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NOMINAL MAXIMUM SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE SHALL NOT BE LARGER THAN:

1/5 the narrowest dimension between side forms

1/3 the depth of slabs

the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundles of bars, or
prestressing tendons or ducts

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENTS

ASTM A 184 Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats

ASTM A 185 Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain

ASTM A 496 Steel Wire, Deformed

ASTM A 497 Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Deformed

ASTM A 615M Deformed and Plain-Billet Steel Bars

ASTM A 616M Rail-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars

ASTM A 617M Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars

ASTM A 706M Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars

ASTM A 767M Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars

ASTM A 775M Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars

ASTM A 884M Epoxy-Coated Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric

ASTM A 934M Epoxy-Coated Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars

PRESTRESSING TENDONS

ASTM A 416M Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire

ASTM A 421 Uncoated Stress-Relieved Steel Wire

ASTM A 722 Uncoated High-Strength Steel Bar

CURING

concrete (other than high-early strength) shall be maintained above 10C and in a moist
condition for at least the first 7 days after placement

high-early strength concrete shall be maintained above 10C and in a moist condition for at
least the first 3 days

CONDUITS AND PIPES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE

they (including their fittings) shall not displace more than 4% of the area of cross section when
embedded within a column

they shall not be larger in outside dimension than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab, wall or
beam in which they are embedded

they shall be spaced not closer than 3 diameters or widths on center

conduits, pipes and sleeves may be considered as replacing structurally in compression the
displaced concrete, provided:
o

they are of uncoated or galvanized iron or steel not thinner than standard Schedule 40
steel pipe

they have a nominal inside diameter not over 50mm and are spaced not less than 3
diameters on centers

concrete cover shall not be less than 40mm for concrete exposed to earth or weather, or less
than 20mm for concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground

reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 times the area of concrete section shall be
provided normal to the piping

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

construction joints in floors shall be located within the middle third of spans of slabs, beams
and girders

joints in girders shall be offset a minimum distance of 2 times the width of intersecting beams

STANDARD HOOKS

180-degree bend plus 4db extension, but not less than 60mm at free end of bar

90-degree bend plus 12db extension at free end of bar

for stirrup and tie hooks:


o

16mm diameter bar and smaller 90-degree bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar,
or

20 and 25mm diameter bar 90-degree bend plus 12db extension at free end of bar, or

25mm diameter bar and smaller 135-degree bend plus 6db extension at free end of bar

MINIMUM BEND DIAMETERS

bar size of 16mm and smaller (for stirrups and ties) 4db (inside diameter)

bar size of 10mm through 25mm 6db

bar size of 28, 32 and 36mm 8db

SPACING LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT

the minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer shall be db but not less than
25mm

the minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in 2 or more layers shall not be less than
25mm between layers

in spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression members, clear distance between


longitudinal bars shall not be less than 1.5db or less than 40mm

in walls and slabs other than concrete joist construction, primary flexural reinforcement shall
not be spaced farther apart than 3 times the wall or slab thickness, nor farther than 450mm

BUNDLED BARS

shall be limited to 4 bars in 1 bundle

shall be enclosed within stirrups or ties

bars larger than 36mm diameter shall not be bundled in beams

individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members shall terminate
at different points with at least 40db stagger

where spacing limitations and minimum concrete cover are based on bar diameter db, a unit
of bundled bars shall be treated as a single bar of a diameter derived from the equivalent total
area

minimum concrete cover shall be equal to the equivalent diameter of the bundle, but need not
be greater than 50mm

PRESTRESSING TENDONS AND DUCTS

center-to-center spacing of pretensioning tendons at each end of a member shall not be less
than 5db for wire, nor 4db for strands

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE (NONPRESTRESSED)

concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75mm

concrete exposed to earth or weather:

20mm through 36mm diameter bar 50mm

16mm diameter bar and smaller 40mm

concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground:


o

slabs, walls, joists:

45 to 60mm diameter bars 40mm

36mm diameter bar and smaller 20mm

beams, columns:

primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals 40mm

shells, folded plate members:

20mm diameter bar and larger 20mm

16mm diameter bar and smaller 12mm

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR PRECAST CONCRETE

concrete exposed to earth or weather:


o

wall panels:

45mm and 60mm diameter bars 40mm

36mm diameter bar and smaller 20mm

other members:

45mm and 60mm diameter bars 50mm

20mm through 36mm diameter bar 40mm

16mm diameter bar and smaller 30mm

concrete not exposed to earth or in contact with ground:


o

slabs, walls, joists:

45mm and 60mm diameter bars 30mm

36mm diameter bar and smaller 15mm

beams, columns:

primary reinforcement db but not less than 15mm and need not exceed 40mm

ties, stirrups, spirals 10mm

shells, folded plate members:

20mm diameter bar and larger 15mm

16mm diameter bar and smaller 10mm

MINIMUM CONCRETE COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth 75mm

concrete exposed to earth or weather:


o

wall panels, slabs, joists 25mm

other members 40mm

concrete not exposed to earth or in contact with ground:


o

slabs, walls, joists 20mm

beams, columns:

primary reinforcement 40mm

ties, stirrups, spirals 25mm

shells, folded plate members:

16mm diameter bar and smaller 10mm

other reinforcement db but not less than 20mm

OFFSET BARS

slope of inclined portion of an offset bar with axis of column shall not exceed 1 in 6

portions of bar above and below an offset shall be parallel to axis of column

lateral ties or spirals, if used, shall be placed not more than 150mm from points of bend

offset bars shall be bent before placement in the forms

where a column face is offset 75mm or greater, longitudinal bars shall not be offset bent.
Separate dowels, lap sliced with the longitudinal bars adjacent to the offset column faces,
shall be provided

SPIRALS

for cast-in-place construction, size of spirals shall not be less than 10mm diameter

clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 75mm or be less than 25mm

anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by 1 extra turns of spiral bar or wire at
each end of a spiral unit

spiral reinforcement shall be lap spliced by 48db but not less than 300mm or welded

in columns with capitals, spirals shall extend to a level at which the diameter or width of capital
is 2 times that of the column

plain bars shall conform to one of the following specifications:

ASTM A 615M

ASTM A 616M

ASTM A 617M

plain wire shall conform to:


o

ASTM A 82 Steel Wire, Plain

TIES

10mm diameter lateral ties for longitudinal bars 32mm diameter or smaller

12mm diameter lateral ties for longitudinal bars 36 diameter and bundled bars

vertical spacing of ties shall not exceed:


o

16db of longitudinal bars

48db of tie bars

least dimension of compression member

ties shall be arranged that no bar shall be farther than 150mm clear on each side along the tie

ties shall be located vertically not more than a tie spacing above the top of footing or slab
in any story

where beams or brackets frame from 4 directions into a column, termination of ties not more
than 75mm below reinforcement in shallowest of such beams or brackets shall be permitted

SHRINKAGE AND TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT

shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than 5 times the
slab thickness, or 450mm

spacing of prestressed tendons shall not exceed 1.80m

T-BEAM CONSTRUCTION

the flange and web shall be built integrally or otherwise effectively bonded together

width of slab effective as a T-beam flange on each side of the web shall not exceed:

the span length of the beam,

8 times the slab thickness, or

the clear distance to the next web

for beams with a slab on one side only, the effective overhanging flange width shall not
exceed:
o

1/12 the span length of the beam,

6 times the slab thickness, or

the clear distance to the next web

transverse reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than 5 times the slab thickness, nor
450mm

JOIST CONSTRUCTION

ribs shall not be less than 100mm in width and shall have a depth of not more than 3 times
the minimum width of rib

clear spacing between ribs shall not exceed 750mm

slab thickness over permanent fillers shall not be less than 1/12 the clear distance between
ribs nor less than 40mm

when removable forms or fillers are used, slab thickness shall not be les than 1/12 the clear
distance between ribs, or less than 50mm

where conduits or pipes are embedded within the slab, slab thickness shall be at least 25mm
greater than the total overall depth of the conduits or pipes at any point

REQUIRED STRENGTH

dead load and live load


o

U = 1.4D + 1.7L

dead load, live load and wind load


o

U = 0.75 (1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W)

U = 0.9D + 1.3W

dead load, live load and earthquake load


o

U = 1.3D + 1.1L + 1.1E

U = 0.99D + 1.1E

STRENGTH-REDUCTION FACTOR

flexure without axial load, 0.90

axial tension and axial tension with flexure, 0.90

axial compression and axial compression with flexure:


o

spiral reinforced, 0.75

tie reinforce, 0.70

shear and torsion, 0.85

bearing on concrete, 0.70

post-tensioned anchorage zones, 0.85

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF NONPRESTRESSED BEAMS OR ONE-WAY SLABS UNLESS DEFLECTIONS


ARE COMPUTED (members are not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged
by large deflections)

solid one-way slabs:


o

simply supported, L/20

one end continuous, L/24

both ends continuous, L/28

cantilever, L/10

beams or ribbed one-way slabs:


o

simply supported, L/16

one end continuous, L/18.5

both ends continuous, L/21

cantilever, L/8

for Fy other than 415Mpa, the values shall be multiplied by (0.4 + Fy/700)

DISTANCE BETWEEN LATERAL SUPPORTS OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS

spacing of lateral supports for a beam shall not exceed 50 times the least width b of
compression flange or face

LIMITS FOR REINFORCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

minimum number of longitudinal bars in compression members shall be 3 for bars within
triangular ties, 4 for bars within rectangular or circular ties, and 6 for bars enclosed by spirals

SPACING LIMITS FOR SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

shall not exceed d/2 in non-prestressed members and 3/4h in prestressed members or
600mm

SPLICES

lap splices shall not be used for bars larger than 36mm diameter

lap splices of bars in a bundle shall be based on the lap splice length required for individual
bars within the bundle

individual bar splices within a bundle shall not overlap

entire bundles shall not be lap spliced

bars spliced by non-contact lap splices in flexural members shall not be spaced transversely
farther apart than 1/5 the required lap splice length, or 150mm

splices shall be staggered at least 600mm

WALLS

minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall be:
o

0.0012 deformed bars not larger than 16mm diameter with a specified yield strength not
less than 420Mpa, or

0.0015 for other deformed bars, or

0.0012 for welded wire fabric (plain or deformed)

minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall be:
o

0.0020 deformed bars not larger than 16mm diameter with a specified yield strength not
less than 420 Mpa, or

0.0025 for other deformed bars, or

0.0020 for welded wire fabric (palin or deformed)

in addition to the minimum reinforcement required, not less than 2-16mm diameter bars shall
be provided around all window and door openings. Such bars shall be extended to develop
the bar beyond the corners of the openings but not less than 600mm

NON-BEARING WALLS

thickness shall not be less than 100mm, or not less than 1/30 the least distance between
members that provide lateral support

MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH

depth of footing above bottom reinforcement shall not be less than 150mm for footings on soil,
or not less than 300mm for footings on piles

TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT (HOOPS)

the first hoop shall be located not more than 50mm from the face of a supporting member

maximum spacing of the hoops shall not exceed:

d/4

8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar

24 times the diameter of the hoop bars

300mm

where hoops are not required, stirrups shall be placed at no more than d/2 throughout the
length of the member

STRUCTURAL STEEL

LIMITING SLENDERNESS RATIOS

for members whose design is based on compressive force, the slenderness ratio preferably
should not exceed 200

for members whose designed is based on tensile force, the slenderness ratio preferably
should not exceed 300

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

for tension in structural steel in terms of gross area, 0.60Fy

for tension in structural steel based on effective net area, 0.50Fu

for tension on pin-connected members based on net area, 0.45Fy

for tension on eyebars on the body area, 0.60Fy

for flexural members with compact sections, Fb = 0.66Fy

for flexural members with non-compact sections, Fb = 0.60Fy

PIN-CONNECTED MEMBERS

minimum net area beyond the pinhole, parallel to the axis of the member, shall not be less
than 2/3 of the net area across the pinhole

width of the body of an eyebar shall not exceed 8 times its thickness

pin diameter shall not be less than 7/8 times the eyebar width

pinhole diameter shall be no more than 0.8mm greater than the pin diameter

SHEAR CONNECTORS

shear connectors shall have at least 25mm of lateral concrete cover

diameter of studs shall not be greater than 2 times the thickness of the flange to which they
are welded

minimum center-to-center spacing of stud connectors shall be 6 diameters along the


longitudinal axis and 4 diameters transverse to the longitudinal axis maximum center-tocenter spacing of stud connectors shall not exceed 8 times the total slab thickness

WELDS

weld access holes shall have a length from the toe of the weld preparation not less than 1
times the thickness of the material in which the hole is made

groove welds:
o

effective area = effective length of the weld x effective throat thickness

effective length = width of the part joined

effective throat thickness of a complete-penetration groove weld = thickness of the thinner


part joined

minimum effective throat thickness of partial-penetration groove welds =

3mm (thicker part joined to 6mm inclusive)

5mm (thicker part joined over 6 to 12mm)

6mm (thicker part joined over 12 to 20mm)

8mm (thicker part joined over 20 to 38mm)

10mm (thicker part joined over 38 to 57mm)

12mm (thicker part joined over 57 to 150mm)

16mm (thicker part joined over 150mm)

effective throat thickness of a flare groove weld =

flare bevel groove, 5/16R

flare V-groove, R

fillet welds:
o

effective area of fillet welds = effective length x effective throat thickness

effective throat thickness of a fillet weld = shortest distance from the root of the joint to the
face of the diagrammatic weld

minimum size of fillet welds =

3mm (thicker part joined to 6mm inclusive)

5mm (thicker part joined over 6 to 12mm)

6mm (thicker part joined over 12 to 20mm)

8mm (thicker part joined over 20mm)

maximum size of fillet welds along edges =

not greater than the thickness of the material (material less than 6mm thick)

not greater than the thickness of the material minus 1.6mm (material 6mm or
more in thickness)

minimum effective length of a fillet weld designed on the basis of strength shall not be
less than 4 times its nominal size

if greater than 4 times its nominal size, the size of the weld should not exceed its
effective length

effective length of any segment of intermittent fillet welding shall not be less than 4 times
the weld size, with a minimum of 38mm

in lap joints, minimum lap shall be 5 times the thickness of the thinner part joined, but not
less than 25mm

slide or end fillet welds terminating at ends or sides, respectively, of parts or members
shall, wherever practicable, be returned continuously around the corners for a distance
not less than 2 times the nominal size of the weld

plug and slot welds:


o

diameter of the hole for a plug weld shall not be less than the thickness of the part
containing it plus 8mm, nor greater than the minimum diameter plus 3mm or 2 times the
thickness of the weld

minimum spacing of lines of slot welds in a direction transverse to their length shall be 4
times the width of the slot

minimum center-to-center spacing in a longitudinal direction shall be 2 times the length of


the slot

length of the slot shall not exceed 10 times the thickness of the weld

width of the slot shall not be less than the thickness of the part containing it plus 8mm, nor
shall it be larger than 2 times the thickness of the weld

thickness of plug or slot welds in material 16mm or less thick = thickness of the material

thickness of plug or slot welds in material over 16mm thick = the thickness of the
material but not less than 16mm

FASTENERS

distance between centers of standard, oversized or slotted fastener holes shall not be less
than 2 2/3 times the nominal diameter of the fastener

maximum distance from the center of any rivet or bolt to the nearest edge of parts in contact
shall be 12 times the thickness of the connected part, but shall not exceed 150mm

CAMBER

trusses of 24.4m or greater span generally shall be cambered for approximately the dead-load
deflection

crane girders of 22.9m or greater span generally shall be cambered for approximately the
dead-load deflection plus the live-load deflection