You are on page 1of 61

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATION

SPIRIT LEVEL - INSTRUMENT OR TOOL CAPABLE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINE CHECK.

PLUMB BOB - ITS USES FOR VERTICAL LINE CHECK.

PLASTIC HOSE FILLED W/ WATER A METHOD OF LEVELLING (HORIZONTAL) BATTERBOARDS WITHOUT TRANSIT.

3-4-5 MULTIPLES W/ THE USE OF STEEL TAPE MEASURE A MANUAL METHOD OF SQUARING THE CORNERS OF BUILDING LINES IN
BUILDING LAYOUT.

SHEET PILLING A BARRIER FORMED TO PREVENT THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL TO STABILIZE FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS


LAYOUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED STAKING OUT WHICH MEANS THE PROCESS OF RELOCATING THE POINT OF BOUNDARIES AND
PROPERTY LINE OF THE SITE WHERE THE BUILDING IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED.
IT INCLUDES CLEARING, STAKING, BATTER BOARDS AND ESTABLISHES THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION
AND WALL LINE ON THE GROUND.

STAKE ARE WOODEN STICKS USED AS POSTS SHARPENED AT ONE END DRIVEN INTO THE GROUND TO SERVE AS BOUNDARIES OR
SUPPORTS OF THE BATTER BOARDS.

BATTER BOARD WOOD STICK OR BOARD NAILED HORIZONTALLY AT THE STAKE WHICH SERVE AS THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE
THE REFERENCE POINT OF THE BUILDING MEASUREMENTS ARE ESTABLISHED.

STRING IS EITHER PLASTIC CHORD OR GALVANIZED WIRE ACROSS THE BATTER BOARDS USED TO INDICATE THE OUTLINE OF THE
BUILDING WALL AND FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT METHODS AND PROCEDURES

1.

BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS, SEE TO IT THAT A BUILDING PERMIT IS FIRST SECURED FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES
CONCERNED.

2.

RELOCATE THE BOUDARIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE RELOCATION OF THE PROPERTY LINE
SHALL BE DONE BY GEODETIC ENGINEER SPECIALLY FOR THOSE LOTS WITHOUT EXISTING REFERENCE POINTS OR ADJOINING
STRUCTURES.

3.

CLEAR THE SITE OF ANY EXISTING STRUCTURE, TREES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS THAT WILL OBSTRUCT THE CONSTRUCTION
WORK.

4.

CONSTRUCT AND ALLOCATE A SPACE FOR LABORERS QUARTERS, CONSTRUCTION OFFICE, BODEGA FOR THE MATERIALS AND
WORKING TOOLS AND TEMPORARY WASTE DISPOSAL.

5.

APPLY FOR A TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS OF ELECTRIC AND WATER SUPPLY. ELECTRIC CURRENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE POWER
NEEDS OF THE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT AND IS NECESSARY ON OVERTIME SCHEDULES ESPECIALLY IN THE TIME OF
CONCRETING. WATER IS ALSO A PRIME NEED IN CONSTRUCTION.

6.

CONSTRUCT A TEMPORARY FENCE AROUND THE CONSTRUCTION.

7.

VERIFY THE MEASUREMENT IN THE PLAN IF THE DISTANCES INDICATED ARE FORM:

CENTER TO CENTER

OUTER TO CENTER

OUTER TO OUTER

INSIDE TO INSIDE

8.

FIX THE BATTER BOARD TO ITS HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE AID OF LEVEL INSTRUMENT PREFERABLY PLASTIC HOSE WITH
WATER.

9.

AFTER ESTABLISHING THE REFERENCE POINT AND LINE OF THE FOOTING, TRANSFER THE INTERSECTING POINTS OF THE STRING
ON THE GROUND BY THE AID OF PLUMB BOB AND INDICATE THE SIZE AND WIDTH TO BE EXCAVATED.

EXCAVATION

EXCAVATION WORK IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO TWO TYPES: THE MINOR AND MAJOR EXCAVATION
DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE AND NATURE OF THE FOUNDATION TO BE CONSTRUCTED. EXCAVATION FOR A SMALL CONSTRUCTION WITH
INDEPENDENT WALL, OR COMBINED FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE MINOR EXCAVATION, WHILE THE REST WHICH REQUIRES
SIZEABLES OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE EARTH FALL UNDER THE CATEGORY OF MAJOR CONSTRUCTION.

MINOR EXCAVATION

EXCAVATION UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE THOSE CONSTRUCTION HAVING INDEPENDENT FOOTING AND HOLLOW BLOCK WALL
FOOTING WHERE THE DIGGING OF THE SOIL FOR THE FOOTING EXTEND TO A DEPTH FROM 1.00 TO 1.50 METER AND ABOUT HALF A METER
DEPTH FOR THE WALL FOOTING.

MAJOR EXCAVATION

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THAT REQUIRES WIDE EXCAVATION OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF THE SOIL ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO
CATEGORIES DEPENDING UPON THE CONDITION OR LOCATION OF THE SITE. WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE IS BIG THAT
THERE IS ENOUGH SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE WORKING ACTIVITIES, STORING OF MATERIALS AND DUMPING GROUND FOR THE EXCAVATED
SOIL.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ON A BUSY COMMERCIAL CENTER WITH ADJACENT EXISTING STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED TO THE
MOST COMPLICATED AMONG THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION WORKS SINCE THIS REQUIRES CAREFUL STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE RIGHT
APPROACH.

PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER:

1.

THE MANNER OF THE EXCAVATION TO BE EMPLOYED WHICH WILL NOT AFFECT OR DAMAGED THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE.

2.

THE KIND OF EQUIPMENT TO BE USED IN THE DIGGING AND EXTRACTING THE GROUND MAY NOT BE A PROBLEM BUT THE PLACE
WHERE TO STATION THE EQUIPMENT DURING THE OPERATION.

3.

HOW AND WHERE TO DISPOSE THE EXTRACTED SOIL INVOLVES THE EFFECTIVE MANNER OF MANEUVERING THE PAYLOAD AND
DRUMPTRUCKS IN HAULING WITHOUT OBSTRUCTING THE PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FLOW.

4.

WHERE TO DISPOSE THE UNDERGROUND WATER TO BE DRAINED BY THE WATER PUMP DURING THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION
WHICH MIGHT CAUSE MUDDY ROAD AND CREATE INCONVENIENCE TO TRAFFIC.

5.

THE KIND OF SHEETING AND BRACING TO BE USED IN SHORING OR UNDERSPINNING TO PROTECT THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE MUST
BE CONSIDERED.

FOUNDATION AND FOOTING

THE FUNCTION OF A FOUNDATION IS TO TRANSFER THE STRUCTURAL LOADS FROM A BUILDING SAFELY INTO THE GROUND.
ALL FOUNDATIONS SETTLE TO SOME EXTENT AS THE SOIL AROUND BENEATH THEM ADJUST ITSELF TO THESE LOADS.
UNIFORM SETTLEMENT IS USUALLY OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCES IN A BUILDING, BUT A DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAN CAUSE
SEVERE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.

3 MAJOR PARTS OF A BUILDING:

SUPERSTRUCTURE WHICH IS THE ABOVE GROUND PORTION OF THE BUILDING.

SUBSTRUCTURE WHICH IS THE HABITABLE BELOW-GROUND PORTION.

FOUNDATION WHICH ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING THAT TRANSFER ITS LOAD INTO THE SOIL.

3 TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES:

SLAB ON FILL

CRAWLSPACE

BASEMENT

2 BASIC TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS:

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ARE THOSE THAT TRANSFER THE LOAD TO THE EARTH AT THE BASE OF THE COLUMN OR WALL OF THE
SUBSTRUCTURE.

DEEP FOUNDATIONS TRANSFER THE LOAD AT A POINT FAR BELOW THE SUBSTRUCTURE.

FOUNDATION IS THAT PORTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS THAT CARRY OR SUPPORT THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING.
FOOTING IS THAT PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE STRUCTURE WHICH DIRECTLY TRANSMIT THE COLUMN LOAD TO THE
UNDERLYING SOIL OR ROCK, FOOTING IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURE.
FOUNDATION BED - REFERS TO THE SOIL OR ROCK DIRECTLY BENEATH THE FOOTING.

PILE FOUNDATION WHEN A FOUNDATION BED IS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A RAFT FOOTING, THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO PROVIDE
A SUITABLE MATERIALS WHERE TO TRANSFER THE EXCESS LOAD TO A GREATER DEPTH WHEREIN PILES IS THE ANSWER.
PILE IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER OF SMALL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA WITH REASONABLE LENGTH DRIVEN DOWN THE GROUND BY
MEANS OF HAMMERS OR VIBRATORY GENERATOR.
PILE IS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAISSON BY BEING DRIVEN INTO PLACE RATHER THAN DRILED & POURED.
PILES ARE GENERALLY DRIVEN CLOSELY TOGETHER IN CLUSTERS CONTAINING FROM TWO TO TWENTY-FIVE PILES. EACH CLUSTER IS
LATER JOINED AT THE TOP BY A REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP.
PILE CAP DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD OF THE COLUMN OR WALL EQUALLY AMONG THE PILES.
CAISSONS IS SIMILAR TO A COLUMN FOOTING IN THAT IT SPREADS THE LOAD FROM A COLUMN OVER A LARGE ENOUGH AREA OF
SOIL.

FOUNDATION WALL THAT PART OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH FORMS THE PERMANENT RETAINING WALL OF THE
STRUCTURE BELOW GRADE.

GRADE BEAM THAT PART OF A FOUNDATION SYSTEM W/C SUPPORTS THE EXTERIOR WALL OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BEARS
DIRECTLY ON THE COLUMN FOOTING.

RETAINING WALL A WALL OR LATERALLY BRACED, THAT BEARS AGAINST AN EARTH OR OTHER FILL SURFACE AND RESISTS
LATERAL AND OTHER FORCES.

CANTILEVER WALL A REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WHICH RESIST OVERTURNING BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER FOOTING.

GRAVITY WALL A MASSIVE CONCRETE WALL THAT RESIST OVERTURNING BY VIRTUE OF ITS OWN WEIGHT.

BEARING WALL A WALL CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING AN IMPOSED LOAD.

FOOTING ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES:


WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING IS A STRIP OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WIDER THAN THE WALL WHICH DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD TO
THE SOIL.
A STEEL PERCENTAGE EQUALS TO 0.2 TO 0.3% OF THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF CONCRETE IS SAID TO BE ADEQUATE EXCEPT
ON UNUSUAL CASES.

COLUMN FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES:


1.

ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING IS A KIND OF FOOTING REPRESENTS THE SIMPLEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL TYPE, IN THE
FORM OF:

2.

3.

4.

SQUARE BLOCK FOOTING

SQUARE SLOPE FOOTING

SQUARE STEPPED FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE COLUMNS ARE SPACED CLOSELY TO EACH OTHER THAT THEIR FOOTING WILL
ALMOST OR COMPLETELY MERGE. ITS EITHER :

RECTANGULAR

TRAPEZOIDAL

CONTINUOUS FOOTING IS SOMETIMES CLASSIFIED AS WALL FOOTING WHICH SUPPORT SEVERAL COLUMNS IN A ROW. ITS EITHER:

INVERTED SLAB FOOTING

INVERTED TEE FOOTING

RAFT OR MAT FOOTING ITS OCCUPIES THE ENTIRE AREA BENEATH THE STRUCTURE AND CARRY THE WALL AND THE COLUMN
LOADS.

UNIFORM SLAB

THICKENED SLAB

BEAM & GIRDER

CONCRETE

CONCRETE IS AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE OUT FROM THE MIXTURE OF CEMENT, SAND, GRAVEL AND WATER. THIS IS KNOWN AS
SOLID MASS OR PLAIN CONCRETE. CONCRETE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS EMBEDDED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THE TWO MATERIALS
ACT TOGETHER IN RESISTING FORCES IS CALLED REINFORCED CONCRETE.

SLUMP TEST A READY MEANS OF DETERMINING THE CONSISTENCY OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE.

DESIGNING OF CONCRETE MIXTURE IS BASED ON THE WATER-CEMENT RATIO.

0.68 lb. OF WATER / lb. OF CEMENT WILL PRODUCE CONCRETE CAPABLE OF DEVELOPING 2,500 PSI IN 28 DAYS.

LESS WATER PRODUCE STRONGER CONCRETE.

MORE WATER PRODUCE LESSER STRENGTH.

ADMIXTURE ACCELERATES OR RETARDS CONCRETE SETTING.

SIZES OF MEASURING BOX FOR :

40 kg. CEMENT 300mm X 300mm X 300mm

50 kg. CEMENT - 320mm X 320mm X 330mm

CONCRETE MIXTURE:

CLASS

MIXTURE

40kg.

AA

1:11/2: 3

1:2:4

1:21/2:5

1:3:6

50kg.

SAND

GRAVEL

12

9.5

0.5 cu.m.

9
7.5

7
6

1.0 cu.m.
0.5

0.5

50kg.

SAND

1.0
1.0

0.5

1.0

MORTAR MIXTURE:

CLASS

MIXTURE

40kg.

1:2

18

14.5

1.0 cu.m.

1:3

12

9.5

1.0

1:4

1.0

1:5

7.5

1.0

POST AND COLUMN

POST REFERS TO A PIECE OF TIMBER OF EITHER CYLINDRICAL, SQUARE OR OTHER GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION PLACED VERTICALLY
TO SUPPORT A BUILDING.
COLUMN REFERS TO VERTICAL STRUCTURE USE TO SUPPORT A BUILDING MADE OF STONE, CONCRETE, STEEL OR COMBINATION OF THE
ABOVE MATERIALS.
STOREY IS THE SPACE IN A BUILDING BETWEEN FLOOR LEVELS OR BETWEEN A FLOOR AND A ROOF ABOVE.
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN ARE CLASSIFIED AS:

SHORT COLUMN WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS NOT GREATER THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE
CROSS SECTION.

LONG COLUMN WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS
SECTION.

TYPES OF COLUMNS ARE:

TIED COLUMN HAS REINFORCEMENT CONSISTING OF VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS HELD IN POSITION BY LATERAL
REINFORCEMENT CALLED LATERAL TIES.

SPIRAL COLUMN IS THE TERM GIVEN WHERE A CIRCULAR CONCRETE CORE IN ENCLOSED BY SPIRALS WITH VERTICAL OR
LONGITUDINAL BARS. THE VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED WITH EVENLY SPACED CONTINUOUS SPIRAL HELD FIRMLY IN
POSITION BY AT LEAST THREE VERTICAL BAR SPACERS.

COMPOSITE COLUMN WHERE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN IS EMBEDDED INTO THE CONCRETE CORE OF A SPIRAL COLUMN.

COMBINED COLUMN WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ENCASED IN CONCRETE OF AT LEAST 7 cm. THK. REINFORCED WITH WIRE MESS
SURROUNDING THE COLUMN AT A DISTANCE OF 3 cm. INSIDE THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CONCRETE COVERING.

LALLY COLUMN IS A FABRICATED STEEL PIPE PROVIDED WITH A FLAT STEEL BARS OR PLATE WHICH HOLD A GIRDER, GIRTS OR
BEAM. THE STEEL PIPE IS SOMETIMES FILLED WITH GROUT OR CONCRETE FOR CORROSION.

METAL REINFORCEMENT
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE:
1.

COMPRESSION STRESS

2.

TENSION STRESS

3.

SHEAR STRESS

4.

TORSION STRESS

REINFORCEMENT NEED TO PROVIDE ON BEAM TO RESPONSE TO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BENDING WHICH MAY CAUSE FAILURE OR
COLLAPSE OF THE STRUCTURE.

REINFORCED CONCRETE IS A COMBINATION OF CONCRETE AND STEEL.

CONCRETE IS STRONG IN SUPPORTING COMPRESSION LOAD BUT WEAK IN RESISTING TENSION FORCES.

STEEL POSSESSES THE STRENGTH TO RESIST BOTH COMPRESSION AND TENSION.

BALANCE BEAM WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL ARE JUST ENOUGH TO CARRY THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION
FORCES SIMULTANEOUSLY.

INFLECTION POINTS REFER TO THE PORTION OF A BEAM WHERE BENDING MOMENT CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE.

NO BENT BARS WHEN BARS ARE NOT BENT, AN ADDITIONAL STRAIGHT REINFORCING BARS ARE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BEAM
ACROSS THE SUPPORTS EXTENDED TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH.

BENT REINFORCING BARS ARE BENT UP ON OR NEAR THE INFLECTION POINT AND ARE EXTENDED AT THE TOP OF THE BEAM
ACROSS THE SUPPORT TOWARDS THE ADJACENT SPAN.

4cm. ALLOWANCE PROTECTIVE COVERING OF STEEL BARS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT.

ADVANTAGE OF THE BEND BARS, ITS RESIST THE DIAGONAL TENSION.

BUILDING CODE REQUIRED THAT A BALANCE BEAM SHALL PROVIDE, THAT THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT
SHALL BE EQUAL TO .005 TIMES THE CROSS SECTIONAL PRODUCT OF THE WIDTH AND THE DEPTH OF THE BEAM.

USED LATERAL TIES


10mm dia. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 32mm SMALLER
12mm dia. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 36mm BIGGER

THREE FACTORS FOR SPACING OF THE LATERAL TIES:

SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 16 TIMES THE DIA. OF THE LONGITUDINAL OR MAIN REINFORCING BARS.

SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 48 TIMES THE DIA. OF THE LATERAL TIES.

NOT MORE THAN THE SHORTEST DIMENSION OF THE COLUMN.

WOOD CONSTRUCTION

SCAB A SHORT FLAT PIECE OF LUMBER WHICH IS BOLTED, NAILED OR SCREWED TO TWO BUTTING PIECES IN ORDER TO SPLICE
THEM TOGETHER.

FISH PLATE A WOOD OR METAL PIECE USED TO FASTEN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF TWO MEMBERS WITH NAILS OR BOLTS.

SPLICE PLATE A METAL PLATE USED FOR FASTENING TWO OR MORE MEMBER TOGETHER.

COGGED JOINT A CARPENTRY JOINT BY TWO UNEVEN TIMBERS, EACH OF WHICH IS NOTCHED AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY MEET.

NOTCHING JOINING OF TIMBERS, USUALLY MEETING OR CROSSING AT RIGHT ANGLES, BY CUTTING A DAP IN ONE OR BOTH PIECES.

CROSSLAP JOINT A JOINT CONNECTING TWO WOOD MEMBERS WHICH CROSS EACH OTHER, HALF THE THICKNESS OF EACH IS CUT
SO THAT THE THICKNESS WILL THE SAME AS THAT OF EACH MEMBER.

SQUARE SPLICEA TYPE OF HALF LAPPED USED TO RESIST TENSION.

BRIDLE JOINT A JOINT IN WHICH TWO TONGUES PROJECT FROM THE SIDES OF THE TENONED MEMBER, THESE TONGUES FIT INTO
CORRESPONDING SLOTS IN THE MORTISED MEMBER.

TENON THE PROJECTING END OF A PIECE OF WOOD, OR OTHER MATERIALS WHICH IS REDUCED IN CROSS SECTION, SO THAT IT MAY
BE INSERTED IN A CORRESPONDING CAVITY IN ANOTHER PIECE IN ORDER TO FORM A SECURE JOINT.

YACAL LUMBER PREFFERED WHEN IN CONTACT WITH CONCRETE.

BOARD FOOT THE VOLUME OF A PIECE OF WOOD ONE INCH. THICK, ONE FOOT WIDE AND ONE FOOT LONG.

BOLIDEN SALT TREATMENT IN WOLMANIZED LUMBER.

DAP A NOTCH IN A TIMBER FOR RECEIVING ANOTHER TIMBER.

DADO A RECTANGULAR GROOVE CUT ACROSS THE FULL WIDTH OF A PIECE OF WOOD TO RECEIVE THE END OF ANOTHER PIECE.

SOLIGNUM TRADE NAME FOR ANTI-TERMITE SURFACE APPLICATION ON WOOD.

FLOOR STRUCTURE
WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM

FLOOR FRAMING IS THAT PLATFORM STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING SUSPENDED BY POSTS, COLUMNS, WALLS AND BEAMS.
THE DESIGN OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING CONSIDERATIONS:
1.

LIVE LOAD REFERS TO THOSE MOVABLE LOADS IMPOSED ON THE FLOOR.

2.

DEAD LOAD REFERS TO THE STATIC LOAD SUCH AS THE WEIGHT OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WHICH
GENERALLY CARRY THE LIVE LOAD.

3.

TYPES OF MATERIALS TO BE USED THE CHOICE FROM THE VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SUCH AS LUMBER,
CONCRETE, AND STEEL.

4.

THE SIZING AND SPACING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS DEPENDS UPON ITS STRENGTH AND CAPABILITY TO
CARRY THE LOAD AT A CERTAIN SPACING.

5.

SPAN OF THE SUPPORTS PERTAINS TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE POSTS, COLUMNS OR SUPPORTING WALLS.

THE PLATFORM - FLOOR FRAMING STRUCTURE IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES:
A.

THE PLANK AND BEAM FLOOR TYPE

B.

THE PANELIZED-FLOOR SYSTEM

C.

THE CONVENTIONAL FLOOR FRAMING SYSTEM

THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM ARE:

GIRDER IS A PRINCIPAL BEAM EXTENDING FROM WALL TO WALL OF A BUILDING SUPPORTING THE FLOOR JOISTS OF FLOOR BEAMS.

SILL THAT PART OF THE SIDE OF A HOUSE THAT RESTS HORIZONTALLY UPON THE FOUNDATION.

FLOOR JOISTS ARE THOSE PARTS OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM PLACED ON THE GIRDERS WHERE THE FLOOR BOARDS ARE FASTENED.

HEADER AND TRIMMER HEADER IS A SHORT TRANSVERSE JOISTS THAT SUPPORT THE END OF THE CUT-OFF JOIST AT A STAIR WELL
HOLE. TRIMMER IS A SUPPORTING JOIST WHICH CARRIES AN END PORTION OF A HEADER.

FLOORING THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WHICH ARE POPULARLY KNOWN AS T & G IS GENERALLY SPECIFIED FOR WOOD FLOORING.

TAIL BEAM OR TAIL PIECE A SHORT BEAM, JOIST OR RAFTER WHICH IS SUPPORTED BY A HEADER JOIST AT ONE END AND A WALL AT
THE OTHER.

LEDGER STRIP A STRIP OF LUMBER WHICH IS NAILED TO THE SIDE OF THE BEAM, FORMING A SEAT FOR THE JOISTS.

DRAFTSTOP PLATE IS A PIECE OF LUMBER USES TO DRESS UP THE EDGE OF THE JOISTS.

SOLE PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER WHICH SERVES AS A BASE FOR THE STUDS IN A STUD PARTITION.

SILL PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER, AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRAME OF AWOOD STRUCTURE WHICH REST ON THE FOUNDATION.

TOP PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER AT THE UPPER PORTION OF THE STUDS IN ASTUD PARTITION.

CRIPPLE STUD IN ABUILDING FRAME, A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT THAT IS SHORTER THAN USUAL, AS A STUD ABOVE AND BELOW
OPENING.

BLOCK OR SOLID BRIDGING SHORT MEMBERS WHICH ARE FIXED VERTICALLY BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS TO STIFFEN THE JOISTS.

CROSS BRIDGING DIAGONAL BRACING IN PAIRS, BETWEEN ADJACENT FLOOR JOISTS TO PREVENT THE JOISTS FROM TWISTING.

HANGER OR STIRRUP A METAL SEAT, ATTACHED TO A GIRDER TO RECEIVE AND SUPPORT A JOIST.

BALLOON FRAMING CONSTRUCTION HAS STUDS CONTINOUS TO ROOF SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR JOISTS.

WESTERN FRAMING THAT HAS SUBFLOOR EXTENDED TO THE OUTER EDGE OF THE FRAME AND PROVIDE A FLAT WORK SURFACE
AT EACH FLOOR.

REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM

BEAM - IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT SUPPORTS THE TRANSVERSE LOAD WHICH USUALLY REST ON SUPPORTS AT ITS END.
GIRDER IS THE TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT SUPPORTS ONE OR MORE SMALLER BEAM.
BEAM ARE CLASSIFIED AS :
A)

SIMPLE BEAM

B)

CONTINUOUS BEAM

C)

SEMI CONTINUOUS

SIMPLE BEAM REFERS TO THE BEAM HAVING A SINGLE SPAN SUPPORTED AT ITS END WITHOUT A RESTRAIN AT THE SUPPORT.
SIMPLE BEAMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM.
RESTRAINT MEANS A RIGID CONNECTION OR ANCHORAGE AT THE SUPPORT.
CONTINUOUS BEAM IS A TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT REST ON MORE THAN TWO SUPPORTS.
SEMI-CONTINUOUS BEAM REFERS TO A BEAM WITH TWO SPANS WITH OR WITHOUT RESTRAINT AT THE TWO EXTREME ENDS.

WEB REINFORCEMENT

WEB REINFORCEMENT IS THE SAME AS THEIR STIRRUPS USED IN THE BEAM TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT IN ITS DESIGNED
POSITION. THE WEB REINFORCEMENT IS NOT ONLY INTENDED TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT AND PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT BUT ALSO
SERVES TO RESIST DIAGONAL TENSION AND COUNTERACT THE SHEAR ACTION ON THE STRUCTURE. THE VERTICAL STIRRUPS SHOULD
ENCIRCLE THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT AND HOOK BENT WITH A DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN 5 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE STIRRUPS AT
ITS END AND SECURED PROPERLY TO PREVENT SLIPPING OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN THE CONCRETE.

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB:

REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES:

1.

ONE WAY SOLID SLAB AND BEAM.

2.

TWOWAY SOLID SLAB BEAM.

3.

RIBBED FLOORS.

4.

FLAT SLAB OR GIRDERLESS FLOORS SOLID OR RIBBED.

EACH TYPE OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGES IN APPLICATION DEPENDING UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS:
1.

SPACING OF THE COLUMNS.

2.

THE MAGNITUDE OF THE LOADS TO BE SUPPORTED

3.

LENGTH OF THE SPAN

4.

THE COST OF THE CONSTRUCTION

ONE WAY SLAB ONE WAY SLAB IS THE COMMON TYPE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM WHICH THE
REINFORCEMENTS RUNS ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION. MADE OF SOLID SLAB SUPPORTED BY TWO PARALLEL BEAMS. IT IS COMPARATIVELY
ECONOMICAL FOR A MEDIUM AND HEAVY LIVE LOADS ON SHORT SPANS RANGING FROM 2.00 TO 3.50 METERS LONG. ALTHOUGH THE
REINFORCEMENTS ARE ALSO PLACED IN THE SLAB PARALLEL WITH THE BEAMS PERPENDICULAR WITH THE MAIN REINFORCEMENTS
CALLED TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENTS. USUALLY NO. 3 STEEL BAR IS USED TO COUNTERACT THE EFFECT OF SHRINKAGE AND
CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE. IT ALSO DISTRIBUTES POSSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF LOADS OVER A LARGER AREA.

TWO WAY SLAB SLAB WHICH ARE SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES WHERE THE FLOOR PANEL IS NEARLY SQUARE IS GENERALLY
ECONOMICAL TO EMPLOY THE TWO DIRECTIONS OF REINFORCING BARS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH EACH OTHER.
THE CODE SPECIFIES THAT THICKNESS OF THE SLAB SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 4 INCHES OR 10 CM. NOR LESS THAN THE
PERIMETER OF THE SLAB DIVIDED BY 180. THE SPACING OF THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 3 TIMES THE SLAB
THICKNESS.

RIBBED FLOOR SLAB IS AN ECONOMICAL TYPE OF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION BUT IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO MEDIUM SPAN
LENGTH WITH LIGHT OR MEDIUM LOAD.
A RIBBED FLOOR SLAB CONSISTS OF SMALL ADJACENT T-BEAM WHEREIN THE OPEN SPACES BETWEEN THE RIBS ARE FILLED BY
CLAY TILES, GYPSUM TILES OR STEEL FORMS. THE TILES ARE GENERALLY 30 X 90 CM. WITH DEPTH OF 10 TO 40CM. O.C. PLACED @ 5CM.
O.C. MAKING THE RIBS 10 CM. WIDE.
THE CONCRETE SURFACE LAYER PLACED ON TOP OF THE TILES RANGES FROM 5 TO 6.5 CM. THICK. THE REINFORCEMENT OF A
RIBBED FLOOR SYSTEM CONSIST OF TWO BARS PLACED AT THE LOWER PART OF THE RIB WHERE ONE IS BENT AND THE OTHER REMAINED
STRAIGHT, OR SOMETIMES, STRAIGHT BARS ARE PALCED AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE RIB. TEMPERATURE BARS ARE EITHER NO. 2
BARS OR 6 MM. OR WIRE MESH WHICH RUNS AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH THE RIBS.

FLAT SLAB IS A RECTANGULAR SLAB DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS WITHOUT BEAMS OR GIRDERS. THESLAB IS EITHER
UNIFORM IN THICKNESS OR PROVIDED WITH SQUARE SYMMETRICAL AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN REINFORCED WITH BARS
RUNNING IN TWO DIRECTIONS. THE INCREASED AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN CALLED DROP PANEL OR SIMPLY DROP. ON THE
OTHER HAND, A FLARED HEAD IS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FLAT-SLAB FLOOR MAKING A CAPITAL OF THE COLUMN.
WHEN THE COLUMN DESIGN IS NOT PROVIDED WITH CAPITAS, A STRAIGHT FLAT UNDERNEATH IS PROVIDED IN THE SLAB
THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM, WHICH IS CALLED FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION.
THIS FLOOR SYSTEM IS ECONOMICAL IN TERMS OF MATERIALS AND LABOR.

CONSTRUCTION JOINT A JOINT WHERE TWO SUCCESSIVE PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE MEET.

CONTRACTION JOINT OR EXPANSION JOINT A JOINT BETWEEN ADJACENT PARTS OF A STRUCTURE WHICH PERMITS MOVEMENT
BETWEEN THEM.

CONTROL JOINTS EMPLOYED TO REDUCE RESTRAINT BY ACCOMODATING MOVEMENT OF MASONRY WALL.

BLOCK OUT IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES UNDER CONSTRUCTION, A SPACE WHERE CONCRETE IS NOT TO BE PLACED.

COLD JOINT A JOINT FORMED WHEN A CONCRETE SURFACE HARDEN BEFORE THE NEXT BATCH OF CONCRETE IS PLACED AGAINST.

CREEP PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF A MATERIAL UNDER A SUSTAIN LOAD.

CAMBER CONVEX CURVATURE IN BEAM OR TRUSS.

LAYING OUT OF STAIRS

THE METHOD OF LAYING OUT STAIRS ARE:

1.

DETERMINE THE CLEAR HEIGHT OF THE RISE IN METER.


MINIMUM TREAD WIDTH IS 25 CM.

ORDINARILY, THE RISE PER STEP IS 17 TO 18 CM AND THE

2.

DIVIDE THE RISE ( HEIGHT IN METER) BY .17 OR .18 TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF STEPS.

3.

DIVIDE THE RUN DISTANCE IN METER BY .25 OR .30m.

4.

IF THE RESULT, FOUND IN STEP THREE IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER FOUND IN STEP TWO, THE RUN LENGTH HAS TO BE EXTENDED.

5.

THERE SHOULD BE NO FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF A RISER. SHOULD THERE BE FROM THE RESULT OF STEP TWO, ADJUST A
FUNCTIONAL VALUE IN EQUAL PROPORTION TO THE NUMBER OF RISER HEIGHT, BUT IN NO CASE SHALL THE RISE PER STEP BE
GREATER THAN 19 CM OR LESS THAN 17 CM OTHERWISE, THE STAIRS WILL NOT BE AN IDEAL ONE.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A CROSS SECTIONAL SKETCH OF A STAIR BEFORE MAKING THE FINAL PLAN LAYOUT INDICATING THE
NUMBER OF STEPS TO AVOID ADJUSTMENTS OF THE RUN DURING THE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION.

TYPE OF STRINGERS
THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF STRINGER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF ATTACHIND THE RISERS AND THE
TREADS.

1.

CUT

2.

CLEATED

3.

BUILT-UP

4.

RABBETED (HOUSE)

BALUSTER ONE OF A NUMBER OF SHORT VERTICAL MEMBERS OFTEN CIRCULAR IN SECTION, USED TO SUPPORT A STAIR HANDRAIL.

BALUSTRATE AN ENTIRE RAILING SYSTEM INCLUDING A TOP RAIL, VERTICAL MEMBERS AND BOTTOM RAIL.

BULL-NOSED STEP A STEP USUALLY LOWEST IN AFLIGHT, HAVING ONE OR BOTH ENDS ROUNDED TO A SEMI-CIRCLE AND
PROJECTION BEYOND THE FACE OF THE STAIR STRING/S.

BANISTER HANDRAIL FOR A STAIRCASE.

RISER A VERTICAL FACE OF ASTAIR.

KICKER PLATE STAIR ANCHOR TO CONCRETE.

TYPES OF ROOF

THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF ROOF AND NUMEROUS VARIETY OF SHAPES THAT ONE HAS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH:

SHED OR LEAN-TO ROOF- IS CONSIDERED AS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF ROOF CONSISTING OF ONE SINGLE SLOPE.
GABLE OR PITCH ROOF- THE MOST COMMON TYPE AND ECONOMICAL FORM OF ROOF MADE OF TRIANGULAR SECTIONS
CONSISTING OF TWO SLOPES MEETING AT THE CENTER OF THE RIDGE FORMING A GABLE.
SAW TOOTH ROOF- IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHED MADE INTO A SERIES TO LEAN-TO ROOF COVERING ONE BUILDING.
THIS IS COMMONLY USED ON FACTORIES WHERE EXTRA LIGHT IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE WINDOW ON A VERTICAL SIDE.
DOUBLE GABLE ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF A GABLE OR A HIP AND VALLEY ROOF.
HIP ROOF- IS ALSO A COMMON FORM USED IN MODERN HOUSES HAVING STRAIGHT SIDES ALL SLOPING TOWARD THE CENTER
OF THE BUILDING TERMINATING AT THE RIDGE.
HIP AND VALLEY ROOF- IS A COMBINATION OF THE HIP ROOF AND AN INTERESTING GABLE ROOF FORMING A T OR L SHAPED
BUILDING. THIS TYPE OF ROOF FORM HOWEVER, HAS A VARIETY OF MODIFICATION WHICH ARE NOT ILLUSTRATED.
PYRAMID ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF THE HIP ROOF WHEREIN THE FOUR STAIGHT SIDES ARE SLOPING TOWARDS THE
CENTER TERMINATING AT A POINT.
GAMBREL ROOF- IS A MODIFICATIN OF THE GABLE ROOF WITH EACH SIDE HAVING TWO SLOPES.
BUTTERFLY ROOF- IS A TWO SHED ROOF WHERE THE SLOPE MEET AT THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING.
MANSARD ROOF- WHERE THE SIDES OF THE ROOF SLOPE STEEPLY FROM EACH SIDE OF THE BUILDING TOWARDS THE CENTER
FORMING A FLAT DECK ON TOP.
FRENCH OR CONCAVE MANSARD ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF THE MANZARD ROOF WHERE THE SIDES ARE CONCAVE.
DOME- IS A HEMISPHERICAL FORM OF ROOF USUALLY USED ON OBNSERVATORIES.
CONICAL ROOF OR SPHIRE- IS A STEEP ROOF OF CIRCULAR SECTION THAT TAPERS UNIFORMLY FROM THE CIRCULAR BASE TO
A CENTRAL POINT.

TYPES OF ROOF FRAME

THE THREE TYPES OF ROOF FRAME COMMONLY USED ARE:


1.

RAFTERS TYPE

2.

TRUSS TYPE

3.

LAMINATED TYPE

THE VARIOUS KINDS OF RAFTERS FOR ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS ARE:

COMMON RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS EXTENDED AT RIGHT ANGLES FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS T THE RIDGE.

HIP RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS LAID DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNER OF A PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.

VALLEY RAFTERS- RAFTERS PLACED DIAGONALLY FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS AT THE INTERSECTION OF GABLE EXTENSION WITH
THE MAIN ROOF.

OCTAGONAL RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS PLACED ON AN OCTAGONAL SHAPED PLATE AT THE CENTRAL APEX OR RIDGE POLE.

JACK RAFTERS- ANY RAFTER WHICH DOES NOT EXTEND FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.

JACK RAFTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO:

1.

HIT JACKS

2.

VALLEY JACKS

3.

CRIPLE JACKS

JACK RAFTERS FRAMED BATWEEN HIP RAFTERS AND GITS ARE CALLED HIP JACKS. THE FRAME BETWEEN THE RIDGE AND VALLEY
RAFTERS ARE CALLED VALLEY JACKS, WHILE THOSE FRAMES BETWEEN THE HIP AND THE VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED CRIPPLE
JACKS.

TRUSS IS A BUILT-UP FRAME COMMONLY EMPLOYED ON A LONG SPAN ROOF UNSUPPORTED BY INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS OR
PARTITIONS. TRUSS IS A DESIGN OF A SERIES OF TRIANGLES USED TO DISTRIBUTE LOAD, STIFFEN THE STRUCTURE AND FLEXIBILITY FOR
THE INTERIOR SPACING AS WELL AS STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY.

THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE:

LIGHT TRUSSES:

PITCHED

SCISSORS

SAWTOOTH

HOWE

RAISED CHORD

1 STORY FRAME

FLAT

UTILITY

BOWSTRING

HEAVY TRUSSES:

HOWE TRUSS

BELGIAN

FINK

PRATT

SCISSORS

CAMBERED FINK

WARREN

SAW TOOTH

FLAT HOWE

FLAT PRATT

PURLINS THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER PLACED ON TOP OF A RAFTER OR TOP CHORD OF A TRUSS THAT SUPPORTS THE ROOF SHEATING.

PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING:

SPAN:

2.00

SIZE:

50mm X 75mm

3.00

50mm X 100mm

3.50

50mm X 150mm

4.50

50mm X 200mm

ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS

THE TERM ROOF USED HERE MEANS THE TOP COVERING OF A BUILDING THAT SERVES AS A PROTECTIVE COVERING FROM THE
WEATHER.
ROOFING CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS USED:

FIBER

WOOD

METAL

SLATE

TILES

REINFORCED CONCRETE

PLASTICS

FIBERGLASS

METAL ROOFING IS THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, THIS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS:

GALVANIZED IRON

ALUMINUM

TIN

TITANIUM COPPER ZINC

COPPER

STAINLESS STEEL

LEAD

AMONG THE METAL ROOFING ENUMERATED, GALVANIZED IRON SHEET IS THE MOST COMMONLY SPECIFIED CONSIDERING THE
ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFER.
GALVANIZED IRON ROOFING IS EITHER PLAIN OR CORRUGATED. THE THICKNESS ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF GAUGE FROM
ga. 14 TO ga. 30. Gauge 26 IS THE MOST COMMONLY USED FOR ROOFING.
THE STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE WIDTH IS 0.80 m. WITH LENGTH THAT RANGES FROM 1.50 TO 3.60 m.
PLAIN G.I. SHEET COMMERCIAL STANDARD SIZE IS 0.90m. X 2.40m. ITS ALSO USED FOR ROOFING, GUTTERS,FLASHING,RIDGE,HIP
AND VALLEY ROLLS, DOWNSPOUT, AND STRAP FOR RIVETING.

CORR. G.I.ROOFING FASTENERS:

NAILING

RIVETING

PANTILE A ROOFING TILE WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF S LAID ON ITS SIDE.

MISSION TILE A CLAY ROOFING TILE, APPROX. SEMI-CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE LAID IN COURSES WITH THE UNIT HAVING THEIR
CONVEX SIDE ALTERNATELY UP AND DOWN.

ROMAN TILE A CHANNEL SHAPED, TAPERED, SINGLE LAP ROOPING TILE.

GALVANIZED ZINC COATED MATERIALS.

A FRAME A 3-PIECE RIGID STRUCTURAL FRAME IN THE SHAPE OF THE UPRIGHT CAPITAL A.

CHORD A PRINCIPAL MEMBER OF A TRUSS.

BATTEN WOOD STRIPS TO SUPPORT ROOF TILES.

SPLIT RING CHORD SPLICE CONNECTORS FOR TRUSSES.

FORM, SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING

FORM IS A TEMPORARY BOARDING, SHEATING OR PANS USED TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED SHAPE AND SIZE OF CONCRETE.
FORMS ARE USED IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF A BUILDING ARE BUILT-UP INTO ITS SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS
BY THE USE OF FORMS THAT SERVES AS MOULD FOR THE MIXED CONCRETE.
FORMS SHOULD BE WATERTIGHT, RIGID AND STRONG ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN THE WEIGHT OF CONCRETE. IT SHOULD BE SIMPLE
AND ECONOMICALLY DESIGNED TO BE REMOVE EASILY AND REASSEMBLED WITHOUT DAMAGE TO THEMSELVES OR TO THE CONCRETE.

FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF FORMS ARE:

COST OF MATERIALS

THE CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLING COST

THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT COULD BE USED

STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO PRESSURE AND THE TEAR & WEAR

WOOD BOARD AND PLYWOOD FORMS


WOOD FORM IS THE MOST COMMON AND WIDELY USED FORMS IN MINOR OR MAJOR CONSTRUCTION.

PLYWOOD AS FORM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL BOTH IN LABOR AND MATERIALS.

PLYWOOD HAS PLAIN EVEN SURFACE WITH UNIFORM THICKNESS.

IT OFFERS FITTED JOINTS, ELIMINATE DRESSING, PLANING OF THE SURFACE WHICH IS NORMAL TO WOODEN BOARDS FORMS.

THE LAMINATED CROSS-GRAINED OF PLYWOOD HAS MADE THE BOARD STRONGER AND FREE FROM WARPING.

PLYWOOD IS LIGHT-WEIGHT, HANDY AND FAST TO WORK ON.

PRODUCE SMOOTH FINISHES OF CONCRETE THAT SOMETIMES NEED LITTLE OR NO PLASTERING AT ALL.

METAL FORM ARE SELDOM USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BECAUSE OF THE VARIED DESIGNS AND SHAPES OF THE
STRUCTURES. ALTHOUGH METAL FORMS ARE EXTENSIVELY USED ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. METAL FORMS ARE GENERALLY MADE OUT
OF G.I. SHEET, OR BLACK IRON SHEET, SUPPORTED BY FLAT AND ANGLE BARS DESIGNED TO BE ASSEMBLED AND LOCKED BE MEANS OF
CLAMP, BOLTS AND NUTS.

CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS
CONCRETE WEIGHS ABOUT 2,200 TO 2,400 kg./cu.m. FORMS SHALL BE GUARDED AGAINST BULGING AND SAGGING FAILURE THAT
OCCUR DURING THE PROCESS OF POURING. THE THICKNESS OF THE FORM AND THE SIZES OF THE FRAME AND RIBS DEPENDS UPON THE
NATURE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE SUPPORTED CLASSIFIED AS SMALL, MEDIUM AND MASSIVE STRUCTURE.

SMALL STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF SMALL FOOTINGS, COLUMNS AND BEAM FOR ONE OR TWO STOREY BUILDING WHEREIN 6mm.
THK. PLYWOOOD IS SATIFACTORILY USED SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.

MEDIUM STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING CONCRETE COLUMNS, BEAMS, AND CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB GENERALLY OF 2 TO 3 STOREY
HIGH. WHEREIN 6mm OR 12mm THK. PLYWOOD IS USED AS FORM SUPPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm OR 50mm X 75mm WOOD FRAME AND
RIBS.

MASSIVE STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING HEAVY LOADS USES FORMS OF VARIOUS THICKNESS THAT RANGE FROM 6mm TO 19mm THK.
PLYWOOD SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm TO 50mm X 100mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.

TWO TYPES OF FRAMING:

LONGITUDINAL RIB TYPE

PERPENDICULAR RIB TYPE

TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS:

SQUARE

RECTANGULAR

CIRCULAR

BEAM FORMS CONSIST OF ONE BOTTOM FORM AND A PAIR OF SIDE FORMS.

TYPES OF WALL FORMS:

CONTINUOUS

FULL UNIT

LAYER UNIT

GREASING OF FORMS
THE PURPOSE OF GREASING THE FORM IS TO MAKE THE WOOD WATER PROOF, THUS PREVENTING ABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE
CONCRETE WHICH CAUSES SWELLING AND WARPING. ITS ALSO PREVENTS ADHERENCE OF CONCRETE TO THE PORES OF THE WOOD.

YOKE IS A HORIZONTAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE FORMWORK FOR A COLUMN.


SCAFFOLDING WORKERS PLATFORM
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS

ENGLISH

VERNACULAR

Adobe Anchor ---------------------

Liyabe

Aligned -----------------------------

Kaliniya

ENGLISH

VERNACULAR

Earth Fill------------------Eave ------------------------

Escombro

Alero,Barakilan,
Sopo

Alignment --------------------------

Asintada

Alternate or staggered ------------

Uno Sinotra

Electrician ----------------Engineer -------------------

Anchor ------------------------------

Liyabe

Architect ----------------------------

Arkitekto

Faucet ----------------------

Astragal -----------------------------

Batidura

Fascia Board --------------

Balusters ----------------------------

Balustre,Barandilla

Beam --------------------------------

Biga

Banisters ----------------------------

Barandil

Elektrista
Inhenyero

Exterior Siding -----------

Feet ------------------------

Gripo
Senepa
Piye

Fill ------------------------Filler -----------------------

Tabike

Tambak

Tapal, Dagdag

Barrel Bolt --------------------------

Trankilya

Floor Joist -----------------

Soleras

Baseboard --------------------------

Rodapis

Fillet -----------------------

Batidura

Bath tub ----------------------------

Baniera

Flooring -------------------

Bolt ---------------------------------

Pierno

Bottom Chord ---------------------

Tirante, Estunyo

Flush ----------------------

Brace -------------------------------

Pie de Gallo

Foundation or Footings-

Brick -------------------------------

Landrillo

Sahig, Suelo

Floor sill ------------------

Foreman ------------------

Guililan

Alahado
Pundasyon
Kapatas,
MaestroDe Obra

Canopy ----------------------------

Media Agua

Framework ---------------

Balangkas

Cabinet Hinge --------------------

Espolon

Gable Roof --------------

Dos Aguas

Carpenter -------------------------

Karpintero

Girder ---------------------

Guililan

Carpentry -------------------------

Karpinteria

Girts or Girder -----------

Sepo

Cast Iron --------------------------

Pundido

Gravel ---------------------

Graba

Ceiling ----------------------------

Kisame

Good Grain ---------------

Haspe

Ceiling Board --------------------

Groobe -------------------Gutter ---------------------

Canal

Ceiling Joist ----------------------

Kostil Yahe

Cement ---------------------------

Semento

Hand rail -----------------

Gabay

Cement Brick --------------------

Ladrilyo

Head ----------------------

Sombrero

Cement Tiles ---------------------

Baldosa

Hinge ---------------------

Chain bolt ------------------------

Baral de Kadena

Collar -----------------------------

Sinturon

Column ---------------------------

Kolumna,Haligue

Concrete --------------------------

Konkreto

Jamb ----------------------

Hamba

Concrete Slab --------------------

Larga Masa

Joist -----------------------

Suleras

Concrete Beam ------------------

Biga

Kingpost -----------------

Conductor ------------------------

Alulod

Laborer -------------------

Contractor ------------------------

Kontratista

Corr. G.I. sheets -----------------

Yiero Canalado

Hip roof -----------------Horizontal Stud -------Inch -----------------------

Landing -----------------Lavatory -----------------

Alulod, canal

Bisagra
Kuatro Aguas
Trabe-Anzo
Pulgada

Pendolum
Piyon

Mesa Pahingahan
Lababo

Galbanisado
Closed Stringer -----------------------------

Escalera

Crushed Stone -------------------

Eskombro

Laying of CHB orAdobe Stone


Asinta
Lean to roof -------------

Sibe

Diagonal Brace ------------------

Sinturon

Door -------------------------------

Pinto

Door Fillet ------------------------

Batidora

Door Head ------------------------

Sombrero (Pintuan)

Door Jamb ------------------------

Hamba Pintuan

Drawbore Pin or Drawpin ------

Punsol

Level ---------------------

Lebel

Machine Bolt ----------Mason -------------------

Peirno Pasante

Kantero

Masonry -----------------

Kanteria

Masonry Fill ------------

Lastilyas

Meter ---------------------

Metro

Septic Tank -------------

Poso Negro

Mitre or Miter --------------------

Canto Mesa

Mixture of Sand & Gravel ------

Lastilyas

Mortar -----------------------------

Paupo

Mortar Joists ----------------------

Kostura

Moulding --------------------------

Moldura

Nailers -----------------------------

Pamakuan

Nail --------------------------------

Pako

Nail Setter ------------------------

Punsol

Newel Post -----------------------

Tukod

Nut ---------------------------------

Tuerka

Nicolite Bar -----------------------

Estanyo

Oakum -----------------------------

Estopa

Open Stringer ---------------------

Hardinera

Split Knob ----------------

Poleya

Over Hand or Projector ----------

Bolada

Stairs ----------------------

Hagdanan

Painter ------------------------------

Pintor

Panel --------------------------------

Bandeha

Panellee Door ----------------------

De Bandeha

Shape --------------------

Korte

Sheet --------------------Shower -------------------

Dutsha

Sidings -------------------

Tabika

Sink -----------------------

Plantsa

Prigadero

Sketch Plan -------------Slab (rough) --------------

Larga Masa

Slope ---------------------Solder ---------------------

Krokis

Bahada

Hinang

Solder Bar ---------------Spacing -------------------

Estaniyo
Biento

Stake ----------------------Stringer (open) ----------Stringer --------------------

Staka

Hardinera
Madre, Madrina

Pattern ------------------------------

Plantilya

Stucco ---------------------

Palitada

Pea Gravel -------------------------

Grabita

Stud (vertical)-------------

Pilarete

Pendulum (King Post) ------------

Pendulon

Pickwork ---------------------------

Piketa

Piglead ------------------------------

Tingga, Estopa

Plain G.I. sheet --------------------

Yiero Liso Galbanisado

Plain G.I. Strap --------------------

Lingueta

Tinsmithing ---------------

Lateria

Plank Board ------------------------

Senepa

Top Chord ----------------

Kilo, Tahilan

Stud (horizontal) ---------

Pabalagbag

Temper (metal work)----Thread --------------------Tinsmith -------------------

Suban, Subuhan

Roskas
Latero

Plaster -------------------------------

Palitada

Transom ------------------

Plastered Course -------------------

Kusturada

Espeho
Tread ----------------------

Plug ----------------------------------

Tapon

Trellise --------------------

Pergola

Plumb Bob --------------------------

Hulog

Truss -----------------------

Truss, Kilo

Plumber -----------------------------

Tubero

Plumb Line -------------------------

Hulog

Post ----------------------------------

Poste, Haligue

Varnished -----------------

Varnisado

Vertical Stud -------------Wainscoating Tiles -------

Pilarete

Asolehos

Projection ---------------------------

Bolada

Washer ---------------------

Pitsa, Tsapa

Purlins -------------------------------

Reostra

Water Closet --------------

Inidoro

Window -------------------

Bintana

Putty ---------------------------------

Masilya

Quarter Round ----------------------

Mediacana

Rabbet -------------------------------

Vaciada

Window Grille ----------Window Head ------------

Baytang, Perdano

Rehas
Sombrero
Bintana

Rafters -------------------------------

Kilo

Window Jamb ------------

Reinforcing Bar --------------------

Cabilla, Bakal Window Sill --------------

Ridgeroll ----------------------------

Caballete

W.I. Strap -----------------

Riser ---------------------------------

Senepa, Takip

Wiring Knob -------------

Hamba Bintana

Pasamano
Planchuela
Poleya

Silipan
Rivets -------------------------------

Rimatse

Wood Grain --------------

Haspe

Roof --------------------------------

Atip, Bubong

Wood Plank --------------

Tabla

Sand --------------------------------

Buhangin

Wrought Iron Strap ------

Plantsuela

Scaffolding ------------------------

Andamiyo, Plancha

Scratch Coat -----------------------

Rebokada

Screw -------------------------------

Turnilyo

PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION

THE INTRODUCTION OF PRECAST-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS BROUGHT ABOUT BY BUILDING COSTS THAT HAS
CONSIDERABLY INCREASED FASTER THAT MOST INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE LARGE AMOUNT OF ON-SITE LABOR
INVOLVED IN THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION.

THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS ON ON-SITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS INCREASINGLY OUTRUNNING THE SUPPLY. THE
ANSWER TO THERE PROBLEMS WERE BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCITON AND SUBSTITUTION OF SITE
LABOR BY FACTORY PRODUCED PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE WHICH HAS RAPIDLY DEVELOPED AND GAINED IMPORTANCE.
THE CONCRETE IS CAST IN PERMANENT FORMS OF STEEL, CONCRETE, GLASS-FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC.
THE WET CONCRETE IS VIBRATED MECHANICALLY IN THE FORMS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM DENSITY AND HIGHEST SURFACE
QUALITY.
CONCRETE STRENGTH IN PRECAST IS USUALLY 5000 PSI, WHILE 270,000 PSI FOR STRENGTH OF STEEL.
PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ARE USUALLY STEAM CURED WITH THE USE OF HIGH EARLY STRENGTH CEMENT TO ENABLE A
PRECAST TO REMOVE IN FORM IN 24 HOURS.
FORMS ARE CALLED CASTING BEDS. THE CASTING BEDS AVERAGE 125 METERS TO EXTEND 250 METERS IN LENGTH.

TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE

WALL PANELS THIS TYPE OF PRECAST STRUCTURE HAS NUMEROUS DESIGNS DEPENDING UPON THE ARCHITECTURAL
REQUIREMENTS. THE COMMON SHAPES PRODUCED FOR ONE TO FOUR STOREY HIGH STRUCTURES ARE SECTIONS HAVING A WIDTH UP TO
2.40 m. THEY ARE USED AS CURTAIN WALLS ATTACHED TO COLUMNS AND BEAMS OR SOMETIMES AS BEARING WALLS.

THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE:

1.

FLAT TYPE

2.

DOUBLE TEE TYPE

3.

RIBBED TYPE

4.

WINDOW OR MULLION TYPE

TO IMPROVE THE THERMAL INSULATION OF THE PANEL, FOAM GLASS, GLASS FIBER OR EXPANDED PLASTIC IS INSERTED
BETWEEN TWO LAYERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE ADEQUATELY BONDED INTERCONNECTING THE TWO LAYERS TO ACT AS ONE UNIT.
STRESSES IN HANDLING AND ERECTION OF THE MEMBER IS MORE THAN THAT OF THE FINISHED FILLED STRUCTURE, HENCE, CONTROL OF
CRACKING IS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE.

PRECAST COLUMN

PRECAST COLUMN SIZES ARE FROM .30 x .30m. to .60 x .60m. IN A MULTI-STOREY CONSTRUCTION, THE COLUMNS ARE MADE
CONTINUOUS UP TO FOUR STORIES WHEREIN CORBELS ARE USED TO PROVIDE BEARING FOR THE BEAM. TEE COLUMN IS SOMETIMES
USED TO SUPPORT DIRECTLY DOUBLE TEE FLOOR MEMBERS WITHOUT THE USE OF INTERMEDIATE MEMBERS.

PRECAST BEAMS

THE SHAPE OF PRECAST BEAMS DEPENDS UPON THE MANNER OF FRAMING. THE VARIOUS SHAPES ARE:

RECTANGULAR BEAM

INVERTED TEE BEAM

L SHAPED BEAM

AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDER AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS.

ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS

SOLID FLAT SLAB WIDE RANGES FROM 0.60M. TO 2.4M.

HOLLOW CORE SLAB WIDE RANGES FROM 0.60M. TO 2.4M.

DOUBLE TEE WIDE RANGES FROM 2.4 TO 3.0M.

SINGLE TEE WIDE RANGES FROM 2.4 TO 3.0M.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A PECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE

ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF A PRECAST SOLID SLAB AT 1/40 OF ITS SPAN. DEPTH TYPICALLY RANGE FROM 90-200mm.

AN 200mm PRECAST HOLLOW-CORE SLAB CAN SPAN APPROXIMATELY 7.60M., 250mm SLAB APPROX. 9.80M., AND A 300mm SLAB APPROX.
12.0M. SPAN.

ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE DOUBLE TEES AT 1/28 OF THEIR SPAN. THE MOST COMMON DEPTHS OF DOUBLE TEES
ARE 300,350,400,450,510,610, AND815mm.

A PRECAST CONCRETE SINGLE TEE 928mm DEEP SPANS APPROXIMATELY 26.0M. AND 1142mm TEE FOR 32.0M. SPAN.

ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE BEAMS AND GIRDERS AT 1/16 OF THEIR SPAN FOR LIGHT LOADINGS AND 1/12 OF THEIR
SPAN FOR HEAVY LOADINGS. THESE RATIOS APPLY TO RECTANGULAR, INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS. THE WIDTH OF A BEAM
OR GIRDER IS USUALLY ABOUT ITS DEPTH. THE PROJECTING LEDGERS ON INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS ARE USUALLY
150mm WIDE AND 300mm DEEP.

TO ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF A PRECAST CONCRETE COLUMN. ADD UP THE TOTAL ROOF AND FLOOR AREA SUPPORTED BY THE COLUMN.
A 250mm. COLUMN CAN SUPPORT UP TO ABOUT 185 sq.m. OF AREA. A 300mm. COLUMN FOR 240 sq.m. AREA. A 400mm. COLUMN FOR 370
sq.m. AREA. A 500mm. COLUMN FOR 560 sq.m. AREA. A 600MM. COLUMN FOR 740 sq.m. AREA.

JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS

BOLTING, WELDING, AND GROUTING ARE ALL COMMONLY EMPLOYED IN THESE CONNECTIONS. EXPOSED METAL CONNECTORS
NOT COVERED BY TOPPING ARE USUALLY DRY PACKED WITH STIFF GROUT AFTER BEING JOINED, TO PROTECT THEM FROM FIRE AND
CORROSION.
THE SIMPLEST JOINTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ARE THOSE THAT RELY UPON GRAVITY BY PLACING ONE
ELEMENT ON TOP OF ANOTHER, AS IS DONE WHERE SLAB ELEMENTS REST ON A BEARING WALL OR BEAM, OR WHERE A BEAM RESTS ON
THE CORBEL OF A COLUMN. BEARING PADS ARE USUALLY INSERTED BETWEEN THE CONCRETE MEMBERS AT BEARING POINTS TO AVOID
THE CONCRETE-TO-CONCRETE CONTACT THAT MIGHT CREATE POINTS OF HIGH STRESS. BEARING PADS ALSO ALLOW FOR EXPANSION AND
CONTRACTION IN THE MEMBERS. FOR SOLID AND HOLLOW-CORE SLABS THESE PADS ARE STRIPS OF HIGH-DENSITY PLASTIC. UNDER
ELEMENTS WITH HIGHER POINT LOADING SUCH AS TEES AND BEAMS, PADS OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER AREUSED.

PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE
THERE ARE SEVERAL METHODS EMPLOYED IN APPLYING PRESTRESSED FORCE TO A CONCRETE BEAM:

PRECOMPRESSING METHOD IS A PROCESS OF USING JACKS REACTING AGAINST ABUTMENT.

SELF-CONTAINED METHOD THE PROCESS IS DONE BY TYING THE JACK BASE TOGETHER WITH WIRES OR CABLES LOCATED ON
EACH SIDE OF THE BEAM. USUALLY THE WIRES AND CABLES ARE PRESSED THROUGH A HOLLOW CONDUIT EMBEDDED IN THE
CONCRETE BEAM. ONE END OF THE TENDON IS ANCHORED AND FORCES ARE APPLIED AT THE OTHER END. AFTER ATTAINING THE
DESIRED PRESTRESS FORCE, THE TENDON IS THEN WEDGED AGAINST THE CONCRETE, REMOVING THE JACK EQUIPMENT.

BOND FRICTION THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS ARE STRETCHED BETWEEN MASSIVE ABUTMENT PRIOR TO CASTING OF CONCRETE
IN THE BEAM FORMS. AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH, THE JACKS ARE THEN RELEASED TRANSFERRING
THE PRESTRESSED FORCE TO THE CONCRETE BY BOND AND FRICTION ALONG THE STRANDS.

THE SELF CONTAINED AND THE BOND AND FRICTION METHODS CAN GENERALLY BE CLASSIFIED AS PRE-TENSIONING OR POSTTENSIONING SYSTEM. THESE METHODS CAN BE APPLIED TO MASS PRODUCTION OF CASTING SEVERAL METERS LONG OF STRUCTURE AND
CUTTING THE INDIVIDUAL BEAM OR POST TO THE DESIRED LENGTH OUT FROM THE LONG CASTING.

THERMAL PRESTRESSING THE STEEL IS PREHEATED BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC POWER WHICH ARE ANCHORED AGAINST THE
OPPOSITE END OF THE CONCRETE BEAM. THE COOLING PROCESS PRODUCES PRESTRESS FORCE THROUGH RESTRAINED
CONTRACTION.

THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE:

1.

SLIP AT ANCHORAGE

2.

ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE

3.

CREEP OF CONCRETE

4.

SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE

5.

RELAXATION OF STEEL STRESS

6.

FRICTIONAL LOSS DUE TO INTENDED OR UNINTENDED CURVATURE IN THE TENDONS.

CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING


CONCRETE OF HIGHER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IS USED FOR PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES. MOST OF THE PRESTRESSED
CONSTRUCTION SPECIFY A COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BETWEEN (4,000 to 6,000 psi) 280-422 kg/cm2 BECAUSE OF THE
FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFERS.
A)

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HAS A HIGHER MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. IT MINIMIZE THE REDUCTION OF PRESTRESS
LOSS.

B)

INCREASING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF THE CONCRETE MEETS THE PROBLEM OF HIGH BEARING STRESSES AT
THE ENDS OF POST AND BEAM WHERE THE PRESTRESSING FORCE IS TRANSFERRED FROM THE TENDON TO THE
ANCHORAGE DOWELS WHICH DIRECTLY BEARS AGAINST THE CONCRETE.

C)

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE DEVELOPS STRONGER BOND PRESTRESSES TO PRETENSIONING CONSTRUCTION.

D)

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE GIVES HIGHER STRENGTH TO PRECAST CONSTRUCTION WHEN CURING IS CAREFULLY
CONTROLLED.

MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE

PRESTRESSING FORCE COULD BE DETERMINED BY:

1.

MEASURING THE TENDON ELONGATION.

2.

EITHER BY CHECKING JACK PRESSURE ON A CALIBRATED GAGE OR LOAD CELL OR BY THE USED OF CALIBRATED
DYNAMOMETER.

POST TENSIONING THE STRESSING OF UNBONDED TENDONS AFTER CONCRETE HAS CURED.

BUILDING MATERIALS

WOOD MATERIALS

WOOD HAS DURABILITY AND BEAUTY. IT HAS GREAT ABILITY TO ABSORB SHOCKS FROM SUDDEN LOAD AND LIGHT IN WEIGHT WHICH
ADAPTABLE IN A COUNTLESS VARIETY OF PURPOSES.

TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD:

SOFTWOOD THESE ARE USED FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.

HARDWOOD THESE ARE USED FOR FLOORING, STAIRS, PANELLING, FURNITURES AND INTERIOR TRIM.

PROPERTIES OF WOOD:

HARDNESS MEASURED BY THE COMPRESSION, WHICH A PIECE UNDERGOES WHEN A WEIGHT IS APPLIED.

FLEXIBILITY THE AMOUNT A PIECE WILL BEND BEFORE BREAKING.

STRENGTH TO THE GRAIN.

DURABILITY THE RELATIVE VALUE / LIFESPAN OF WOOD.

DEFECTS OF LUMBER:

DECAY CAUSED BY THE ATTACKED OF FUNGI.

CHECKS CRACKS OR LENGTH WISE SEPARATION ACROSS THE ANNUAL RINGS OF GROWTH.

KNOTS IRREGULAR GROWTHS IN THE BODY WHICH INTERRUPS SMOOTH CURVE.

PITCH POCKETS WELL REFINED OPENINGS BETWEEN ANNUAL RINGS CONTAINING SOLID OR LIQUID PITCH.

WANE IS THE LACK OF WOOD ON THE EDGE OR CORNER OF A PIECE.

TYPES OF WARPING:

CUPPING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE ACROSS THE BOARD.

BOWING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS CONVEX/CONCAVE LONGITUDINALLY.

TWISTING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH ONE CORNER IS RAISED.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

STRIPS PIECES LESS THAN 2 THICK AND LESS THAN 8 WIDE.

BOARDS PIECES LESS THAN 2 THICK AND AT LEAST 8 WIDE.

DIMENSION LUMBER PIECES MORE THAN 2 THICK AND LESS THAN 5 IN ANY DIMENSION.

TIMBER PIECES 4 OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.

LOG PIECES 12 OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.

THREE CATEGORIES OF LUMBER:

YARD LUMBER USED FOR ORDINARY LIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND FINISHING WORK. COMMONLY USED FOR
FLOORING, PLANK SIDING, TRIM AND MOULDING.

SHOP LUMBER IT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN SHOPS OR IN MILLS MAKING SASH, DOORS, AND CABINETS.

STRUCTURAL LUMBER IS INTENDED FOR USE IN HEAVY CONSTRUCTION FOR LOAD-BEARING PURPOSES AND IS CUT
INTO TIMBERS OF LARGER SIZE.

WOOD GRAIN:

EDGE GRAIN ANNUAL RINGS RUN APPROX. AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE FACE.

FLAT GRAIN WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS RUN MORE OR LESS PARALLEL TO THE SURFACE.

ANGLE GRAIN WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS ARE AT ABOUT 45 DEG. TO THE FACE.

SEASONING OF LUMBER:

AIR DRYING LUMBER IS STRIP-PILED AT ASLOPE ON ASOLID FOUNDATION. THIS ALLOWS AIR TO CIRCULATE AROUND
EVERY PIECE WHILE THE SLOPING ALOOWS WATER TO RUN OFF QUICKLY.

KILN-DRYING MORE EXPENSIVE LUMBER WHICH IS REQUIRED FOR MORE REFINED USES SO AS WOOD WILL NOT
MOVE. IT MUST BE DRIED TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF NOT MORE THAN 5 TO 10 PERCENT. THIS IS DONE IN AN
AIRTIGHT STRUCTURE SCIENTIFICALLY HEATED BY STEAM PIPES IN WHICH THE LUMBER IS ARTIFICIALLY DRIED TO THE
CORRECT MOISTURE CONTENT.

MANUFACTURE BOARDS:
MANUFACTURED BOARDS ARE MADE OF WOOD BUT DOES NOT APPEAR IN THEIR NATURAL STATE. THIS TYPE OF
BUILDING MATERIALS CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE OF LUMBER AS THEY ARE THE BY-PRODUCT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF LUMBER.
THE COMPLETE UTILIZATION OF WOOD HAS LEAD TO AN EXPANDED FIELD OF MANUFACTURED BOARDS .
TYPES OF BOARDS:

PLYWOOD IS MADE OF AN ODD NUMBER VENEER SHEETS GLUED TOGETHER WITH THE GRAINS RUNNING AT RIGHT
ANGLE TO EACH OTHER. IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT AND STRONG THAT SCREW OR NAIL CAN BE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE
EDGES WITHOUT DANGER OF SPLITTING.

THE DIFF. TYPES OF PLYWOOD:

SOFT PLYWOOD - THE MOST COMMON FOR STRUCTURAL USE

HARDWOOD PLYWOOD ARE USED FOR PANELLING AND FINSHING WHERE USUALLY ON ONE FACE IS HARD
FINISHED.

EXTERIOR OR MARINE PLYWOOD IS MADE FOR EXTERNAL USE.

HARDBOARD IS MADE FROM WOOD CHIPS WHICH ARE EXPLODED INTO FIBERS UNDER STREAM OF HIGH PRESSURE.
THE LINING IN THE WOOD ITSELF BINDS PRESSED WOOD TOGETHER WITH NO FILLERS OR ARTIFICIAL ADHESIVES
APPLIED. PRESSED WOOD IS EQUALLY STRONG IN ALL DIRECTIONS BUT VERY BRITTLE. ITS COLOR VARIES FROM
LIGHT TO DARK BROWN.

PARTICLE BOARD IS MANUFACTURES FROM WOOD CHIPS, CURLS, FIBERS, FLAKES, STRANDS, SHAVING, SLIVERS
ETC. BOUND TOGETHER AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS AND OTHER MOLDED SHAPED. PARTICLE BOARD HAS EQUAL
STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTION OF A GIVEN CROSS SECTIONAL AREA, IT IS NOT BRITTLE AND CAN RESIST WARPING.

MASONRY
MASONRY REFERS TO A MAN-MADE UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED AND HARDENED INTO MODULAR BUILDING UNITS.

BASIC BRICKWORK TERMINOLOGY:

COURSE IS A HORIZONTAL LAYER OF BRICKS OR OTHER MASONRY UNITS.

BED JOINT IS THE HORIZONTAL MORTAR IN EVERY COURSE.

HEAD JOINT IS THE VERTICAL MORTAR IN EVERY MASONRY UNIT.

STRETCHER IS A BRICK LAID WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL AND ITS LONG DIMENSION HORIZONTAL.

HEADER IS A BRICK LAID SO AS TO BOND TWO WYTHES TOGETHER.

WYTHE IS A VERTICAL LAYER OF MASONRY UNITS, ONE UNIT THICK.

SOLDIER IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS END WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL.

ROWLOCK IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS FACE WITH ITS END VISIBLE IN THE WALL FACE.
STRUCTURAL BONDS FOR BRICKWORK:

RUNNING BOND CONSISTS ENTIRELY OF STRETCHERS.

COMMON BOND HAS A HEADER COURSE EVERY SIXTH COURSE

ENGLISH BOND ALTERNATES COURSES OF HEADERS AND STRETCHERS.

FLEMISH BOND ALTERNATES HEADERS AND STRETCHERS IN EACH COURSE.

JOINT TOOLING PROFILES FOR BRICKWORK:


WEATHERED JOINT

FLUCH JOINT

STRUCK JOINT

CONCAVE JOINT

RAKED JOINT

VEE JOINT

STRIPPED JOINT

REINFORCED BRICK MASONRY


A REINFORCED BRICK WALL IS CREATED BY CONSTRUCTING TWO WYTHES OF BRICK 50 100mm APART, PLACING THE
REINFORCING STEEL IN THE CAVITY, AND FILLING CAVITY WITH GROUT. GROUT IS A MIXTURE OF CEMENT, AGGREGATES, AND WATER.

BRICK BOUNDS

THE METHOD OF LAYING BRICKS IN A WALL IN ORDER TO FORM SOME DISTINCTIVE PATTERN OR DESIGN IS REFERRED
TO AS THE PATTERN BOND.

THE METHOD BY WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS IN A BRICK STRUCTURE ARE TIED TOGETHER EITHER BY OVERLAPPING
OR BY METAL TIES IS KNOWN AS THE STRUCTURAL BOND.

THE ADHESION OF MORTAR TO BRICKS OR TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEM IS CALLED
THE MORTAR BOND.

CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS:


CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BEARING AND NON-BEARING BLOCKS. LOAD BEARING BLOCKS ARE
THOSE WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 15 CM. TO 20 CM. AND ARE USED TO CARRY LOAD ASIDE FROM ITS OWN WEIGHT. NONBEARING BLOCKS ON THE OTHER HAND, ARE BLOCKS WHICH ARE INTENDED FOR WALLS, PARTITIONS, FENCES OR DIVIDERS
CARRYING ITS OWN WEIGHT WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 7.5 CM. TO 10 CM.
CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS HAS THREE CELLS AND TWO ONE HALF CELLS AT BOTH ENDS HAVING A TOTAL OF FOUR.

CONCRETE
CEMENTS
PORTLAND CEMENT
MADE FROM MATERIALS WHICH MUST CONTAIN IN THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF LIME, SILICA, ALUMINA AND IRON COMPONENTS.
FOUR PARTS OF LIMESTONE TO ONE PART CLAY ARE BASIC INGREDIENTS. THESE ARE MIXED, BURNED THEN PULVERIZED. PORTLAND
CEMENT IS SOLD EITHER IN CEMENT BAGS OF 40 & 50 KILOS WEIGHT OR IN BULK INTO CEMENT TRUCKS.

SPECIAL CEMENTS

WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT SAME MATERIALS AS NORMAL PORTLAND EXCEPT IN COLOR. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS
CONTROLLED TO PRODUCE A PURE WHITE, NON-STAINING CEMENT. IT IS USED PRIMARILY FOR ARCHITECTURAL PURPOSES
SUCH AS CURTAIN WALL AND FACING PANELS, DECORATIVE CONCRETE STUCCO AND TILE GROUT, OR WHEREVER WHITE OR
COLORED CONCRETE OR MORTAR IS SPECIFIED.

MASONRY CEMENT OR TILE ADHESIVES HAS BEEN SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO PRODUCE BETTER MORTAR THAN THAT MADE WITH
NORMAL PORTLAND CEMENT OR WITH A LIME-CEMENT HAS PARTICULARLY GOOD PLASTICITY AND WORKABILITY, GOOD
ADHESION AND BOND.

WATERPROOFED PORTLAND CEMENT NORMALLY PRODUCED BY ADDING A SMALL AMOUNT OF STEARATE, USUALLY CALCIUM
OR ALUMINUM TO THE CEMENT CLINKER DURING THE FINAL GRINDING.

TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE


CONCRETE CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE BY BINDING TOGETHER PARTICLES OF SOME INERT
MATERIAL WITH A PASTE MADE OF CEMENT AND WATER. THESE INERT MATERIAL ARE THE AGGREGATE. AGGREGATES USED ARE
SAND, GRAVEL CRUSHED STONE, CINDER. CRUSHED FURNACE SLAG, BURNED CLAY, EXPANDED VERMICULITE, AND PERLITE.

SAND

- FOUND IN RIVERBEDS, FREE OF SALT


AND MUST BE WASHED.

FINE AGGREGATE

- AND SMALLER DIAMETER STONES.

COARSE AGGREGATE

- BIGGER THAN DIAMETER STONES.

CONCRETE MIXES

CLASS AA

- 1: 1 : 3 -

CONCRETE UNDER WATER, RETAINING


WALLS

CLASS A

- 1:2:4

FOOTINGS, COLUMNS BEAMS, R.C.


SLABS

CLASS B

- 1: 2 1/ 2:5-

SLAB ON FILL, NON BEARING WALLS

CLASS C

- 1: 3: 6

CONCRETE PLANT BOXES, ETC.

CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES

SLUMP TEST- WHEN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THE SPECIFIED SLUMP IS BEING ATTAINED
CONSISTENTLY. A STANDARD SLUMP CONE IS 12 INCHES HIGH (0.30) AND 8 INCHES (O.20) IN DIAMETER AT THE BOTTOM AND 4 INCHES
(O.10) ON TOP WHICH IS OPEN ON BOTH ENDS.

THE CONE IS FILLED IN THREE EQUAL LAYERS, EACH BEING TAMPED OR RODDED 25 TIMES WITH A STANDARD 5/8 BULLET
NOSED ROD. WHEN THE CONE HAS BEEN FILLED AND LEVELED OFF, IT IS LIFTED CAREFULLY AND THE AMOUNT OF SLUMP IS
MEASURED.

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION X
BEAMS AND COLUMNS

7.5 cm. (.075) 3

SLABS AND TUNNEL INVERTS

5.0 cm. (.50) 2

TOPS AND WALL, PIERS, PARAPET & CURBS

5.0 cm. (.50) 2

SIDE WALLS AND ARCH IN TUNNEL LINING


CANAL LINING

10.0 cm. (.10) 4


7.5 cm. (.075) 3

HEAVY MASS CONSTRUCTION

5.0 cm. (.50) 2

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST- COMMON QUALITY-CONTROL TEST OF CONCRETE, BASED ON 7 AND 28 DAYS CURING PERIODS.
SPECIMENS ARE USUALLY CYLINDRICAL WITH A LENGHT EQUAL TO TWICE THE DIAMETER. STANDARD SIZE IS 12 INCH. HIGH AND 6
INCH. DIAMETER. FILLING IS DONE THE SAME WAY AS THE SLUMP TEST BUT TAKEN OUT FROM THE MOLD IN 24 HOURS. IT IS THEN
SENT TO A COMPRESSION TESTING LABORATORY, BY MAKING THE CYLINDER WHILE STILL WET. SOME COMPRESSIVE STRESSES ARE
2,000 psi, 2,500 psi, 3,000 psi.

SOME OF THE BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT

ISLAND CEMENT

CONTINENTAL CEMENT

HI- CEMENT

UNION CEMENT

RIZAL CEMENT

FILIPINAS CEMENT

PACIFIC CEMENT

FORTUNE CEMENT

REPUBLIC CEMENT

NORTHERN CEMENT

BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT

PRIME WHITE CEMENT

KEENE

TRINITY

SNOWCRETE

MORTAR CEMENT, SAND & WATER.

GROUT CEMENT AND WATER MIXTURE.

CONCRETE CEMENT, SAND, GRAVEL & WATER.

TYROLEAN FINISH ROUGH PLASTER FINISH OBTAINED BY FLINGING PLASTER ON A WALL W/ A HAND OPERATED MACHINE.

EFFLORESCENCE AN ENCRUSTATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS CAUSED BY FREE ALKALIES LEACHED FROM MORTAR OR ADJACENT
CONCRETE AS MOISTURE MOVE THROUGH IT.

ADIABATIC CURING - THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR W/O THE GAIN OR LOSS OF HEAT DURING THE CURING PERIOD.

WHEATHERED MOST WATERPROOFED TYPE OF MORTAR JOINTS FOR WALLS.

ADOBE BRICK LARGE ROUGHLY MOULDED SUN DRIED CLAY BRICKS OF VARYING SIZES.

ASHLAR BRICK A BRICK WHOSE FACE HAS BEEN HACKED TO RESEMBLE ROUGHLY HACKED STONE.

RETARDER AN ADMIXTURE WHICH DELAY THE SETTING OF CEMENT PASTE OR MIXTURES/ AN ADDITIVE MIXED WITH PLASTER TO
CONTROL THE RATE OF HARDENING.

STEAM CURING THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR IN WATER VAPOR AT AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AT EITHER
ATMOSPHERIC OR HIGH PRESSURE.

QUOIN / COIN IN MASONRY, A HARD STONE OR BRICK USED TO REINFORCE AN EXTERNAL CORNER OF A WALL.

ZOCALO LOW WALL AROUND A CHALET-TYPE HOUSE.

FORTIFICATION THA WALL OF INTRAMUROS.

SCRATCH COAT INITIAL SCORED LAYER OF PLASTER WORK.

CINDER BLOCK A LIGHT WEIGHT MASONRY UNIT MADE OF CINDER CONCRETE.

MORTAR FOR BLOCK LAYING IS 0.0125 m.

PLASTERING THICKNESS IS 0.016 m.

MORTAR FILLER FOR HOLLOW CELL 0.05 X 0.075 X 0.20 = 0.00075 cu.m.
FOR 4 CELL/BLOCK = 0.00075 X 4 = 0.003 cu.m. FOR 4 CHB.

FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS


FERROUS- METAL IN WHICH IRON IS THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENT.
NONFERROUS- CONTAINING NO, OR VERY LITTLE IRON.

FERROUS METAL:

STEEL- A MALLEABLE ALLOY OF IRON AND CARBON PRODUCED BY MELTING AND REFINING PIG IRON AND/ OR SCRAP STEEL, GRADED
ACCORDING TO THE CARBON CONTENT.
PRODUCE BY THREE BASIC RAW MATERIALS, IRON ORE, AND LIMESTONE. FIVE PARTICLES OF ALL THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF STEEL,
WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD BE WASTE, ARE BLENDED AND BURNED ON A MOVING GATE TO CAUSE THE FORMATION OF CLINKERS. THESE
ARE CALLED SINTER, A HIGH- GRADE BLAST-FURNANCE CHARGE MATERIAL.
FROM THESE, RAW MATERIALS WHICH IS MELTED INTO INGOTS PLACE IN MOLDS, A GRAT VARIETY OF PRODUCTS USED IN
CONSTRUCTION ARE MADE. THEY INCLUDED:

COLD-ROLLED SHEETS ARE GALVANIZED (GIVEN A ZINC COATING). PIG IRON IS USED TO MAKE CAST IRON WHICH IS HIGH IN
COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT BUT LOW IN TENSILE STRENGHT, AND HAS LITTLE USE FOR CONSTRUCTION. HOWEVER SINCE IT IS
CHEAP AND EASY TO CAST, IT IS USED FOR PUMPS, MOTORS, ENGINES AND BECAUSE OF ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IT IS
USED FOR PIPES TO SOME EXTENT.

WROUGHT IRON IS PRODUCED WHEN PIG IRON IS MELTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO REMOVE NEARLY ALL OF THE CARBON AND
OTHER IMPURITIES. IT IS EASILY WORKED AND IS TOUGH AND DUCTILE. ITS MAIN USES ARE FOR WIRE AND METAL ORNAMENTS.

STAINLESS STEELS ARE MADE WITH CHROMIUM OR A COMBINATION OF NICKEL AND CHROMIUM USED IN BUILDINGS OF
EXTERIOR WALLS PANELS, FRAMES FOR DOORS EXPANSION JOINTS, FLASHING, COPINGS, FASCIA AND GRAVEL STOPS.

COPPER- BEARING STEEL HAS HIGH RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND IS USED FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL AND METAL LATH.

STEEL PRODUCTS

ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES

SHEET PILING- SECTIONS ARE MADE TO INTERLOCK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL SHAPE.

STEEL PIPE- SEAMLESS OR WELDED SMALL DIAMETER PIPE AND ELECTRICALLY WELDED LARGE DIAMETER PIPE.

REINFORCING STEEL- MADE FROM NEW STEEL OR FROM DISCARDED RAILWAY- CAR AXLES OR RAILS.
REINFORCING STEEL COMES IN PLAIN OR DEFORMED BARS, THAT IS, BARS WHICH HAVE LUGS OR DEFORMATIONS ROLLED
ON THE SURFACE TO PROVIDE ARCHORAGE IN CONCRETE.

SIZES-START WITH NO.2 OR in. (DIVIDE A NUMBER OF BAR BY 8 TO GET THE EQUIVALENT IN inch DIAMETER)

No. 2=

= 6 mm.

No. 3=

3/8

= 10 mm.

No. 4=

= 12mm.

No. 5=

5/8

= 16mm.

No. 6=

= 20mm.

No. 7=

7/8

= 22mm.

No. 8=

= 25mm.

No. 9=

1 1/8

= 30mm.

WELDED WIRE FABRIC- ANOTHER TYPE OF REINFORCING MATERIAL. IT CONSISTS OF PARALLEL, LONGITUDINAL WIRES
WELDED TO TRANSVERSE WIRES AT REGULAR INTERVALS.
STEEL WIRE OVER 150,000 USES FOR WIRE INCLUDING PINS, NEEDLES, NAILS, BOLTS, CABLES, PIANO WIRE, FENCES.

BOLTS AND NUTS (EITHER HOT FORGED OR COLD-FORMED FROM WIRE OF THE APPROPRIATE DIAMETER). FOR BOLTS,
WIRE IS FED INTO AN AUTOMATIC BOLT-MAKING MACHINE WHICH CUTS TO LENGTH HEADS, TRIMS, POINTS, AND IN MANY
ROLLS THE THREAD.

STEEL STRAPPING MADE FROM HIGH-TENSILE FLAT WIRE IN A NUMBER OF SIZES. USED FOR BANDING COLUMN FORMS
TO KEEP THEM FROM BULGING UNDER THE PRESSURE OF FRESHLY POURED CONCRETE. A TIGHTERNER TIGHTENS IT AND
THE TWO LAPPED ENDS IS SEALED.

OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS LIGHTWEIGHT WARREN-TYPE TRUSSES MADE IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT STYLES.

SHEET STEEL BLACK AND GALVANIZED, CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE CORRUGATED ROOFING AND SIDING AND
FORMED STEEL DECKING.

STEEL STUDS LIGHTWEIGHT, REQUIRING MINIMUM STORAGE SPACE AND DOES NOT WARP OR SHRINK. FASTENERS DO
NOT POP, AND JOINTS STAY CLOSED. MUCH FASTER TO INSTALL THAN WOOD STUD INSTALLATION. AVAILABLE IN 1 5/8, 2
AND 3 5/8 INCHES. PLUMBING STACKS AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS FIT EASILY INTO A STEEL-FRAMEWALL.

PANS AND DONES MANUFACTURED FOR USE IN FORMING ONE-WAY AND TWO-WAY RIBBED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS.

NONFERROUS METALS:

ALUMINUM ITS ORE, BAUXITE, REQUIRES 10 KILOWATT HOURS FOR EACH POUND OF METAL ALUMINUM EXTRACTED. THE REDDISH
BROWN ORE IS WASHED AND TREATED IN A SODA SOLUTION TO YIELD A CHALKY-WHITE POWDER CALLED ALUMNA, CONTAINING A
HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ALUMINUM.

ALUMINUM FOIL USED AS A VAPOR BARRIER ON WALLS AND CEILINGS AND AS REFLECTIVE INSULATION .

COPPER A LUSTROUS REDDISH METAL, HIGHLY DUCTILE AND MALLEABLE; HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH, IS AN
EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTOR, IS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES; WIDELY USED FOR DOWNSPOUTS,
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS, FLASHINGS GUTTERS, ROOFING, ETC.

COPPER ALLOYS ARE BRASSES, AND BRONZES WHICH CONTAIN PRIMARILY ZINC AND TIN, RESPECTIVELY, AND
THE ALLOYS CONTAINING NICKEL.

BRASSES ARE USED IN ARCHITECTURAL AND HARDWARE APPLICTIONS. BRONZES ARE USED IN THE PRODUCTION
OF SPRINGS.

LEAD A SOFT, MALLEABLE, HEAVY METAL; HAS LOW MELTING POINT AND A HIGH COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION.
VERY EASY TO CUT AND WORK, ENABLING IT TO BE FITTED OVER UNEVEN SURFACES. USED FOR ROOFING, FLASHING AND SPANDREL
WALL PANELS.

TIN A LUSTROUS WHITE, SOFT AND MALLEABLE METAL HAVING A LOW MELTING POINT; RELATIVELY UNAFFECTED BY
EXPOSURE TO AIR; USED FOR MAKING ALLOYS AND SOLDER AND IN COATING SHEET METAL.

STRUCTURAL SHAPES
THE MOST COMMON SHAPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ARE THE AMERICAN STANDARD
FORMS SUCH AS:
1.

SQUARE BARS

6.

I-BEAM

2.

ROUND BARS

7.

TEE BEAM

3.

PLATE BARS

8.

H-COLUMN

4.

ANGLE BARS

9.

WIDE FLANGES

5.

CHANNELS

10.

ZEE

STANDARD CHANNEL
THE STANDARD CHANNEL HAS THE SHAPE OF UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE CONSISTING OF TWO FLANGES ON ONE SIDE. IT
THEREFORE REQUIRES LATERAL SUPPORT TO PREVENT ITS TENDENCY TO BUCKLE. THE STANDARD CHANNELS ARE GENERALLY
USED AS ELEMENTS OF BUILT-UP SECTIONS FOR COLUMNS AND ARE ALSO SUITABLE FOR FRAMING AROUND FLOOR OPENINGS,
SPANDRELS, AND LINTELS ATTRIBUTED TO THE ABSENCE OF FLANGE ON THE OTHER SIDE. THE CHANNEL SECTION IS IDENTIFIRD AS C
15 x 20 WHICH MEANS THAT THE CHANNEL HAS A DEPTH OF 20 cm. AND WEIGHTS 15 kg. PER METER LENGTH.

WIDE FLANGE
WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS W 12 x 24 WHICH MEANS THAT THE FLANGE HAS A DEPTH OF 24 cm. AND IT
WEIGHS 12 kg. PER METER LENGTH. ALL WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE GENERALLY WITH PARALLEL FACE FLANGE EXCEPT THOSE
WITH 5% SLOPE INSIDE FACE PRODUCED BY BETLEHEM STEEL COMPANY. COMPARATIVELY, WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE MORE
EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD I BEAM WITH RESPECT TO BENDING RESISTANCE.

STANDARD I-BEAM
THE USE OF I-BEAM AS A COLUMN IS UNECONOMICAL, BECAUSE THE WHIRL OR REVOLVING ACTION OF THE STRUCTURE
ABOUT AN AXIS THROUGH THE CENTROID PARALLEL TO THE WAB OF THE I-BEAM IS COMPARATIVELY SMALL.

H-BEARING PILES
H-BEARING PILES ALTHOUGH SUITABLE FOR PILE DRIVING ON DEEP EXCAVATIONS IS MUCH MORE SUITABLE THAN THE IBEAM FOR COLUMNS.

ZEE SECTIONS
THE ZEE SECTION IS ANOTHER STRUCTURAL FORM IN A LETTER Z WHICH IS NOT FREQUENTLY USED IN BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION EXEPT ON THE FABRICATION OF STEEL WINDOWS AND OTHER FRAMES.

WROUGHT IRON A COMMERCIALLY PURE IRON OF FIBROUS NATURE, VALUED FOR ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY.

CAST IRON AN IRON ALLOY USUALLY INCLUDING CARBON AND SILICON WHICH HAS HIGH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BUT LOW
TENSILE STRENGTH.

WELDING IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH TWO METALS ARE SO JOINT THAT THERE IS AN ACTUAL UNION OF THE INTERATOMIC
BONDS.

EXTRUSION THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING METAL SHAPES OF A CONSTANT CROSS SECTION BY FORCING THE HOT METAL
THROUGH AN ORFICE IN A DIE BY MEANS OF A PRESSURE RAM.

RED OXIDE PROTECTIVE COAT FOR IRON.

LAP SEAM A JOINT FORMED BY OVERLAPPING THE EDGES OF METAL SHEET OR PLATES AND JOINING THEM BY RIVETING OR
SOLDERING OR BRACING.

JOINING STEEL MEMBERS

STEEL SHAPES CAN BE JOINED INTO A BUILDING FRAME WITH ANY OF THREE FASTENING TECHNIQUES.

RIVETS

A RIVETS IS A FASTENER CONSISTING OF A CYLINDRICAL BODY AND A FORMED HEAD WHICH IS BROUGHT TO A WHITE
HEAT, INSERTED THROUGH HOLES IN THE MEMBERS TO BE JOINED, AND HOT-WORKED WITH A PNEUMATIC HAMMER TO PRODUCED A
SECOND HEAD OPPOSITE THE FIRSTHEAD.

PROCESS OF RIVETING:
A)

A HOT STEEL RIVET IS INSERTED IN HOLES THROUGH THE TWO MEMBERS TO BE JOINED,

B)

ITS HEAD IS THEN HELD WITH HAND HAMMER WITH A CUP-SHAPED DEPRESSION,

C)

WHILE A PNEUMATIC HAMMER DRIVES A RIVET SET REPEATEDLY AGAINST THE BODY OF THE RIVET TO FORM THE
SECOND HEAD,

D)

THE RIVET SHRINKS AS IT COOLS, DRAWING MEMBERS TIGHTLY TOGETHER.

BOLTS

THE BOLTS COMMONLY USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION FALL INTO TWO GENERAL CATEGORIES:
1)

CARBON STEEL BOLTS OR COMMON BOLTS ARE SIMILAR TO THE ORDINARY MACHINE BOLTS THAT CAN BE
PURCHASED IN HARDWARE STORES.

2)

HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTS ARE HEAT TREATED DURING MANUFACTURE TO DEVELOP THE NECESSARY STRENGTH.
IT IS USUALLY TIGHTENED USING PNEUMATIC OR ELECTRIC IMPACT WRENCH.

A MAJOR PROBLEM IN HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTING OR FRICTION-TYPE CONNECTIONS IS HOW TO VERIFY THE NECESSARY
TENSION HAS BEEN ACHIEVED IN ALL THE BOLTS IN A CONNECTION.

SEVERAL WAY TO ACHIEVED PROPER TIGHTENING:

TURN-OF-NUT METHOD

LOAD INDICATOR WASHER

TENSION CONTROL BOLTS

PROCESS OF TIGHTENING A TENSION CONTROL BOLT:


A)

THE WRENCH HOLDS BOTH THE NUT AND THE SPLINED BODY OF THE BOLT, AND TURNS THEM AGAINST ONE ANOTHER TO
TIGHTEN THE BOLT,

B)

WHEN THE REQUIRED TORQUE IS ACHIEVED, THE SPLINED END TWISTS OFF IN THE WRENCH,

C)

A PLUNGER INSIDE THE WRENCH DISCHARGES THE SPLINED END INTO A CONTAINER.

WELDING

WELDING CAN JOIN THE MEMBERS OF A STEEL FRAME AS IF THEY WERE A MONOLITHIC WHOLE. WELDED ARE STRONGER THAN THE
MEMBERS THEY JOIN IN RESISTING BOTH SHEAR AND MOMENT FORCES.

TYPICAL WELDS USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION:

FILLET WELD

DOUBLE FILLET WELD

DOUBLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD

SINGLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR

V-GROOVE WELD

V-GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR

PUDDLE WELD

PARTIAL-PENETRATION SINGLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD

THE BASIC SYBOLS ARE:


BACK

FILLET

PLUG OR SLOT

GROOVE OR BUTT
SQUARE

BEVEL

FLARE V

FLARE BEVEL

THE ARROW

THE REFERENCE LINE CARRIES THE DESCRIPTIVE SYMBOLS

THE ARROW POINTS TO THE WELD

THE BASIC SYMBOLS


THE BASIC WELD SYMBOL IS LOCATED ON EITHER SIDE OF THE REFERENCE LINE AS FOLLOWS:

SYMBOLS ON THE TOP OF THE REFERENCE LINE REFER TO WELDS ON THE SIDE OF THE JOINT OPPOSITE THE

ARROW

SYMBOLS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE REFERENCE LINE

REFER TO WELDS ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE JOINT AS

AS THE ARROW

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

FIELD WELD THIS WELD BE DONE IN THE FIELD DURING ERECTION. OTHER WELDS ARE DONE EARLIER IN THE FABRICATORS SHOP.

WELD ALL AROUND THIS INDICATES THAT THE WELD SHOULD BE CARRIED FULLY AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE JOINING PIECES.

BACKUP BAR AS INDICATED IN THIS EXAMPLE, A BACKUP BAR TO SUPPORT THE FIRST PASS OF THE WELD MUST BE PLACED ON THE
SIDE OF THE JOINT OPPOSITE THE ARROW.

SPACER SMALL METAL SPACERS ARE USED TO MAINTAIN A GAP BETWEEN THE PIECS TO BE JOINED, PRIOR TO WELDING.

A SHARP BEND NEAR THE END OF THE ARROW INDICATES THAT THE ARROWHEAD IS POINTING TOWARD THE GROOVED SIDE OF THE
BEVEL OR J-GROOVED JOINT

GLASS
THE MAJOR INGREDIENT OF GLASS IS SAND (SILICON DIOXIDE). A HARD BRITTLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE, ORDINARILY
TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT; PRODUCED BY MELTING A MIXTURE OF SILICA, A FLUX AND A STABILIZER; WHILE MOLTEN MAYBE
BLOWN, DRAWN, ROLLED, PRESSED OR CAST TO A VARIETY OF SHAPES.
DURING ITS MANUFACTURED, ORDINARY WINDOW GLASS IS ANNEALED, COOLED SLOWLY UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITION,
TO AVOID LOCKED-IN THERMAL STRESSES THAT MIGHT CAUSE IT TO BEHAVE UNPREDICTABLY IN USE.

THICKNESSES OF GLASS
GLASS IS TYPICALLY MANUFACTURED IN A SERIES OF THICKNESSES RANGING FROM APPROXIMATELY 2.5mm, THROUGH
3mm, IS CALLED SINGLE-STRENGTH, OR 6mm TO 22mm, IS CALLED DOUBLE-STRENGTH, AND ON SPECIAL ORDER, 25mm IS AVAILABLE.

TYPES OF CLEAR GLASS

1.

TEMPERED GLASS
TEMPERED GLASS IS PRODUCED BY CUTTING ANNEALED GLASS TO THE REQUIRED SIZES FOR USE, REHEATING
IT TO APPROXIMATELY 1200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT, COOLING BOTH ITS SURFACES RAPIDLY WITH A BLAST OF AIR WHILE ITS
CORE COOLS MUCH MORE SLOWLY. ITS FOUR TIMES AS STRONG IN BENDING AND MORE RESISTANT TO THERMAL STRESS
AND IMPACT.

2.

HEAT-STRENGTHENED GLASS
THE HEAT STRENGTHENED PROCESS IS SIMILAR TO TEMPERING, BUT ITS, ABOUT ONE-THIRD AS HIGH AS
TEMPERED GLASS IN TERMS OF BENDING AND STRENGTH.

3.

LAMINATED GLASS

ITS MADE BY SANDWICHING A TRANSPARENT VINYL INTERLAER BETWEEN SHEETS OF GLASS AND BONDING THE THREE
LAYERS TOGETHER UNDER HEAT AND PRESSURE. WHEN ITS BREAKS, THE SOFT VINYL HOLDS THE SHARDS OF GLASS IN
PLACE RATHER THAN ALLOWING THEM TO FALL OUT OF THE FRAME.

4.

PATTERNED OR ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS

HOT GLASS CAN BE ROLLED INTO SHEETS WITH MANY DIFFERENT SURFACE PATTERNS FOR USE WHERE LIGHT
TRANSMISSION IS DESIRED BUT VISION MUST BE OBSCURED FOR PRIVACY.

5.

SPANDREL GLASS
SPECIAL OPAQUE GLASSES ARE PRODUCED FOR COVERING THE SPANDREL AREA (THE BANDS OF WALL AROUND THE
EDGES OF FLOORS) IN GLASS CURTAIN. IT IS USUALLY TEMPERED OR HEAT-STRENGTHENED TO RESIST THE THERMAL
STRESSES THAT CAN CAUSED BY ACCUMULATIONS OF SOLAR HEAT BEHIND THE SPANDREL.

6.

WIRED GLASS
SIMPLY A ROLLED GLASS INTO WHICH WIRE MESH IS INSERTED DURING THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. THE WIRE
GREATLY INCREASES THE RESISTANCE TO SHATTERING THROUGH IMPACT. ITS USE FOR SAFETY GLAZING, WHEN ITS
BREAKS FROM THERMAL STRESS, THE WIRES HOLD THE SHEET OF GLASS TOGETHER.

TINTED AND REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS

SOLAR HEAT BUILDUP CAN BE PROBLEMATIC IN THE INHABITED SPACES OF BUILDINGS WITH LARGE AREAS OF GLASS,
ESPECIALLY DURING THE WARM PART OF THE YEAR. THIS IS USE TO REDUCE GLARE AND CUT DOWN ON SOLAR HEAT GAIN.

1)

TINTED GLASS
TINTED GLASS IS MADE BY ADDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF SELECTED CHEMICAL ELEMENTS TO THE MOLTEN GLASS MIXTURE
TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED HUE AND INTENSITY OF COLOR IN GRAYS, BRONZES, BLUES, GREEN, AND GOLDS.

2)

REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS

REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS APPEAR AS MIRROR FROM THE OUTSIDE ON A BRIGHT DAY AND AT NIGHT, WITH LIGHTS ON
INSIDE THE BUILDING, THEY APPEAR AS DARK BUT TRANSPARENT GLASS.

3)

INSULATING GLASS
A SECOND SHEET OF GLASS APPLIED TO A WINDOW WITH AN AIRSPACE BETWEEN THE SHEETS CUTS THIS RATE OF HEAT
LOSS IN HALF. TWO KINDS OF EDGES SEALS ARE FUSED GLASS EDGES AND A METAL SPLINE AND ORGANIC SEALANT.

GLASS PRODUCTS
I.

GLASS BLOCKS

COMPARABLE IN MANY WAYS TO UNIT MASONRY BUT HAVE THE ADDED FEATURE OF TRANSMITTING LIGHT. THEY ARE MADE
INTO TWO SEPARATE HALVES, WHICH ARE HEAT-SEALED TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW UNIT WITH REASONBLY HIGH
THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND SOUND INSULATION. THE EDGE SURFACES OF THE BLOCK ARE COATED WITH A GRITTY MORTAR
BOND.

TWO TYPES:

1.

FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS DIRECT OR DIFFUSE THE DAYLIGHT WHICH PASSES THEOUGH THEM TO IMPROVE THE ILLUMINATION OF
THE BUILDING INTERIOR.

THREE STYLES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS:


A.

A LIGHT DIRECTING BLOCK DIRECTS INCOMING LIGHT UPWARD TOWARD THE CEILING. USED ALWAYS ABOVE EYE LEVEL.

B.

A LIGHT DIFFUSING BLOCK DIFFUSES INCOMING LIGHT EVENLY THROUGHOUT THE INTERIOR OF THE ROOM.

C.

GENERAL PURPOSES BLOCK

2.

DECORATIVELY OR ARCHITECTURAL GLASS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF STYLES AND PATTERNS. THESE GLASS MASONRY
UNITS PROVIDE ALMOST UNLIMITED DESIGN VERSATILITY WHEN USED IN WINDOW, OPENINGS AND FACADES, AS INTERIOR
WALLS AND DIVIDER PANELING.

PAINT FINISHES

THE PURPOSE OF A FINISH IS TO PROTECT, PRESERVE OR VISUALLY ENHANCE THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED.
FINISHES INCLUDE PLASTIC LAMINATED SURFACE COVERINGS SUCH AS PLASTIC LAMINATED AND VINYL OF FABRIC WALL COVERING.

PAINT GENERALLY REFERS TO OPAQUE OR CLEAR FILM-FORMING MATERIAL THAT ACTS AS A SHIELD OR BARRIER BETWEEN
THE BUILDING MATERIAL AND THOSE ELEMENTS OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECTS OR DETERIORATE. THE PAINT FILM
MUST RESIST DETERIORATION DUE TO SUNLIGHT HEAT, TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS, WATER OR MOISTURE VAPOR, MILDEW AND
DECAY CHEMICALS AND PHYSICAL ABRASION. PAINT MAY ALSO SERVE TO MAKE SURFACES MORE SANITARY, IMPROVE HEATING AND
LIGHTING EFFECTS, AND PROMOTE HUMAN COMFORT AND SAFETY.

WHEN USING PAINT, THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLOR AND SURFACE TEXTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. CERTAIN
COLORS MAY BE STIMULATING WHILE OTHERS ARE RELAXING. WHITE AND LIGHT COLORS REFLECT SIZE OF FORM AND SPACE. DARK
COLOR CAN INHIBIT THE PERCEPTION OF FORM AND MAY BE USED FOR CONTRAST. FLAT PAINT FINISHES SOFTEN AND DISTRIBUTE,
ILLUMINATION EVENLY. GLOSSY FINISHES REFLECT LIGHT AND CAN CAUSE GLARE, BUT THEY ALSO PROVIDE SMOOTH, EASILY
CLEANED, NON-ABSORPTIVE SURFACES.

MOST PAINTS ARE CAREFULLY FORMULATED TO MEET SPECIFIC APPLICATION THAT USE REQUIREMENTS AND ARE READYMIXED FOR APPLICATION EXCEPT FOR THINNING, STIRRING, OR THE ADDITION OF AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST. IT IS ALWAYS
ADVISABLE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW THE PAINT MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE APPLICATION AND USE OF A PAINT OR
OTHER PROTECTIVE COATING.

PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO:


MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED

WOOD, METAL MASONRY, CONCRETE, PLASTIC, ETC.,

SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE

GLOSS, SEMI-GLOSS, EGG SHELL, SATIN, FLAT,& VARNISH.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE:


SURFACE PREPARATION
-

THE FOUNDATION OF ANY PAINT SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY PREPARED TO ENSURE PROPER ADHESION OF THE PAINT FILM TO
ITS SURFACE.

TYPE OF PAINT
-

PAINT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED.

SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDE THE PAINT VEHICLE, FINISH COLOR, EXPOSURE, AND MANUFACTURER AND/OR TRADE NAME.

METHOD
-

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS BEING APPLIED. COATINGS MAY BE BRUSHED, ROLLED OR
SPRAYED ON.

DRYING
-

THE TIME AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A PAINT TO DRY MUST BE CHECKED.

FILM THICKNESS
-

THE DRY FILM THICKNESS (DFT) IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE NUMBER OF COATS.

MULTIPLE THIN COATS ARE GENERALLY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN A SINGLE THICK COAT.

A MINIMUM OF 2 COATS IS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 5 MIL DFT.

COVERAGE
-

A PAINTS COVERAGE CAN BE ESTIMATED BY ITS PERCENTAGE OF VOLUME SOLIDS:

ie. PAINT WITH 100% VOLUME SOLIDS:


(NO THINNER)

1 GAL

COVERS

1600 SF (149 m2)

@ 1 MIL DFT

800 SF ( 74 m2)

@ 2 MIL DFT

400 SF ( 37 m2)

@ 4 MIL DFT

-PAINT WITH 50% VOLUME SOLIDS


(50% THINNER)
1 GAL

COVERS

800 SF (74 m2)

@ 1 MIL DFT

400 SF (37 m2)

@ 2 MIL DFT

PAINT GENERALLY CONSIST OF:


PIGMENT FINELY GROUND SOLIDS THAT PROVIDE THE PAINTS COVERINGS OR HIDING POWER OR ITS COLOR.

VEHICLE LIQUID MEDIUM TO CARRY THE PIGMENT IN SUSPENSION DURING APPLICATION. AND CONSISTS OF BINDERS AND
SOLVENTS.

BINDER SERVE TO FORM THE PAINT FILM AND CAUSE IT TO ADHERE THE SURFACE BEING PAINTED.

BINDERS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROTECTIVE QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF THE PAINT FIL OR PROTECTIVE
COATING.

SOLVENTS OR THINNERS ACTS DRYING AGENTS.

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SOLVENT USED, A PAINT MAY DRY OR HARDEN BY OXIDATION, EVAPORATION, CHEMICAL ACTION, OR
BY THERMOSETTING ACTION AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES.

COLOR

DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MANUFACTURER.

EXPOSURE

EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR

CHARACTERISTICS:
PIGMENTED COATING

LACQUER AND ENAMEL PAINTS

CLEAR COATINGS

VARNISHES, LACQUERS, SHEELAC, SEALERS

RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS

ZINC-PIGMENTED COATINGS

ZINC, SILICONS, ALKYD, OR ASPHALT OR BASE COATINGS

ASPHALT OR TAR COATINGS THAT FORM NON-PEMEABLE BARRIERS AGAINST WATER AND OXYGEN TO PROTECT SUBMERGED
FERROUS METAL AND TO WATERPROOF MASONRY SURFACES.

CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS

MIXTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT, LIME AND WATER USED TO DAMPPROOF MASONRY MATERIALS AND PROTECT EXPOSED STEEL

PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS

COATING RESISTANT TO MILDEW, MOLD, FUMES, MARINE ENVIRONMENTS ETC.,

PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER:


ALKYDS USED FOR EXTERIOR PAINTS.

OIL MODIFIED RESINS THAT HARDEN BY OXIDATION AND EVAPORATION.

THE MOST COMMON PAINT VEHICLE

FAST DRYING A HARDER THAN ORDINARY TIME, LOWERS THE GLOSS, AND IMPROVES THE PAINTS WETTING PROPERTIES,
DURABILITY AND ELASTICITY TO RESIST BLISTERING.

HAVE GOOD DRYING PROPERTIES, DURABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURES, AND GOOD COLOR
RETENTION.

ASPHALT USED FOR WATERPROOFING AT FIREWALL AND ROOF DECKING.

COATINGS WITH A VEHICLE OF BOTH PETROLEUM AND NATURAL ASPHALTS ARE USED TO PROTECT WOOD, MASONRY, CONCRETE
AND AS ROOF COATING.

HAVE GOOD WATER RESISTANCES BUT THERMOPLASTIC IN NATURE.

ADDITION OF ALUMINUM GLAKES HELPS TO REFLECT THE SUNS RAYS.

ADDITION OF EPOXY RESINS MINIMIZES THE COLD FLOW AND MAXIMIZES THE CHEMICAL-RESISTANCE OF ASPHALT.

CHLORINATED RUBBER USED FOR INDUSTRIAL FLOORING.

USED IN COATINGS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO ALKALIES, ACIDS, CHEMICALS, AND WATER

MAY BE REMOVED BY COAL TAR SOLVENTS

HAS LIMITED RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED HEAT EXPOSURE

USED IN SWIMMING POOLS, WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

EPOXY CATALYZED USED FOR DUCO FINISH.

TWO COMPONENT COATINGS CONSISTING OF A PIGMENTED PRIMER OR ENAMEL AND AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST.

MIXED JUST PRIOR TO USE HAS LIMITED POT LIFE

PRODUCES BY CHEMICAL ACTION A DENSE, HARD FILM SIMILAR TO BAKED ENAMEL.

HAS EXCELLENT RESISTANT TO SOLVENTS, CHEMICALS, PHYSICAL ABRASION, TRAFFIC WEAR, A CLEANING MATERIALS

HAS GOOD ADHESION PROPERTIES, COLOR RETENTION AND STAIN RESISTANCE.

HAS GOOD DURABILITY FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE BUT MAY CHALK.

HARDWARE
HARDWARE - METAL PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION, SUCH AS BOLTS, HINGES, LOCKS, TOOLS, ETC. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS:
FINISHING HARDWARE HARDWARE, SUCH AS HINGES LOCKS, CATCHES, ETC. THAT HAS A FINISHED APPEARANCE AS WELL
AS FUNCTION, ESP. THAT USED WITH DOORS, WINDOWS, AND CABINETS, MAYBE CONSIDERED PART OF THE DECORATIVE TREATMENT
OF A ROOM OR BUILDING.

ROUGH HARDWARE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, HARDWARE MEANT TO BE CONCEALED, SUCH AS BOLTS, NAILS,
SCREWS, SPIKES, RODS, AND OTHER METAL FITTINGS.

SOME FINISHING HARDWARE BRANDS:


1.

SARGENT

7.

RABBIT

2.

STANLEY

8.

UNIVERSAL

3.

YALE

4.

CORBIN

10.

5.

SCHLAGE

11.

ALPHA

6.

KWIKSET

12.

YETI

9.

EAGLE

MASTER

DOORS AN ENTRANCE WAY

TYPES OF DOOR:

FLUSH A SMOOTH-SURFACED DOOR HAVING FACES WHICH ARE PLANE WHICH CONCEAL ITS RAILS AND STILES OR OTHER
STRUCTURE WHEN USED INSIDE, IT IS OF HOLLOW CORE, WHEN USED FOR EXTERIOR IT IS OF SOLID CORE.

PANEL DOOR A DOOR HAVING STILES, RAILS AND SOMETIMES MUNTINS, WHICH FORM ONE OR MORE FRAMES AROUND
RECESSED THINNER PANELS.

KINDS OF DOORS:

SWINGING DOOR

OVERHEAD SWING-UP GARAGE DOOR A RIGID OVERHEAD DOOR WHICH OPENS AS AN ENTIRE UNIT.

OVERHEAD ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR A DOOR WHICH, WHEN OPEN, ASSUMES A HORIZONTAL POSITION ABOVE THE DOOR
OPENING, MADE OF SEVERAL LEAVES.

ROLL-UP DOOR (SOLID OR SEE-THROUGH ALUMINUM SHUTTERS) A DOOR MADE UP OF SMALL HORIZONTAL INTERLOCKING METAL
SLATS WHICH ARE GUIDED IN A TRACK: THE CONFIGURATION COILS ABOUT AN OVERHEAD DRUM WHICH IS HOUSED AT THE HEAD
OF THE OPENING, EITHER MANUAL OR MOTOR - DRIVEN.

ACCORDION DOOR A HINGED DOOR CONSISTING OF A SYSTEM OF PANELS WHICH ARE HUNG FROM AN OVERHEAD TRACK.
WHEN THE DOOR IS OPEN, THE FACES OF THE PANELS CLOSE FLAT AGAINST EACH OTHER. WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED, THE
EDGES OF ADJACENT PANELS BUTT AGAINST (OR INTERLOCK) EACH OTHER TO FORM A SOLID BARRIER.

BI-FOLDING DOOR - ONE OF TWO OR MORE DOORS WHICH ARE HINGED TOGETHER SO THAT THEY CAN OPEN AND FOLD IN A
CONFINED SPACE.

REVOLVING DOOR - AN EXTERIOR DOOR CONSISTING OF FOUR LEAVES (AT 900 TO EACH OTHER) WHICH PIVOT ABOUT A COMMON
VERTICAL AXIS WITHIN A CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED VESTIBULE, PREVENTS THE DIRECT PASSAGE OF AIR THROUGH THE
VESTIBULE, THEREBY ELIMINATING DRAFTS FROM OUTSIDE.

SLIDING DOOR - A DOOR MOUNTED ON TRACK WHICH SLIDES IN A HORIZONTAL DIRECTION USUALLY PARALLEL TO ONE WALL.

BY-PASSING SLIDING DOOR - A SLIDING DOOR WHICH SLIDES TO COVER A FIXED DOOR OF THE SAME WIDTH OR ANOTHER
SLIDING DOOR.

SLIDING POCKET DOOR - A DOOR WHICH SLIDES INSIDE A HOLLOW OF THE WALL.

DUTCH DOOR - A HINGED DOOR WHICH IS DIVIDED TO TWO. THE UPPER PART CAN BE OPENED WHILE THE LOWER PORTION IS
CLOSED.

FRENCH DOOR

FINISHING HARDWARES:
A. TO HUNG A DOOR
HINGE- A MOVABLE JOINT USED TO ATTACH SUPPORT AND TURN A DOOR ABOUT A PIVOT, CONSISTS OF TWO PLATES JOINED
TOGETHER BY A PIN WHICH SUPPORT THE DOOR AND CONNECT IT TO ITS FRAME, ENABLING IT TO SWING OPEN OR CLOSED.

TYPES OF HINGES:
1. BUTT HINGE - CONSISTS OF TWO RECTANGULAR METAL PLATES WHICH ARE JOINED WITH A PIN, IN LARGE HINGE, THE PIN IS
REMOVABLE, IN SMALL HINGES, IT IS FIXED.

FAST PIN HINGE - A HINGE IN WHICH THE PIN IS FASTENED PERMANENTLY IN PLACE.

FULL SURFACE HINGE - A HINGED DESIGNED FOR ATTACHMENT ON THE SURFACE OF THE DOOR AND JAMB WITHOUT
MORTISING.

LOOSE JOINT HINGE - A DOOR HINGED HAVING TWO KNUCKLES, ONE OF WHICH HAS VERTICAL PIN THAT FITS IN A
CORRESPONDING HOLE IN THE OTHER, BY LIFTING THE DOOR UP, OFF THE VERTICAL PIN, THE DOOR MAY BE REMOVED
WITH UNSCREWING THE HINGED.

LOOSE PIN HINGE - A HINGE HAVING A REMOVABLE PIN WHICH PERMITS ITS TWO PARTS TO BE SEPARATED.

PAUMELLE HINGED - A TYPE OF DOOR HINGE HAVING A SINGLE JOINT OF THE PIVOT TYPE, USUALLY OF MODERN DESIGN.

OLIVE KNUCKLE HINGE - A PAUMELLE HINGE WITH KNUCKLES FORMING AN OVAL SHAPE.

2. SPRING HINGES - A HINGE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SPRINGS, WHEN A DOOR IS OPENED, THE HINGE RETURNS IT TO OPEN
POSITION AUTOMATICALLY, MAY ACT IN ONE DIRECTION ONLY, OR IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.

DOUBLE ACTION - EXCELLENT FOR USE IN RESTAURANTS, HOSPITALS, KITCHENS, THE DOOR OPENS BY JUST PUSHING IT
WITH THE SHOULDER OR FEET.

SINGLE ACTION

3. PIVOT HINGE - THE AXLE OR PIN ABOUT WHICH A WINDOW OR DOOR ROTATES.

VERTICAL SPRING PIVOT HINGE- A SPRING HINGE FOR A DOOR WHICH IS MORTISTED INTO THE HEEL OF THE DOOR,
THE DOOR IS FASTENED TO THE FLOOR AND DOOR HEAD WITH PIVOTS.

B.

TO FIX ONE SASH

TYPES OF BOLT AND FASTENER:

C.

CHAIN HEAD AND FOOT BOLT

DOOR OR BARREL BOLT

FLUSH BOLT

CHAIN DOOR FASTENER

TO LOCK THE DOOR

LOCKSET A COMPLETE LOCK SYSTEM INCLUDING THE BASIC LOCKING MECHANISMS AND ALL THE ACCESSORIES, SUCH AS KNOBS
ESCUTCHEONS, PLATES, ETC.

BUTTON A SMALL REJECTING MEMBER USED TO FASTEN THE FRAME OF A DOOR OR WINDOW.

KNOB A HANDLE, MORE OR LESS SPHERICAL USUALLY FOR OPERATING A LOCK.

ESCUTCHEON A PROTECTIVE PLATE SURROUNDING THE KEYHOLE OF A DOOR.

PLATES A THIN FLAT SHEET OF MATERIAL.

STRIKES A METAL PLATE OR BOX WHICH IS SET IN A DOORJAMB AND IS EITHER PLACED OR RECESSED TO RECEIVE THE
BOLT OR LATCH OF A LOCK, FIXED ON DOOR.

LIP STRIKE THE PROJECTION FROM THE SIDE OF A TRIKE PLATE WHICH THE BOLT OF A LOCK STRIKES FIRST, WHEN A
DOOR IS CLOSED; PROJECTS OUT FROM THE SIDE OF THE STRIKE PLATE TO PROTECT THE FRAME.

USE A DIFFERENT LOCKSET FOR EACH ROOM:

ENTRANCE LOCKSET WITH A KEY AND UNIVERSAL BUTTON WHICH WHEN PUSHED STAYS PUT AND LOCKS THE DOOR.

BEDROOM LOCKSET SAME AS THE ENTRANCE LOCKSET BUT SIMPLER IN DESIGN.

TOILET LOCKSET WITHOUT A KEY HAS A BUTTON THAT IS PUSHED TO LOCK INSIDE.

KIND OF LOCKSET:

INTEGRAL LOCK A TYPE OF MORTISE LOCK HAVING ITS CYLINDER IN THE KNOB.

CYLINDER LOCK A BORED LOCK WHICH HAS A CYLINDRICAL CASE INTO WHICH A SEPARATE LATCH CASE FITS.

LATCH A SIMPLE FASTENING DEVISE HAVING A LATCH BOLT, BUT NOT A DEAD BOLT CONTAINS NO PROVISIONS FOR LOCKING WITH A
KEY.
NIGHT LATCH KEY OPERATED LATCH WITH SAFETY PIN.

LIFT LATCH A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH WHICH FASTENS A DOOR BY MEANS OF A PIVOTED BAR THAT ENGAGES A HOOK ON THE DOOR
JAMB, A LEVER WHICH LIFTS THE PIVOTED BAR USED TO UNFASTEN THE DOOR.

RABBETED LOCK A LOCK OR LATCH IN WHICH THE FACE IS FLUSH WITH THE RABBET ON A RABBETED DOOR JAMB.
ROLLER LATCH A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH HAS A ROLLER UNDER SPRING TENSION INSTEAD OF A BEVELED SPRING BOLT, THE ROLLER
ENGAGES A STRIKE PLATE, HAVING A RECESS FORMED TO RECEIVE.

SCREEN DOOR LATCH A SMALL LOCKING OR LATCHING DEVICE USED ON SCREEN DOORS AND GENERATED BY A KNOB OR LEVER
HANDLE, SOMETIMES EQUIPPED WITH A DEAD BOLT.

HASP A FASTENING DEVICE CONSISTING OF A LOOP OR STAPLE AND A SLOTTED HINGE PLATE NORMALLY SECURED WITH A
PADLOCK.
KEY-PADLOCK A DEVICE WHICH FASTENS IN POSITION MAYBE OPERATED BY A KEY.

MAGNETIC PADLOCK A KIND OF LOCK WHICH OPENS BY USING THE CORRESPONDING MAGNET WHICH GOES WITH IT.

HASPLOCK A KIND OF HASP THAT HAS A BUILT-IN LOCKING DEVICE WHICH CAN BE OPENED ONLY WITH A KEY.

BORED LOCK A LOCK INTENDED FOR INSTALLATION IN A CIRCULAR HOLE IN A DOOR.

CREMONE BOLT USED TO FASTEN UPPER AND LOWER DOOR.

DEAD BOLT A TYPE OF DOOR LOCK, THE BOLT, WHICH IS SQUARE IN SECTION IS OPERATED BY THE DOOR KEY OR A TURN PIECE.

TYPES OF AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER:

PNEUMATIC TYPE

SEMI-CONCEALED OVERHEAD TYPE

CONCEALED TYPE

OVERHEAD LIQUID TYPE

TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR:

FLUSH

OVERLAPPING

OFFSET

TYPES OF CABINET HINGES:

BUTT HINGES

COMMON BUTT

LOOSE PIN

T-HINGE

PIANO HINGE

DECORATIVE HINGE

OFFSET HINGES USED FOR HANGING LIPPED OR OVERLAPPING DOORS, AVAILABLE IN SEMI-CONCEALED AND
SURFACE-MOUNTED STYLES.

PIVOT HINGES MADE FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOORS.

INVISIBLE HINGES DONT SHOW FROM THE FRONT AND IS EXPENSIVE. THEY CAN BE USED FOR BOTH FLUSH AND
OVERLAPPING DOOR.

FLUSH COUNTER HINGE FOR A DROP DOWN DOOR THAT CAN BE LOWERED TO SERVE AS WORK SURFACES REQUIRE
HINGES THAT LAY FLUSH IN THE SURFACE, MORTISE THEM INTO BOTH SURFACES, THEY DONT SHOW WHEN THE DOOR
IS CLOSED. A DROPDOWN DOOR ALSO REQUIRES A CHAIN OR STAY SUPPORT TO HOLD THE DOORS WEIGHT WHEN
ITS OPEN.

CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE


KINDS OF CATCHES:

FRICTION CATCH ANY CATCH WHICH WHEN IT ENGAGES A STRIKE, IS HELD IN THE ENGAGED POSITION BY FRICTION.

MAGNETIC CATCH A DOOR CATCH FLAT THAT USES A MAGNET TO HOLD THE DOOR IN A CLOSED POSITION.

BULLET CATCH A FASTENER WHICH HOLDS A DOOR IN PLACE BY MEANS OF A PROJECTING SPRING ARCTUATED
STEEL HALL WHICH IS DEPRESSED WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED.

TYPES OF KNOBS:

SCREW-IN KNOB

BOLT-ON KNOB

FLUSH KNOB

FLUSH RING

PULL

OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES:

GRAB BAR A HAND GRIP USUALLY INSTALLED IN SHOWER, WHICH MAY BE USED FOR STEADYING ARE SELF.

SELF BRACKET ANY OVER HANGING MEMBER PROJECTING FROM A WALL OR OTHER BODY TO SUPPORT A WEIGHT.

METAL BRACKET USED TO SUPPORT ANY CABINET OR SHELF.

SPRING DOOR CLOSER ATTACHED ABOVE A SCREEN DOOR TO AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE IT.

DOOR STOPPER TO PREVENT THE DOOR WITH ITS LOCKSET FROM HARMING THE WALL OR TILES.

ROUGH HARDWARES:
NAILS

COMMON WIRE NAIL WITH HEAD AND FOR STRENGTH.

FINISHING NAIL WITHOUT HEAD AND FOR BETTER APPEARANCE

MASONRY OR CONCRETE NAIL USED FOR CONCRETE, MORTAR AND BRICK SURFACE
SIZES, 1, 1 , 2 , 2 , 3, 3 , 4, 6

OTHER COMMON HAMMER DRIVEN FASTENER


SCOTCH NAILS

BRADS

STAPLES

TACKS

SCREWS
CLASSIFIED BY GAUGE (DIAMETER), LENGTH, HEAD TYPE, AND METALLIC MAKE-UP.

TYPES OF SCREW HEAD

FLAT HEAD SCREW

OVAL HEAD SCREW

PHILIPPS HEAD

SHEET-METAL SCREW

ROUND HEAD SCREW

LAG SCREW

FLAT

COUNTER SUNK

FLUSH

WASHERS

BOLTS
BOLTS HAVE THREADED SHAFTS THAT RECEIVE NUTS. TO USE THEM, A HOLE IS DRILLED, PUSHING A BOLT THROUGH AND
ADDING A NUT.
BOLTS TIGHTENED WITH SCREW WHILE HOLDING THE NUT WITH A WRENCH.

NUTS

FLAT SQUARE NUT

HEX NUT

SQUARE NUT

ACORN NUT

T NUT

KNURLED NUT

WING NUT

HUNGER BOLTS FOR HANGING FIXTURES FROM WALLS.


U-BOLTS TO ATTACH FLAT SURFACE TO ROUND POLES AND PIPES.

JOINERY BRACKETS

MENDING PLATE

T-PLATE

FLAT CORNER PLATE

L-BRACKET

AWNING AN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTED WINDOW.

BAY WINDOW A WINDOW WHICH PROJECTS OUTSIDE THE MAIN LINE OF A BUILDING.

HOPPER WINDOW A WINDOW SASH WHICH OPENS INWARD AND ITS HINGED AT THE BOTTOM.

ORIEL WINDOW A PROJECTED WINDOW BEYOND BUILDING WALL CARRIED BY A CORBEL.

BATTEN DOOR - A DOOR W/OUT STILES WHICH IS COSTRUCTED OF VERTICAL BOARDS HELD TOGETHER BY HORIZONTAL
BATTENS.

STILE VERTICAL FRAMES OF PANELLED DOOR.

TRANSOM WINDOW OVER A DOOR.

DOOR JAMB FINISHED FRAME SURROUNDING A DOOR.

ANCHOR BOLT A STEEL BOLT USUALLY FIXED IN ABUILDING STRUCTURE WITH ITS THREADED PORTION PROJECTING.

PLATE BOLT A BOLT IN A BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH SECURES THEPLATE OR SILL.

MACHINE BOLT A THREADED BOLT HAVING A STRAIGHT SHANK AND A CONVENTIONAL HEAD SUCH AS A SQUARE, HEXAGONAL,
BUTTON OR COUNTERSANK.

CARRIAGE BOLT A BOLT WITH NECK FOR NON-RATATING MOUNTING.

LAG SCREW COMMON HARDWARE FASTENER FOR TRUSS BRACES.

KNOB BOLT A DOOR LOCK WITH A SPRING BOLT CONTROLLED BY ONE OR BOTH KNOBS AND DEAD BOLT CONTROLLED BY AKEY.

BACKSET THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM THE FACE OF A LOCK OF LATCH TO THE CENTER OF THE KNOB OR LOCK CYLINDER.

GUSSET A PLATE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF A JOINT FOR INCREASE HOLDING POWER.

BRAD A THIN NAIL WITH SMALL HEAD.

KERF IN A SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILING, AGROOVE CUT INTO THE EDGES OF AN ACOUSTICAL TILES TO RECEIVE SPLINES
OR SUPPORTING MEMBERS OF THE CEILING SUSPENSION SYSTEM.

PERFORATED TAPE A TYPE OF TAPE USED IN FINISHING JOINTS BETWEEN GYPSUM BOARD.

SAHARA USED FOR WATERPROOFING.

PARQUET INLAID WOOD FLOORING USUALLY SET IN SIMPLE GEOMETRIC PATTERN.

VINYL TILE A FLOOR TILE COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.

BEVEL THE ANGLE WITH ONE SURFACE OF A BODY MAKES WITH ANOTHER SURFACE WHEN THEY ARE NOT AT RIGHT ANGLE.

CHASE A CONTINOUS RECESS BUILT INTO A WALL TO RECEIVE PIPES, DUCTS, ETC.

GYPSUM BOARD MATERIAL USED IN DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION.

PLOUGH A GROOVE EXTENDED ALONG THE EDGE OR FACE OF THE WOOD MEMBER BEING CUT PARALLEL TO GRAIN.

BUILDING PROTECTION
PREVENTIONS

WATERPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING SURFACES AGAINST THE DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER.

DAMP-PROOFING PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN WATER ASIDE
AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH. THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE THE BUILDING CAN BE CAUSED BY
PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONSIDERATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE.

CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY, CONCRETE THIS IS A CLEAR, INVISIBLE SILICONE WATER REPELLENT
SPECIALLY FORMULATED FOR APPLICATION ON MASONRY AND BRICKS (STANDARD SILICONE REPELLENT) AND FOR LIMESTONE
AND CONCRETE THAT SEEPS MUCH RAINWATER (SPECIAL FORMULATED SILICONE REPELLENT). THE SILICONE LIQUID IS APPLIED
BY BRUSH OR LOW PRESSURE SPRAY AND DOES NOT AFFECT THE COLOR OR NATURALNESS OF THE MATERIAL.

ANAY (TERMITE) PROOFING BY SOIL POISONING IT IS IMPORTANT TO POISON THE SOIL AGAINST ANAY (WHITE ANTS) IN ORDER
TO STOP THE ANAY FROM INFESTING THE MAINPOSTS, WALLS AND FLOORING.

WOOD PRESERVATIVE (POWDER POST TERMITES) A CHEMICAL LIQUID PAINTED AND APPLIED TO LUMBER TO PRESERVE IT FOR
YEARS. IT PROTECTS WOOD AGAINST POWDER POST BEATLES (BUKBOK) POWDER POET TERMITE (UNOS), DECAY CAUSING
FUNGI, SUCH AS SAP STAIN AND SRYROT.

FIREPROOFING A CLEAR LIQUID APPLIED EASILY ON WOOD, PLYWOOD, LUMBER AND OTHER BOARD THAT RETAINS THE
NATURAL BEAUTY, GIVES ADDED STRENGTH AND PROTECTS MATERIALS AGAINST FIRE, WEATHER, DECAY, INSECTS AND
WARPING. SINCE THE LIQUID PENETRATED INTO THE WOOD, WHEN THERE IS FIRE. IT REACTS BY DISPERSING THE FLAME,
PREVENTING PROGRESSIVE BURNING.

RATPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING ROOMS AGAINST THE INTRUSION OF RATS AND OTHER SMALL DESTRUCTIVE
ANIMALS FROM GNAWING THE WOODEN PARTS OF THE HOUSE, HABITATING ON CEILINGS AND FLOORS OF HOUSES AND
BUILDINGS.

RUSTPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING THE FERROUS MATERIALS LIKE STEEL, IRON FROM RUSTING OR CORROSION.

FLOOR PROTECTION WHEN FLOORS ARE SUBJECTED TO WEAR AND TEAR, OR FROM CHEMICAL ABRASIONS AND HEAVY USE, A
SPECIAL KIND OF MATERIAL SHOULD BE USED TO PROTECT THE FLOORING.

DESCALERS, PAINT AND CHEMICAL STRIPPERS WHEN AN OLD HOUSE HAVING OLE PAINT IS IN NEED OF REPAINTING, PAINT
REMOVER IS APPLIED TO THE SURFACE WHICH SOFTENS AND LIFTS THE PAINT. FOR CLEANING OF BUILDINGS FROM STAINS,
RUST, ALGAE OR EVEN CEMENT BUILD UP FROM FORMS OR EQUIPMENT, ETC. A CHEMICAL STRIPPER OR DESCALER IS USED.

CONTROL, PROTECT AND MANAGE FOR BUILDINGS THAT NEED TOTAL CONTROL OF THE INCOMING AND OUTGOING INDIVIDUALS
FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE BUILDING AS A WHOLE FROM ROBBERS, STEALERS, ETC. THERE ARE SO MANY EQUIPMENTS
WHICH CAN BE INSTALLED.

THIS IS APPLIED ON THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS:

ROOF DECKS

CONCRETE TERRACES AND BALCONIES

SHEATHING FOR WOOD SHINGLE AND TILE ROOFING

WATER TANKS

CONCRETE ROOF GUTTERS

PLANT BOXES INSIDE

KITCHEN FLOOR

TOILETS

CANOPIES

BASEMENT FLOOR AND WALLS

ELEVATOR PITS

SWIMMING POOL

MACHINE ROOMS, AIR CON & PUMP ROOMS

REFRIGERATION & COLD STORAGE ROOMS

THREE TYPES OF WATERPROOFING:

INTEGRAL TYPE MEDIUM IN POWDER FORM IS ADDED AND MIXED WITH THE AGGREGATES OF
CONCRETE. IN THIS CASE, ONE PACK OF USUALLY .908 KILOS IS ADDED TO ONE BAG OF KILOS CEMENT. SOME OF THE
KNOWN BRANDS ARE SAHARA AND SAKURA.

MEMBRANE TYPE RECOMMENDED FOR USE WHERE DIRECT RAIN, OR STANDING WATER ARE EMINENT,
THERE ARE ABOUT 14 USES. THE MATERIALS USED DEPENDING ON THE MANUFACTURER IS EITHER ASPHALT PAPER
LAID WITH HOT ASPHALT, IMPREGNATED ASBESTOS FELT, SOMETIMES THICK POLYETHYLENE SHEETS IS ALSO USED.
OTHER MATERIALS ARE PERFORMED SELF SEALING ASPHALT.

FLUID APPLIED A FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC COATING BASED ON HAVY SOLIDS ELASTOMER
COMPOUND FORMULATED TO WATERPROOF AND PRESERVE THE SUBSTRATE, LIKE CONCRETE, WOOD, BRICKS AND
STEEL. THE WATERPROOFING IS MONOLOTHIC, SEAMLESS, FLEXIBLE AND ELASTIC OVER A WIDE TEMPERATURE
RANGE, WITHSTANDS EXTREME THERMAL MOVEMENT, SETTLING AND CRACKING. IT RESISTS PUNCTURE AND
TEARING ABRASIVE OVERLAYMENTS. THIS ELASTOMERIC FLUID CAN BE APPLIED BY ROLLER, BRUSH, SPRAY OR
SQUEEGEE.

ROOFING FELTS THE BASE FELTS USED IN BUILT-UP ROOFING ARE AVAILABLE IN TWO BASIC TYPE ASBESTOS FELTS AND ORGANIC
OR RAG FELTS. THEY LOOK ALIKE, SUPERFICIALLY, BUT THEY DIFFER WIDELY IN SERVICE.

ASBESTOS:

ASBESTOS FELTS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ASBESTOS FIBER, A NON-ROTTING, NON-WICKING INORGANIC


MINERAL FIBER.

IDENTICAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES TO FINISHING FELTS.

MINIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE OR WETTING OR DRYING WHICH MEANS MINIMUM DISTORTION.

LOSES STRENGTH SLOWLY WHILE AGING.

EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO BURNOUT IN HOT CLIMATE.

RAT RESISTANT.

ORGANIC:

ORGANIC FELTS COMPOSED OF FIBROUS ORGANIC MATERIALS. SUBJECT TO DETERIORATION BY OXIDATION AND TO
WICKING.

DIFFERENT EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES FROM FINISHING PLIES.

MAXIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE ON WETTING AND DRYING WHICH MEANS MAXIMUM DISTORTION.

LOSES STRENGTH RAPIDLY WHILE AGING.

POOR RESISTANCE TO BURNOUT IN HOT CLIMATE.

POOR RESISTANCE TO ROT.

VAPOR INSULATION (DAMPROOFING)

THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE BUILDINGS CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE
OR BY CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER
REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO THE EARTH DONE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING.
MOISTURE VAPOR ON THE OTHER HAND CAN PERMEATE MOST ORDINARY BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD, PAPER, LATH
PLASTER, UNTREATED BRICK, ETC. THE MOISTURE VAPOR WILL CONDENSE WATER WHEN ITS TEMPERATURE IS REDUCED BY
CONTACT WITH A COOL SURFACE OR COOL AIR. HENCE, HIGH HUMIDITY IN A BUILDING MAY RESULT IN CONDENSATION OF WATER NOT
ONLY ON THE INSIDE OF WALLS AND WINDOWS BUT ALSO ON THE OUTSIDE OR WITHIN THE EXTERIOR WALLS, CEILING OR ROOF.
MOISTURE VAPOR IS PRODUCED BY COOKING OCCUPANTS, LAUNDERING, EARTH CRAWL SPACES, BASEMENT FLOORS, HUMIDIFIES,
ETC.

VAPOR BARRIERS (DAMPROOFING MATERIALS)

THESE ARE MATERIALS WHICH EFFECTIVELY RETARD OR STOP THE FLOW OF WATER VAPOR AND NORMALLY ARE PRODUCED IN
SHEETS OR THIN LAYERS. VAPOR BARRIERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE INSULATION. THEY SHOULD BE
CONTINUOUS SURFACES OF ASPHALT OR WAX COATED PAPER, ALUMINUM, OR OTHER METAL FOIL SHEETS OR POLYETHYLENE FILM.
THEY CAN BE ATTACHED TO THE INSULATION AS PART OF THE MANUFACTURED PRODUCT OR INSTALLED SEPARATELY IN OR ON THE
WARM SIDE OF THE WALL, FLOOR, OR CEILING. THEY MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND ALLOW NO OPENINGS THROUGH WHICH VAPOR MAY
PASS. ALTHOUGH ASPHALT PAPER IS A GOOD MOISTURE BARRIER, IT IS NOT A VAPOR BARRIER, AND SHOULD BE USED ON THE
OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING FOR THAT PURPOSE.

MATERIALS USED AS VAPOR BARRIERS:

POLYETHYLENE FILM THIS IS CHEMICALLY INERT PLASTIC, UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS, ALKALIS AND CAUSTICS,
PRODUCED IN ROLLS OF 3 TO 20 FT. WIDE. COMMON THICKNESSES ARE 2,3,4 AND 6 MIL (1MIL = .001 IN.) THIS FILM IS
USEFUL NOT ONLY AS VAPOR BARRIER FOR WALLS, CEILINGS AND FLOORS BUT ALSO AS A BARRIER TO PREVENT THE
PASSAGE OF MOISTURE FROM THE EARTH UPWARD THROUGH A CONCRETE SLAB LAIN ON THE GROUND.
POLYETHYLENE FILM CAN BE APPLIED VERTICALLY IN 36 IN. WIDE STRIPS TO STUDDING ON 16 IN. CENTERS WITH A
FULL OVERLAP ON ALTERNATE STUDS. FILMS ARE STAPLED TO STUDS. OVERLAPS AND EXTENSIONS TO FLOORS AND
WALLINGS SHALL BE 6 IN.

ALUMINUM FOIL USED AS VAPOR BARRIER AS A SINGLE SHEET, OR AS A THIN LAYER OF FOIL LAMINATED TO A
HEAVY BACKING OF ASPHALT-IMPREGNATED KRAFT PAPER. THIS IS ALSO DONE WITH TWO LAYERS OF FOIL LAMINATED
WITH ASPHALT CEMENT.

KRAFT PAPER COATED WITH ASPHALT OR WAX. SOMETIMES TWO LAYERS OF PAPER ARE CEMENTED WITH A
CONTINOUS LAYER OF ASPHALT. ANOTHER MATERIALS USED FOR DAMP-PROOFING OF CONCRETE WALLS IS
WEATHERKOTE BITUMINOUS EMULSION, BY SHELL.

THERMAL INSULATION

IN COLD WEATHER, WE ARE INTERESTED IN TRANSFERRING HEAT FROM FURNACES, RADIATORS, HEATING PANELS, INTO VARIOUS
ROOMS OF OUR BUILDINGS. AT THE SAME TIME WE ARE INTERESTED IN PREVENTING THAT HEAT FROM BEING TRANSFERRED FROM
THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING TO THE OUTSIDE.

DURING THE SUMMER, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HOT OUTSIDE TEMPERATURES TO THE WORKING AND
LIVING SPACE WITHIN OUR BUILDINGS.

ALL OF THESE ARE DONE BY THE JUDICIOUS USE OF MATERIALS WHICH IS BEST PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HEAT, THIS WE CALL
THERMAL INSULATION.

KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION

LOOSE FILL THIS BULKY AND DIVIDED INTO:

FIBROUS TYPE

GRANULAR INSULATION

FIBROUS LOOSE FILL

GRANULE

BLANKET INSULATION- IS MADE FROM SOME FIBROUS MATERIAL SUCH AS MINERAL WOOL, WOOD FIBER, COTTON FIBER, OR
ANIMAL HAIR.

BATTS

STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD

STRAWBOARD

CORKBOARD

BLOCK OR RIGID SLAB INSULATION THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS SO CALLED BLOCK OR RIGID BECAUSE THE UNITS ARE
RELATIVELY STIFF AND INELASTIC.

FOAMED PLASTIC INSULATION

CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION

FOAMED CONCRETE

CELLULAR HARD RUBBER

SHREDDED WOOD OR WOOD FIBER

RIGID SLAB INSULATION

RIGID INSULATION- WHICH ARE IMPERVOUS TO MOISTURE PENETRATION RESULTING FROM CONTINUOUS
CONTACT WITH THE EARTH AND MOISTURE ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL AS PERIMETER INSULATION.

REFLECTIVE INSULATION

ALUMINUM FOIL

COPPER- FOIL INSULATIONS

REFLECTIVE INSULATION

SHEET FOIL

FOAMED-IN PLACE INSULATION THIS IS POLYURETHANE PRODUCT MADE BY COMBINING A POLYISOCYANATE AND A POLYESTER
RESIN. THIS TYPE OF INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED EITHER BY POURING OR BY SPRAYING. THE BASIC INGREDIENTS FOR BOTH
ARE DRAWN FROM THEIR CONTAINERS, MEASURED, AND MIXED BY MACHINE.

APPLICATION BY POURING

APPLICATION BY SPRAYING

SPRAYED-ON-INSULATIONS MATERIALS USED ARE POLYURETHANE FOAM ASBESTOS FIBER MIXED WITH INORGANIC BINDERS,
VERMICULITE AGGREGATE WITH A BINDER SUCH AS PORTLAND CEMENT OR GYPSUM AND PERLITE AGGREGATE USING GYPSUM
AS A BINDER. MACHINES ARE USED FOR BLOWING THESE INSULATIONS INTO PLACE; AS A RESULT THE SHAPE OR IRREGULARITY
OF THE SURFACE BEING INSULATED IS OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCE.

ASBESTOS FIBER INSULATION

CORRUGATED INSULATION

SOIL TESTING
LARGER THAN A SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE, IT IS NECESSARY TO DETERMINE THE SOIL AND WATER CONDITION BENEATH THE SITE.

METHOD OF SOIL TESTING:

1.

DIGGING TEST PITS ARE USEFUL WHEN FOUNDATION IS NOT EXPECTED TO EXTEND DEEPER THAT ABOUT 8 FEET WHICH IS THE
MAXIMUM PRACTICAL REACH OF SMALL EXCAVATION MACHINE.

2.

TEST BORING BORING WITH STANDARD PENETRATION TESTS CAN GIVE AN INDICATION OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL
BY THE NUMBER OF BLOWS OF A STANDARD DRIVING HAMMER REQUIRED TO ADVANCE A SAMPLING TUBE INTO THE SOIL BY A
FIXED AMOUNT.

TYPES OF SOILS:

ROCK IS A CONTINUOUS MASS OF SOLID MINERAL MATERIALS, SUCH AS GRANITE OR LIMESTONE, THAT CAN ONLY BE REMOVED BY
DRILLING AND BLASTING.

SOIL IS A GENERAL TERM REFERRING TO EARTH MATERIAL.

BOULDER IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL IS TOO LARGE TO LIFT BY HAND.

COBBLE IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL TAKES THE WHOLE HAND TO LIFT.

GRAVEL IF THE PARTICLE CAN BE LIFTED EASILY WITH THUMB AND FOREFINGER.

SAND IF THE PARTICLE SEEN BUT ARE TOO SMALL TO BE PICKED UP.

FINE GRAINED SOIL IF THE PARTICLES ARE TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN.

SILT

CLAY

PILE DRIVING
MATERIAL USED IN PILE FOUNDATION ARE:
1.

TIMBER

2.

CONCRETE

3.

STEEL

TIMBER CANNOT RESIST HIGH STRESSES DUE TO HARD DRIVING THAT IS REQUIRED TO PENETRATE HIHLY RESISTANT LAYER OF SOIL.
THE TIP OF THE TIMBER PILE WHICH COULD BE EASILY DAMAGED IS PROTECTED BY THE USE OF STEEL SHOES, ON THE OTHERHAND THE
BUTT IS ALSO PROVIDED WITH AN AMPLE PROTECTION BY THE USE OF CUSHION BLOCK.

CONCRETE PILES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES:


1.

2.

CAST-IN-PLACE

CASED IS CAST INSIDE A METAL SHELL FORM WHICH ARE LEFT IN THE GROUND.

UNCASED ELIMINATE THE METAL CASING.

PRECAST PILES ARE REINFORCED TO RESIST HIGH STRESS CAUSED BY THE HAMMER IN DRIVING.

METAL PILE IS AN EXCELLENT AMTERIAL FOR PILE BECAUSE OF ITS STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS TO WITHSTAND HARD DRIVING AND
RAPID PENETRATION INTO THE GROUND, RELATIVELY WITH SMALL MATERIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

DIFFERENT METAL PILES:

H-BEARING PILES

BOS PILES

RAIL PILES