of Chun
and Yi-hsing glazed wares
^nd pieces with jlambe
kilns

Canton.
kilns
(q.v.)

Kua-p'i

after

A gener-

hsiian' in red

enamel may occur instead of the


reign mark, which is either incised
or enamelled in blue. It is a rare
and highly esteemed ware that
achieved the height of perfection
between about 1727 and 1754; its
production is said to have ceased
after 1754.

be made

ware with a
which was
applied in several layers, and
which has a wider or narrower

ally

varies

the

to

the end of that dynasty.

crackle.

Ku-yiieh Hsiian is the name of


a singularly fme type of polychrome enamelled glass-ware
produced in the 18th century.
The name was extended to porcelain objects decorated in the same
The subjects executed on
style.
porcelain are generally floral, and
the mark on the base is usually
that of the reign period; the
subjects on the opaque milkytoned glass are more varied and

Imperial ware of
Sung Dynasty, but

(q.v.)

brilliant

green glaze introduced


in the Yung-cheng period (1723-

effects (q.v.).

35).

Kundika.

A water vase of Indian


73

Laiig-Yao

Ling-chih

it

CERAMICS

origin associated with Buddhist

material,

and introduced into the


Chinese repertory of forms along
with the religion. It is a longnecked vase with a long tapering
spout that rises from what would
normally be a flared lip; the vase
is filled by way of another small

1,200 or 1,250 degrees Centigrade.

flaring

spout on the shoulder.

in

ritual,

Lang Yao,

a brilliant

glazed ware

first

[11a].

blood-red

produced in the

early years of the K'ang-hsi period

(1662-1722).
in

known

better

It is

Europe by the name sang-de-

The colouring agent

bceuf.
:-r

oxide

and the glaze

is

may

be

usually rather thick and

The red

crackled.

is

rarely uni-

form, showing on the best pieces


a variable depth of tone.
The
bases of Lang-yao are of three

is

approximately

Leys Jar.

vase with a widely


probably occurring

Up,

mon in blue

and white, and green


and yellow wares, and occasionally

Chun

(q.v.).

[10/].

A city, between Ch'uchou and the sea in the province of


Chekiang, which gives its name
to a type of celadon that is directly
descended from Yueh (q.v.), havLi-shui.

it

believed, close affinities

is

with Northern Celadon (q.v.) in


the early stages, and with Lungch'iian (q.v.) in the later stages.
is thought to have been produced first in the late T'ang

It

period.

types, plain white, a greyish cela-

Lien Hua,

don tone with

of the 17th century.

a crackle, or apple

green with a crackle.

elaze material,

form of
sand or quartz, fused by means of
an oxide of lead. It fires at a low

containing

silica

in the

temperature (about 800 degrees


Centigrade), and may be used on
potter^', but not on porcelain,
unless this material has

first

Bowl,
mark.

74

11.

CERAMICS,

Narcissus Bowl.
i]

Ya-shou

e-f\

Pei.

a]

mark
It is

motive, either on

one of the Eight


See
Buddhism.

as

of

Ling-chih. The sacred fungus,


symbolic of longevity, is used as a

been

mark from
onward.

the late

Ming

period

also

occurs

very

It

commonly

as a

especially

in

Taoist subjects.

Kundika.

Pilgrim Flasks,
/"]

or

[10//].

Decoration.

without glaze to the usual


high temperature required for this

PLATE

own

Emblems

fired

d]

'lotus flower'; a

also a decorative
its

Lead Glaze.

Com-

in the 15th century.

first

ing,
a

is

which

Rouleau Vase,

k]

with

association

The fungus

Mei-hua P'an.
Monk's Cap Jug.

b]

o]

decorative motive,

c]
/z]

itself

Mei-p'ing.

Sunflower

Truncated Vase.

/]

Ting

PLATE

11

Ling-lung

Marbled Wares

has been identified

,as

-fr

Polypoms

two

Wliile the

object.

to be joined are

lucidus.

See Devil's

Work.

place

by

surfaces

damp

still

are brought together

Ling-lung.

CERAMICS

they

and held

the use of a small

in

amount

of clay of creamy consistency,

Lo Mark.

mainly

used

conch

mark,

One of

the

Buddhism.

Decoration.

Loaf Centre.

convex eleva-

tion in the centre of a bowl.

Chinese term

is

Lung-ch'uan,

The

man-t'ou hsin.
a

southern type

made from the Sung


Dynasty onward and widely exported throughout the East. The
body varies from grey to almost
celadon

white, and tends to burn brick

red where exposed in the firing.

The

glaze

is

thick, usually

and grey-green

Decoration

colour.

the

on

form of moulded
to the

carved.

of

body,

Made

opaque

grey-blue in

to

is

either in

reliefs

luted

or, in later pieces,


at a great

number

Chekiang, including
those at Ch'u-chou, the name
Lung-ch'iian is a type name rather
than that of the precise place
where it is manufactured. See
also Yueh, Li-shui and Northern

Lute.
another,

To
is

lute,

one

piece

to

the term used for join-

two or more

parts

of a vessel

together, or for sticking a decorative relief

76

slip (q.v.).

Mallet Vase, or 'paper beater', a


cylindrical bodied vase, with flattened shoulders, narrow cylindrical
neck on which there may be two
fish or dragon-form handles; examples with handles have a flattened
spreading lip. It is to this form
that the Japanese term Kinuta
(q.v.)

strictly

form

popular
celadons

applies.

(q.v.).

It

is

Lung-ch'iian

in

[I0d].

Man-t ou Hsin.

See

Loaf

Centre.

Mandarin Porcelain. A term


now obsolete. The ware is a
variant of famille rose (q.v.) made
from the

latter half

of the 18th

century onward.

kilns in

Celadon.

ing

usually called

K'ang-hsi

the

in

period (1662-1722).
Eight Emblems of
See

shell

on

to the surface

of an

Marbled Wares.
from

Wares made

of two, or occasionally
more, colours, kneaded together
in various ways and usually glazed
with a soft transparent glaze so
that the different colours of the
body show through, sometimes
These wares
in definite patterns.
were made from the T'ang Dynasty
onward; they occur in a modified
form in some of the Yi-hsing
wares (q.v.).
clays

CERAMICS

Mazarine Blue

^r

A term loosely

Mazarine Blue.

used with reference to blue monochrome, which should be understood to

mean

a dark blue rather

than the lighter and

powder

blues

Northern Celadon

Chinese ores in which this imis replaced by manganese.

purity

Monk's Cap Jug.


with

Jugs

made

and cover, which in

a lip

profile closely resemble the caps

(q.v.).

Mei-hua P'an.

'Prunus blossom

worn by Buddhist monks in


winter. The earliest examples

[Hi].

from the first half of the 15th


century and are known in white,
copper-red, and blue and white

Mei

examples,

with five rounded lobes.

dish'

Kuei. Rose; sometimes


meaning a rose-coloured enamel.

'Plum blossom
vase', a vase with small mouth,
wide shoulders and tall body
tapering smoothly to the base.
The form makes its appearance in
Mei-p'ing.

about the 10th century or a little


earlier, and has remained popular
ever since,

Mi-se.
straw,

[lie].

date

[llg].

Nanking China, an obsolete


name for blue and white porcelain,

especially

of the K'ang-hsi
The wares

period (1662-1722).

were shipped down


Ching-te Chen

(q.v.)

river

from

in Kiangsi

and trans-shipped for the East


India Company trade at Nanking.
Equally obsolete is the term Old
Nanking.

glaze the colour of

or millet yellow,

some-

times with a light brownish tone.

Mirror Black.

A brilliant black

from a combination of iron and manganese oxides.

Narcissus Bowl. A shallow


bowl, on four low 'cloud feet',
roughly elliptical in horizontal
section,

[lid].

glaze produced

Nien Hao.

See Reign

Marks.

An

innovation of the K'ang-hsi


period (1662-1722), and called by

Northern Celadon.

the Chinese wu-chin, 'black bronze'.

brownish-bodied

much

Mo

Hung.

Iron-red enamel

used over the whole surface of a


vessel as a

monochrome

Mohammadan
ores

from foreign

effect.

Blue.
sources,

Cobalt

which

contain arsenic, unlike the native

to

spiration,

Yueh

grey or

ware,

owing

(q.v.)

which has

for

its

in-

a transparent

olive-brown or grey glaze; the


tone of the glaze is
dependent on the colour of the
body and the degree of reduction

precise

in

firing

ditions).

Reducing ConThe ware does not

{see

77

Pan T'o Tai

Northern Kuan

appear to date earlier than the


Sung Dynasty, and seems to have

been made
kilns in

at a large

North China;

in the style of

Ting

tion to

and

firing

(q.v.);

it

made

its

number of
it is

(q.v.)

to

Chun

indeed have been

some of the same kilns as


The ware can be difficult
distinguish from some of the
at

Chiin.
to

Chekiang celadons, such

from

Li-shui (q.v.), that

as those

may

also

have a transparent glaze of similar


tones.
These wares do not seem
to have been exported and they
apparently died out sometime
during the Sung Dynasty, probably after 1127 when the capital
was moved south to Hang-chou.

Northern Kuan.
in Chinese texts

not so

decorative

much admired by
Tea
Masters.
Japanese
Honan;

the

it is

Orange

term used

Peel.

This

is

glaze

which there are slight undulations and pittings in the sureffect in

face; the effect occurs particularly

on

porcelains of the early 15th

century, but

may

be found

at

any

period.

Oxidizing Conditions.
These
conditions are achieved by allowing

as

much air as possible to

enter

the kiln during firing; under these

conditions glazes containing iron

oxides

become yellow, brown or


See also Reducing Con-

ditions.

on ceramics, but

of the
Northern Sung Dynasty, but
which of the wares are to be
included in the term is uncertain.
The following possibilities have to
be considered; (1) Ju ware (q.v.),
(2) Ju and fine quality Chiin (q.v.),
and perhaps Tung (q.v.); (3) Tung,
or some other ware deriving

from

is

innovation of the Sung Dynasty,


occurs first in the black wares of

black.

far satisfactorily explained.

It refers

which

effect,

CERAMICS

and in body

technique

may

related

carved decora-

-fr

Pai-ting.

See Ting.

to imperial wares

Pai-tun-tzu.

See Petuntse.

Palace Bowl. A small bowl


with curving sides and slightly
A Peking dealer's
flared rim.
term for this type produced from
the Ch'eng-hua period onward.

it.

Palm
Oil-spot. A silvery spotting on
a black glaze, derived from iron,
and caused by excesses of the
metallic compound being deposited on the surface in the course
of the oxidizing firing.
The
78

Eyes. Small irregularly


occurring pits in the surface of the
glaze.

Called tsung-yen by the

Chinese,

and

sometimes

pin-

holes' in English.

Pan T'o

T'ai. Semi-bodiless.

CERAMICS

Pao-yiieh P'ing

<&

Pao-yiieh P'ing.
shaped

full-moon

See Pilgrim

[lie].

flask,

Flask.

Paper

Beater.

Mallet

See

Vase.

Peach Bloom

the

is

name

for a

reduced copper glaze effect developed iii the K'ang-hsi period


Pieces, usually small,

(1662-1722).

were

so

fired

to

as

produce

soft pinkish-red colour,

the

surface

often

being broken by four white


medallions painted in famille rose
enamels (q.v.) with flowers, landscapes or mythological scenes.

They date from the Ch'ien-lung


period (1736-95) onward, the best
examples being of this and the
Tao-kuang

period.

(1821-50)

Vases and other objects

be decorated in

this

may

also

way.

shading

The

monotony of

Pi-se

Petuntse.

Prepared white China

effect

stone, the feldspathic non-plastic,

was an expensive one to produce


successfully, and all the best pieces
The
are of the K'ang-hsi period.

vitrifying ingredient essential for

off to green in places.

superintendent Ts'ang Ying-hsiian


is

generally credited with this in-

The

novation.

effect is called

p'in-kuo hung, 'apple red',

by

the

the manufacture of white porce-

and of the
type of ware.

lain

The name

it

is

'white briquettes',

the

which the material was

Chinese.

as

an old romanisation for


Chinese name pai-tun-tzu,

stands

the

glazes used for this

form

in

sold to the

potteries.

Green.
A vivid,
medium-fired glaze derived from
copper. It was first used in the

Peacock

14th

century,

but

achieved

greatest perfection in the

when

Dynasty,

Ch'ing

gained

it

its

this

name.

Phoenix
accepted

Hill
as

is

traditionally

the location for the

of the imperial kiln of the


Southern Sung Dynasty, which
was established by the Hsiu-nei
Ssu (q.v.) in the vicinity of the

site

Hang-chou after 1128.


Although the hill has been identified, the kiln site has not been
palace at

Peking Bowls.
to a type of bowl
Western
not

name given

first

acquired

collectors in Peking,

made

there.

The bowls

by

but

white inside and


outside with opaque
green, yellow, blue, dull crimson
or other monochrome grounds,
which are engraved with complex

usually

plain

decorated

linear

scroll

work

patterns,

found.

are

the

Pi-se,

'reserved',

'secret'

or

'forbidden colour', the name given


to the beautiful silvery-olive glaze

developed for Yueh wares (q.v.)


Shang-lin Hu (q.v.) in the 10th
century and generally held to have

at

79

Pi-t'ung

Reducing Conditions

CERAMICS

-r

been used only for the articles


destined for the use of the princes

in

ofYueh.

or have added gilt decoration, or


have white panels reserved in the
surface which have overglaze
enamel decoration. Also called

Pi-t'ung.

Brush Pot.

See

the

K'ang-hsi
Pieces

1722).

Pilgrim Flasks are of two kinds.


The first is of roughly made,

souffle blue.

usually moulded, potter}* or stone-

Proto-Porcelain,

ware, with relief decoration under

to

an olive-brown or green glaze, the


designs often being distinctively
or

Hellenistic

Sassanian

Persian

the

period (1662be plain blue,

may

term applied

known

Chinese
wares with a feldspathic glaze, for
which a high firing temperature is
needed. The earliest wares to
earliest

in style; the handles are small loops

which the name

on the shoulder. This type dates


from the late 6th centurv into the

the 3rd century B.C., but earlier

T'ang Dynasty. The second type


are of porcelain, with underglaze
blue
or
polychrome enamel
decoration and date from the 15th
century onward, [lie,/]. Both
types have a flattened globular
body with a shorter or longer

body

neck; the earlier type has a solid


splayed foot, the later type generlacking

ally
later

moon

type

this

are

vases'

by

The

feature.

'precious

called

the Chinese.

examples
is

See

Palm

well

from

The

exist.

fine-grained, hard and of

a variable grey tone, showing a


tendencv to burn red where exposed in the firing. Yueh wares
(q.v.) are the best-known wares
of this type.

A variant of Ting

Purple Ting.

that has never been satis-

(q.v.)

factorily

identified,

but

which

may

be assumed to have a similar


white body and a very dark

brownish
Pin-holes.

may

applies date

glaze.

Eyes.

A variant of Ting
with the same white body
but with a rusty brown glaze.
Red Ting.

Hung.

P'in-kuo
Bloom.

See

Peach

(q.v.)

Powder Blue,

Reducing Conditions.

on

are conditions

to the

cobalt blue blown


raw body through a

bamboo

tube closed at the end


with fine gauze; the piece was

then glazed.

The technique was

introduced in the T'ien-ch'i period


(1621-7), but only fully developed
8o

ting
kiln

down

the air supply to the

during

extent

that

These
produced by cut-

firing

carbon
carbon

reduced to
compelling the

fire

to

such

dioxide

an
is

monoxide,
to

absorb

ceramics

Reign Marks

<&

oxygen for combustion purposes


from the constituents of the glaze,
This

process

accounts

for

the

coat

and

being

turquoise

the

blown on through gauze


duce a delicate

San-ts'ai

to pro-

stipple effect,

and lavender
tones of Sung wares and copperreds of the 14th century onward,
See also Oxidizing Conditions.

de
Fer.
Iron-red
enamelling over a porcelain glaze.

Reign Marks, or

cylindrical body, short rather flat

blues, greens, greys

Rouge

Rouleau Vase
nien hao,

are

is

vase with

under-

shoulders, a short thick neck, also

glaze blue, but also in overglaze

and a slightly spreadmouth, which sometimes


turns up a little at the rim.
The
term applies to a type of vase
produced from the late 17th
century onward. [11/].

inscriptions, generally in

red or blue enamel, consisting of

four or six characters giving the

of the regnal period during


which the piece is purported
to have been made.
Marks do
not normally occur before the
15th century and should always
be regarded with reserve.
title

Rice Grain, pierced designs on


18th-century and later porcelains,
in

which the glaze has

openings; the

name

filled

derives

the

from

the size and shape of the holes,

cylindrical,

ing

Ruby Back.
lain

bowls,

Egg-shell porce-

and

saucers

dishes,

decorated inside with famille rose


enamels (q.v.) and on the back

with

uniform

rose

enamel

varying from pale rose to a deep


dull crimson.
Such wares were
often for export and date mainly

The technique is believed to have


been copied from Persian wares
of a similar kind, which date back
to the 12th century, and were

from

known

'Gombroon' wares, a
name sometimes found in older

in

publications to describe Chinese

ware from uneven firing, and


from sudden falls of ash which

as

examples.

the

Yung-cheng

period

(1723-35) onward,

A fireclay box or case


which ceramic wares are placed

Saggar.

for firing in the kiln.

It

protects

the

may

foul the glaze or cause an

Robin's Egg Glaze is a speckled


opaque turquoise and blue glaze,

undesired change in colour,

developed in the 18th century,


probably in the Yung-cheng
period (1723-35). It is a bi-colour

San-ts'ai, literally 'three colours',

glazing technique, the blue glaze

term

being applied

ware; the

Fhca

as a

simple all-over

name given

silicate
is

to

certain

glazing techniques.

lead

The

used for two types of


first is

the

polychrome
8

Sang de Bceuf Shen-te T'ang Tsao

ft

pottery of the T'ang Dynasty, the

similar to that used

common

personal

colours

being,

blue,

green, yellow and a deep amber.

The second type of ware to which


the name is applied is lead silicate

seal,

CERAMICS

on a man's
winch was usually

rectangular.

Seal Script.

Chinese characters

enamel-glazed porcelains of the


Ming Dynasty, the more com-

written in an archaic

mon name

sometimes for reign marks

without

which

for

The

(q.v.).

porcelain

glaze

temperature;

to

fa-hua

is

is

porcelain

either

by

incised

carefully applied

threads of slip (q.v.)

The colours

blue,

turquoise,

green, yellow, aubergine purple

and

a neutral glaze

which

regarded

as

used, varies

Seng-mao
Cap Jug.

Hu.

See

Monk's

referring to a tech-

number of

from two

Sang de Bceuf.
red-coloured glaze,

Sesamum

Seeds.

The

small al-

most white spur marks (q.v.),


usually three or five in number,
resembling sesamum seeds found
on the base ofJu wares (q.v.).

serves

as white.
In both the T'ang
Dynasty type and that of the Ming
Dynasty the name should be

nique, as the

Monochrome.

Self-colour.

being separated

ture, the colours

include,

(q.v.).

fired first

with the enamel colours and fired


again at a much lower tempera-

used

often

then decorated

it is

from each other


lines or by small,

style,

used for poetic inscriptions and

colours

to six.

deep rich

deriving

its

colour from copper, fired under

reducing conditions (q.v.), and


which becomes especially popular
at the end of the 17th century.
See also Lang-yao.

Shang-lin Hu. A kiln centre in


Northern Chekiang about 45
miles east of Shao-hsing in Yii-yao
Hsien and about 15 miles north of
Yii-yao itself. It was a centre at
which Yueh (q.v.) was produced
over a long period, the peak of the
kiln's activity

being reached in the

T'ang period and through most


of the 10th century. Some of the
pise (q.v.) wares were produced
here.

Shao-hsing

is

the

modern name

for the old administrative city of

Sa-po-ni.

See Su-ma-li Blue.

Yueh-chou in Northern Chekiang,


which the finest
Yueh ware (q.v.) was produced.
in the region of

Seal

Mark.

reign

mark,

generally in underglaze blue, but

sometimes in red or blue enamel,


written in an archaic manner
82

Shen-te T'ang Tsao, 'Made

for

the Hall for the Cultivation of

CERAMICS

Shu-fu

ft

A mark used at the


beginning of the 19th century on
some of the enamelled porcelains.
Virtue'.

comparatively

period

or

little is

known of

this

later;

ware,

Su-ma-ni

the history of

because

possibly

it

appears not to have gained im-

Imperial

Shu-fu,

the

Palace',

mark

characters used to

perial favour.

im-

the

white porcelain of the


The two characDynasty.
Yuan
ters are usually to be found facing

Spur Marks.

each other across the inside of a


bowl, either incised, or more

usually

on

the base, but sometimes

inside

vessel;

commonly in low relief under

regular patterns.

perial

slightly

opaque

the

glaze.

elliptical

Small circular or

marks of rough whitish

or blackish clay on the

they

glaze,

occur

in

They are caused


by breaking away the fireclay
spurred stands on which an object

Two

Shu Mark.

books with

ribbon used as a mark in the late


17th century. One of the Eight
See

Precious Objects.

Decora-

tion.

thick

used

as

surface

and luting

dressing,

(q.v.)

clay reliefs to the

Soft

for

Chun is

the

of parts or

body of a

spurs prevent the

piece sticking to the floor of the

saggar (q.v.) in the event of the


glaze running

down and

covering

from

name given

to a

brownish grey stoneware

to a soft pinkish

brown

earthen-

with

covered

ware,

translucent

which
colour, from

glaze,

turn varies in

semiin

its

a pale

grey-blue to a bright luminous


turquoise
is

blue;

sometimes

the

splashed with crimson or

and it is often finely


crazed.
It was probably made at
a number of different kilns and
pieces may date from the Sung

purple

Stilt

Marks.

See Spur

Marks.

Suburban

Altar.

See

Chiao-

TAN.

vessel.

ware, the body of which varies

glaze

The

creamy consistency and

white-painted or trailed decoration,

fired.

the foot-ring.

Slip, a white firing clay diluted to


a

is

Su-ma-li Blue. Cobalt blue


from foreign sources and traditionally believed to have come
by way of Sumatra, of which
name Su-ma-li is a Chinese

Cobalt ores also


came into China by way of
Central Asia. Cobalt blue may
also be found referred to by the
following names; Su-po-ni, su-nitranscription.

and hui-hui-cK ing or


and occasionally sa-po-

po, su-ma-ni
hui-ch'ing,
ni.

Su-ma-ni.

See Su-ma-li Blue.


83

Sunflower Bowls

Tcmmoku

mallow flower

Su-MA-U BLUB.

continued into modern times.

usually

of Kuan ware,

fivc-lohcd

Chinese as
\nh\.

run,

known

to

howls.

Su-ni-po.

.See

of Kuan-yin, Goddess of

pccially

Mercy, that arc best known in the


West. The production of this
ware began in the latter part of
the Ming Dynasty, perhaps sometime in the 16th century, and has

bowls

with

the

Round

Bowls.

Sunflower

CERAMICS

It

one of the most difficult of all


Chinese wares to date, owing to
the long persistence of a single
style of representation of figures,
and the small range of forms. An
is

Su-po-ni.

Su-ma-u Blue.

See

Swatow Wares. The name of


an attractive and robust ware from
Fukien, boldly decorated in red,
and

turquoise

black

enamels.

Other types include slip-decorated

alternative

name

introduced

in

century,

for

France

the

ware,

in the

19th

Blanc de Chine.

is

wares with pale blue or celadon


type

The

glazes.

commonly of

are

pieces

large size and are

roughly finished, with mud) sand


and grit adhering to the glazed
base.
They were exported to
Japan, South-East Asia, Indonesia

and India

the

in

16th and 17th

The name comes from


One of the ports through which
the ware passed out of ( Jiina.

centuries.

25

group
miles

of

kiln

north

Sis

where Yiieh wares


were made in the Ian and
I

^nasties periods.

Te-hua.

superlatively

fine

white porcelain with clear glaze


produced at Te-hua in the provin< e ol

from
a

mI ien.

tone

in

it

colour. Although

and

dishes

produced,
84

vanes

cold almost grey-white to

warm reamy

bowls,

It

is

the

vases

were

figures,

in

coloured

when

effect

The

ground.

glaze
fired

is

of

soft

greenish-brown tone. It is generally regarded as an innovation of


the

Yung-chcng period

although

the

perhaps

(1723-35),

was

technique
as

early

as

the

T'ang Dynasty.

of

I.ni" ehoii,

(cj.v.)

bi-colour glazing

which green enamel


is blown through a fine gauze on
to a yellowish-brown or bronzetechnique

known
Tc-ch'ing.
about
rites

Tea Dust.

es-

Tear Marks.

Streaks and gloon the backs of


bowls, dishes and plates of Ting
ware (cj.v.), where the glaze has
inn down from the rim towards
bules

of

glaze

the foot.

Tcmmoku
of the
first

used

identify

known

is

the Japanese reading

Ihinese

by

the
as

name T'ien-mu,
the

black

Chicn

Japanese to
wares better

(cj.v.).

The

use

ceramics

Tiger Skin

of this name has gradually been


extended to include all black
wares produced during, and perhaps immediately following, the
Sung Dynasty. The name is
inappropriate

singularly

T'ien-mu Shan

is

a pair

since

of moun-

west of Hang-chou,

tains to the

nowhere near where any of these


black wares were made. Its use
by the Japanese has been explained
by the fact that in the T'ien-mu
mountains there is a Buddhist
monastery to which Japanese

monks came

to study

Zen Buddh-

Ting Mark

North Cluna, where it was first


produced. The decoration, usuin

ally

of floral motives, but also of


and dragons, is either carved

birds

into the

body before

glazing, or

moulded; in what seem to be

may

pieces children

late

appear in the

saucers and
were usually fired upside
down on the rim, which was left
bare of glaze and afterwards
bound with copper. The reason
for this method of firing was,

Bowls,

designs.

dishes

probably, to reduce the tendency

of

this

ware

to

warp

in the kiln,

monks returning to
Japan took with them their black

One peculiarity of the glaze is that


it runs down from the rim to-

bowls, which they had had for

wards the foot in small streaks and

ism, and the

daily use.

There

is

for

the

justification

moku and

thus

no

real

term tern-

the use of the specific

name of the ware in each

case

is

to

which the name 'tear


been given. Other
types of this ware are Black Ting,
Purple Ting and Red Ting; differglobules, to

marks'

has

be preferred.

ent qualities of the white type are

Tiger Skin. A late 17th-century


development in which enamel
glazes were used direct on the

Ting', fen-ting 'powder Ting' or

distinguished

without following a
being spotted on in

'soft

as

Ting' and

Ting'.

The
and

pai-ting

t'u-ting,

differences

'white
'earthy

between

colours

are very
having been
adequately defined, but both are

include yellow, green, aubergine

easily distinguishable from pai-ting,

and a neutral shade that does

the finest quality,

service for white.

the earliest of the classic imperial

biscuit (q.v.)
strict pattern,

fairly

Ting.
with
glaze,

large

areas.

The

thin white porcelain,

transparent

ivory-toned

made from sometime in

the

second half of the 10th century


through the Sung and Yuan
Dynasties and perhaps even

The name

derives

later.

from Ting-chou

fen-ting

uncertain,

t'u-ting

never

winch was

also

wares of the Sung Dynasty. The


type is said to have been replaced
in imperial favour after a.d. 1107
by Ju (q.v.) but there is no
absoi ate proof of this,

Ting Mark.

drawing of the

archaic bronze cauldron of tins

85

Tobi-seiji

Tung Ware

CERAMICS

it

name (see Bronzes, Ting) used as


a mark in the K'ang-hsi period
and perhaps later.
One of the Hundred An[11/].
tiquities (see Decoration).
(1662-1722)

and have

drawn

freely

composed and

Much

of the
ware was for export and some
pieces
carry date marks and
designs.

inscriptions that

make

clear that

it

they were not primarily intended


Tobi-seiji, literally 'flying celadon', the Japanese
rare,

name

brown-spotted Lung-ch'uan

type celadon
in Japan.
called

(q.v.) so

It

much prized

has been

wrongly

'Buckwheat celadon'.

Tortoise Hill.

See Chiao-t'an.

Tortoise-shell Bowls.

for imperial use.

for the

See

Cm-

an Ware.

Truncated Vase.

vase that

resembles only the upper half of


the mei-ping type (q.v.).

Tz'u-chou

only

in

black

wares,

believed

from Honan, which

It

occurs

and

types
to

come

are also of

Tz'u-chou type.

[Ilk],

Tsung-yen.

Palm Eyes.

T'u-ting.

See

See Ting.

Tou-ts'ai, 'opposed colours', or


'contrasted colours',

porcelains of the

Dynasties

decorated in

icularly refined

term for

Ming and Ch'ing

and

part-

delicate style,

with an underglaze blue outline


to the main parts of the design
filled in with overglaze translucent enamels, the latter having
a fairly wide range of colours and
tones.
Nearly all the pieces so
decorated are small and seem first
to have been made in the Ch'enghua period (1465-87).
Transitional Ware, a name
given to a distinctive type of ware,
mainly decorated in blue and
white, that was produced between about 1580 and 1680.
The wares are generally of fine
quality with a good tone of blue
86

Tung Ware.

Northern
been tentatively identified with a celadon
type of which only about half a
dozen pieces are recorded. The
body is a rather pale grey buff,
sometimes with carved decoration,
details being lightly incised, under
an opaque soft grey-green glaze of

Sung ware,

rare

that has

unusually fine texture; the pieces

remarkably light for their


It is said to have been made
at the Twig kiln, 'Eastern' kiln
outside K'ai-feng, the capital of
Northern Sung in Honan, but the
region has been inundated so
many times by the Yellow River
that no kiln site has yet been
are

size.

The

ware is closely
related to Northern Celadon (q.v.),
Chiin (q.v.) and Ju (q.v.).

located.

CERAMICS

Tz'u-chou

ft

The name given


first made

Water Dropper

Sung Dynasty. Al-

Towards the end of the


Sung Dynasty bowls decorated in
overglaze red and green, and

though made in the Tz'u-chou

occasionally yellow, enamels ap-

modern Hopei
in
North China, it was produced

in

pear.

The

at

was of

flowers, or lotus

Tz'u-chou.

stoneware

a strong

the Northern

district

to
in

many kilns in other parts of China;


the name should therefore be
regarded as a type name rather
than

of

that

The

product.

kiln

specific

most

common

forms are ewers, vases of meip'ing form (q.v.) and bottle vases
(q.v.), jars, deep bowls, and headrests;
one special form is the
truncated vase

The

(q.v.).

pale

grey body was usually covered in


white slip (q.v.) to provide a
suitable

surface

which was

for

decoration,

of boldly painted
floral motives in dark brown, or
black under a clear or slightly
creamy glaze, or it was cut
through the slip in sgraffito techeither

nique to the body underneath, so


that when glazed and fired the

would

design

show

up

dark

From

against the white ground.

the

Yuan

period onward

uncommon

not

it

was

cover the
whole body with a dark brown
and,

glaze

through

when

to

before

firing,

cut

this to the paste, so that

fired the

raw grey body

contrasted with the glassy

brown

green.

or

by

more

design in the centre


fish,

three or four red rings.

Underglaze Blue.

Cobalt blue

pigment applied for decorative


purposes directly to the body,
before glazing and firing. This
was the usual technique used in
the production of Chinese blue
and white wares. The pigment
was extracted from two types of
cobaltiferous

madan

ore.

Moham-

(1)

imported ore
containing arsenic as an impurity,
and (2) native cobalt, containing
manganese as an impurity instead
of arsenic. The differences between the two types is only
an

blue,

distinguishable

by

analysis.

A vase with one flat

Wall Vase.

which there is a slot for


suspension from a hook on the
wall.
They probably do not date
from much earlier than the latter
side, in

part of the 16th century.

Wan Mark. A short writing

of

the character wan, 'myriad', 'ten

thousand',

a swastika;

is

Another innovation of
the Yuan period was to paint
rather fine designs in black with a
black-hatched ground, and then
to cover this with a transparent

Water Dropper.

glaze stained either turquoise or

with only

surface.

and

rarely a bird, surrounded

found used

as a

it

may

mark from

be
the

K'ancr-hsi period (1662-1722) on-

ward.

[13/].

A small vessel

a small hole

from which
7

Wu-ts'ai

Yo-chou
may

the water

on

-fc

be shaken gently

to an ink-stone or paint palette.

may

be made in the
form of an animal or fruit; the
earliest examples are in Yueh
wares (q.v.) dating from the late

These

vessels

Han

or

they were often

form of a

in the

Dynasties

Six

early

when

periods,

toad.

known

the

in

West

ai,

term

'five colours', a

applied to porcelains of the Ming


and Ch'ing Dynasties decorated
in overglaze enamel colours, and
often with coarsely-handled underglaze blue (q.v.); combined with
red, green, yellow and black, and
occasionally with a clear turquoise
enamel as well. The outlines of
the designs are
black, dark

so

tinguished

Some of
from

type

the

that

drawn in overglaze

brown, or red enamel,

from

is

easily

tou-ts'ai

dis-

(q.v.).

the best examples date

the 16th century.

Ya-shou Pei, literally 'press hand


name given to bowls hav-

cup', a

ing a flared mouth.

See Famille Rose.

tung

(q.v.).

Ying-ch'ing.
Ying-ts'ai,

Chinese

dealer's term.

Yi-hsing potteries in Kiangsu,


far from Shanghai, still in
production, are believed to have

not

started

century.

88

operating

The

in
kilns

the
are

16th
best

See Ch'ing-pai.

'hard

term

colours',

for famille

the
verte

(q.v.).

Yo-chou, the name given to


wares which were excavated in
the region of Changsha in 1946.
These wares fall into three main
groups. (1) A hard grey pottery
or stoneware with ill-fitting glazes
of green, straw colour or greenishbrown. (2) A Yueh type (q.v.)
celadon, distinguished

many

cases

(3)

from Yuen

on account of

differences in form.

Porcelain with a clear slightly

green-tinted

Yen-yen. A large vase with


wide neck and trumpet mouth; a

and technically
of Kuang-

related to the wares

pronounced
Yang-ts'ai.

their

unglazed stonewares, the teapots being especially


famous. The decoration is usually
either engraved, or in low relief.
These wares exerted a strong influence on Friedrich Bottger of
Meissen. Less well known are
the glazed wares made in imita-

in

[1 1 /]

for

reddish-brown

tion of Chun (q.v.)

Wu-ts

CERAMICS

glaze.

The

first

group seems to date from the Han


period onward, the second mainly
from T'ang and the third group
from T'ang onward. The glazes
of the first two groups are
frequently crackled and crazed,
and sometimes, among the earlier
pieces, iridescent; some of the
glazes in the first group are fluxed

CERAMICS

Yu-hu-ch'un P'ing

<fr

Yiieh-pai

with lead. Nearly all the wares


have the reddish soil in which they
were buried adhering to them, or

patterns with small animal masks

ingrained in the glaze, especially

small models

if this

is

crackled.

The wares on

present evidence appear for the

most part to be of

manu-

local

facture.

of moulded relief luted on to the


glazing.
Many
before
body
and even small buildings were

common

alongside the large jars,

bowls. During the


T'ang dynasty the ware was much

vases

and

refined, the

Yii-hu-ch'un P'ing. See Bottle


Vase.

Yii Mark.
jade used

as

The character for


a mark on wares of

of toads, animals

body becoming

finer

and more compact than formerly,


and the glaze becoming more
consistent in colouring and in

some cases

slightly

Dur-

opaque.

ing the 10th century the best of it

have

made

been

the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722)

is

and

exclusively for the princes of Yiieh,

later.

when
Yii-yao.

See Shang-lin

Hu.

to

said

it

was

called

pise

'reserved colour ware'.

It

yao
con-

tinued in production into the earlier

Yiieh, an old principality

at the

mouth of the Yangtze, which has


given its name to a grey-bodied
ware with an olive-green or grey
feldspathic glaze, fired at a fairly

high

temperature.

The

ware

has a history reaching back into


the 3rd or 4th century B.C., and

type of ware in China to


be named tz'u, porcelain. Until
the T'ang dynasty, at the earliest,
is

the

first

Sung dynasty, but was


by its derivative wares, Northern Celadon
(q.v.) and the Southern Celadons
of Lung-ch'uan (q.v.) and other
kilns in Chekiang.
It was expart of the

gradually displaced

ported throughout the Far East,


South-East Asia, and the Near
East, where it was much admired.
It

had

a great influence

on the

ceramic wares of Korea.

decoration was usually in the form

of impressed bands of geometrica 1

Yiieh-pai.

See Clair de Lune.

89

CERAMICS

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Bellington, D.

The Technique of Pottery. London, 1962.


Ming Wares of Ching-te-chen. Peking, 1938.

Brankston, A.
Bushell,

S.

Garner,

Sir

W.

Chinese Celadon Wares.

L.

W. B

Chinese Pottery and Porcelain.

1899.

London, 1954.
London, 1958.

Oriental Blue and White.

Early Chinese Pottery and Porcelain.

Hobson, R.

Honey,

New York,

Oriental Ceramic Ait.

Harry.

Gompertz, G.
Gray, B.

Early

London, 1953.
London, 1915.

The Ceramic Art of China and Other Countries of the Far East.

London,

1949.

Jenyns,

S.

Ming

Jenyns,

S.

Later Chinese Porcelain.

Pope,

A.

J.

Volker, T.

Pottery and Porcelain,

London, 1953.

London, 1959.

Chinese Porcelains from the Ardebil Shrine.


Porcelain and the

Transactions ofthe Oriental Ceramic Society,

Societv's exhibitions.

90

Washington, 1956.

Dutch East India Company.

London, 192 1

Leiden, 1954.

Also the catalogues of the

DECORATION
The

ft

decorative motives described in this section are generally to

be found in

mediums, but are perhaps of commonest occurTerms relating to the decoration of archaic
be found in the Bronze section. The section of

all

rence in ceramics.

bronzes will

Buddhist terms

human

may

also

be consulted in seeking to identify

figures.

Brocade Designs, designs, some


of which derive from textiles.
The term is generally associated
with

flowers,

or

close

floral

bright colours against a

scrolls in

green, yellow or blue


enamel ground which is sometimes incised with formal scrolling
patterns.
These designs are

pink,

especially

common from

the

Ch'ien-lung period onward.

Buddha's Hand Citron.

See

Finger Citron.

Ch'ang-ming Fu-kuei, 'Long


life,

riches

and honours',

a four

mark sometimes found


base of a piece, but more

probably not earlier than


Chia-ching period 1522-66.
Ch'i-lin,

known

as

fabulous

the

creature

sometimes

Kylin,

the

It
the Chinese unicorn.
be leonine, with scales and
horns, or it may be an elegant
cloven-footed beast, with or without scales, with a bushy mane and
tail, and a horn, or a pair of horns.
Variations are extremely numerous and impossible to classify
satisfactorily as the Chinese have,
in the past, given this name to

called

may

many

animals,

including

the

giraffe.

character

on the
usually

found

some way in

incorporated

the decoration.

in
It is

Chung K'uei,
are

many

about

whom there

legends,

depicted as a

Demon

is

usually

Queller, a

9i

Classic Scrolls

large ugly

Eight Buddhist Emblems

man wearing a scholar's

DECORATION

-fr

the 18th century, especially round

green robe and large boots,


with winch he stamps on offensive

the rim of a plate or dish,

looking

Diamond Patterns.

hat, a

imps.

See

also

K'uei

Hsing.

A formal linear

Classic Scrolls.

common

origin,

of

uncertain

as a

decorative

pattern

scrolling

band or border.
of variations.

Cloud

has a

It

number

important

an

Collar,

ferred

to

ju-i

as

pattern',

or

'ogival panel', or 'lambrequins'.


its strict

form

it is

four lobed

panels set at right angles to each


other, each

Diaper.

Repeating geometrical
patterns used as fillers or borders.

Dog of Fo,

Buddhist guardian

which from the 15th century


onward occurs as a ceramic
decoration and later as a statuette.
It is a creature somewhat resem-

lion,

[12a\.

decorative device, variously re-

In

See

Trellis Pattern.

bling a Pekinese dog, with a large

bushy

tail

and

is

often

shown

playing with a brocaded ball to


which ribbons are attached.

one terminating in a

The number of lobes to a


panel varies. It is especially com-

Eight Buddhist Emblems, or


Happy Omens, often appear on

mon

porcelain

the later ceramic wares, lacquers

decoration from the 14th century

and cloisonne. The emblems are


the Chakra or Wheel, the Conch
Shell, the Umbrella, the Canopy,

point.

in

onward.

Cloud

and

textile

[12b].

Scroll.

motive show-

the Lotus, the Vase, the Paired

and the

ing great variation, to be found in

Fish,

most mediums, but

Knot.

especially in

ceramics, lacquer, cloisonne and


textiles.

[12c-g].

Cracked Ice. A blue and white


background decoration in which
the blue is painted on the body in
such a

way

as

phenomenon.
in overglaze

PLATE
c-g]

j]

12.

Cloud

It

to

suggest this

may

occur
in

DECORATION,
Scrolls.

//]

Eight Precious Things.

92

also

enamel decoration

Flaming

a]

Entrails or Endless

A bell

is

occasionally sub-

At times
some of these emblems may be
mixed up with some of the Eight
Taoist Emblems (q.v.),but so long
as only eight emblems appeared
stituted for the

Chakra.

does not
appear to have been very important which ones they were

in

the

that

made up

Classic

Pearls,

decoration,

i]

the correct number.

Scrolls,

Eight

it

b]

Cloud

Collar.

Buddhist Emblems.

PLATE

12

Eight Horses of
In

Ming

Mu WangEight Musical Instruments


however,

times,

substitution

is

rare.

such

[12i].

-fr

blossom or flower basket, and


occasionally with a peach and
sheng reed-organ.

Mu Wang.

pin,

born

horses traditionally believed

805,

shown with

Eight Horses of

The

have been used by King Mu of


Chou (c. 950 B.C.) on his expeditions to subdue the barbarian
tribes,
and for his mythical
journey to visit Hsi Wang Mu
to

The

(q.v.).

both

as a

common

horses are

decorative motive and

as small figures in

jade and porce-

decoration

(6) Lii

Tung-

a.d. 755, died a.d.

c.

a fly-whisk,

is

honoured
He also had a magic
as such.
sword with which he performed
great feats, for which reason he is
also the patron deity of barbers.
dressed as a scholar, and

(7)

Han

Hsiang-tzii, said to be the

nephew of

the

T'ang Dynasty

Han

Yii,

is

a flute,

and

is

statesman and scholar

shown with

lain.

often

Eight Immortals were persons


who, for various reasons and in

patron deity of musicians. (8)


Ts'ao Kuo-ch'iu, said to have been
connected with the Sung Imperial

divers ways, achieved immortality,

family,

Three were historical figures and


the rest were purely legendary,
The tradition is not believed to be
earlier than the latter part of the

Sung Dynasty.
(1)

The

eight

are;

Li T'ieh-kuai, Li of the Iron-

who

always carries a
crutch and a gourd; he is the
emblem of the sick. (2) Chung-li
Ch'iian, usually shown with a fan;
crutch,

represents the military

Lan

man.

(3)

Ts'ai-ho, the strolling singer,

either a

woman

shown with

or a

tron deity of florists.

kuo Lao,

young boy,

a flower-basket; pa-

said to

(4)

Chang-

have lived in the

7th or early 8th century,

shown

as

and carrying
a bamboo tube-drum with iron
sticks; he is the emblem of old
men. (5) Ho Hsien-ku, a woman,
said to have lived in the late 7th
century, shown with a lotus
a rule with his mule,

94

and is generally shown


with castanets or a jade tablet of
admission to court; patron deity of
actors,

Eight Immortals, Attributes of.


See Eight Taoist Emblems.

Eight Musical Instruments

as

of decoration are the


Musical Stone; the
Chung, or Bell; the ChUn, or Lute;
the Ti, or Flute; the Chu, a box
with a metal hammer inside; the
motives
Ch'ing,

Ku

or

or

Drum;

the Sheng, or

Reed

Organ; the Hsuan, or Ocarina.


Of these the Musical Stone is
included in the category of Eight
Precious Things
Bell

(q.v.),

may sometimes

stituted for the

in the category

Emblems

and the
be sub-

Chakra, or Wheel,
of Eight Buddhist

(q.v.).

DECORATION

Eight Precious Things

ft

Eight Precious Things, or Pa


occur

often

pao,

as

decorative

motives and occasionally individas marks.


They are the
Jewel; the Cash, a circle enclosing
a square; the Open Lozenge with
ribbons; the Solid Lozenge, also
with ribbons; the Musical Stone,
a roughly L-shaped object susually

pended from the angle; the Pair of


Books; the Pair of Horns, and the
Artemisia Leaf.

The

common

ticularly

as

last is

mark, especially in the K'ang-hsi


period.

[12/].

Taoist Emblems, or
of the Eight Immortals.
These sometimes appear on the
later ceramic wares and are the

Eight

attributes

by Chung-Li Ch'iian;
Sword of Lii Tung-pin;
Gourd of Li T'ieh-kuai; the

Fan, carried
the
the

Castanets of Ts'ao Kuo-ch'iu; the

Flower-basket of Lan Ts'ai-ho; the

Bamboo tube and Rods a kind


of drum of Chang-kuo Lao; the
Flute of Han Hsiang-tzu, and the
Lotus

of

Ho

Hsien-ku.

are

traditionally

have been invented by the


legendary hero Fu Hsi, and formed
the basis of an ancient system of
philosophy and divination. They
seem to have become a decorative
motive in ceramics, metalwork,
and perhaps other mediums, from
about the 14th century onward;
often found associated with the
said to

Yin-yang device

(q.v.).

[13#].

par-

ceramic

They

ranks.

Flaming Pearl

Gadroons.

False

Lotus

See

Panels.

Feng-huang. Feng, the male


phoenix and huang, the female;
combined to form a single generic
name. The phoenix is an emblem of the empress. It is also
called the 'Ho-ho bird', Ho-ho
being

term

the Japanese
is

name;

on Chinese

older books

art.

Finger Citron, the Chinese FoHand', identified


with Citrus medica, var. sarcodac-

shou, 'Buddha's

tylis.

[13e].

These emblems may sometimes be


confused with the Eight Buddhist

Five Blessings, or Wu-fu,

Emblems

bolised either

(q.v.),

eight appeared

it

but so long

as

does not seem to

have mattered which ones were


used.
These emblems are called
in Chinese, Pa-an Hsien.

ally

the

Eight Trigrams, eight groups of


lines, each group consisting of
combinations of broken and unlines,

arranged in three

five

happinesses,

by

liter-

sym-

the character^,

'happiness' repeated five times, or

by

The

five bats, also called fu.

Five Blessings are long


tranquillity, a love

good end

broken

this

generally only found in

to

crown

life,

riches,

of virtue and a
one's

life,

Flaming Pearl,

a motive usually
found in association with dragons,
it occurs in most mediums.
[1 2h]
.

95

Flowers of the Four Seasons

Hundred Antiquities

Flowers of the Four Seasons.


Prunus for winter and symbolic
of beauty; peony for spring and
wealth, lotus for summer and
purity, and the chrysanthemum
for autumn and steadfast friendship.

Flowers ofthe Twelve Months.


These are, in order from the first
month, prunus, magnolia, peach,
peony, lotus,
pomegranate, mallow, chrysanthemum, orchid and narcissus.
This order is not invariable, and
sometimes other flowers are substituted.
They occur in all
mediums, being especially popular
rose,

crab-apple,

in lacquer

and

Ho-ho.

See Feng-huang.

Erh-hsien.
Genii of Mirth and

Lotus Panels.

See

Twin

See

Harmony.

Hsi Wang Mu, the Queen


Mother of the West, usually
shown as a beautiful woman
accompanied by girls known as
Jade Maidens,

carrying

flowers

and peaches. She was believed


to guard the peaches of immortality.

Hui-hui Wen.

Mohammadan
scrolling

occurs

pieces

The

scrolls,

so-called
a type

decoration which

of

first

on blue and white porceof the

Cheng-te

(1506-21), in the

Gadroons.

decoration

Ho-ho

lains

textiles.

&

made

period

Ming dynasty, on

for the eunuchs in the

imperial palace and which bear


inscriptions in Arabic or Persian.

Hai-ma,

'Sea

among

sporting

horses',

waves;

horses

common

from the 15th century onward,


first in blue and white, and then in
other porcelains and mediums as
well.

Hai-shou, sea beasts, a common


motive of decoration, including
real as well as fabulous beasts.

Hawthorn Design.

See

Prunus

Pattern.

PLATE
yang.
Diaper,

13.
d]

DECORATION,

Ling-chih.
h]

Shou

k] Trellis Patterns.

96

e]

a]

The scrolls are easily recognisable


by their outline and thin wash
technique.

Hundred

Antiquities, or Po-ku,
are used as decorative motives,
mainly from the K'ang-hsi period
(1662-1722)

i]

and

are

both
sacred and profane.
The term
'Hundred' can only be accepted
implying multiplicity. The
as
most common objects to fall into
Eight Trigrams.

Eight Taoist Emblems,

Characters,

onward,

drawn from many

b]

sources,

Lappet,

c]

Yin-

Panel, g] Petal
f] Lotus
Swastika Lozenge.
Shuang-hsi. t]

Ghca

Hundred Children

K'uei Hsing

this group are the archaic bronzes


and objects from the scholar's

Hundred Children.

general

term for designs in which a large


number of children appear at play.
See Mille-

ELEURS.

of the

The

Blest.

island

the Taoist immortals in

Eastern

shown

as

Commonly

Sea.

a luxuriant landscape,

with lakes and

birds

rivers,

and

animals, especially the deer and


crane,

which were symbolic of

inimortaliry.

Ju-i Lappets.

Key

See Lappets.

Fret.
as a

band or

repeating design
a filler;

found on

Kinrande,

'gold

brocading',

Japanese term for gilt decoration


on red or green enamelled bowls
vases.

It

blue-painted
rarely

on

may

also

bowls,

occur on

and

very

plain white porcelain.

seems to have been an innovaof the Chia-ching period


(1522-66) and became exceptionally popular in Japan.

It

tion

Ku-yiieh Hsiian, the name by


which a singularly fine type of
polychrome enamelled ware of
the 18th century is known. Most
pieces are small and are decorated
98

enamel.

It is

glass; pieces

marked

generally

are

blue

in

valued
achieving the

rare, his;hly

a short life,

height of perfection between 1727

Kuan
Kuan

Ti.
Yii.

The God of War,


He lived in the period

Kingdoms; he
a god in the
Wan-li period (1573-1619), and is
Three

the

ot

officially

became

full

an ugly man in
armour, brandishing a sword.

He

is,

usually

shown

as

however,

worshipped
of Literature
and in this form can be confused
with Wen Chang Ti Chun (q.v.)
again appearing as a bearded man,
but with a book in his hand. In
this form he mav also be confused
with K'uei Hsing (q.v.).
The
as a

ceramics, lacquer and cloisonne.

and

minute-

subjects are

and 1754.

home of

used

in a

The

opaque milky-toned

and of

Hundred Flowers.

the

with opaque enamels


ly delicate style.

almost invariably floral, and may


be executed on porcelain or on an

study.

Isles

DECORATION

:';

secondary

also

God

precise individual intended

is

often

very difficult to determine. Kuan


Ti gained his secondary form on
the strength of his reputed ability
to recite the Spring and Autumn
Annals and Tso's commentary
right through from beginning to
end.

God of Literature

K'uei Hsing,

distinguished

by

his

special

his ugliness

attribute,

the

and

Fish-

dragon, which is an emblem of


prowess. K'uei Hsing
literary
replaced

the

principal

God of

DECORATION

Kylin

Wen

Mohammadan

Scrolls

Chang Ti Chun
mind and

Long Elizas, a term derived from

was canonised in the 14th century.


He can sometimes be confused on
account of his beard and fierce

of the somewhat elongated female


figures found on 17th- and early
18th-century porcelains, which

aspect with Kuan-ti (q.v.).

the Chinese call mei-jen, 'beauties'.

Kylin.

Lotus Panels,

Literature,
(q.v.), in

the popular

See Ch'i-lin.

the

Dutch

mainly

Lambrequin.

See

Cloud

lange

lijsen,

a decoration used
border motive, either
or pendant. [13/]. It

as a

upright

derives ultimately

Collar.

descriptive

from

the lotus

of the Buddhist lotus throne


(Padmasana). There are many
forms of stylisation, but all go
back to the petal with the tip
turned back a little. It is fre-

petals

See Long Elizas.

LangeLijsen.

Lappets, often called ju-i lappets',


this motive resembles the head of
the curved ju-i sceptre, a ceremonial object carried by certain
Buddhist deities and an emblem of
monastic authority. The motive
itself is nearly heart-shaped and
occurs

commonly

as a repeating

band pattern. It is very similar,


on a small scale, to the cloud collar
motive (q.v.) for which the term
lappets is often, and perhaps mistakenly, used.

[13b],

quently referred

identified

as

blossom.

motive of decoration, that


also occur as a mark.

may

sacred fungus,

Polyporus

lucidus,

symbolic of longevity. It occurs


with other longevity
symbols such as the peach, the
tree.

'false

'lambrequin'.

Mei-hua,

plum

Mei-jen, beauties, graceful women. See also Long Elizas.


Millefleurs, a decoration which

in decoration

crane and pine

mistakenly, as

or

consists

The

Ling-chih.

to,

gadroons'

'gadroons',

[13d]

of an all-over scattering of

flower heads in

many

Mohammadan

colours.

Scrolls,

decorative scroll patterns that

Liu Hai.

An

immortal

who

caught a three-legged toad with a


string of cash.
He is invoked by
those

seeking

success

mercial undertakings.

in

com-

of decoration dating from


the latter part of the 18th century
onward.

style

the
first

occur on blue and white porcelains in the Cheng-te period (150621), called by the Chinese huihui wen.

The

rather firmly

scrolls are outlined

and then

filled in

99

Mu Wang Pa-chim Ma San


with

of blue.

Po-ku.

commonly

quities.

a slightly paler tone

The term
applied

is

to

fairly

of

style

this

pattern in other

mediums

Ch'ing
See

DECORATION

Hundred

Anti-

scroll

as well,

especially to those appearing in

Precious Pearl.

See

Flaming

Pearl.

cloisonne.

Prunus Pattern.

Mu Wang

Pa-chiin Ma. See


Eight Horses of Mu Wang.

Pa An-hsien.

See Eight Taoist

Emblems.

Pa

Chi-hsiang. See
Buddhist Emblems.

Eight

pattern of
flowering prunus with petals falling on cracked ice (q.v.); a design

symbolic of the passing of winter


and the coming of spring. It may
sometimes be found referred to as

'Hawthorn design', and objects


upon which it appears are sometimes described as hawthorn vases
or jars.

Pa Hsien.
Pa-kua.

Pa Pao.

See Eight Immortals.


See Eight Trigrams.

See

Eight Precious

See

Eight

Things.

Pa Yin.

Musical

Instruments.

Pao-shan

Hai-shui, 'precious
mountains and sea waters', a
design found round a lower edge
or border, consisting of waves

Pu-tai-ho-shang, or simply Putai, lived in late T'ang times. The


18th Lohan (Arhat; see Buddhist
terms), he is represented as a fat
man with the upper part of his
abdomen exposed to view. He
often has a bundle of books and
either a fly- whisk or a pilgrim's
He is regarded as one of the
staff.
manifestations of Maitreya, the
Buddha of the future.

Rock of Ages Ground.

breaking

against

rocks;

dealers' description ofwaves break-

common
may also

most mediums. It
be called 'rock of ages

ing over stylised rock formations;


often used as a base line for

stylised

to

dragons or other creatures. Paois the correct Chinese

ground'.

shan hai-shui
a motive common
most mediums, consisting of

Petal Diaper,
to

motives set at right


angles to each other.
[13?]elliptical

Po-Hua.
ioo

See Millefleurs.

name.

San Ch'ing,

the Three Pure

Ones

of the Taoist trimty, apparently


introduced as counter-propaganda
to the Buddhist trimty of the

DECORATION

San-yu

ft

Buddha and two Bodhisattvas.


The three Taoist figures are
shown as dignified gentlemen
with beards, seated on thrones.
San-yu.

See

Three Friends.

Seven Sages of the Bamboo


Grove. A group of famous men
of letters in the 3rd century a.d.,
who are reputed to have met
constantly in a bamboo grove to
drink wine and discuss literature.
Their names are given as Hsiang
Hsiu, Chi K'ang, Liu Ling, Shan
T'ao, Juan Chi and his nephew
Juan Hsiao, and Wang Jung, but
they were not in fact all alive at
the same time.
They are usually
shown in a rocky landscape
shadowed by sprays of bamboo,
drinking wine and sometimes
accompanied by a young boy who
serves them.

Shan-shui Scenes.

Landscapes.

Shou Characters.
alisations

Conventionof the character shou

meaning long life.

[1 3/z]

Shou Lao.

Star

Longevity.

The

An

old

God of
man with a

high forehead and long white


beard, usually shown with a peach
in one hand and a staff in the other,
accompanied by a deer or a crane,
and sometimes by both. He is
often included in designs with the

Eight Immortals

(q.v.).

Shu Wa-wa.

Three Friends

See

Wa-wa.

Shuang-hsi, 'Two-fold joy' or

wedded bliss. A mark that occurs


on both porcelains and enamels
intended as gifts. The motive
consists of two Hsi characters
placed side-by-side, often with the
horizontal

lowest
right

across

characters.

to

bar

the

unite

that

motive.

two

[13/].

Swastika Lozenge.

may

running

mark

be used as a decorative
[13/].

Three Abundances,

the peach,

persimmon,
life,
a numerous
symbolic of long
progeny and happiness; the persimmon is sometimes replaced by
the pomegranate and

the finger citron (q.v.).

Three Friends, prunus, pine and


bamboo, all emblems of longevity
and of winter, are also symbolic
of the qualities of the gentleman.
The prunus is associated with good
looks and sturdy independence in
that

it

flowers at a time

when

grow.
The pine is symbolic of the constancy of friendship in the time of
adversity, and of endurance. The

nothing

else

appears

bamboo, known

to

for durability,

is

symbolic of the integrity of the


scholar and gentleman who remains loyal in adversity. These
three are also symbolic of the
three religions of China, Taoism,
Buddhism and Confucianism.
101

Trefoils

Tung Fang Shuo

Trefoils.

power

See Lappets.

Trellis Pattern, a repeating geometrical pattern used for borders,

or as a

There are several

filler.

forms of it.

DECORATION

-fr

to punish, and the Fu


symbol, the power to judge.
These symbols are often carried
out in textiles in the Five Colours,
red,

yellow,

blue,

and

green

white, and correspond to the Five

[13fe].

Elements, Seasons and Directions.

Twelve Symbols.

These

are

Only

the

associated mainly with imperial

display

some occur alone, and


in other mediums than textiles.
The symbols are; Sun [a],
[14].

being

robes, but

Moon

Constellation

[c],

[b],

Mountains [d], Dragon [e], Pheasant [f] Bronze Sacrificial Cups [g]
,

Water Weed

Axe

Grain

[h],

[/],

Fire

and Fu [/] symbol.


and Constellation are
symbols of enlightenment and of
Heaven, the Mountains of protection and Earth.
The Dragon
is
symbolic of adaptability, on
account of the transformations of
which it is capable, and the Pheasant is symbolic of literary refinement, and the two together
represent animals and birds, or
animate
nature.
The Bronze

[j],

Sun,

[k]

Moon

Cups symbolise filial


Water Weed purity,

Sacrificial

the

piety,

Grain, ability to feed the people

and

the

Water,

Five Elements,

Fire, Plant life

Earth.

The Axe

PLATE

14.

stellation,

Sacrificial

Symbol.

102

entitled to

twelve, the

two

last

emblems
The Sun disc is
special

his

authority.

of
us-

usally red and contains the threelegged crow, and the Moon is a
pale watery blue or green and

Hare pounding the


of Life. When all twelve
symbols appear on a robe, it
assumes cosmic significance in the
sense that it is symbolic interpretation of the Universe, and the
emperor wearing it then represents the Ruler of the Universe.

encloses the
Elixir

Twin Genii of Mirth and Harmony. Patron deities of merchants, potters

They

men
often

are

and lime burners.

shown

two

as

short, fat

laughing heartily; they are


associated with gods of

wealth.
called

In

Ho-ho

Chinese they are

erh Hsien.

Fire, brilliance; these four, to-

gether with the Mountains represent

emperor was

all

c]

Metal,

(Wood) and

represents the

Tung Fang Shuo.


Eastern Moon.'

Twelve Symbols,

Moon,

Mountains,

e]

Water Weed,

i]

Cups,

h]

of the

patron deity

of goldsmiths and silversmiths,


said to be a re-incarnation of the

DECORATION. The
d]

'First

Dragon,
Grain.

f]
;]

a]

Sun.

Fire,

k]

b]

Con-

Bronze
Axe. I] Fu

Pheasant,

g]

Si

nicE

it

Wa-waYin-yang
spirit

-fr

of the planet Venus, and

usually represented with his feet

on gold and

painted blue and white porcelain,


thus giving rise to the belief that
the

silver ingots.

DECORATION

whole design was of

oriental

origin.

Wa-wa,

children;

children are so
is

designs with

named

because

this

Wu-fu.

See Five Blessings.

the sound they are supposed to

make when first learning

Wen

to speak.

Chang Ti Chun. The


God of Literature, repre-

principal

sented in decoration as a dignified


figure in official dress, wearing a

broad-brimmed hat, riding on a


mule and accompanied by attendants with banners.
He was really
divinity
and was replaced
a stellar
in popularity by K'uei Hsing
(q.v.) in

about the 14th century.

Wu

metal,
earth.

Pattern, which used to


be thought a Chinese design, is in
fact an English interpretation of a
Chinese story set in a landscaped
pleasure ground. It first appeared

on blue transfer-printed earthenware in about 1800. The design


was later copied by the Chinese in

104

Old Men,

Five

wood, water, fire and


They are named Wang

Mu

Mu,

Kung, Shui Ching-tzu,


and Huang Lao.

Ch'in Ching-tz

Yin-yang. A circle divided into


two equal parts by an S-curving
line,

one half being rendered dark

(Yin),

representing

principle

Willow

The

Lao.

the spirits of the Five Elements,

and

moon, darkness and


other

half being

representing

and relating
and so on.
dualistic

the

female

the

relating

to

earth,

so on,

and the

light

(Yang),

male principle

to heaven, sun, light

In decoration this
cosmological
symbol

often appears together with the

Eight Trigrams

(q.v.).

[13c].

DECORATION

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Cammann,

S.

Chinese Toggles.

Sowerby, A. de C.

Werner,
Werner,

E. T.

C.

E. T. C.

Williams, C. A.

Nature

in

Philadelphia, 1962.

Chinese Art.

New York,

Myths and Legends of China.

A Dictionary of Chinese Mythology.


S.

1940.

London, 1922.

Reprinted 1962.

Shanghai, 1932.

Outlines of Chinese Symbolism and Art Motives.

Shanghai,

1932; reprinted 1962.

105

JADE AND
HARD STONES
In Europe and America

we

use the

word

jade' to indicate

minerals, nephrite and jadeite, but the Chinese


it

may mean

these

beautiful stone;

make

that

it

it

two

may

is

also

clear that

also used to indicate

word

yii,

two

while

any precious or

be found in literature used in contexts

beauty or purity are meant.

For our

means nephrite and jadeite, which in appearhardness, texture, and often in colour are so much alike that

present purpose jade


ance,

only chemical or spectrographic analysis


distinguish

Nephrite

is

a silicate
it is

identical in

and

it

possible to

of calcium and magnesium, and generally

member of the amphibole group of minerals


composition with

Moris' scale of hardness,

it

one from the other.


is

contains iron;

and

make

it is

actinolite.

According to

placed at 6\\ the specific gravity

has a fine grain and

is

is

fibrous; the physical properties

from those of jadeite.


is
silicate
of aluminium and sodium, containing small
a
Jadeite
quantities of iron, calcium and magnesium.
The hardness is 7, the
specific gravity is 3-33, and it is granular or fibrous, more
commonly the former. It does not appear on present evidence,
to have been worked in China before the 18th century, when it
was imported from Upper Burma.
Both minerals are tough and, paradoxically, brittle.
of nephrite

106

differ

JADE AND HARDSTONES

&

Ch'ing

Ch'ing.
A musical stone; a
roughly L-shaped flat stone ofjade
or other material, suspended from
a frame by a cord that passes
through a hole drilled at the angle
of the two arms. Such stones
may be hung as a chime, or very
large ones may be suspended
alone.

Huan.

Mutton Fat Jade


with a circular

disc

concentric hole of rather larger

diameter than that of the pi (q.v.).


may perhaps have had

This type

ritual significance.

Juan

[1 5c]

modern

Soft jade, a

Yii.

term for nephrite.

[ISa].

Koro.

Burma

Fei-ts'ui.
brilliant

green colour.

originally

meant

jadeite

of

The name

and
be used nowadays to
a kingfisher,

may

also

mean

kingfisher feathers.

Halberd.

ritual

jade,

which became

also

badge
it is similar to the bronze
form (see Bronze). The tang of
a jade halberd is often ornamented
with narrow ridges or crosscalled ko,

found in texts on Chinese jade.


refers as a rule to vessels

kuei (q.v.),

bronze form
but unlike most bronze

examples,

is

the

bling

Ku-wen.

Han.

Jades placed in the mouth


of the dead; usually in the form of
a cicada.

jade

the pi

serrated edge.

It

object

re-

with a

(q.v.)
is

believed to

have been used in connection with


astronomical observations.

Hua-shih,

literally

raised

on

three short

[1 5d] .

'slippery

be interpreted as
steatite or soapstone, but in contexts relating to ceramics it should
be taken to mean a natural white-

stone'; often to

See Rice

Grain Pat-

TERN.

sceptre;

two forms.

takes

sembling

archaic

legs.

Kuei.

[15b],

Hsuan-chi,

It

resem-

of rank;

hatchings.

Japanese term meaning 'incense burner', frequently

this

One

broadly
is an

type

with a slight
one end, sometimes
decorated with rice grain pattern
(q.v.); it was used as an emblem of
office, or as insignia of the nobility.

elongated
point

flat

tablet

at

The

[15fe].

somewhat

other type

resembles the halberd


the blade instead of

(q.v.),

coming

but
to a

widens and has an arc cut


out of the end; this too was an
emblem of office or badge of

point,

rank.

[15g],

Mutton Fat
yang-chih-yu.

firing clay related to kaolin (see

rite,

Ceramics).

has

Jade, in Chinese
A pure white neph-

which when well polished


a

slightly

greasy,

lard-like

107

Pao-liao

Ya-chang
This

appearance.

&
type

has

al-

ways been highly esteemed.

JADE AND HARDSTONES

Spinach Jade.

In Chinese po-

from Siberia
by black flecks of
Not all jade from this

a nephrite

ts'ai-yu;

characterised

See Pao-yao.

Pao-liao.

graphite.

however, displays this feaMuch of the material comes


from the Lake Baikal region.
area,

Pao-yao,
the

abrasive

powder used

polishing jade.
it as

name

the Chinese

for
for

Bushell refers to

pao-liao.

A ritual jade.

Pi.

Sword Furniture. Four fittings


may be made of jade. (1) The
It is

a flat disc

with a circular concentric hole of


about one-third of the total
diameter. The symbol of heaven
and used at the sacrifices to

Heaven from

antiquity

down

to

the end of the Ch'ing Dynasty in

1911.

disc fitting into the


hilt.

(2)

The

guard.

The chape on
scabbard.
fitting,

end of the
[15fcj.

(3)

the end of the

[15/].

(4)

The

sling

placed vertically on the

scabbard for suspending the sword

from

the belt.

[15/].

[15e].

Po-ts'ai-yii.

See Spinach Jade.

Rice Grain Pattern. In Chinese


ku-wen; small protuberances, equidistant

ture.

from each other over

These protuberances are


sometimes ornamented with engraved curls.
surface.

Ts'ui-yii.

Tsung.

See Fei Ts'ui.

A ritual jade. A cylin-

drical tube in a rectangular piece

ofjade.

[15/].

Such objects vary

small ones resembling rings, while large ones


greatly

may

in

size,

stand up

to

18 inches in

and may taper a little towards one end. [15j]. It is regarded as a symbol of Earth.
height,

Siberian Jade.

See

Spinach

Jade.

Skin.

The reddish-brown

oxi-

dized covering of a jade pebble.


It is

often partly retained in carved

jade on account of

its

decorative

effect.

PLATE
e]

j]

15.

JADE,

a]

Ch'ing.

b]

Ya-chang.
form of a

A jade sceptre in the


knife,

somewhat

re-

sembling the halberd (q.v.). An


emblem of rank and used for
ceremonial purposes.
Halberd,

c]

Huan.

d]

Hsiian-chi.

f] Tsung. g] Kuei. h] Sword Furniture, the guard, i] The chape.


Tsung. k] Kuei. /] Sword Furniture, the sling fitting, m] Yuan.

Pi.

108

PLATE

15

Yang-chih-yii

Yuan

Yang-chih-yii.
Fat Jade.

See

-fr

Mutton

times occurs as a
lain,

Ying-yii. Hard jade, a modern


term for Burma jadeite.

JADE AND HARDSTONES

mark on porce-

and then means beauty.

Yiian.

disc

with a very large

circular orifice, giving the object

the appearance of being simply a


Yii.

The Chinese name

for jade

and gems; in the context of literature it conveys a sense of beauty


and purity. The character some-

no

ring.

object

So far as is known such an


had no ritual significance,

and the word is often used as a


term for rings in general. [15m].

JADE AND HARDSTONES

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Hansford,
Jenyns,

S.

S.

H.

Chinese Jade Carving.

Chinese Archaic Jades

London, 1950.

in the British

Museum.

British

Museum, London,

1951.

Laufer, B.

Jade:

A Study in Chinese Archaeology and Religion.

Chicago, 1912.

Salmony, A.

Carved Jade of Ancient China.

Salmony, A.

Archaic Chinese Jades from the Collection of Edward and Louise B. Sonnen-

schein.

Berkeley, Calif., 1938.

Chicago, 1952.

Whitlock, H.

P.

& Ehremann, M.

L.

The Story ofJade.

New

York, 1949.

Ill

PAINTING

The immense and complicated problems of Chinese painting make


any comprehensive

listing

and definition of terms,

The terms included

general handbook.

are necessarily an arbitary selection,

this

in the following pages

most of them from

Chinese manual of painting produced in the

They

at the present

beyond the scope of

time, almost impossible and certainly

late

famous

17th century.

are intended simply to provide those interested in the

rough guide to what seem to be the most important,


and to those most likely to be encountered in European and
American books and catalogues.
subject with a

The books
on the

listed at the

end of the section will provide material

historical aspects, as well as

on

the best-known painters

of each period.

Albums.

size in the

preparation of

wood, or brocade-covered card


covers, are not as a rule more than

painting.

The alum

18 inches

surface.

They

These,

in

usually

height

or

with

width.

of up to a dozen
pages, occasionally more, and may
include both paintings and examples of calligraphy often with

smooth,

very

glossy

slightly

consist

a picture facing a

poem.

used in combination with

PLATE

16.

PAINTING.

These are paintings on

Banners.
silk,

or

less

woven

expensive

textile, that are

and winch

hung up

in

tem-

may

be carried in
The subject matter
procession.
is almost invariably Buddhist.
ples,

Alum

112

silk for

helps to give

Brush Strokes: Bamboo,

a-c]

Stems,

d-i]

Leaves.

Hhca

PLATE

16

Boneless Painting

Brush Strokes

Boneless Painting.

Tech-

See

niques.

fc

Yii-u'ci, 'Fish tail',

leaves,

See Techniques,

Ink.

'Swallow

strokes for leaves,

Ching-ya,

Po-mo.

In Chinese

Graded

pi.

[g].

strokes for leaves.


Fci-yciL

strokes for leaves.

hair

are

goat,

weasel and pig.


great

deal

'Swallow in

in

types

f]

flight', five
.

fox,

deer,

Brushes vary

both

size,

as

to

Trees

The

strokes

divided

Those

for

Brush Strokes.

(2)

age in

of
brush strokes and the names given
to them by the Chinese are extremely numerous; the following

no more than a selection of what


might be termed basic strokes,
winch can be combined in almost
innumerable ways in making up
the structure of a picture.
For
convenience they are grouped
is

according to subject, as they are in


Chinese manuals of painting.

in ink

names

Lii-cIiUcIl

horns' for stems.

strong strokes for

steins,

'Bird

claw

pression.

[17a].

'Crab

Hsieh-i

downward curving
a

claw',

'Wild goose

PI All' 17.

'I

Foliage,

short

strokes giving

drooping appearance. [17/'].


ticu.
pepper dots, for

Hu-sliii

[rd].

foliage,

small eddy dots,

(fat,

Chieh-tzu

[17c],
ticu,

dots like the char*

ud

fjeft,

[17el,

plum blossom

dots,

five dots in a cluster for foliage.

in

three strokes tor leaves.

c-ti]

short

upward reach-

ing twigs, giving a vertical im-

for

[c],

Yii-ku, 'fish bone' for stems.

Fei-yen,

[18],

horns',

acter chieht for foliage.


Cliiich-iluio.

painting

are given.

'Stag's

for foliage,

[161,

when

and colour, for which no

specific

.--hut i

Lu-chilclu 'Stag

be
(l)

branches and twi^s.


Dotting strokes for foliink pointing. (3) Outline

strokes for foliage

types

can

types,

tor

[17].

The

trees

three

into

length and thickness.

Bamboo.

four

[/'].

has a fine flexible

The most common

point.

of

it

four

alighting',

and inserted in the end of a bamtube;

crow',
[/;]

'Goose

hair held together with adhesive

boo

two

tail',

'Startled

strokes for leaves.

Lo-yen,

Brush.

strokes for

[d].

Yen-wei,

Broken

two

TAINTING

PAINTING.

[/>].

flight,
|e|.

Sltu-tsti (fat,

foliage.

Brush Strokes:

mouse

track dots for

[17/7,

frees,

t-4]

Stems and Twigs.

1i
^.
;

'

tb

**&fc*>

>th

Wm*
i

PLATE

17

Brush Strokes

Dots

Ko-tzii-ticn, dots like the character

ko 9 for foliage.

Sung-yck

[17 h].

pine needle dots.

ticn,

hanging

ticn,

dots, for foliage.

Ckii-kua
P'o-pi

tien,

foliage.

[17/].

especially in

the later periods.

Chih.

See Paper.

[17/].

t'ou ticn,

t'ou

foliage.

upward turned

dots

Ch'in Shou.

for

Ch'ing-lu
Techniques.

dots

level

tien,

[17//].

Chiian.

Chick-so, ravelled rope.


Ta-fu-pi, large axe-cuts.

[196],

brushwood

order.

[19d].

P'i-ma,

spread-out

[19c].

in

hemp

dis-

fibres.

sesamum
combined with

strokes

usually

pi-ma above.
Ho-yek,

Colophons.

Chinese t'i-pa.
speaking prose
annotations and may be written
by the painter, his friends, or by
later collectors. Poetic colophons

These are

are

praise

in

lotus

leaf.

Copies.
(1)

[20c].

cloud heads.

or

inspired

by

the

Luan-ma, tangled hemp.


Mo-le, outlines like veins.

[20c\.

[20 d].

combined
with p'o-nw, 'splashed ink' and
ckiao-mo, 'dry ink' by the Sung
period artist Mi Fei and his
followers and successors.
[20 f].

There are three

types.

Fang, a free, or interpretive,

copy.

[20b].

Mountains

(2)

Mu,

or tracing.

to

copy by

(3)

trans-

Lin, to

copy

with the original alongside. All


three are important in the training
of the artist.

massed ink;

18.

strokes for ink

n6

of,

painting.

fer,

PLATE

and are usually in

t'i-shih,

like

Cke-t'ai, iron bands.

Cki-nio,

In

strictly

[20a].

veins

Yiin-t'ou,

See

See Silk.

119c].

Ck ili-ma,

Shan-shui.

[19a].

Hsiao-fu-pi, small axe-cuts.

Luan-ch'ai,

See Subjects.

[17///].

Rocks

seeds,

association

with Ch'ing-lu shan shui (q.v.), and


in genre painting, particularly in

[17k].

brush dots, for

split

for foliage.

P'ing

vine

chrysanthemum

tien,

flower dots, for foliage.

Yang

Chieh-hua.
Drawing
with
square and rule; used in the meticulous representation of architecture,

[17$
Ch'in-t'ing

PAINTING

ft

PAINTING,
and colour.

Brush

Dots are
In Chinese tien.
used in ink or in colour for
emphasis or better definition of

Dots.

planes and contours.


Strokes:

Trees,

They

unclassified

are

foliage

<HP

yv\i

&<

vow or
g*
PLATE

18

Fans

Mounting

also used

on rocks and

suggest lichens.

PAINTING

<&

trees to

Excessive use of

dots in connection with emphasis

and definition is regarded as a


fault that weakens the whole
picture.
Foliage dots, which are
subject to classification, will be
found under Brush Strokes.

The

stick

required with water.

Jen-wu.

See Subjects.

Kan-pi.

See Techniques.

Kung-pi.
These are either nearly
circular, or curved and folding
like the European fan.
The second type is later and was to
be the type introduced to the
West. Landscape and flower
subjects are commonest, but calligraphy alone may be used. They

rubbed down, on a

is

stone or palette, to the consistency

See Techniques.

Fans.

were often painted to give as


presents on particular occasions,
and many are dated.
Flying White.

See Techniques.

Mounting.

hanging pictures. (1)


heaven and earth, the
extreme top and bottom of the
mount, the top area being greater
than the bottom, both areas being
of a different coloured silk from
(2) Ssu-hsiang, the quadruple border, the narrow band of silk
round all four sides of the picture

here

for

T'ien-ti,

area

See Techniques.

Hsieh-i.

There are various

ways of mounting pictures, but


that most commonly used is given

again the top area

itself;

than

greater

protective

Yang-chii,

Hsieh-sheng.
the

To draw from

brocade or

and

life.

bottom.

the

one

silk,

at

strips

one at the top


bottom. (4)

decorative strips hanging

ing from light to dark, or from

top of the

one colour to another.

wooden

roller

picture

rolled.

See Picture Silk.

PLATE

u8

into

19.

sticks

and

PAINTING.

which

on
(6)

the

Chou-shou,

which any of the following


be used, hardwood, horn,

ivory,

In

moulded

(5)

from the

Chou, the

may

See Subjects.

Chinese mo. Lampblack combined with glue and


Ink.

is

scroll.

the ornamental ends of the roller,


for

Hua-hui.

of

'wind bands', the two

Feng-tai,

Chiian.

(3)

the

Hsiian-jan, colour washes shad-

Hua

is

cakes.

porcelain

Piao, labels,

or

narrow

jade.

strips

(7)

on the

of the rolled picture,


which usually record the dynasty,
outside

Brush Strokes:

Rocks.

s^*\

m&m*
PLATE

19

Pai-Tiao

Scrolls

it

name and

title of the
be in addition the shih-t'ang, poetry hall,
paper mounted immediately above

from

the picture, between

leaves.

artist's

for

ssu-hsiang,

the

may

There

picture.

In

called the

is

'towed

chih,

and the

annotations.

handscrolls this area


t'o-wei

it

the end

at

paper,' a long strip at the left

end

of the painting.

Pai-Miao.
ink

Outline drawing in
shading or

without

only,

Shuang-kou.

washes.

See

Paper.

In Chinese chih.

for painting,

also

it

may

Used

be manufac-

painting

of iron oxide called


Carmine and crimson

cial variety

limonite.

shades, including pinks are derived

with red flowers and

a vine

Umber combines

well

with the vegetable colours and


is used especially to produce a
wide range of ochres for landscape and flower painting. There
are two whites, lead white from
lead oxide, and chalk white, or
lime white, produced by burning
sea shells; this latter white was the
more expensive, but was better
because discoloration with age or
as the result of exposure was un-

known.

tured from rice straw, hemp, mulberry, certain types of reed and

bamboo,

See Techniques.

besides other materials.

Bamboo

paper is generally supposed to be the best.


Pi.

P'o-mo.

See Brush.

Picture

Silk.

Chinese.

This

is

to ready-prepared

Hua-chuan in
the name given

when

silk,

siz-

ing has been completed.

Porcelain Blue Silk. In ChinTzu-diing chiian. A very


ese
dark blue silk used for Buddhist
and flower subjects and also as a
ground for characters written in
gold.

These are of two types;


hanging scrolls, with the

Scrolls.

the

picture area generally higher than

Pigments.

These

mineral or vegetable.

are

either

Blues are

the width,

and the handscrolls,

horizontal pictures varying a great

derived from azurite or indigo.

deal in length, and not as a rule

Greens are from malachite; yellows


from orpiment and realgar, or
from the natural sap of the rattan
cane; vermilion in various shades

intended to be seen completely at


The handscroll is intended
once.

be unrolled on a table, bit by


bit, so that only about 18 inches or

from cinnabar, a sulphide


is from a spe-

Japanese terms relating to these

derives

of mercury; umber

PLATE
120

20.

PAINTING.

to

so

are

Brush Strokes:

visible

Rocks

at

a-c.

time.

Mountains

The

d-f.

PLATE

20

Seals

Subjects

it

two forms

tions here given

scrolls,

fore be regarded as

are kakemono, hanging


and makemono 'unrolling

thing', the handscroll.

'chops' or signatures that appear

(2)

name and sometimes a


commendatory phrase. They are

(4)

record a

round

square,

or

oval,

occasions a fancy

but

may

and on
form such

be
as a

See Subjects.

Shuang-kou.

which

vitality.

means using the

Structure

brush.
(3)

In accordance with the object,

draw

its

form.

According to the nature, lay on

the colours.
(5)

Division and planning means

composition.

rare

gourd.

Shan-shui.

more than

Resonance,

Spirit

(1)

means

on both paintings and calligraphy.


They may be affixed by the artist,
or his friends or by collectors and
connoiseurs.
Sometimes
they

generally

must not there-

general guide.

These are the vermilion

Seals.

PAINTING

Outline, or double

(6)

In transmitting copies, transmit

what was drawn.


Discussion of these Canons will
be found in most of the books on
Chinese painting, quoted at the
end of this section.

contour;. used in connection with


the outline style of orchid,

boo and
term

foliage

painting.

kou-le, outline,

may

bamThe

also

Splashed Ink.

See Techniques,

P'o-mo.

be
Spilled Ink.

used.

See

Techniques,

P'o-mo.
Silk.
eral

In Chinese chiiau.

term for

this

A gen-

common ground

for painting.

The Chinese

Subjects.
classification

number of
Six Canons of Painting. Formulated by Hsieh Ho in about
a.d. 500, these Canons have always dominated the aesthetics of
Chinese painting, and have been
a yard-stick for
standards of
criticism.
There is much controversy over their proper interpretation into English, especially

of the
others

122

first

one,

follow.

from which the


The interpreta-

has

love of

resulted

different

in

schemes

at

times, but all may be


reduced to a basic five classes.
These are Shan-shui, landscape;

various

Jen-wu, portraiture, figure and


genre painting; Cliin-shou, birds
and animals, and Hua-hui, flower
painting.

combine

last two often


form another class

These
to

Hna-niao, flowers and birds. Jcniru includes religious painting but

Buddhist and Taoist painting has

PAINTING

Tao-shih

ft

formed a class of its own


under the term Tao-shih, Taoist
and Buddhist.
often

Yuan-chin

brush so
used that the hairs separate in ink
painting and leave streaks of unFei-pai, 'flying white', the

touched white ground, imparting

Tao-shih.

a light, airy quality.

See Subjects.

Common in

bamboo, and bird and flower


painting.

Techniques.

These have been


carefully classified by the Chinese
and the most important are given
here by their Chinese names.

Mei-ku hua, 'boneless painting',


painting in colour without outline.

Chih-hua, 'finger painting'.

and

The

used for painting

Hsieh-i, free sketch, spontaneous

fingers

expression; usually in ink but late

instead of, or in addition to the

examples

may just

as easily

be in

nails

brush.

colour.

Kung-pi, meticulous brush-work;

T'i-pa.

See Colophons.

confined to painting in colours.

and green paintlandscape only, and this is

Ctiing-lu, blue
ing;

always kung-pi.
Chin-pi shan-shui, gold and green
landscape; gold outlines.
Shui-mo, ink painting, no colour.
P'o-mo,

'broken

ink'.

Having

and general configuration


of rocks defined to give modelling
and depth.
outline

P'o-mo,
ink*.

'spilled

ink',

'splashed

with broad full


often with the side of the

Painting

strokes,

Tzu-ch'ing Chiian.
celain Blue Silk.
Wrinkles.

See

Por-

Chinese
ts'un.
Shading, modelling; the name
given to the distinctive modelling
In

and texture of tree trunks, rocks


and mountains.
According to
some sources there are about 25
For
types of wrinkles or strokes.
a few of the most important see

Brush Strokes, Rocks.

brush.

Kan-pi, 'dry brush', a very sparing

Yuan-chin,

use of ink in ink painting.

spective.

'far

and

near', per-

123

PAINTING

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Binyon,
Cahill,

L.

J.

Painting in the Far East.

Chinese Painting.

London, 1913.

Lausanne, i960.

Chiang Yee. The Chinese Eye. London, i960.


Cohn, W. Chinese Painting. London, 195 1.
Jenyns,

Kuo

S.

Hsi.

Lee, S. E.

Background

An Essay

to

Chinese Painting.

on Landscape Painting.

Chinese Landscape Painting.

March, B. Some Technical Terms


Rowley, W. Principles of Chinese
Siren,

O.

The Chinese on

Siren,

O.

Siren,

O.

A
A History

Siren,

O.

Sullivan,
1962.

124

the

London, 1935.
London, 1935.

Cleveland, 1962.

of Chinese Painting.
Painting.

Baltimore, 1935.

Princeton, 1947.

Art of Painting.

Peiping, 1936.

History of Early Chinese Painting.

London, 1933.

of Later Chinese Painting.

London, 1938.

Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and Principles.

M.

The

Birth of Landscape Painting in China.

London, 1956-8.

7 vols.

Berkeley and Los Angeles,

MISCELLANEOUS
Altar Set. An altar set usually
consists of a cauldron on three or
four legs,

two

vases, or beakers,

and sometimes two pricket candlesticks.

Sets are

made

in bronze,

Dynasty onward, but

the T'ang

the precise date of the origin of


this

technique

uncertain.

is

varies; there

may

be as many as
and they may

porcelain, jade or lacquer, the last

100, or even more,

two

also

materials being used probably

only from the 18th century onward.

The

numbers of layers of lacquer (q.v.)

be in differing colours.

Champleve,

on

enamelling

metal, the areas to be enamelled

Bantam Work. A term derived

being recessed.

from the name of the transshipping port of Bantam in Java,


which was used by the Dutch East

enamels,

Company.
mandel Lacquer.

India

See

Canton Enamels made

Coro-

their

appearance

early in the 18th


century in imitation of those of
Limoges, the enamel colours be-

the

down and

After firing the


object

polished,

gilt.

Ch'ao-fu, court dress, a term


o all types of official
dress worn on state and ceremonial occasions, by both men and
inclusive

women.
Ch'iang Chin.

correct term in that language, but

lacquer, dressed with

may

be found in contexts
where enamelling on porcelain is

upon which

clearly intended.

cotton, the excess

also

rubbed
and the

exposed metal surfaces are then

ing painted on a copper base.


The Chinese term fa-lan is the
it

is

gold or

is

silver foil

Incised lines in

raw lacquer,

then impressed

with

a piece

on the

of

polished,

unlined surface then being wiped

Carved Lacquer, produced from

off.

technique

of unknown
125

Cinnabar Lacquer
origin,

Heidatsu

but practised at least


Sung Dynasty.

as

early as the

Cinnabar Lacquer.
red

lacquer,

from

derived

as

being

of

sulphide

the

mercury known

gains

Brilliant

colour

the

indifferent

vermilion.

metal base, so that

The

are created.

cells (cloisons)
cells

are then

with enamel pastes of the


appropriate colours and the object

filled

is

fired in a muffle kiln.

is

manufacture.

polishing

are

gilt,

to-

See also

A general term

Dragon Robes.

for dragon-decorated robes

by

administration,

also

on

worn by

all official and


These robes were

the

Guri.

Coromandel Lacquer.
A
name given to screens, chests and
panels with designs cut through
three or four layers of lacquer to

raw wood foundation, which

with brightlycoloured pigments bound with


then

lacquer.

ation

painted

The polychrome decor-

is left

unpolished against the

glossy black,

ished

brown

ground.

lacquer was

first

term used in European

in

which

and 'cloud collar' designs.


The term is ofJapanese origin, and

ing

used to describe a whirligig pattern,


but in connection with lacquer is
meaningless to most Japanese.
There is no generally accepted
Chinese term to describe this type

type of

coloured layers

for

the

Chinese market, but proved pop-

of differ-

ent colours are displayed in scroll-

of polychrome

made

carved lacquers

alternate layers

or red pol-

This

empress, the

of the imperial household and the wives of those


officials entitled to them.

texts to describe

the

worn

emperor, the imperial


clansmen and senior officials of the
the

Champ-

leve.

is

there

now obsolete.

women

process,

metal surfaces.

Technically
difference

exposed by the

gether with any other exposed

type

Coro-

between
Coromandel and what used to be
known as 'Bantam work', a term
little

state occasions.

down

rubbed

finally the wires,

After

the

mandel Coast of south-west India,


where it was trans-shipped and
handled by merchants who had
little, if any, interest in its place of

uneven surface
and polished;

firing the rough,

The

quality.

name from

its

seems

Cloisonne, enamelling on metal.


In this type of enamelling the
designs are formed by soldering
wires, usually copper wires, to a

MISCELLANEOUS

displayed

by

effect,

are

in

which

deliberately

the bevelling tech-

nique used in carving the design.

ular with the foreign merchants.

This resulted in great quantities


being produced, much of it of

126

Heidatsu

is

a Japanese

term for

the technique of setting gold and

&

MISCELLANEOUS

Hsi-p'i

silver foil decorations in a

lacquer,

and then

The Chinese term

the details.
p'ing-t'o,

than

bed of

lightly incising

but

the

is

this is less familiar

term.

Japanese

The

technique was particularly popular in


its

T'ang times, but the date of

origin

is

not known.

Lacquer

is the natural sap of the


Rhus vernicifera, which becomes highly resistant to chemicals, damp and considerable heat,
after proper preparation, and when

tree

humid atmosphere. It
be stained with almost any
colouring matter, and applied in
dried in a

may

thin layers

Hsi-p'i, marbled lacquer.

Lacquer in which there are layers of

different colours, that

show

as the

of pohshing, or of wear, and


also as the result of carving.
The
term has been interpreted as
result

'rhinoceros skin'
lacquer.

K'o-ssu.

or 'tiger skin'

See Guri.

very fine

try technique,

silk tapes-

which appears

to

have developed during the latter


part of the T'ang Dynasty or
perhaps a little later. Early examples of pictures, especially of

and flowers cannot be dated


before the Sung Dynasty and are
birds

usually small.

By

the 18th cen-

tury large, complex pictures and


whole court robes were made
using this technique.

Burgaute. Lacquer
in
is
embedded mother-ofpearl in chips of varying size;
patterns and decorations may be
very complex, and the final effect,

which

when

polished,

pleasing.

is

most

to

surfaces;

it

may

be painted, carved or inlaid.


Each layer must be allowed to dry
before the next is applied; coats

on

a single piece

many

as

may number

100 or more.

as

The Chi-

nese have admired and used the


material from very early times,
probably first as an inlay in bronze
and then from about the 5th
century B.C. for vessels and utensils
of many kinds. Early examples carry painted decoration;
carved lacquer is not certainly
known before the T'ang Dynasty.

The technique of inhardwood with designs in

Lo-tien.
laying

brass or silver wire.

of Ming

It is

perhaps

origin.

Lung P'ao.

See Dragon Robes.

Magatama.

meaning

Lac

Mang P'ao

a curved,

Japanese

term

comma-shaped

bead of stone or glass. This type


of bead occurs mainly in Korea
and Japan, but may be found
occasionally in tombs of the Han
period.

exceptionally

An expensive and diffi-

Mang

cult technique invariably carried

type.

out on a black lacquer ground.

on or

Robes

P'ao.

Mang
large

is

of Mang

ordinarily a pyth-

snake,

but in

this

127

^
^L

Hnng-"vni
1368-98

Yung-lo

?k

Yung-lo

1403-24

1403-24

<0

Hsiian-te

1426-35

#-

t^
Ch'eng-liua

Hung-chiii

1465-87

1488-1505

18

J.

ft

Cheng-te

Chia-ching

Lung-ch'ing

1506-21

1522-66

1567-72

it

a
4

^A-

it
Wan-li

T'ien-ch'i

Ch'ung-dien

1573-1619

1621-27

1628-43

REIGN PERIOD MARKS. MING DYNASTY

A
II.

m i^i

ft

A>

K'ang-hsi 1662-1722

Shun-chih 1644-61

iljJ-

* BUS
12,

ft-*.
3

Si
n-np

ft

CMen-lung 1736-95

Yung-cheng 1723-35

y=

I*

#*
ft at

difi

$&

Tao-kuang 1821-50

Chia-cting 1796-1820

it*

TV

ft

rt

4
ft
Hsien-feng

ft

Tung-chili 1862-73

1851-61

5 aim
* list

Kuang-hsu 1874-1908

Hsiian-t'ung

1909-12

Hung-hsien 1916

(yuan

shih-k'ai)

REIGN PERIOD MARKS. CH'ING DYNASTY


IHCA

P'ing-t'o

Nien Hao
instance

it

is

generally a four-

clawed dragon. Mang robes are


always decorated with nine of
and are worn by the
these,
emperor's sons, imperial clansmen and all members of the civil
service, and the wives of men in
any of these three categories.
Those worn by the emperor's
sons, however, had five-clawed
were always
dragons, which
against a bright orange-yellow
ground, while all other persons
wore a stipulated four-clawed
type against a dark blue ground.

painted or otherwise added to an

whatever
Such marks usually

object,

material.

of four
do not

six characters, and


normally occur before the 15th

century.

See Plates pages 128, 129.

Peking Knot.
term for

An

embroidery

a decorative knot,

which

Chinese variation of the wellknown 'French Knot'.


is

Peking Lacquer.

A name given

to the finest quality carved lacquer,

generally believed to have


the imperial factory.

Hao.

Reign period, a
term used of date marks incised,

130

its

consist

or

from

Nien

MISCELLANEOUS

P'ing-t'o.

See Heidatsu.

come

GENERAL

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Ashton,

&

L.

Bachhoeer,

Gray, B.

Burling,

J.

&

Bushell,

S.

W.

Cammann,

A. H.

Ferguson,

2 vols.

(Revised ed.)

New York, 1952.


of Chinese Art. New York,

The Birth of China.

M.

Cambridge, 196 1.

China:

Harry.

195 1.

(Reprint.)

London, 1961.

Chinese Decorative Art.

Survey of Chinese Art.

J.

Sir

(Revised ed.)

1946.

London, 1953.

London, 1924.

Four Thousand Years

Fitzgerald, C. P.

Garner,

New York,

Chinas Dragon Robes.

Creel, H. G.

Feddersen,

Chinese Art.

Chinese Art.

S.

Carter, D.

London, 1951.

Chinese Art.

History of Chinese Art.

L.

Shanghai, 1940.

London, 1951.
London, 1962.

Short Cultural History.

Chinese and fapanese Cloisonne Enamels.

M. &Jenyns, S. Chinese Export Art.


Munsterberg, H. A Short History of Chinese Art.

London, 1952.

Jourdain,

East Lansing, 1949.

Oriental Ceramic Society.

Arts of the

Mine Dynasty.

London, 1958.

Oriental Ceramic Society.

Arts of the Sung Dynasty.

London, i960.

Sickman,

L. &: Soper,

An

Sullivan,

M.

Willetts,

W.

The Art and Architecture of China. Harmondsworth, 1956.


London, 1961.

A.

Introduction to Chinese Art.

Harmondsworth, 1958.

Chinese Art.

2 vols.

PERIODICALS

1925

Antique Collector, London.


Apollo,

London.

Vol.

Vol.

1925

Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America,

Ars

Orientalis,

Washington

& Michigan.

Artibus Asiae, Ascona, Switzerland.


Bulletin of the

Museum

Burlington Magazine,

Connoisseur,

New York.

Vol.

Vol.

1925

Vol.

1954

Vol.

Vol.

1903
1901
Vol.

1945

of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm.

London.

London.

1929

Far Eastern Ceramic Bulletin, Published in the U.S.A. for the Far Eastern Ceramic
Group. Nos. 1-43. 1 948-1960.
Oriental Art,

London.

Vols. 1-3, 1948-1951.

Transactions cf the Oriental Ceramic Society,

New

Series,

London, Vol.

Vol.

1921

1955

131

SOCIETIES
The Chinese Art Society of America in New York.
The Oriental Ceramic Society in London. 31b, Torrington Square, London, W.C.I.
The Oriental Ceramic Society, in spite of the limitation suggested by its name, is
concerned with all aspects of Chinese art. The catalogues of the Society's exhibitions
are valuable.

COLLECTIONS
of Chinese material in museums and
Bristol: Bristol City Art Gallery

galleries

and Museum.

open

to the public in Great Britain

Ceramics from the Schiller collection,

together with a growing general collection.

Burnley, Lanes.: Te:;?:eley

Hal Art

Gallery and

Museum.

Later Chinese ceramics and

jades.

Cambridge: Fit^wiHiam Museum.

Ceramics and jades well represented.

Durham: GulbatkUm Museum. Bronzes, jades and hardstones, ivories, ceramics and
A new and growing collection of oriental arts.
textiles,
Edinburgh: Royal Scottish Museum.
lacquer and enamels,
Leeds:

7V'-.V

sh

Lor..

This

.\V:. ;.:-:.

which includes good

ng :rom Tun-huang.

also includes

it

One of
.

Stein collection of Buddhist

most important general

The University of London's

An.

from the 10th

the

the

late

metalwork.

One

Manchester: Wythenshawe Hall.

ot the

collections.

collection

of

to the iSth centu:

vest refi r;rice collection

and

late

and early

finest collection ot bronzes, early jades

ceramics in the country,

imperial porcelains

important general collection, strong in

a general art collection,

is

The

Museum.

An

most important general

of ceramics,
collecti

: :.

textiles

Ceramics.

Ox:; : d .Ashmolean Museum. An important collection of bronzes, early whi: 7 tter


:al collection that is
and porcelain, earl-." Y
:

::

;elains

Sheffield:

Lady Lever Art Gallery. An important


and snufFbottles in various materials.

Sunlight, Liverpool:

The Graves Art

Gallery.

Ivories

from the Grice

collection

Collection.

of Ch'ing

COLLECTIONS
of Chinese material

museums and

in

in the

Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery.

galleries

open to the public

States

Late ceramics.

An

Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.

United

important general collection, especially strong in

painting and the earlier ceramics.

There

is

also

some

fine sculpture.

Cambridge, Mass.: Fogg Museum of Art. An important study collection of bronzes


and Buddhist sculpture, with some paintings and a fair cross-section of ceramics.
Chicago, 111.: Art Institute of Chicago. A good general collection, which has an
important series of bronzes, and good late painting.
Natural History Museum.

Sculpture, ceramics

examples of the minor

arts,

and hardstones,

presented with an emphasis

as

well

as

many

on the anthropo-

logical aspect.

Cinncinnati: Cinncinnati Art Museum.

growing

Bronzes, sculpture and ceramics; a small but

collection.

Museum of Art. An important general collection of exceptional


which additions are constantly being made.

Cleveland:
to

Dayton, Ohio: Dayton Art

Institute.

quality,

Mainly ceramics and hardstones.

A small general collection.


A small, carefully selected collection.
Honolulu: Honolulu Academy ofArts. A good general collection of some importance.
Kansas City, Mo.: William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art. A carefully selected and
Denver: Denver Art Museum.

Detroit: Detroit Institute ofArts.

growing collection, which


and furniture.

is

particularly important for

Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum.

its

sculpture, painting

small, carefully selected collection,

strong in ceramics.

New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Art Gallery. Paintings, bronzes and ceramics.
New York City: Brooklyn Museum ofArt. A small, well-selected collection, supplemented by some

excellent loans.

Museum of Art.
large and important general collection, especially
strong in sculpture, bronzes and ceramics.

Metropolitan

Philadelphia: Philadelphia

Museum of Art.

An interesting

collection, especially strong in furniture

Pennsylvania University Museum.

and valuable representative


and ceramics.

small collection particularly famous for

its

sculpture.

Portland, Oregon: Portland Art Museum.

A small collection, with good painting and

sculpture.

Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, Art Museum.

Painting, bronzes, ceramics and

textiles.

133

COLLECTIONS
St.

Louis: City Art Gallery.

An

important collection of bronzes and early ceramics.

San Fransisco: M. H. De Young Memorial Museum. Mainly ceramics, but the recent
addition of the extensive and interesting Avery Brundage Collection has given
this

museum

Seattle: Seattle

new

Art Museum.

importance.
Bronzes, sculpture, ceramics, lacquer and jade.

Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Museum.

Toledo, Ohio: Toledo Museum of Art.

Ceramics, sculpture and painting.

Mainly ceramics.

Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art. One of the most valuable collections of
bronzes, early jades and paintings. There are also ceramics and sculpture.
Worcester, N.Y.: Worcester Art Museum.
sculpture and painting.

134

A small, high quality collection of ceramics,

INDEX
Abhaya mudra,

53

Blanc de Chine, 84

Bodhidharma, 47

Ai-yeh, 59

Albums, 112

Bodhisattva, 48

Altar

Bodiless ware, 60

set,

125

Alum, 112

Boneless painting, 123

Amitabha, 47

Bottle horns, 16

A-mi-t'o-p'o, 47

Bottle vase, 60

An-hua, 59

Bridal bowl, 60

Ananda, 47

Brinjal bowls, 60

Animal combat motive, 14


Animal style, 14, 32
Animal triple band, 14
Animal tsun, 14
Animals of the Four Quarters, 14
Anjali mudra, 53
Apple green, 59

Broad

figure band, 16

Brocade designs, 91

Broken
Bronze

ink, 123
disease, 18

Brown mouth, 60
Brushes, 114

Brush pot, 60

Apsaras, 47

Brush

rest,

Arhat, 47

Brush

strokes,

Arrow

Brush washer, 62

vase, 59

Artemisia

leaf,

59

Asanas, 47
Assault of Mara, 51

Asura, 47
Avalokitesvara, 47

62
1

14-16

Bubble cup, 62

Buckwheat celadon, 86
Buddha, 48
Buddha's hand citron, 95
Bulb bowl, 62

Baluster vase, 59

Cabriole leg, 18

Banners, 112

Cafe-au-lait, 62

Bantam work, 125

Cakra, 48

Batavian ware, 59
Bath, 51
Belt hooks, 16

C and T decoration, 18
Canton enamels, 125
Carved lacquer, 125

Bent ear handles, 16

Cave.to, 62

Bhadrasana, 47

Celadon, 62

Bhumisparsa mudra, 53
Bird tsun, 16

Clia-yeh mo, 84

Birthday

Champleve, 125
Chandaka, 48

Biscuit,

Black

plates,

60

ting,

60

59

Ch'ai ware, 62

CW ang-ming ju-kuei,

91

135

INDEX
Ctiao-fu, 12 5

Chiieh, 19

Chatter marks, 62

Chiieh-chao, 114

116

Che-t'ai,

Chiieh mark, 65

Cheng, 18

Ch'ui-ch'ing, 6$

Chi-an, 63

Ch'un, 20

Chi-mo, 116

C/ztw, 65

Ch'i, 14

Chung, 20

C/m-/m, 91

Chung

C/n'tf,

K'uei, 91

Cicada, 20

18

Chiang-t'ai, 63

Cinnabar lacquer, 126

Ch'iang-chin, 125

Cintamani, 48

C/n'ao, 18

Clair-de-lune, 65

Chiao-mo, 116

Classic scrolls, 92

Chiao-t'an, 63

Clobbered china, 66

Chicken cups, 63

Cloisonne, 126

Chicken

Cloud
Cloud

skin, 63

Chieh-hua, 116

92
92

Coiled beast motive, 20

Chieh-so, 116

Chieh-tzu

collar,
scroll,

tien,

114

Colophons, 116

Chien, 19

Compagnie

des Indes, 66

Chien, 19

Compound

lozenge with spikes, 22

C/n'en ware, 63

Conch

mark, 66

Ch'ien mark, 64

Copies, 116

shell

C/2//1,

19

Coral glaze, 66

C/h7z,

120

Coral red, 71

Chin-pi shan-shui, 123

Coromandel lacquer, 126


Cosmic mirrors, 22
Crab claw markings, 66

Ch'in-shou, 122

Cracked

Chih-hua, 123

Chih-ma, 116

Ch'in-t'eng

tien,

116

Chinese Imari, 64
Chinese Lowestoft, 64
C/n*a, 19

C/z

%, 94,

95, 107

ice,

92

Crackle, 66

Devil's work, 66
Dharmacakra mudra,

Dhyana mudra,

Ching-ya, 114

Dhyanasana, 48

Ch'ing-lu (shan-shui), 116, 123

Diamond

Ch'ing-pai, 64

Diaper, 92

Ching-te Chen, 64

Dots,

C/21'u,

19

Dragon
19, 33

u-chou, 76
tien,

robes, 126

Dragons, 22

Chiu-yen, 64

Chii-hua

66, 92

116

19

Ch

patterns, 92

Dogs of Fo,

C/'o,

Chronology,

116

Drums, 22
Duodenary Cycle, 41
Dvarapala, 48

Chii-lu Hsien, 65

Chiian, 122

136

53

Early Chou, 22

53

INDEX
Earthworm marks, 66
Egg and Spinach, 67

Four Encounters, 51

Egg-shell porcelain, 60, 67

Four Guardian Kings, 52


Four petal flower pattern, 23

Eight Buddhist emblems, 92

Fu, 23

Eight Horses of

Mu

Fu

Wang, 94

Eight Immortals, 94; attributes


Eight Musical Instruments, 94

of,

Eight Precious Things, 95


Eight Taoist emblems, 95

95

(axe), 14

Fu-kuei ch'ang-ch'un, 69
Fu-lang, 67

Eight Trigrams, 95
Eleven-headed Kuan-yin, 49
Enlightenment, 51

Gadroons, 99
Gandharva, 49
Garniture de cheminee, 69
Garuda, 49

Enamel on

Gautama,

biscuit,

67

Fa-hua, 67, 82
Fa-lan, 67

49, 50
Glutton mask, 23

Gombroon, 81
Gourd Hu, 23

Fa-lang, 6j

Great Renunciation, 51

False gadroons,

99
Famille jaune, 67

Green Chun, 69
Green Dragon, 24

Famille noire, 67

Guri, 126

Famille rose, 68
Famille verte, 68

Hai-ma, 96

Fan-hung, 71
Fang, 116

Hai-ma p'u-t'ao, 24
Hai-shou, 96

Fang-i, 22

Halberd, 107

Fang-sheng mark, 68

Han, 107

Fans, 118

Hang-chou celadon, 69

Farewell to Kanthaka, 51

Fei-tsui, 68, 107

Hanging blade decoration, 24


Hard paste, 69
Hare mark, 70

Fei-yen, 114

Hare's fur, 69

Fen-ting, 85

Hawthorn
Hawthorn

Fei-pai, 123

Fen-tsai, 68

design, 70, 100


vases,

Feng-huang, 95
Finger citron, 95

Hill jar, 24, 70

Five Blessings, 95
First seven steps, 51

Ho, 24

Fish roe crackle, 69


Flambe, 69
Flaming pearl, 95

Hinayana, 49
Ho-ho, 95

Ho-ho

erh-hsien,

102

Ho-/eh, 116

Flanges, 23

Hook and

Hu, 23
Flowers of the Four Seasons, 96
Flowers of the Twelve Months, 96

Hsi, 25

Flat

70

Heidatsu, 126

Hsi-p'i,

Hsi

volute, 24

127

Wang Mu, 96

Flying white, 123

Hsiao-fu-pi, 116

Fo-lang, 67

Hsiao-hun

tien,

114

137

INDEX
Hsieh-chao, 114

Kaki, 72

Hsieh-i, 123

Kalasa, 50

Hsieh sheng, 118

Kan-pi, 123

Hsien, 25

Kanthaka, 51

Hsien, 42

Kao-lin, 72

Hsing, 70

Kasyapa, 50

Hsiu-nei ssu, 70

Key

Jftw, 25

iC/tftt

ware, 72
glost,

fret,

98

Hsuan-chi, 107

Kiln

Hsiian-jan, 118

Kinnara, 50

Hw, 25

Kinrande, 98

Hu-shu

114

tien,

Hua-chuan, 120
Hua-hui, 122

72

Kinuta, 72
Ko, 28, 107

Hwa mark, 70

Ko, 72, 73
Ko-tzu tien, 116

Hua-niao, 122

KWw,

Hua-shih, 70, 107

Ham

style,

.Hwrtrt,

25

127

Koro, 107
Kraak porcelain, 72
Ksitigarbha, 50

107

Huang-pan-tien, 70

Ku, 28

Hui-hui wen, 96, 99

Ku

Hundred Antiquities, 96
Hundred Children, 98
Hundred Flowers, 99

Ku-wen, 108

(drum), 28

Ku-yiieh Hsiian, 73

Kua-p'i

Hi,

Kuan jar,
I,

26

73

73

Kuan-ti, 98

Imperial yellow, 71
Ink, 118

.Kuan ware, 73
Kuan-yin, 47

Interlocking T's, 26

Kuang, 28

Iron foot, 71

Kuang-tung, 73

Iron red, 71

JCwe

Iron rust glaze, 71

jKwei,

107

KWi

dragons, 29

Isles

of the

Blest, 98

29

/',

iC'we/ Hsing,

Jadeite, 106

Kundika, 73

Jade Maidens, 96

Kung-pi, 123

Jardiniere, 71

Kuvera, 55

Jatakas, 49

Kylin, 91

98

Jen-wu, 122
Jesuit China, 71
Jingles,

Ladles, 29

/, 71

jM,

Lalitasana, 50

49

_/m-i lappets,

Juan-ts'ai,

72

Juan-yii, 107

138

Lac burgaute, 127


Lacquer, 127

26

99

Lambrequin, 92

Lang

yao,

Lange

74

Lijsen,

99

INDEX
Mei-hua, 99

Lappets, 99

Lead
Lei,

glaze,

Mei-hua Hen, 114

74

Mei-jen, 99

29

Lei-wen, 29

Mei-ku hua, 123

Leys jar, 74
Li, 29

Mei

Li-shui,

77

Mi-lo, 52

74

Mi-se, 77

Lien, 30

Mi-t'o, 47

Lien-hua, 74
Life

kuei,

Mei-p'ing, 77

of Buddha, 50-51

Middle C/ww, 30

Lw, 116

Millefleurs,

Ling, 30

Mm,

99

Ling-chih, 74, 99

30
Mirror black, 77

Ling-lung, 66

Mirrors, 32

Lion and grape mirrors, 30

Mo

Lih Hd/, 99

Mo-le, 116

Hung, 77

Lo-tien, 127

Mohammadan
Mohammadan

Lo-yen, 114

Monk's cap jug, 77

Loaf centre, 76

Mounting, 118

Lo mark,

76

66,

blue,

Lohan, 47

Mu, 116

Lokapala, 52

Mu Wang Pa chun

Long

Elizas,

99

Lotus panels, 99
Lotus Sutra, 52

77

scrolls,

99

ma, 100

Mudra, 53
Mutton fat jade, 107

Lu-chueh, 114

Nagas, 51, 53

Luan-ch'ai, 116

Nanking

Luan-ma, 116

Nao, 18

china, 77

Lung-cWuan, 76

Narcissus bowl, 77

Lungpao, 127

Nativity, 50

Lute, 76

Net, 28

Magatama, 127

Nien

Mahastamaprapta, 52

Nirvana, 53

Mahay ana,

Northern celadon, 77
Northern Kuan, 78

Nephrite, 106

52

Maitreya, 52, 100

hao, 81,

130

Mallet vase, 76

Man-t'ou

hsin,

76

Oil spot, 78

Mandala, 52

Orange

Mandarin porcelain, 76

Orclos, 32

Mang p'ao,

Oxidizing conditions, 78

127, 130

peel, 78

Manjusri, 52

Mao, 30
Marbled wares, 76
Maya's dream, 50
Mazarine blue, 77

Pa-an Hsien, 95
Pa Chi-hsiang, 100

Pa Hsien, 94
Pa-kua, 100

139

INDEX
Pa pao, 95
Pa yin, ioo
Padmapani,

Po-hua, 100

Po-ku, 96

P'o-mo, 116, 123

53

Padmasana, 53
Pagoda, 53

P'o-pi den, 116

Pai-miao, 120

Po-ts'ai yu\ 108

Pai

Porcelain blue

Po-shan

85

ting,

lu,

24
silk,

120

Pai-tun-tzu, 79

Palace bowl, 78

Powder

Palm

Prabhutaratna, 54
Preaching the Law, 51

eyes, 78

Pan Co

t'ai,

78

blue, 80

P'an, 32

Precious pearl, 100

Pao-liao, 108

Preying animal motive, 33

Pao-shan hai-shui, 100

Prince Siddartha, 50, 54


Proto-porcelain, 80

Pao yao, 108


Pao-yiieh p'ing, 79

Prunus pattern, 100

Paper, 120

Pu-tai Ho-shang, 100

Paper beater vase, 76

P'u-hsien, 54

Parinirvana, 51

P'u-sa, 48

Paryankasana, 54

P'u-t'i-t'a-mo,

Patina, 33

Purple

Peach bloom, 79
Peaches of Immortality, 96
Peacock green, 79

Red

47

ting, 80,

85

Rajalilasana, 54
ting, 80,

85

Peking bowls, 79
Peking knot, 130

Reducing conditions, 80

Peking lacquer, 130

Rice grain, 81

P'in, 25

Rice grain pattern, 108

Reign marks, 81

Petal diaper, 100

Robin's egg glaze, 81

Petuntse, 79

Rock of ages ground, 100


Rope pattern, 34
Rouge de fer, 71, 81

Phase, 33

Phoenix

Hill,

79

Pi,

108

Rouleau

Pi,

114

Ruby

Pi-sc,

79
80

Pi-t'ung,
P'i-tna,

Sa-po-ni, 83

Saddharma Pundarika

116

Picn Hu, 33
Picture

silk,

Saggar, 81

120

Pilgrim

flasks,

80

Pin holes, 78
P'in-kno hung, 79
P'ing-t*o,

50, 54
Samadhi, 54
Samantabhadra, 54
San clung, 100
San-ts'ai, 81

127

P'ing-t'oti Hen,

Sakti, 54

Sakyamuni,

Pigments, 120

116

Plait pattern, 33

140

vase, 81

back, 81

San-yu, 101

Sang-de-bceuf, 74, 82

Sutra, 54

INDEX
Sariputra, 54

Spoons, 36

Sastra,

Spring and

54

Autumn

Annals, 36

Scarlet Bird, 14

Spur marks, 83
Square Hu, 36

Sceptre, 107

Square with crescents, 36

Scale band, 34

Scrolls,

S-spiral pattern, 36

120

Seal mark, 82

Ssu-pan hua-wen, 36

Seal script, 82

Stilt

Seals,

marks, 83

Stupa, 55

122

Self colour, 82

Su-ma-li blue, 83

Seng-mao hu, 82

Su-ma-ni, 83

Sesamum

seeds, 82

Su-ni-p'o, 83

Bamboo

Seven Sages of the

Grove, 101

Su-po-ni, 83

Shan mirrors, 34

Subjects, 122

Shan-shui, 122

Suburban

Shan-shui scenes, 101

Sunflower bowls, 84

Shang, 34

Sung-yeh

Shang-lin hu, 82

Sutra, 55

tien,

116

Swastika lozenge, 101

Shao-hsing, 82

Shen-te T'ang

Altar, 63

tsao,

82

Swatow

wares, 84

Shou characters, 101


Shou Lao, 101

Ta-fu-pi, 116

Shu-fu, 83

Ta-jih, 55

Shu mark,
Shu-tsu

83

tien,

114

Ta-nw, 47
Ta-shih, 55

Shu wa-wa, 101

Tai-kou, 16

Shuang-hsi, 10

Tantra, 55

Shuang kou, 122

Tao-shih, 123

Shui-mo, 123

T'ao-t'ieh, 36

Siberian jade, 108

Te-cliing, 84

Siddartha, 50
Silk,

122

Te-hua, 84

Tea

dust, 84

Simhasana, 55
Sino-Siberian style, 34

Tear marks, 84

Six Canons of painting, 122

Temmoku,

Skin, 108

Ten

Splashed ink, 123

Three Abundances, 101

Techniques, 123
84

Stems, 38

Sleeping Buddha, 55

Three Friends, 101

Slip, 83

Thunder

Soft Chun, 83

Ti-tscng, 50

pattern, 38

Soft paste, 63

T'i-pa, 116

Sombre Warrior, 14

Tiger skin, 85

Spearheads, 34

Tiger

Spilled ink, 123

Ting, 85

Spinach jade, 108

Ting, 40

Spiral horns, 36

Ting mark, 85

tally, 3 8

141

INDEX

TLV

mirrors, 40

To, 40

Tobi

86

seiji,

Water

patina, 42

Wavy

line,

42

Wei-mo-chi, 55
Wen Chang Ti Chun, 104

Tortoise Hill, 63
Tortoiseshell bowls, 86

Wen-shu, 52

Ton, 40

White

Tiger, 14

Transitional ware, 86

Whorl circle, 42
Willow pattern, 104

Trefoils, 102

Wrinkles, 123

Trellis pattern, 102

Wu-chin, 77
Wu-fu, 95
Wu Lao, 104

Tou-ts'ai,

86

Triple lozenge, 41

Truncated vase, 86
Ts'ui

yii,

108

Wu-tsai, 88

Tsun, 41

Tsung, 108

Ya-chang, 108

Tsung-yen, 78

Ya-hsing, 42

Tu

Ya-shou pei, 88

ting,

85

Tui, 41

Yaksa, 56

Tui, 41

Yang-chih

yii,

Tung Fang Shuo, 102

Yang-t'ou

tien,

Tung ware, 86

Yang-ts'ai, 68

Twelve Branches, 41
Twelve symbols, 102

Yen, 42

Twin

Genii of Mirth and

Tzu-chUng

Tz

chiian,

120

107
116

Yen-wei, 114

Harmony, 102

Yen-yen, 88
Yi-hsing, 88

u-chou, 87

Yin-yang, 104
Ying-ch'ing,

Underglaze blue, 87
Urna, 55

Ying

Ushnisha, 55

Yo-chou, 88

64

88

Ying-ts'ai,

no

yii,

Yu, 42

Vairocana, 55
Vaisravana, 55

y, 44
Yw, no

Vajra, 55

Yii-hu-ctiun p'ing,

Vajrapani, 55

Yii-ku, 114

Vajrasana, 48

Ym mark, 89

Vara mudra, 53

Yii wei,

114

Vertical scales, 41

Yii yao,

82

Vimalakirti, 55

Ywe/i,

14

Vitarka mudra, 53

Yiieh,

89

Wa-wa, 104
Wall vase, 87

Ytf,

Wan

Yiin-t'ou,

60

Yiieh-pai, 65

mark, 87

Warring States, 41
Water dropper, 87

142

no

Yuan-chin, 123

116

Zigzag lozenge, 41

**

continued from front flap )

and European, used

Chinese art busiThe sections on Bronzes and Ceramics


ness.
are particularly well covered and are illustrated by line drawings. No Chinese characters are used but Chinese terms are romanized
well within the reach of the non-Chinese
.

in the

reader for
this

book

whom

it is

specifically written

be a great help

will

many."
Oriental Art

to

"Of tremendous value to dealers, collecand students of Chinese art."


Express and Echo

tors

"A work much needed by collectors, dealers


."
and students.
The Estates Gazette
.

JACKET DESIGN BY CHARLES KAII

\\

also

HORIZON PRESS:

from

ART GUIDE/NEW YORK

Art

by A. L. Chanin. 360

illustrations

Guide/New York is the only picture-by-picture tour of the key


art in the many museums of New York City. It is simultane-

works of

work of massive authority


and scholarship, yet stated in the clearest, most sympathetic and concise terms by A. L. Chanin, the noted Lecturer on Art at The Museum

ously a concise course in art appreciation a

of

Modern

Art.

Mr. Chanin has worked on

He

tion, hours, entrance fees

to

this

volume

for

more than ten

begins by introducing the reader to each museum, giving


if

years.

its

loca-

any, the salient details every visitor wants

know, even travel instructions

for reaching the

museums.

He

then

goes on to the primary substance of the book, describing in detail the


structure, color and significance of three hundred and sixty paintings
all illustrated here discussing the story and background of each. In
addition he gives biographies and critical evaluations of the 165 most

important
works.

artists,

He

museums

pinpointing the essential factors in their lives and

also provides checklists of the exceptional sculptures in the

of

New

York.

Mr. Chanin has created an indispensable reference work. Even


the New Yorker, acquainted with many of the paintings, will find it
laden with surprising and enlightening information about the works of
art familiar to him, as well as those he has yet to enjoy.
Art Guide/

New

guides through the

York

is

museums

the

a series of heavily illustrated

first in

of the great cities of the world.

Paperback.
Clothbound.

HORIZON

PR]

L56 FIFTH

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NEW YORK 10010