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NFPA 2001 (2004 Ed.

)
Standard For Clean Agent
Extinguishing Systems
Presented by:
Jeff L. Harrington, P.E.
For:
SFPE Southeastern Chapter

KEY POINTS
AGENT TOXICITY ISSUES (45 mins.)
INERT AGENTS
HALOCARBON AGENTS

CUP BURNER (2 mins.)


NEW TASK GROUP

Q&A (13 mins.)

January 20, 2004

KEY TERMS
Cardiac
Sensitization
Asphyxiation
NOAEL
LOAEL
PBPK Model
Arterial Blood
Level
3

Cup Burner Value


Design
Concentration
Exposure Time
Pre-Discharge
Alarm

January 20, 2004

INERT AGENT TOXICITY


FIRE EXTINGUISHING PROCESS
DISCHARGE INERT AGENT
DISPLACES OXYGEN
REDUCES OXYGEN TO ABOUT 12%
FIRE CANT SUSTAIN COMBUSTION
FIRE IS EXTINGUISHED
LOW O2 LEVEL HARMFUL TO HUMANS
4

January 20, 2004

INERT AGENT TOXICITY


ASPHYXIATION
VERY MISUNDERSTOOD
FUNCTION OF O2% AND TIME
TOO LITTLE OXYGEN (O2)
OVER TOO MUCH TIME
EQUALS DEATH

January 20, 2004

INERT AGENT TOXICITY


AGENT TRADE NAME
ARGONITE
FE-13
FE-25
FM-200
HALON 1301
INERGEN
NN100
NOVEC 1230

CUP BURNER
35
12.9
8.7
6.6
4.1
31
31
4.5

January 20, 2004

NOAEL

LOAEL
43
30
7.5
9
5
43
43
10

52
>50
10.0
10.5
7.5
52
52
>10

INERT AGENT TOXICITY


NFPA 2001 (2004 Ed)
AGENT % - LTE 43 (GTE 12% O2)
OCCUPIED SPACES LTE 5 m. EXPOSURE

AGENT % - GT 43 & LTE 52 (12 TO 10)


OCCUPIED SPACES LTE 3 m. EXPOSURE

January 20, 2004

INERT AGENT TOXICITY


NFPA 2001 (2004 Ed)
AGENT % - GT 52 & LTE 62 (10 TO 8)
NOT OCCUPIED LTE 30 s. EXPOSURE

AGENT % - GT 62 (LT 8)
NOT OCCUPIED SPACES NO EXPOSURE

January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
FIRE EXTINGUISHING PROCESS
VARIES BETWEEN AGENTS
HEAT ABSORBTION IS THE PRIMARY
MECHANISM
GENERALLY, OXYGEN LEVELS REMAIN
AT SAFE LEVELS FOR HUMANS

January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
CARDIAC SENSITIVITY
HISTORY CARBON TETRICHLORIDE
ARTERIAL BLOOD LEVEL
PLUS ADRENALINE
EQUALS HEART ARRHYTHMIA
BREATHING = BLOOD LEVEL
DISCHARGE = STRESS/ADRENALINE
10

January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
CS TESTING BEAGLES
SIX DOGS ON TREADMILL
BREATHING AGENT % FOR 5 MINUTES
SHOCKED WITH ADRENALINE
HEART EFFECT MEASURED
ARTERIAL BLOOD LEVEL MEASURED
ONE OR MORE DOGS
11

January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
NOAEL AND LOAEL CONCEPTS
COST LIMITATIONS & DATA
MARKET VIABILITY

12

January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
AGENT TRADE NAME
ARGONITE
FE-13
FE-25
FM-200
HALON 1301
INERGEN
NN100
NOVEC 1230

13

CUP BURNER
35
12.9
8.7
6.6
4.1
31
31
4.5

January 20, 2004

NOAEL

LOAEL
43
30
7.5
9
5
43
43
10

52
>50
10.0
10.5
7.5
52
52
>10

HALOCARBON TOXICITY

ORIGINAL RULES TOO STRICT


MARKET NEEDED RELAXATION
COMMITTEE DEMANDED SCIENCE
SCIENCE IS PBPK MODEL
MODEL FULLY VALIDATED
MODEL VERY CONSERVATIVE
MODEL ALLOWS RELAXATION

14

January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
OLD RULES

DESIGN
CONCENTRATION

NORMAL
OCCUPANCY

EXPOSURE TIME
LIMIT

NOTES

HALOCARBONS 1996 Edition of NFPA 2001


LTE NOAEL
OCCUPIED
NO LIMIT
GT NOAEL
NOT OCCUPIED 0 SECONDS

GTE NOAEL

15

OCCUPIED

0 SECONDS

January 20, 2004

EXCEPTION FOR
CLASS B
HAZARDS

Applicable Exposure Scenarios

People in building or space protected by flooding agent

Yes

Fire Drives Risk

Fire Present
No
Yes

Egress Before
Discharge?

No Exposure

No

Exposure Scenario
of Interest

16

Unintentional
Exposure

January 20, 2004

Establish Safe Exposure Time

Overview of Process

- Expose epinephrine treated dogs


to FE agent via inhalation
- Determination lowest exposure
concentration that causes cardiac
sensitization (LOAEL in dog)

Determine critical arterial


blood level of FE Agent

-Measure FE agent arterial blood level


attained during LOAEL exposure in dog

17

January 20, 2004

Determination of the arterial blood level of HFC FE Agent during


cardiac sensitization test.

Chemical Exposure
Chamber

FE Agent Concentration in Dog


Arterial Blood During Inhalation
FE Agent Concentration
in Arterial Blood (mg/L)

60
50

40

FE Agent concentration in
arterial blood measured at
5-min point

30

20

Epinephrine injected at 5-min


point and cardiac response
noted

10
0
0

Time (minutes)
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January 20, 2004

The lowest 5-minute FE Agent


concentration in dog arterial blood
at which cardiac sensitization is
observed becomes the critical blood
concentration. The critical blood
concentration must not be reached or
exceeded in humans exposed to the
chemical.

Overview of Process

- Expose epinephrine treated dogs


to FE agent via inhalation
- Determination lowest exposure
concentration that causes cardiac
sensitization (LOAEL in dog)

Determine critical arterial


blood level of FE Agent

-Measure FE agent arterial blood level


attained during LOAEL exposure in dog

- Develop and validate human PBPK


model.
Simulate FE Agent concentration
in arterial blood of rapid/high uptake
humans during inhalation exposure

- Use Monte Carlo simulation to


describe individuals who take up FE
agent quickly and to high levels.
- Use model to keep track of FE agent
distribution following inhalation

19

January 20, 2004

QP

Alveolar
Space

CI
QC

Lung Blood

CV

Fat Tissue Group

CVF

Vm

7/15/1999

20

QP
CX
QC
CA

QF
CA

Km

CVL

Liver/Metabolizing
Tissue Group

QL
CA

QS

CVS

Slowly Perfused
Tissue Group

CVR

Rapidly Perfused
Tissue Group

Gary W. Jepson, DuPont Haskell Laboratory

January 20, 2004

CA

QR
CA
11

Overview of Process

- Expose epinephrine treated dogs


to FE agent via inhalation
- Determination lowest exposure
concentration that causes cardiac
sensitization (LOAEL in dog)

Determine critical arterial


blood level of FE Agent

-Measure FE agent arterial blood level


attained during LOAEL exposure in dog
- Develop and validate human PBPK
model.
Simulate FE Agent concentration
in arterial blood of rapid/high uptake
humans during inhalation exposure

- Use Monte Carlo simulation to


describe individuals who take up FE
agent quickly and to high levels.
- Use model to keep track of FE agent
distribution following inhalation
- Exercise human PBPK model
under exposure conditions of interest
and determine time required to reach
critical arterial blood concentration
of FE agent

Determine time required to reach


criticalhuman arterial blood
concentration of FE agent for
a given exposure concentration

21

January 20, 2004

FE Agent Level in Blood (mg/L)

Simulation of Chemical Levels in Human Arterial Blood


During Inhalation of FE Agent

13.0%

10.0%

7.0%
Measured FE agent level
in arterial blood after
inhaling the FE agent for
5 min at the NOAEL
during the CS test

Exposure Time (min)


22

Measured FE agent level


in arterial blood after
inhaling the FE agent for
5 min at the LOAEL
during the CS test

January 20, 2004

Arterial Conc (mg/L) of FE


Agent

Simulated Human Arterial Blood Levels of FE Agent


During Inhalation
Measured FE agent
level in arterial
blood after
inhaling the FE
agent for 5 min at
the LOAEL during
the CS test

70.0
65.0
60.0
55.0
50.0
45.0
40.0
35.0

Target
11.0%
11.5%

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

Time (Minutes)

23

January 20, 2004

4.0

5.0

12.0%
12.5%
13.0%

PBPK FOR FM-200


%v/v
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
24

Ppm
Human Exposure
90,000
5.00 min.
95,000
5.00 min.
100,000
5.00 min.
105,000
5.00 min.
110,000
1.13 min.
115,000
.60 min.
120,000
.49 min.
January 20, 2004

PBPK FOR FE-25


%v/v
7.5
10.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
25

Ppm
Human Exposure
75,000
5.00 min.
100,000
5.00 min.
115,000
5.00 min.
120,000
1.67 min.
125,000
0.59 min.
130,000
0.54 min.
135,000
0.49 min.
January 20, 2004

HALOCARBON TOXICITY
NEW RULES
DESIGN
NORMAL
EXPOSURE TIME LIMIT
CONCENTRATION
OCCUPANCY
HALOCARBONS 2004 Edition of NFPA 2001
LTE NOAEL
OCCUPIED
5 MINUTES

OCCUPIED

PBPK MODEL LIMIT


CORRESPONDING TO
DESIGN
CONCENTRATION AND
5 MINUTES EXPOSURE

GT NOAEL & LOAEL

OCCUPIED

PBPK MODEL LIMIT


CORRESPONDING TO
DESIGN
CONCENTRATION
LESS THAN 5 MINUTES
EXPOSURE

LTE LOAEL

NOT OCCUPIED

60 SECONDS

GT LOAEL

NOT OCCUPIED

30 SECONDS

GT NOAEL & LOAEL

26

January 20, 2004

NOTES
NO PBPK NEEDED

NEED PBPK

CONDITIONS:
1. APPROVAL BY AHJ
2. EGRESS
CALCULATION PROOF
3. ADHERE TO PBPK
EXPOSURE LIMIT
NO PBPK MODEL
DATA
NO PBPK MODEL
DATA

CUP BURNER TASK


GROUP

27

INITIATED JANUARY 2004


INCREASE ACCURACY
INCREASE REPEATABILITY
ADDRESS INERT AGENTS
DEFINE STANDARD APPARATUS
DEFINE TESTING PROTOCOL
January 20, 2004

Q&A

28

January 20, 2004