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AP's high school Chemistry course is a rigorous, college-level class that provides an opportunity to gain the skills and experience colleges recognize.Develop your ability to think clearly and express your ideas with clarity and logic, both orally and in writing. Work with classmates to conduct meaningful laboratory investigations that let you observe chemical reactions and substances, interpret your findings, and communicate your results

AP's high school Chemistry course is a rigorous, college-level class that provides an opportunity to gain the skills and experience colleges recognize.Develop your ability to think clearly and express your ideas with clarity and logic, both orally and in writing. Work with classmates to conduct meaningful laboratory investigations that let you observe chemical reactions and substances, interpret your findings, and communicate your results

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You are on page 1of 6

Fill in the chart below which summarizes some of the key concepts from Zumdahl Ch 15

When is a reaction considered to

When the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. At

be at equilibrium?

equilibrium, the [products] and [reactants] stays constant but the concentrations of

products and reactants are not equal to each other.

Which substances do you include Aqueous solutions and gases. You DO NOT include solids and liquids.

in an equilibrium expression?

What does Q represent? What

Q is the reaction quotient. Write a K expression, fill in concentrations or pressures.

does it tell you?

If Q is not equal to K, the reaction is not at equilibrium. If Q<K, the reaction will

need to shift towards the products. If Q>K, the reaction will need to shift towards the

reactants.

When do you use a RICE box?

When you are trying to find the concentration of the products and reactants at

equilibrium.

Multiple Choice

1) B, E, G

2) A 3) B

4) B

5) A 6) B

7) C

8) B

Free Response

1) Kc = [Na2SO4]

[H2SO4]

2) (a) Kc = [H2O] [ CO] = [0.55] [0.55] = 5.0

[H2] [CO2]

[0.20] [0.30]

(b) Kc reverse rxn = [H2] [CO2] = 1 = 1 = 0.20

[H2O] [ CO] Kc 5.0

(c) Kp = Kc (RT) n = (5.0) [(0.0821 L*atm/mol*K)(2000K)](2-2) = (5.0) (1) = 5.0

n = 0 therefore Kp = Kc (or, Kp = 5.0)

Challenge not on test (d) assuming a 1 L container, 30% of CO = (.30)(0.55 moles) = 0.165 moles of CO reacting. Since

all reactants and products are in a 1:1:1:1 ratio with each other, 0.165 moles CO reacting = 0.165 moles H 2O reacting =

0.165 moles CO2 formed = 0.165 moles of H2 formed. So subtracting or adding the 0.165 moles to each chemical results

in the following # moles and Molarities at a lower T:

Reaction

H2

+

CO2

H 2O

+

CO

Equilibrium values

.2M

.3M

.55M

.55M

at 1727 C

Change occurring

b/c of lower temp +0.165 M

+0.165 M

-.165M

-.165 M

(changing by 30% of

Equilibrium values

.365 M

.465M

.385M

.385M

at lower temp

[CO] = 0.55 - 0.16 =0.385 mol/L

Kc =

(0.385)(0.385) = 0.873

(0.465)(0.365)

Reaction

Initial

Change

Equilibrium

H2

+

.167M

-x

.167 - x

CO2

.167M

-x

.167 - x

Kc = [H2O] [ CO] = [ x ] [ x ]

= 5.0

[H2] [CO2]

[.167 - x] [.167 - x]

H 2O

0M

+x

x

CO

0M

+x

x

[x] [x]

=

[.167 - x] [.167 - x]

5.0

____x

= 2.236

[.167 - x]

2.236(.167 x) = x

0.373 2.236x = x

0.373 = 3.236x

0.373 = x

3.236

x = .115 M

Now solve for equilibrium concentrations using x = .115 M

Equilibrium .167 - x

.167 - x

x

x

.167 - .115 = .052 M .167 - .115 = .052 M .115 M

.115 M

Now check by putting equilibrium values in the K expression and see if you get close to the real value for K:

Kc = [H2O] [ CO] = [ .115 ] [ .115 ]

[H2] [CO2]

[.052] [.052]

[H2S]2

(b)

Reaction

2H2S

(Initial)

(3.4g/34.1 g/mol)/1.25L

Initial

0.0798 M

Change

- 2x

Equilibrium

2H2

0M

+2x

0.0798 M 2x

S2

0M

+x

2x

x

3.72x10-2 mol/1.25L

0.0798 M 2x = 0.0798 M 2(.02976)

= 0.02976 M

2x = 2(.02976) = .05952

= .02028M

Since [S2] is .02976M, then

x = .02976

[0.0205]2

(d) PS2 = nRT = (3.72x10-2mol) (0.0821 L*atm/mol*K) (483 K) = 1.18 atm

V

1.25 L

(e) H2 + S2 H2S The original reaction was flipped and the coefficients were divided by 2. So

Kc = [H2S]

= 1 = 1 = 2.00

[H2] [S2]1/2 Kc 0.250

4.) (a) Kc = [H2] [I2]

[HI]2

(b) From graph, [HI] starts at 1.0M, then slowly goes down and then stays at 0.80M which is at equilibrium.

(c) Using the info from the graph, i.e. that [HI] = 1.0M initially and [HI] = 0.80M at equilibrium:

R:

I:

C:

E:

E:

2 HI (g)

1.0 M

-2x

1-2x

Since [HI] is0.80 M,

then 2x must be = .20M,

H2 (g) +

0

+x

x

I2(g)

0

+x

x

so 1x = 0.10M

0.10 M

0.10 M

(d) Curve should start at 0 M, increase to 0.1 M and reach equilibrium at the same time [HI] reaches equilibrium

(e) i.) Kc = [0.10] [0.10] = 0.016

[0.80]2

ii.) Kp = Kc (RT) n = (0.016) [(0.0821L*atm/mol*K)(700K)](2-2) = (0.016) (1) = 0.016

(anything to the zero power is 1)

(f) Q = (0.10) (0.50) = 8.9x10-2

Kc = 2.6x10-2

2

(0.75)

Q > Kc therefore the reaction will shift to the left towards the reactants, so [HI] will be greater

than the initial concentration of HI.

5.) The equilibrium concentrations for this reaction at 425C are [SO3] = 0.50 M; [SO2] = 0.80 M; [O2] = 0.15M

2SO2(g) + O2(g)

a. Write the Kc expression for the reaction

Kc =

2SO3(g)

[SO3]2

[SO2]2[O2]

b. Calculate Kc

Kc =

(0.50)2

(0.80)2(0.15)

2.6

Kp = Kc (RT)n = 2.6 (0.0821 * 698)-1 = 0.045

n = mols gas products mols gas reactants = 2mols gas 3 mols gas = -1

T = 425oC + 273 = 698 K

R = 0.0821 L*atm/mol*K

6.)

N2O4(g)

2NO2(g)

Kc = ?

Kc =

[NO2]2

[N2O4]

Since the Kc expression for the reverse reaction 2NO2(g)

N2O4(g) would be

is 2.3 x 102

Kc =

[N2O4]

and the Kc expression for the reverse rxn is the inverse of Kc for the forward rxn,

2

[NO2]

Then the Kc value for the reverse reaction would be the inverse of the Kc value for the forward reaction:

Kc =

1

= 4.3 x 10-3

2

2.3 x 10

7.)

H2(g) + Cl2(g)

2HCl(g)

Kc = 2.3 x 102

If the concentrations of [H2] = .60 M; [Cl2] = .80 M; and [HCl] = .25 M at 430C , is the reaction at

equilibrium? If not, which way will it shift to reach equilibrium (towards reactants or toward products)?

Q = [HCl]2 =

(0.25)2

[H2] [Cl2]

(0.60) (0.80)

= 0.130

**Not at equilibrium, Q < K therefore the reaction will shift towards the products

8.) Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and products for the following reaction at 430C if

initially you started with [H2] = .50 M; [Cl2] = .50 M and if the equilibrium constant, Kc = 2.3 x 102

R

I

C

E

H2(g)

0.5M

Cl2(g)

2HCl(g)

0.5M

0M

Kc = [HCl]2

[H2] [Cl2]

2.3 x 102

-x

0.5 x

0.5M - .442M

.058M

0.5 x

0.5M - .442M

.058M

= (2x)2

+2x

(.5 x)2

15.166 = 2x

2x

(.5 x)

15.166(.5-x) = 2x

7.583 15.166x = 2x

2(.442M)

7.583 = 17.166x

.884M

x = .442M

[HCl] = __0.88 M

9)

Answers to 15.22 a) 13.3 b) 0.274 c) 0.0349

Given:

Kp = (PHCl)4(PO2)

= 0.0752

(PCl2)2(PH2O)2

a) compare Kp expression to the one given:

Kp = (PCl2)2(PH2O)2

= ? Since this Kp expression is the inverse of the given Kp expression,

4

the Kp value is the value is the inverse of the given Kp value

(PHCl) (PO2)

1

.0752

=13.3

Kp = (PHCl)2(PO2)1/2

= ? Since this Kp expression is the square root of the given Kp expression,

.0752 =0.274

the

K

value

is

the

value

is

the

square

root

of

the

given

K

value

p

p

(PCl2)(PH2O)

c) Kp = Kc(RT)n

Kc = .0349

Answers to 15.48 a) [PH3] = [BCl3] = 0.0432 M b) a little bit more than 3.27 g PH3BCl3

a) Will have to do a RICE box:

Reaction

Initial

Change

Equilibrium

Kc =

PH3BCl3

Some solid

-------------------

[PH3] [BCl3]

[x] [x]

x2

x

[PH3]eq

[BCl3]eq

PH3

0M

+x

x

BCl3

0M

+x

x

= 0.00187

= 0.00187

=.00187

= .0432 M

= .0432 M

= .0432 M

b) This is just a stoichiometry problemin order to have 0.0432 M of either PH3 or BCl3 in a 0.500 L

container, you have to have a minimum of PH3BCl3 to make it. Remember, in the original problem, you

started with some solid PH3BCl3.

0.500 L PH3

0.0432 mol PH3

1 mol PH3BCl3

151.3 g PH3BCl3

=3.27 g PH3BCl3

1L

1 mol PH3

1 mol PH3BCl3

Keep in mind, you need not all of the PH3BCl3 to be used up, need a little left to be in equilibrium, so you

need a little more than 3.27 g PH3BCl3

10)

SrSO4(s) <===> Sr(aq)2+ + SO42(aq)

x

x

x

Ksp = (x) (x) = x2 = 7.6 x 10-7

(x) = 8.7 x 104 M = solubility of SrSO4

b)

SrF2(s) <===> Sr(aq)2+ + 2 F(aq)

x

x

2x

2+

at equilibrium: [Sr ] = x, [F] = 2x

Ksp = [Sr2+] [F]2 = (x) (2x)2 = 4x3 = 7.9 x 10-10

x = 5.8 x 104 M = solubility of SrF2

c)

Solve for [Sr+] required for precipitation of each salt.

Ksp = [Sr2+][F]2 = 7.9 x 10 10

= (x) (0.020 M)2 = 7.9 x 1010

2+

[Sr ]= x = 2.0 x 10-6 M

Ksp = [Sr2+][SO42] = 7.6 x 10-7

= (x) (0.10 M) = 7.6 x 10-7

[Sr2+]= x = 7.6 x 10-6 M

Since 2.0 x 10-6 M < 7.6 x 10-6 M, SrF2 must precipitate first.

When SrF2 precipitates, [Sr2+] = 2.0 x 10-6 M

d) The second precipitate to form is SrSO4, which appears when [Sr2+] = 7.6 x 10-6 M (Based on calculation in

Part c.)

When [Sr2+] = 7.6 x 10-6M, [F] that will still be in solution is determined as follows:

Ksp = [Sr2+][F]2 = 7.9 x 10-10

= (7.6 x 106) (x)2 = 7.9 x 10-10

[F-] = x = 1.0 x 10-2 M

%F still in solution = 1.0 x 10-2 / 2.0 x 10-2 x 100 = 50.% (not a very good separation technique

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