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Foundation System transfers the lateral loads on the superstructure to the ground.

Individual or isolated footings are spread footings supporting free-standing columns and piers.

Shallow or spread foundations are employed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs relatively near
the ground surface.

Mat foundations, like continuous footings are used on soil of low bearing power where there is a tendency towards
unequal settlement due to unequal loading of soil. In this type of foundation all parts of the foundation are so tied
together so that they will act as one and assist each other in keeping level and plumb.

Deep foundations are employed when the soil underlying a shallow foundation is unstable or of inadequate soil
bearing capacity.

STEEL GRILLAGE FOUNDATION When it is desired to avoid the deep excavation required for concrete and
masonry footings, and when the load has to be distributed over a wide area of support, steel rails or beams are
used to give the required moment of resistance with a minimum of depth.

pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on concrete or timber piles that have been driven into soft or unstable
ground to provide a suitable stable foundation.
pile ring a steel band which encircles the head of a timber pile to prevent it from splitting when being driven.

caisson are cast-in-place, plain or reinforced concrete piers formed by boring with a large auger or excavating by
hand a shaft in the earth to a suitable bearing stratum and filling the shaft with concrete.

Strip footings are the continuous spread footings of foundation walls.

Stepped footings are strip footings that change levels to accommodate a sloping grade and maintain the required
depth at all points around a building.

A pile foundation is a system of end bearing or friction piles, pile caps, and tie beams for transferring building
loads down to a suitable bearing stratum.

Wood-pile Foundations. When it is required to build upon a compressible soil saturated with water and of
considerable depth, the most practicable method of obtaining a solid and enduring foundation for buildings of
moderate height is by driving wooden piles. Wooden piles are made from the trunks of trees and should be as
straight as possible, and not less than 5 in diameter at small end for light buildings, or 8 for heavy buildings.

Concrete Piles. Concrete piles, either plain or reinforced, possess many advantages over wooden piles and, in
general, can be used in all places where wooden piles can be driven. Concrete piles are generally used where
wooden piles would be subject to decay or deterioration by the action of marine worms.

Composite Piles. These are combination timber and concrete or steel and concrete piles.

Long columns occur when the unsupported height is more than ten times the shortest lateral dimension of the
cross section.

Short columns occur when the unsupported height is not greater than ten times the shortest lateral dimension of
the cross section.
Dowel bars are short bars used to transfer the stress at the bottom of the columns to the footings.

Composite Columns where structural steel columns are embedded into the concrete core of a spiral column.

Protective covering for the column reinforcement shall not be less than 1-1/2 (38 mm).

ONE-WAY SLABS Probably the most commonly used type or reinforced concrete construction consists of a solid
slab supported by two parallel beams, the beams framing into girders, and the girders in turn framing into columns.
The reinforcement slabs runs in one direction only, from beam to beam, hence the slab is known as one-way slab.

ONE WAY JOIST OR RIBBED SLABS For medium span lengths with light or medium live loads, ribbed slabs have
proved to have an economical type of floor construction. They are not so well suited to heavy concentrated loads as
the solid one or two-way slabs. A one-way joist slab consists of relatively small adjacent T-beams.
TWO-WAY SLABS When a floor panel is square or nearly so, having beams or walls on four sides, it is generally
economical to use two sets of reinforcing bars placed at right angles to each other. These bars in two directions
transfer the loads to the four supporting beams or walls. Slabs thus reinforced are known as two way slabs or slabs
supported on four sides.

RIBBED SLABS When the open spaces between the webs or rings are filled with clay tile, gypsum tile, concrete
filler block or steel forms, the floor system is called a ribbed slab.

The beams are spaced uniformly and generally frame into the girders at the center, third or quarter points. This type
of framing is called the beam-and-girder floor
Metal tile fillers are frequently used for ribbed floors. This is commonly known as tin-pan construction. The metal
forms are usually 36 long, with 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 in. depths. They are placed on centers in such a manner as to
make the web 4 to 7 in. wide at the lowest point. Form widths are generally 20 or 30 in.; a common condition is a
form 20 in. wide, placed 25 in. on centers, to make a web 5 wide at the bottom.

A waffle slab is a two way concrete slab reinforced by ribs in two directions. Waffle slabs are able to carry heavier
loads and span longer distances than flat slabs.

TWO WAY FLAT PLATE. A flat plate is a concrete slab of uniform thickness reinforced in two or more directions
and supported directly by columns without beams or girders. Simplicity of forming, lower floor-to-floor heights, and
some flexibility in column placement make flat plates practical for apartment and hotel construction.

One-Way System The arrangement of steel reinforcement within a slab that is designed to bend in only one

Beam may be defined as a structural member, resting on supports usually at its ends, which supports transverse
loads. The loads that act on the beam, as well as the weight of the beam itself, tend to bend rather than lengthen or
shorten it

Girder is a term applied to a beam that supports one or more smaller beams, as concentrated loads.

Simple beams. These are beams having a single span with a support at each end, there being no restraint at the

Cantilever beams. These are beams that are supported at one end only, or they may be that portion of beams
projecting beyond one of its supports.

Continuous beams. These are beams resting on more than two supports. The term semi-continuous is also
frequently used in reinforced-concrete. It refers to a beam having two spans with little or no restraint at the two
extreme ends of the beam. The end span of a continuous beam, where little or restraint is provided at the end
support, is referred to as a semi-continuous beam.

When a beam is subjected to a given load, the beam is bent downwards at the middle, the lower part of the beam
being elongated while the upper part is compressed. The lower part of the beam is said to be in tension, while the
upper part is in compression.

The section of a beam at which the bending moment changes from positive to negative is called the point of

Reinforcement used to resist shearing stresses is known as web reinforcement. Ties are frequently used for web
reinforcement in place of stirrups. A tie is generally made of #3 bars, but it completely encircles the longitudinal
tensile steel instead of being U-shaped with hooks.

Bearing wall. A wall on which either floor or roof construction rests.

Curtain wall. The enclosing wall of an iron or steel framework or the non-bearing portion of an enclosing wall
between piers.
Foundation wall. That portion of an enclosing wall below the first tier of joists.

Retaining wall. A subsurface wall built to resist the lateral pressure of internal loads.

Spandrel wall. The space between any arch and the beam over the same; or an exterior non-bearing wall in
skeleton construction built between columns or piers and wholly supported at each story.

Panel walls are exterior non-load bearing walls whose outer surface may or may not form the exterior facing of the
building and whose interior surface may or may not form the interior finish.

Stone masonry panels are natural or artificial stone slabs which are anchored to the building structure by masonry
Gravity wall. This is a type of wall which is constructed of such proportions that its weight alone resists the thrust of
the earth. Low walls are invariably gravity walls constructed of brick, stone masonry or concrete.

Cantilever wall. The cantilever wall is constructed of reinforced concrete and makes use of the weight of the earth
in resisting the tendency to overturn at the outer edge.

Counterfort wall. It is similar to the cantilever wall with the exception that the vertical wall is tied to the base at
regular intervals with triangular-shaped walls called counterforts ( a counterfort is similar to a buttress, but where a
buttress is placed on the side of the wall opposite the pressure acting on it, a counterfort is placed on the same side
of the wall ).

A pre-stressed concrete beam is a member so designed and constructed that all of the stresses in the concrete
resulting from bending are compressive, none is tensile. The name is derived from the fact that the stresses are
applied before the beam is loaded.

Pre-tensioning or bonded prestressing. In this method the reinforcing steel is first prestressed and then the
concrete is poured. When the concrete has developed strength, the stress in the steel is released.

Post-tensioning or unbonded pre-stressing. In this method, tubes, conduits, or channels are inserted in the
concrete where reinforcing steel is required.

Precast concrete slabs, beams and structural tees are one-way spanning units that may be supported by site cast
concrete, precast concrete, or masonry bearing walls, or by steel, sitecast concrete, or precast concrete frames.

Waterproofing a method of making building surfaces impervious to water.

Damp-proofing applying a water-impervious material or a vapor barrier to a surface, usually slab-on-fill, to

prevent the penetration of moisture, from the ground or the exterior or to prevent the penetration of condensate to
the surface material.
Water repelling or water sealing applying, by brush or low-pressure spray, a clear silicon water repellent or
sealant to porous surface material such as cement plaster and bricks to prevent weathering or the growth of algae
and moss..

Thermal insulation method of installing thermal barriers in surfaces of structures to keep the heat or cold away
from the interior spaces.
Damp-proofing -Example is BARRAFILM vapor barrier, one layer at six mils (0.006) thick, with 300 mm
Water repelling or water sealing- Example is THOMPSONS Water Seal
Soil poisoning treating the soil surrounding the structure in touch with the ground (footing bed and slab on fill)
with a chemical. Example is LENTREK TC Termicide Concentrate; dilution rating: 1 part LENTREK TC to 50 parts

Rat proofing a method of protecting rooms against the intrusion of rats and other small destructive animals from
gnawing the wooden parts of the house and habitating the under-ceilings and under-floors of houses and buildings.

Fire proofing application of cover materials to structural steel components or systems to provide increased fire
resistance. Also called sprayed fireproofing. Example is FLAMESHIELD FIREPROOFING, MONOKOTE MK-6,

Cantilevered footing

composite pile

pile column