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The Necessary Role of the Arts in Education and Society

:
Finding the Creative Power Within Us
to Control Our Lives and Shape Our Destinies
by Eric Oddleifson, Chairman, CABC
September 1996

Table of Contents












The Power of Balance, and Wholeness -- and the Interrelated Roles of Art, Science, and Business
Education's Mission
Reason and Analysis, by Themselves, Are No Longer Sufficient
The Individual as a Creative Power
Business -- Changing How We Think and Interact
Changing What We Mean by Science
The Metaphysics of Quality -- A More Inclusive Mental Model
Awakening the Craving to Comprehend
The Power of the Imagination
The Better Alternative -- Perceptive Reason, Informed by the Aesthetic
Appendix:
The Worldwide Business Community in the 21st Century -- Providing the Balance between
Universal Morality and Individual Freedom
Notes
About the Author

The world we live in, including the experience of our bodies, is completely dictated by how we
learn to perceive it. If we change our perceptions, we change the experience of our bodies and our
world.
- - Deepak Chopra, MD
Many biologists believe that intelligent behavior is inextricably linked to some kind of sensory
perception.
- - The Economist, May 18, 1996
The arts are organized perception.
- - Leonard Shlain
One could argue that the apotheosis of work in any symbol system is its high artistic achievement.
The educational implications of this view are profound.
- - Elliot Eisner
I have argued that arts can form the basis of school norms and work in a manner which is
incredibly powerful.

- - Ron Berger, sixth grade teacher
The aesthetic education of man is his one true preparation for rational life, and the foundation of
any ordered politics."
- - Schiller
The three year study indicates that using arts processes to teach academic subjects results not
only in improved understanding of content, but in greatly improved self-regulatory behavior. This
answers our key question: whether skills from the arts transfer to other areas. Using arts
processes proved extremely powerful.
- - Horace, May 1996
The ultimate motive power in education and life is the sense of value, the sense of importance. It
takes the various forms of wonder, of curiosity, of reverence -- of tumultuous desire for merging
personality in something beyond itself. This sense of value, of importance, imposes on life
incredible labors, and apart from it life sinks back into passivity, and apathy.
The most penetrating exhibition of this force is the sense of beauty, the aesthetic sense of realized
perfection. This thought leads me to ask' whether in our modern education we emphasize
sufficiently the function of art.
We cannot without great loss, ignore in our inner lives, in the life of the spirit, so great a factor as
art! Our aesthetic emotions provide us with vivid apprehensions of value. If you maim these, you
weaken the force of the whole system of inner awareness and progress and of spiritual
apprehensions.
- - Alfred North Whitehead
The real cognitive potential in the arts inheres in a twofold disclosure of the hidden dimensions of
self and world, and of their interconnectedness.
- - Douglas Sloan

The Power of Balance, and Wholeness and the Interrelated Roles of Art, Science,
and Business
We need to deepen our capacities for intelligent thought and action. We rely primarily on
analysis and reason, and seek little understanding from our perceptions, intuitions,
insights, feelings, and emotions. Yet there is a power in balancing reason with perception.
Capacities emerge, useful in shaping our destinies, and the world we live in. Once we
discover how to access these inner strengths, each and every one of us gains control over
the events that influence our lives.
A number of professions seek to understand this power better. Academics such as
Harvard's Howard Gardner and David Perkins, Yale's Robert Sternberg, and Stanford's
Elliot Eisner have significantly advanced our understanding of the nature of intelligence
and how knowledge is constructed. Economists now focus on human knowledge and
skills as vital "factors" of production causing economic growth. Some scientists seek a
more humanistic, integrative science. Mathematicians claim aesthetics as the grounding
for their discipline. Educators now understand that intelligence is multifaceted, complex,

and not easily measured -- at least with existing tools. The business community, seeing
the ability to construct knowledge as a competitive advantage, is attempting to
understand the phenomenon of organizational learning and is addressing the problem of
assessing/measuring the qualitative aspects of human development.
The coming decades will see a growing interest in the relationship of the inner man to the
outer world, and qualities as expressions of subjective truths. Deeper capacities for
intelligent thought will provide us with the tools to improve the world and our individual
positions in it. The law of "intention and desire" (as described by that now famous Indian
doctor Deepak Chopra), as well as the power of the imagination, and intentionality in
perception (as noted by the quantum physicist Stephen Edelglass), will become the basis
of a new renaissance in humanistic thought and action. As unlikely as it may seem, we
predict this renaissance will be led by business, and fed by a merging of the arts with the
sciences.
The sciences, together with their "symbol system," mathematics, will not, by themselves,
yield ultimate, irreducible truths, despite scientists fervent desire that they do so. Our
continuing hope that science, with its focus on understanding and controlling the natural
world, will save us from ourselves, and bung peace, love, and harmony to the world, is
misplaced. We must either look beyond science, or better understand its true nature in
order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the world and man's relationship to
it.
Science is a continuing process of discovery. Joseph Campbell described science as the
process of developing new thoughts, new things, and continuing transformation.
For the really great and essential fact about the scientific revelation - - the most
wonderful and most challenging fact -- is that science does not and cannot pretend
to be 'true' in any absolute sense. It does not and cannot pretend to be final. It is a
tentative organization of mere 'working hypotheses' that for the present appear to
take into account all the relevant facts now known.
And is there no implied intention, then, to rest satisfied with some final body or
sufficient number of facts?
No indeed! There is to be only a continuing search for more as of a mind eager to
grow. And that growth, as long as it lasts, will be the measure of the life of
modern Western man, and of the world with all its promise that he has brought
and is still bringing into being: which is to say, a world of change, new thoughts,
new things, new magnitudes, and continuing transformation, not of petrifaction,
rigidity, and some canonized found 'truth.'
And so, my friends, we don't know a thing, and not even our science can tell us
sooth; for it is no more than, so to say, an eagerness for truths, no matter where
their allure may lead.) 1

with language.. There is a pressing need to fully understand the root causes of this slowdown." devised by Robert Kaplan at the Harvard Business School.We predict that business will become as active as science and the arts in seeking truths about man's intelligence and relation to the world. with myth. A second strand of new growth theory seeks to put technological progress explicitly in the neoclassic model as well.the addition of knowledge and skills -. Business needs to broaden its understanding of the factors of production. Peter Drucker.to reverse it. is responding to this need in providing tools to measure more qualitative aspects of productivity and growth -. In the world view of many mathematicians and philosophers. with patterns. within the business firm. Business also realizes that our perceptive capacities may be more important than we had ever imagined. not decreasing. even without technological progress. 2 Drucker observes that by teaching the arts as the rigorous disciplines they are. They deal with perception. The reason -. In governmental and business planning we increasingly talk of 'scenarios' in which perception is the starting point. an 'ecology' is perception rather than analysis. which in neoclassic growth theory. In an ecology.with signs and symbols.an example being "The Balanced Scorecard. . may not apply.but we fail to do so. and begins to examine the relationship between human learning -. of course. The old law of diminishing returns on financial capital.e. if human capital (i. And. of economic productivity in the western world. been excluded from the model. mysterious. This line of inquiry suggests the need to properly measure employee learning. the 'whole' has to be seen and understood. and R&D. Contemporary philosophers deal with configurations -. returns to financial capital. He says. and meaning requires at its heart common perception. New economic growth theory suggests that growth can continue indefinitely. includes land. we could enhance our perceptive capacities -.to enhanced technology. without added technology. The accounting profession. labor (as a cost) and financial capital. as well as the apparent failure of technology. Our leading business management writer. the knowledge and skills embodied in the workforce) is included as a factor of production.the dramatic slowing in the past 25 years. long focused on purely financial measures of performance. argues that mankind is in the midst of evolutionary transformation from analysis as the organizing principle of life to one where perception is at the center. and the 'parts' exist only in contemplation of the whole. historically. with its law of diminishing returns. Technology has. perception was 'intuition' and either spurious or mystical. as has the benefits of added knowledge (most likely because of the difficulties inherent in its measurement). despite massive capital infusion -. elusive. Attention to human capital can yield increasing. Information based societies are organized around meaning.

demanding discipline it is for the artist. Perception. science has labeled them "not real" -with growing. 'Intuition' the analysts asserted. with no cognitive base. as powerful as pure reason can ever be. Schiller noted many years ago that the aesthetic education of man is his one true preparation for rational life. or understanding. smell. The arts awaken the "craving to comprehend" -. The arts are seen by many as pure emotion.' the things we can do without. hearing. and visual art. Needed is a new paradigm. They are hampered by the three centuries old "mental model" of Enlightenment thinking." but are largely ignored. Because the arts deal with qualities. rather than "an eagerness for truths" expressed in "symbol systems" other than those used by science (words and numbers). not quantities." they are identical to the scientific process of discovery and represent an equally powerful measure for exploring the relationship of man to nature.3 And what of the arts in all this? Arts advocates shout. the mechanical world view asserts. Yet recent research into the functioning of the brain reveals that the senses (sight. and mind. touch. or "meta-ability. Daniel Coleman. science reporter for the New York Times. and taste) are forms of cognition. which denies their validity as legitimate and necessary functions of the intellect." governing how well or poorly people are able to use their other mental capabilities. Lila -. perception is at the center." Yet the arts also suffer from being narrowly viewed as music. As expressions of an "eagerness for truth. can neither be taught nor trained. In the biological universe.Science did not deny its existence (though a good many scientists did). How critical the arts are to these new understandings is found in one definition of the arts as "emotion. And the emotions themselves are now seen as underpinning our capacities for constructive thought. We do not teach art as the rigorous. in his book Emotional Intelligence. with his Metaphysics of Quality (found in his book. dance. "we have the answer.be trained and developed. Coleman suggests that emotional intelligence is a master intelligence. a new mental model to encompass the discovery process of both science and art. A way to link the aesthetics of both science and art has been suggested by author Robert Pirsig. and potentially disastrous consequences for the western world. This craving is the motivating force behind all learning. with its continuing revelations of interconnectedness. is not 'serious' but is relegated to the 'finer things of life. wrapped in intelligence. suggests we view the arts as high quality . Pirsig. We teach 'art appreciation' in our schools as indulgence in pleasure. reveals new understandings of the emotions as another cognitive system hardwired into our brains. however. It denied its validity. author of Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.An Inquiry into Morals). And it can -indeed it must -.as does scientific exploration. and the foundation of any ordered politics. theatre.

Making the arts in this sense the center of education means above all summoning up the image of the whole of education itself as involving an artistic approach and sensitivity. My position has been that arts are not just important for the 'carryover effect.their use of time. argues the same point. are at the core of the late Ernest Boyer's Basic School curriculum. active and . As unlikely as it may seem. and as the practical way to access the power of the aesthetic. a sixth grade teacher in Shutesbury. Even motorcycle maintenance can be art if performed to the highest standards. . which are academic subjects in their own right). The article goes on to say. in support of Schiller's view of its importance. 5 Leading educators embrace this idea. He suggests we apply our broadened understanding of what constitutes art in education by teaching all academic subjects more artistically (including the individual arts disciplines. there is a small. He writes.' of energy and interest which occurs in artistic schools and which fuels academic growth. and not because there is a clear transfer of intelligences. I have argued that arts can form the basis of school norms and standards for work in a manner which is incredibly powerful. but rather an entire structure of creating. grouping instructional strategies. the newsletter of the Coalition of Essential Schools. The arts. representing different ways of seeing and experiencing the reality of the world. Ron Berger. But we also found that this transfer cannot occur unless teachers change their classroom structure. but rather because academic work is embodied in projects which are viewed artistically at all points in their creation. which found that skills from the arts can transfer to other areas -. should indeed guide all we do in school (and in our lives as adults as well). Douglas Sloan.endeavor. writes. It then becomes more accurate to describe education as an art than to speak of the arts in education. of strengthening our various intelligences. MA. In this conception there is no place for that separation between the arts and the rest of the educational curriculum. as forms of language. An article in support of the arts appears in the May 1996 edition of Horace. but growing cadre which recognizes that the arts. . Student work is strong not just because they have more energy for it. Professor of History and Education at Teachers College of Columbia University. critiquing and sharing all academic work within an aesthetic model. It comments on recent research sponsored by the US Department of Education. 4 Education's Mission This then might become schooling's new paradigm.a proposition long denied by most educators. but because they can be at the core of a culture of high standards in a school. It is not a carry-over of energy.

education itself can indeed become an art. for all children to meet the internationally based academic performance standards under development by the New Standards project of the Center for Education and the Economy. They are . the study found. to provide them with the tools to effectively teach within this new classroom environment. students not only do well on standardized testing measures.participatory learning for all kids -. I believe. investment. (and others). scientists.to allow those skills and abilities to come out and be used. with the arts embedded at the core of the curriculum. I have tried to build an environment where art is more than a decoration or supplement for work.much more effective education. There can be a big payoff -. as Ron Berger describes it. and at the same time. and to work together. Berger writes. It is up to community stakeholders (parents. It demands of teachers a willingness to abandon textbooks as much as possible. It would be possible to attend an educational conference on High Standards in Learning and never hear the word art mentioned.' art is the first thing discarded from schools. We saw huge changes for those with more kinesthetic. The infusion of arts has had. Though this approach is different. Indeed. As a whole. and standards. 6 Our challenge then as business people. a profound effect on student understanding. educators. In this fashion. and taxpayers) to support them in their efforts in making education an art. It demands of everyone in the school the courage to trust children with a great deal of responsibility and autonomy. MA. is the most effective way both in pedagogy and cost. to allow teachers to change their classroom structure. This classroom approach is not an easy one. Educators are getting serious about professional development. art is at the core of standards. using arts processes proved extremely powerful. but rather a primary context in which most information is learned and shared. and parents is through policy. In my classroom. It demands of administrators a willingness to sanction and support teachers in doing this. For students who struggle in schools with curricula based primarily on verbal proficiency. in the teaching approach I embrace. the school staff where I work has won over the hearts of a fairly conservative town community through their dedication. but importantly and demonstrably do well in real life measures of learning. to gather and create resources themselves. and through the extraordinary success this approach has had with the town's children. During times of 'educational crisis. service agencies. we believe a classroom centered in the arts. as the townspeople in Shutesbury. at little if any added cost. musical. businesses. have discovered. and artistic tendencies. Interestingly.

regardless of culture or tradition. or at least minimized. between the analytic part of the human mind and the instinctive part. men everywhere. "Are these ideas mankind's finest intellectual achievement -. He writes. by Themselves Are No Longer Sufficient Until the Age of Enlightenment we felt ourselves to be at the mercy of the forces of nature. would discover the universal rules by which they should live their lives. then surely it could also comprehend justice. 8 Enlightened. except for the last step.' the sound waves from my voice bounce against your eardrum. a catastrophic error?" Is a new balance needed. authority. the signals are all but identical. they are strong thinkers and workers. combined with our ability. Scientifically. writers. which is the most important. Reason knows all about this journey. With the discovery of patterns in nature's behavior. right and wrong. as a huge region unknown by science.capable and confident readers. Newton inspired later thinkers to demand ever more of reason. in its seemingly limitless complexity. The power of Newton's great work was that it demonstrated (or appeared to demonstrate) the staggering power of science and the susceptibility of the physical world to human understanding. so that man can address the world more steadily? Have we ignored. between rationality and feeling. "You have terminal cancer. with its materialistic bias. 'I love you. The Economist asks. man would master nature and himself.or. they treat others well. to measure and relate them. setting up a vibration that the inner ear turns into an electric signal. This impulse is passed along the neurons to the brain's speech center. yet the . 7 Reason and Analysis. or rational thinking is now. The rational part of our minds is generally quite fearful of the non rational part.' the same physical impulses carry my voice to your brain's speech center. as The Economist indicates. a whole chunk of our inherent capacity? Deepak Chopra describes "the space beyond reason." or the non rational part of our minds. Through reason. through mathematics. through reason. however. If the intellect could comprehend the universe. As indicated by The Economist. but now you are devastated. If I say. But the threat has been greatly exaggerated. under attack. In that way. and you look pleased. We spend much of our lives in the space beyond reason. as it is once again fashionable to argue. Why are you pleased that I love you? Why do those electrical impulses in the brain have a meaning? If I say a different sentence. and users of math. we experienced the exhilarating feeling that we were no longer at the mercy of mysterious and random forces.

.which serves these interests better than the spontaneous.consequences to this rigid emphasis on the left brain. It is fluid and invisible. suggests we can better access the space beyond reason by developing our right brain capabilities. joy from sorrow. and verbal communication eventually earned it a position of power over the quiescent modes of the right brain. Meaning slips through the fingers of science. financially driven style of social organization. 9 Ned Herrmann. The magic lies in each one but also in between. and in all of our business organizations. rationality.the 'developed' world -. within most of our social institutions. Although it emerged later. As a result. Manager of Management Education at General Electric Company. both a successful sculptor and painter. or weighed. music. Well intentioned teachers take their students down the wrong learning path because they don't know how to discern and use the preferred learning style of each student.has increasingly demanded and reinforced left hemispheric skills. He writes. replicable.the impulse is somehow shared by every bird at once. you have seen them wheel and turn together. as well as. and often atrophy. Dedicated spouses and managers reduce the performance of family members or associates because they are taught to discount rather than appreciate precious differences. It rewarded the left-brain cognitive mode orderly. The materialistic bias of science leads it to shun things that cannot be directly contacted by the senses. Modern Western society -. touched. our civilization focused its attention on behaviors that served the interests of a production oriented. such as art. the squiggles on the readout have nothing to say about what distinguishes love from hate. How does each bird know to turn at the precise instant the others do? Scientists have established that there is no bird acting as leader -. like the air. If you have ever observed a flock of swallows flying at dusk. less structured right modes. As industrialization replaced agriculture. for many years. There have been unfortunate -.results they produce could hardly be more different. over. at great cost to our personal satisfaction as well as our effectiveness as problem-solvers. which typically emphasizes the 'three R's' and neglects -. It has done so within each of us. inspiration from tedium. Well-meaning parents unknowingly constrict their children by failing to recognize and honor right-brain as well as left-brain gifts with respect to education and career choices. and verbal -. business-centered. and around them. but more so. The left-brain modes have become especially entrenched in our educational system.the cognitive capabilities of the right brain. our right-brain capabilities remain latent at best.even devastating -. veering off at impossible tangents in the blink of an eye. Yet nature has reserved a huge region set apart for things that cannot be seen. and dance. An EEG cannot decipher the meaningfulness of brain activity.or even attacks -. intuition. the left brain's cognitive focus on fact.

This is just as true of those who feel 'out of harmony' with their surroundings as of those who are contented with them.The easily dominated right brain needs all the help it can get to reclaim improved status in the Western world. We need to emphasize all the mental skills people favor. but in fact it is a learned phenomena. we will need to become far more aware of how to handle thinking preferences than we are now. but all is the result of a law which cannot err. I believe it is human destiny to move beyond this mental conflict to a more integrated wholeness. This will give us powerful advantages in dealing with life's problems -. Our two minds tend to be divided against each other. Perception appears to be automatic. or brains. have the capacity to constructively enter the space beyond reason. so our repertoire of potential behavioral responses can develop fully. literally. or whole brain is vastly more powerful than even Ned Herrmann indicates. We become. He writes. what we think. However. Through balance. we will change it. the thoughts which he has built into his character have brought him there. Man is buffeted by circumstances so long as he believes himself to be the creature of outside conditions. and in the arrangement of his life there is no element of chance. and in doing so. In terms of thinking style preferences. Such minds. insight or intuition through the senses).both personal and professional. and that he may command the hidden soil and seeds of his being out of which circumstances grow. Until it does. James Allen a 19th century Englishman. reflecting a smoother collaboration among the specialized parts of the brain. but when he realizes that he is a creative power. including the experience of our bodies. According to Chopra. is completely dictated by . research has shown that the right and left brains are in a constant state of competition. not only will we be able to address the world more steadily. Every man is where he is by the law of his being. that control is a function of how we perceive the world (perceiving being the function of gaining knowledge. he then becomes the rightful master of himself. we will experience a high degree of internal conflict and a dissatisfaction in our society. The world we live in. 10 The Individual as a Creative Power We argue in this paper that a balanced mind. 11 Deepak Chopra subscribes to the idea that we have complete control over ourselves and our world. recognized that we ourselves are creative powers. they directly alter the circumstances and events that shape lives.

Into your hands will be placed the exact results of your own thoughts. be it base or beautiful. If we change our perceptions. to aspire is to achieve. you will fall. An integrated art and science curriculum is a very powerful idea. in being able to comprehend. Training perception is. Whatever your present environment may be. who teaches science at Green Meadow Waldorf school. You will become as small as your controlling desire. supports Deepak Chopra's views. remain. l4 . no less. putting this power to work for the good of mankind is the newly emerging role of business. as great as your dominant aspiration. "what goes 'round. your Ideal. 13 Related to the power of intentionality in perception is the power of the imagination.how we learn to perceive it. for you will always gravitate toward that which you. secretly.and she begins to experience herself. will realize the Vision (not the idle wish) of your heart. may be the root cause of its happening in the outside world. it is not solipsistic. most love. He writes. or a mixture of both. As James Allen observed. for me. The knowledge gained through intentionality in perception says something about the world. comes 'round" succinctly summarizes the point -our experience in the world is directly related to how we view it. or rise with your thoughts." Successful companies have gone beyond simply making a profit to imagining the future as the path to achieving it. And. master her own life. The thoughts we have directly shape our experience. When a student is able to move from the phenomenon (percept) to the concept. no more. "to desire is to obtain. you will receive that which you earn. The inelegant expression. A phenomenological epistemology explores the role of intentionality in the act of perceiving what we perceive and also intentionality in the quality of how we perceive." He goes on to write. And you. or make it up in one's mind. and which creates the future. the ground of science education. She becomes confident in her own thinking. We also realize that it is the spirit of inquiry which drives us towards the good. too. your Vision. youthful reader. This is the law of our being. This is how one "commands the hidden soil and seeds of one's being out of which circumstances grow. As processes of discovery they embody the spirit of inquiry. she becomes filled with an experience of content -. 12 Stephen Edelglass. at least in our opinion. Cultivating this power is the combined role of the arts and humanistic sciences. and spark the "craving to comprehend" which can animate us all. we change the experience of our bodies and our world. We also realize that the effort to imagine something. and in that comprehension. At the same time inner experience can be included within what is known scientifically.

competition. that detaches the world from the self and the self from its community. or the . the Director of the Center. We have drifted into a culture that fragments our thoughts.How We Think and Interact The MIT Center for Organizational Learning -. This is consistent with the finding that two. and touch. We have gained control of our environment but have lost our artistic edge. industrial culture.Business -. knowledge and intelligence. After decades of focus on "the bottom line" or increasing owner/shareholder value at all costs. As Peter Senge. l5 Peter Senge takes a humanist view of organizational change. Nonverbal communication includes paralanguage. towards an interest in human development? This move stems less from a sudden interest in social responsibility. with the balance being conveyed through sound. Thus we are losing the spaces to dance with the ever-changing patterns of life. but from a search for higher quality performance. is liberal capitalism beginning to move beyond its narrow focus. We are so focused on our security that we don't see the price we pay: living in bureaucratic organizations where the wonder and joy of learning have no place.sponsored by eighteen of the nation's largest corporations -. individual transformation requires dissolving frozen patterns of thought (or mental models).is exploring the power of individual transformation. encouraged and supported by corporate learning infrastructures. We argue that the main dysfunctions in our institutions -. These dysfunctions are not problems to be solved -. mental models. Most social communication is nonverbal.they are frozen patterns of thought to be dissolved. where self-knowledge and personal growth are formally recognized as vitally important to the success of the organization.are actually byproducts of our success over thousands of years in conquering the physical world and developing our scientific. Managers now understand that attention to individual and organizational learning increases productivity and ultimately enhances profits. and better managerial performance by drawing on recent work about the nature of mind. Eighty percent of all communication is nonverbal. organizational learning. The Harvard Business School's Gerald Zaltman encourages individual growth. indicates. smell. and reactiveness -. building shared visions and team learning) as more like artistic disciplines than traditional management disciplines. He writes. personal mastery. Learning organizations view their people as assets (rather than costs). We are losing ourselves as fields of dreams.thirds of all stimuli reaching the brain are visual. He describes the disciplines to be practiced by individuals interested in effecting change (systems thinking.fragmentation. Describing his underlying premises he writes. taste.

and experience co-mingle. Metaphors actively create and shape thought. he writes. emotion.tone. Thought is more inherently figurative than it is literal. the representation of one thing in terms of another. although supported by research in many fields. a pernicious doctrine. A foolish German has said that man thought in words. Metaphors are central to cognition. not just vision. Therefore. Cognition is grounded in embodied experience. with a thousand associations. and only infrequently verbal images. Thus. logical . Human thought involves both reasoning and emotion. inadequate because common to disparate situations -. Perceptual experience includes all sensory systems. pitch. Words were not called for in many or indeed most forms of thought: Mozart certainly thought in terms of music. It states that abstract thought is shaped by perceptual and motor experiences. This raises the question. This premise. it is necessary to consider emotion. whether by customers or managers. since for them there were the parallel languages of music and painting. is fundamental to thinking and knowing.admitted to be inadequate for vast regions of expression. He himself at this moment was thinking in terms of scent. requires both. is less widely known. l7 Zaltman continues. It was totally false. "What is it we have when we have a thought?" Thoughts are images. Having thoughts and expressing them can be quite different. In describing the thoughts of Dr. viewing the body as a multimedia system which shapes our thinking suggests that the various subsystems such as the visual subsystem are important technologies to use in "getting the inside out. and other speech qualities that determine whether we literally mean what we say. we cannot know anything unless it is perceived as an instance of one thing and not another. and the speaking mind selected one. effective decision making. A consensus has emerged across many disciplines in the past two decades that metaphors. Basically. metaphorical understanding and associated mental models are grounded in everyday bodily experience. the thought flashed into being in a hundred simultaneous forms. Thoughts occur as images. Stephen Maturin while listening to a concert in London in the year 1803." Reason. forming it grossly into the inadequate symbols of words. l6 The point that language is not required for human conceptual thinking but is only one of several "symbol systems" used to express intelligence is beautifully made in Post Captain by Patrick O'Brian.

Scientists hope that this will enable them to extend their powers indefinitely to predict and control things. they will devote considerable energy to achieving the company's business goals. . Work is viewed as a platform on which people mature and achieve happiness by developing their competencies as well as contributing to the Gross World Product. must be grounded in these new understandings about how we think. 18 Organizational learning. Corporate Ecologies based on values and visions (aspirations) will generally outperform command-and-control corporations.inference. learning. Bill O'Brien. Understanding is now valued as the means to predict. and embodied experience as mutually dependent and inseparable dynamics. and an aesthetic approach to education will follow. 19 As business continues to explore the need for imaginative. a scientist. We're beginning to realize that the cost of progress is more and more specialization and fragmentation to the point where the whole activity is losing its meaning. and love. reductionistic model has served business well up to now. systems) thinking -. perceptive (i. would agree. Changing What We Mean by Science As Peter Senge has described it. Many managers also understand that the entire "ecology" of the business organization is changing. The former CEO of Hanover Insurance. He writes. describes his view of these changes. and communicate. Learning exclusively through the mechanical. value-guided organization has a high component of service. which is now capturing the attention of the best business managers. But it must be augmented by systemic understanding of the enormous interconnectedness in our world. Leadership in a vision-driven. When workers sense this fundamental order in a company.e. control. The prevailing attitude in science has been to put the major emphasis on analysis and on splitting off the key factors of each situation. not only into technology.not only in its leaders but throughout the organization . In fact. our current societal dysfunction is the result our scientific success. but also into our general approach to life as a whole. It is about building character and advancing learning throughout the organization. As an employee. David Bohm.greater appreciation for training in the arts. and manipulate things. this spirit is now spreading beyond science. a person is first a human being and second an instrument of production..

Order. more comprehensive science. sees many similarities between science and art. The activity of the imagination does not therefore resemble a static-picture but rather it is closer to a kind of "play" that includes a subtle orchestration of feelings. if any. This means taking concrete inner and outer experiences much more seriously. Certainly. The ability of Mozart and Bach to sense whole musical works all at once could be regarded as a kind of musical imagination. Literally imagination means 'the ability to make mental images. to include the creative inception of new forms. These are experienced not only as visual images. tactile sensations. broaden the idea of imagination. a science teacher.A More Inclusive Mental Model . He views science as a process of discovery. hitherto unknown. as well as the workings of Stephen Edelglass' intentionality in perception. and sense experience as a subjective. but also through all sorts of feelings. and believes that creative thought. Associate Professor of Physiology at Michigan State. the powers of imagination actually go far beyond this. include analogizing. as well as a sense of intention and will. and aesthetics. playacting. He suggests that we use what he terms "tools of thought" to give meaning to facts and to facilitate creative or transformational thinking. He believes that the mind and senses alike must be trained equally and in tandem to perceive and to imagine. or musical ways.. visual and kinesthetic thinking. It means overcoming the habits of mind which lead us to treat consciousness as a mere epiphenomenon of underlying neural processes. manual manipulation. mathematical.' which imitate the forms of real things. 21 To my mind. is the ability to conceive an object or idea interchangeably or concurrently in visual. finding in it the beginnings of a new. observes. and kinesthetic sensations and in other ways that defy description. Craig Holdrege. and points out that few.I think we need to change what we mean by 'science. (i. most of which are embodied in the arts. kinesthetic. modeling. The process of imagining the future has much to do with bringing it into being. 22 The Metaphysics of Quality -. verbal. inaccurate) picture of an underlying 'real' world of matter and forces. Humankind needs a science in which the scientists consciously include the active human being as a part of the reality they strive to understand.e. and Creativity. and a MacArthur Fellow. in their book Science. of these tools of thought are in our standard science curricula. or transformational thinking. These tools. However.' 20 Robert Root-Bernstein. David Bohm and David Peat. pattern forming and recognition. the exercise of the imagination lies at the heart of the creative process and carries with it transcendent power. what Bohm and Peat describe is the aesthetic impulse itself It also seems to be another way of describing Deepak Chopra's law of intention and desire.

as useful until something better comes along. nature.that which corresponds to the 'objective' world -. but simply to enjoy and keep those that are of value. the result of our history and current patterns of values. religion. and metaphysics as unverifiable. It is an assumption that flies outrageously in the face of common experience. and anything that cannot be classified as a subject or object is not real. morality. Most empiricists. or purely theoretical reasoning. But if Quality or excellence is seen as the ultimate reality.and all other constructions are unreal. One can then examine intellectual realities the same way he examines paintings in an art gallery. not empirical reasons.' One seeks instead the highest quality intellectual explanation of things with the knowledge that if the past is any guide to the future this explanation must be taken provisionally. but that we do so is. he suggests that there is no empirical evidence for this assumption at all. He believes instead that there are many sets of intellectual reality in existence with varying degrees of quality. Unlike subject-object metaphysics the Metaphysics of Quality does not insist on a single exclusive truth. The Metaphysics of Quality subscribes to what is called empiricism. There are many sets of intellectual reality in existence. His Metaphysics of Quality supports encompasses David Bohm's belief that different kinds of thought and different kinds of abstraction may together give a better reflection of reality. authority. If subjects and objects are held to be the ultimate reality.An Inquiry into Morals. then we are permitted only one construction of things -. There is no empirical evidence for this assumption at all. tradition. The Metaphysics of Quality varies from this by saying that the values of art and morality and even religious mysticism are verifiable. While introducing us to the Metaphysics of Quality in Lila -. It claims that all legitimate human knowledge arises from the senses or by thinking about what the senses provide. then it becomes possible for more than one set of truths to exist. They regard fields such as art. not with an effort to find out which one is the 'real' painting. Then one does not seek the absolute 'Truth.Robert Pirsig proposes the Metaphysics of Quality as a way to reunite man. He writes that the scientific mental model is based on the assumption that the universe is composed only of subjects and objects. deny the validity of any knowledge gained through imagination. and that in the past they have been excluded for metaphysical reasons. . This may sound as though a purpose of the Metaphysics of Quality is to trash all subject-object thought but that is not true. They have been excluded because of the metaphysical assumption that all the universe is composed of subjects and objects and anything that cannot be classified as a subject or an object is not real. and we can perceive some to have more quality than others. in part. however. It is just an assumption.

" we seem to have discovered a special kind of rational interest. and emotional capacities to deepen our understanding. truth beauty. He believes that it is through aesthetics that we can reconnect with the world. It explains more of the world. as Schiller suggests. Schiller argued that the 'aesthetic education' of man is his . You respond to the look of the landscape. and others -the connection that has been denied us in the exercise of pure "rational" thought uninformed by our senses or emotions. and it explains it better. as Plato would have it. Such a view would explain why aesthetic experience is so gripping: we are seeking for our home in the world: not the home of the body and its appetites. The endlessness of aesthetic interest reflects the fact that we can never find that home: the self is not in the empirical world but lies at its limit. it would suggest that beauty is the basic law or principle from which all others are derived." Robert Scruton provides us some insights in his new book. the sound of the birdsong." as Herman Hesse describes it in The Glass Bead Game? It draws together our analytic. and what does it tell us about our condition? It is an interest in the phenomenal world. as Ron Berger points out. building the only true and lasting foundation for rational life. perceptive. Modern Philosophy. Kant described aesthetics as the branch of metaphysics concerned with the laws of perception.The Metaphysics of Quality provides a better set of coordinates with which to interpret the world than does subject-object metaphysics because it is more inclusive. The term 'aesthetic' derives from the Greek word for perception. and our truest guide to the environment. and the feel of the wind against your face. "Beauty is truth. and contemplation of the self as part of the world. Scruton writes. In the "Aesthetic Attitude. the world as it appears. interest in something for its own sake. What is the value of such an interest. and the element of experience seems to be essential. Aesthetic judgment is a part of practical reason. as they are not yet disconnected from the world. and without reference to our empirical desires. It is by aesthetic judgment that we adapt the world to ourselves and ourselves to the world. Kindergartners offer us a glimpse of early aesthetic behavior. Perhaps the best definition was provided by Keats. as Kant would put it: that is. when he wrote. 23 Awakening the Craving to Comprehend If the values of art and morality are experienced (and therefore verified) through aesthetics. Disinterested contemplation of the world means contemplation of the world in relation to the self. but the home of the self. What is it about aesthetics that awakens "the craving to comprehend. The object of aesthetic interest is perceived through the senses.

The Power of Imagination Elliot Eisner observes that educators' indifference to the refinement of perception and inattention to the development of imagination have limited children's cognitive growth. to be self-aware both in terms of their feelings and their ethical and moral stance. the head of Walnut Hill. to gather and assess information. The aims of both systems of education at Walnut Hill are to produce young people who. 24 Stephanie Perrin. to have a sense of agency and control in the world. These higher order skills and attitudes can be developed in either of the systems. It is a balance between head. not only of the arts and humanities with the sciences and math. which guides and informs the creative process.that will allow our students to move toward their future with the tools to engage in this world with full intellectual. as called for by The Economist. are also able to think critically. those trained in the arts have educated imaginations and developed cognitive capabilities. uninformed (and thus limited) by the absence of trained perceptions and controlled emotion. and to be able to generalize and adapt a variety of skills and attitudes to meet whatever challenges life presents. It is at this level of functioning that the systems can be said to share an outcome: the creation of the educated young person. or developing the spirit of inquiry. but more importantly. heart and hand. The arts community has much to teach us about educating the imagination. to be aware of others and able to work with them. The aims are simply to be able to keep on learning. Conversely. to make judgments. They can be taught through the study of music or the study of biology. It develops "perceptive reason. describes the school's educational principle as supporting a process of integration. a private school for artistically inclined students. in addition to being knowledgeable and well trained in the specifics of both the arts and the liberal arts.one true preparation for rational life. and the foundation of any ordered politics." which is the mental model we propose as a response to Enlightenment thinking. soul and body.soul and body -. with its adulation of rational thought. but that the idea . spirit and matter. Robert Fritz believes that the secret of the creative process is understood intuitively by artists. We try to support that process of integration. 25 This passage describes precisely the "balance" we need to deal with the world more effectively. that rich understanding that incorporates spirit and matter -. informed by aesthetics. emotional and moral understanding and the courage to act on that understanding.

27 . If not by revelation or discovery. K. Calder. Renoir. In Competing for the Future by Gary Hamel and C. Prahalad. is the ability to uniquely imagine what could be. How do you create the what in What do I want?" YOU MAKE IT UP! Please do not miss the point. new creative power and flexibility are available to you. 26 Business is beginning to understand that the ability to imagine the future actually bring it about. In his book. to designing the latest technological advances in computer science. and Chagall were all enormously successful artists. If not by need. Yet each artist spawned a host of imitators. having imagined it.is so simple artists have never made it explicit. And yet. the authors observe. Creating what you want is not a revelatory process. and not by the demands of the circumstances. Serat. Our educational tradition unfortunately has had a tendency to belittle the power and significance of this answer. Picasso.Learning to Become the Creative Force in Your Own Life. They are looking in the wrong direction. It is also about having one's own view of what the prize is. nor is what you want something to be discovered. The goal of this book is to help managers imagine (or make up) the future and. by those who are actively involved in creating. In business. There is no law that says most companies must be followers. In no way did the success of one preordain the failure of another. There is not one future but hundreds. then how do you derive the what in the question What do I want? The answer to this question is known. as in art. The Path of Least Resistance -. and not by revelation. The answer to this question permeates all creative acts. but each had an original and distinctive style. from creating your life the way you want it to be. what distinguishes leaders from laggards. This is truly a remarkable insight into the deeper nature of the creative orientation. and greatness from mediocrity. imagination is the only limiting factor. There can be as many prizes as runners. he writes: A common mistake people make when first entering the orientation of the creative is to seek to 'find out' what they want as if it were a deeply hidden treasure to be discovered and revealed. once you begin to use it. Getting to the future first is not just about outrunning competitors bent on reaching the same prize. either rationally or intuitively. create it. then how do you conceive of what you want? Simply by "making up" the results.

The desire for the creation to exist -. real estate developer and community builder. for out of them will grow all delightful conditions.James Allen writes that developing an independent point of view -. the loveliness that drapes your purest thoughts. generates the capacity to fulfill it. a lofty ideal in his heart. will one day realize it. perhaps.a blend of reason. of these. the beauty that forms in your mind. not for what it may say about you.not for a return on investment. understood the power of a vision. and then believing that it can be accomplished because it ought to be. if you but remain true to them.. because it is held up. To desire is to obtain. and the senses which is "a special kind of rational interest. can be done. . generates power. That erecting a vision of what ought to be under a given circumstance.indeed brings it into being. to aspire is to achieve. but for the love of the thing. Columbus cherished a vision of another world. or the future of business? Robert Fritz observes. and he revealed it. 29 What motivates a creator? Why bother to imagine a picture. or creating something. generates energy. a dance.as the fish do not see the water. your world will at last be built.or vision -. the creation. interest in something for its own sake which could lead to clues about the meaning of life itself. and he entered into it.if and when mankind has the will to make them real. and he discovered it. He who cherishes a beautiful vision." as Robert Scruton observes.. 30 The Better Alternative -. whose stock in trade is the creative. is so obvious to artists. emotion. the reason Albert Einstein observed that imagination is more important than knowledge. and a wider universe. all deeper in heavenly environment. cherish your ideals. that they do not see their own capacities -. generates action by people. 28 This is. Cherish your visions. could be -.Perceptive Informed by the Aesthetic This brings us back to the power of the aesthetic impulse -. I believe that whatever ought to be done. Buddha beheld the vision of a spiritual world of stainless beauty and perfect peace. He wrote: Visions describe what best should be. The reason you would create anything is because you love it enough to see it exist. Imagining something.I don't think people understand the power of visions. cherish the music that stirs in your heart. The late James Rouse. Copernicus fostered the vision of a multiplicity of worlds. itself One creates music because we love it enough to make it happen.

It provides balance between the rational and the emotional/intuitive parts of our being. There is a power here that. the sublime purposefulness that flows through all things. extra cost -. and sharing all academic work within an aesthetic model deepens our intelligence. as Herman Hesse describes it. MA school system. but can be taught. and the teaching of the arts in schools. forming the basis of school norms and standards for work in a manner which is incredibly powerful. It provides purpose to liberal capitalism. As we develop better assessment tools.called for by The Economist -. and Karen Gallas. and as a participant. a share all academic work. critiquing. even though as free beings who are compelled at every moment to see themselves as apart from nature we can find our home in the natural order. The aesthetic delivers sense of purposefulness -. teach perceptive reason. and not an enemy of it. critique. It is the educational response to the need for a better alternative -.to the philosophy of the Enlightenment which has shaped western thinking the last three centuries. and as our understanding of the nature of intelligence continues to grow. Great teachers. 31 Developing a culture of high standards through an aesthetic model leads to order of magnitude increase in school effectiveness. By recognizing. leading to the positioning of the arts at the core of the curriculum. and each other." Creating. where investment in the personal growth and development of the employee while providing needed goods a services leads to financial profit. while difficult to measure. lost offshore in the fog. Appendix . As Rob Scruton observes.but only when parents and taxpayers recognize the power inherent in the practice of education within an aesthetic model -. we predict a great renaissance in both the practice. We must find ways to help others emulate them.and demand the arts in both curriculum and pedagogical practice.putting purpose and meaning into a world which appears to have none. This can be done at little any. a first and second grade teacher in the Brookline. It is the force which moves mathematicians. such as Ron Berger. our appreciation of this power will increase. It allows us to view and experience the world more steadily. It is the shore on which Elliot Eisner stands calling to those of us in the rowboat. Stephen Edelglass. In this way our young people can better adapt themselves to the world. nevertheless exists. As our awareness of both our inner strengths and our connectedness to the world and to each other increases. It underlies a more humanistic science. through aesthetics. and resolves the dilemma of man's place in the world ("inside-out" versus "outside-in"). It is "the structure within which to create. It supports David Perkins' contention that intelligence is not fixed.This perhaps is the ultimate energizing power of the aesthetic -. Guided by the aesthetic impulse we begin to understand what it means to be a part of the world.of Mind.

or. combined with our ability. . and not an enemy of it.The Worldwide Business Community in the 21st Century -. an understanding of what it is to be a part of the world. through mathematics. Enlightened. authority. to measure and relate them. a catastrophic error?" The argument against science. when he gained power to understand and rule the world in terms of dialectic truths. or rational thinking is now. rationality (and its offspring. in its seemingly limitless complexity. As indicated by The Economist. we experienced the exhilarating feeling that we were no longer at the mercy of mysterious and random natural events. published shortly after the Second World War. According to The Economist. "Are these ideas mankind's finest intellectual achievement -. The beginning of the Enlightenment can plausibly be dated at 1687. the basis for a comprehensive mathematical description of the universe. liberal capitalism) is found in the work of Theodore Adorno and Max Horkheimer. With the discovery of patterns in nature's behavior. men everywhere.' Newton's universal law of gravitation. then surely it could also comprehend justice. had lost.Providing the Balance Between Universal Morality and Individual Freedom Phaedrus began to see for the first time the unbelievable magnitude of what man. through reason. under attack. as it is once again fashionable to argue.but for this he had exchanged an empire of understanding of equal magnitude. Newton inspired later thinkers to demand ever more of reason. right and wrong. If the intellect could comprehend the universe. He had built empires of scientific capability to manipulate the phenomena of nature into enormous manifestations of his own dreams of power and wealth -. Robert Pirsig Until the Age of Enlightenment we felt ourselves to be at the mercy of the uncontrollable forces of nature. The Economist asks. regardless of culture or tradition. constituted an intellectual revolution in its own right. when Newton published his 'Mathematical Principles of Philosophy. however. The power of Newton's great work was that it demonstrated (or appeared to demonstrate) the staggering power of science and the susceptibility of the physical world to human understanding. would discover the universal rules by which they should live their lives. In that way. Through reason. Dialectic of the Enlightenment. man would master nature and himself.

By rejecting all authority but reason. man divorced ethics from knowledge. but evidently it needs saying: to the everyday lives of hundreds of millions of people. The exaltation of rationality. had only served the cause of human cruelty. Industrial dehumanization. pain. fear. He worshipped not God but technology.but. far from serving its Enlightenment purpose of enlarging human understanding. The daily portion of all but the rich was once ignorance. and a failure of will. He once sought to be wise. education. In AD 1991 the central idea on which the remaking of the world could have been based was the belief in every man's right to political and economic freedom. between rationality and feeling. tragically. concentration camps. The Economist. the burden of proof lies with anti-liberals to propose a better alternative something they have conspicuously failed to do. and want. atomic bombs." The Economist suggested we may be headed for trouble if we don't find this better alternative. western liberalism has brought standards of material and emotional well-being unimagined in earlier times. and subordinated the one to the other.They asked why mankind. Since the one. why science. On every dimension -. In an article titled "Looking Back from 2992 -. economic opportunity -conditions of life have been utterly transformed. . and for the better. It ought to be obvious. physical security. Their answer was that the Enlightenment had been doomed all along to serve totalitarian goals. The 21st century became the 'century of disasters. true rationality does not exist. It was time for a readjustment. for reasons that modern students of history can understand better than the people of the time did. the Enlightenment project was futile -.health.' The post-1991 failure happened because of a failure of clear thinking. injustice. could have led nowhere else. argues that the Enlightenment has produced one of the best and most hopeful episodes in the life of mankind. By seeking to justify morality exclusively in terms of reason. At a minimum. on the other hand. these were the fruits of knowledge without morals. and sacrificed his fellow man to it. As catastrophic failures go.A World History. far from advancing to an ever closer harmony. had sunk into an abyss of hitherto unimaginable barbarism. the Enlightenment left wickedness unchecked." Chapter 13: "The Disastrous 21st Century. The collapse of communism brought universal agreement that there was no serious alternative to free-market capitalism as the way to organize economic life . The remaking never happened. A new balance was needed between the analytic part of the human mind and the instinctive part. now he sought only to know. not just futile. the Enlightenment has served mankind quite well. . they argued.. a failure of imagination.

This move stems less from a sudden interest in social responsibility. A second group of theorists takes the opposite view: that a company's primary responsibility is to its 'stakeholders. In a world in which many .Electric. They did not know what to do next. Because they did not tackle these problems in time. Both Peter Drucker and Charles Handy argue that stakeholding makes commercial sense. the democracies marched straight from the climax of their 20th century victory into anticlimax. Mr. liberal capitalism is beginning to move beyond its primary interest in science. But do companies really have social responsibilities? Management theorists broadly divide into three camps on the question.' On the other hand. And a new bargain had to be struck between the claims of individual freedom and the claims of a universal morality. The first takes as its motto Milton Friedman's injunction that the business of business is business.' principally its employees. chairman of General. he argues. A job for life. technology and analytic thought. says Jack Welch. they will impoverish society by taking bad decisions. Stakeholding in Germany and Japan has forced up costs and prevented companies from hiring young talent. many bosses are also uneasy about an uncompromising Jensenite commitment to shareholder value. but from a. a professor at Harvard Business School. After decades of focus on "the bottom line" or increasing owner/shareholder value at all costs. Michael Jensen. argues that management's overriding obligation is to increase value for shareholders. towards a concern with human development.' with shareholders forbidden to sell the organization over the heads of employees. The third camp. But part of being successful lies in creating ties with both your workers and your customers. only then could law and liberty swing evenly on the scales. provides nothing more than a 'fuzzy kind of loyalty. He is a champion both of takeovers (which allow shareholders to kick out bad managers) and of downsizing (which can lead to a more efficient allocation of resources). A firm's share price may be the best measure of a management's success.search for higher quality performance. Managers now understand that attention to individual and organizational learning increases productivity and ultimately enhances profits. Handy would like companies to become 'membership communities. Its most influential exponent. is somewhere in the middle. The Economist describes current business thinking this way. If companies try to pursue the social good directly.only then could man address the world more steadily. which seems to include most business people. because an ever-larger proportion of a company's value is in the brains of its staff. Managers feel that they cannot reasonably offer their workers job security at a time when the average life of companies is shorter than that of their employees (and is shrinking).

namely that our organizations work the way they work. the concept expands the idea of human "capital" as essential to economic productivity and growth.the idea that companies may not owe their employees a job for life. The Economist Intelligence Unit writes. Indeed. Sumantra Ghoshal. expressed in words and numbers. building shared visions and team learning) as more like artistic disciplines than traditional management disciplines. Mr. The corporate world seems to be taking to the idea of employability. shared understandings and new capacities for coordinated action be established.consumers make decisions for noncommercial reasons (the environment. argues that this arrangement also reflects a revolution in the organization of firms.' Organizational learning encompasses knowledge creation. Senge describes the disciplines to be practiced by individuals interested in organizational learning (systems thinking. Fortune magazine has called Peter Senge the 'intellectual and spiritual champion' of the learning organization. or universal principles. ultimately. The nice fuzzy concept around which the third camp has gathered is 'employability' -. a professor at London Business School.. Senge's contribution has evolved from his belief that business should pay more attention to the conditions that motivate people to do great things for themselves and for their companies. and easily shared in the form of hard data. because of how we think and how we interact. not simply to train workers so they can find a new job if they are laid off.. Employee learning is embodied in the developing idea of companies as learning organizations. but to increase the productivity of the company. is more radical than 'radical organization redesign' -. managers need to market their reputation for social responsibility as vigorously as they market their products. . but they do have a responsibility to train workers so that they have a better chance of finding a new job if the company sacks them. Only by changing how we think can we change deeply embedded policies and practices. Over the long term there may be little difference between the Jensen and the Drucker/Handy positions. Introduced by MIT's Peter Senge in the book. He writes: 'The central message of The Fifth Discipline . mental models. scientific formulas. personal mastery. Now everybody is responsible for adding to the company's human capital and so improving its competitiveness. codified procedures. The Fifth Discipline.formal and systematic. which is now being seen as an essential ingredient of survival in the coming century. Once bosses did the thinking and workers offered them blind obedience in return for job security. We in the West tend to view knowledge as necessarily explicit -. Shareholder values will come out better in the end through attention to employee learning. Only by changing how we interact can shared visions. human rights) and good staff are hard to find.

however. reasoned. immoral behavior appears to be encouraged when profit is the sole motivation. Tom Mahon. These soft and qualitative elements are crucial to an understanding of the Japanese view of knowledge. or emotions he or she embraces. in use to regulate behavior. Japanese companies. but instead is tacit -. tacit knowledge also embraces images and symbols. 1996. Besides ideals. The authors of The Knowledge Creating Company . attending to the "inside-out. will become increasingly clear. The growth of the Christian right is testimony to our interest in better understanding that which influences moral behavior. tacit knowledge contains an important cognitive dimension. and hunches fall into this category of knowledge. as well as in the ideals. intuitions. Wall Street Journal about "The Spirit of Technology. have a very different understanding of knowledge. being or acting in accordance with standards and precepts of goodness or with established codes of behavior. tacit knowledge is deeply rooted in an individual's action and experience. and their development. in its pursuit of truth). Tacit knowledge is highly personal and hard to formalize.housed in our perceptions. values." Because of the enormous success of enlightened. Can the coming revelation in business thinking. attention to moral behavior is now essential. I would like to offer an observation about the connection between the two fields. our nation's spiritual crisis has paralleled a remarkable explosion in technological prowess. intuitions and insights. these implicit models shape the way we perceive the world around us. Subjective insights." observes. At the same time. Though they cannot be articulated very easily. Morality is described as "a sense of right and wrong. The cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge reflects our image of reality (what is) and our vision for the future (what ought to be). Indeed. which is viewed as value free (neither moral nor immoral. the importance of our perceptive capacities." Morality is uniquely human. values. Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi. and perceptions so ingrained that we take them for granted. They view knowledge as being primarily 'tacit' -something not easily visible and expressible. It consists of schemata. writing in the January 12. . be considered an awakening to moral behavior? Many believe that business is quite the opposite. with its attendant interest in personal transformation and organizational learning. They recognize that the knowledge expressed in words and numbers represents only the tip of the iceberg. making it difficult to communicate or to share with others. and emotion. As business further develops its understandings of what constitutes knowledge. beliefs. write. scientific thinking.Most of our knowledge may not be explicit at all. Coincidentally or not. mental models. Furthermore.

And from those experiences come a body of literature written between about 1300 BC and AD 650: the Bible. the downtrodden slaves of imperial Rome. manipulated by technology and capitalized on by business) from the moral landscape (as taught by our religious institutions). With the atom smasher. It's little wonder we are witnessing a global moral meltdown as the rise of religious fundamentalism wars with an increasingly pervasive technology. The life of the spirit. with no generally accepted moral code appropriate for our new power. Until such time as the leaders of the world's religious traditions can transcend their cultural and dogmatic differences. the Tao te Ching. and the 'untouchables' of Siddhartha's India were suffering in mind and body. mind and mood today in a way we thought only God could do 50 years ago. on the other hand. Throughout most of history. the Koran. and the hunger for such. And the irony is that in this exercise today. static. life. agricultural and largely illiterate. yet every religion recognizes that 'God is manifest through nature. the gene machine. It wasn't. those books were. This isn't heresy. To a world that was flat. the core teachings were set in cultural contexts that have been largely superseded. discipline or spine. They served their times exceptionally well. Every great religion originally appeared as a response among people desperate for comfort and solace during troubling times. deals with connections . Yet we attempt to exercise these abilities in a 'valuefree' context. we can actually combine what we know about science with our need to get closer to our spiritual core. Who is to teach us? I have not found one school of divinity that offers courses in science and technology as part of the core curriculum. the digital computer and psychoactive drugs. levers and microprocessors.We are the first generation to experience the full effects of the three centuries-old decoupling of the physical landscape (as understood by science. literally. is the popularity today of medieval plainchant and Renaissance angels. the Vedas. Unfortunately. a flight to the past. it falls to individuals and communities of like-minded people to evolve a spirituality appropriate for our time.' Reflecting the lack of spirituality appropriate to our time. the Gita.pressed now to guide us in a brave new world that was never foreseen by their authors. We have lived so long in this two-truth universe that we may figure it was always this way. When the enslaved Hebrews of Egypt. holding that all values are of equal value (and hence of no value). a godsend. people's work world and spiritual world interacted. Science and technology deal with things: atoms and galaxies. we manipulate matter. The religious traditions of antiquity are hard. or a loopy New Ageism that lacks any rigor. they evolved a spiritual response appropriate for their time and circumstances. the dispossessed widows and orphans of 7th-century Arabia. and the teachings of Confucius and Buddha.

Is God immanent or transcendent. (depending upon the system adopted). Why is the spirit dying? The reasons are many. The ability to generate ideas does not stem from problem solving instead it is the direct outcome of curiosity and a childish eagerness for exploration. And the connection of connections. the answer is: yes.' Instead of picturing God as a medieval monarch on a marble throne. The focus. only to hurriedly forget most of it immediately thereafter.persons with superb reactive problem-solving skills. justice and love. internal or external. Writing in the Khaleej Times he observes. Certainly the connectedness of things referred to by Mahon is reflected in the concept of "systems" thinking pioneered by Senge and others. But only if each of us -. History teaches us that human progress has hinged on a handful of brave persons who had the indomitable spirit of inquiry. is on cramming stuff. But everyone wants it to come real easy. The great naturalist John Muir once said. and zero proactive problem avoidance skills. Business is also well-positioned to reestablish the spirit of inquiry. an old English word meaning 'the good. 'I find that if I touch anything. The 17th century gave us the Scientific Revolution.individually and collectively -. So perhaps the 21st century will give us a Spiritual Revolution to tie it all together. it's connected to everything else in the universe. and indeed form the basis of a Spiritual Revolution? Perhaps.between things: mercy. We have become very good in the age of science and technology at knowing about things. The 19th century spawned the Industrial Revolution. but we're not really as wise as we should be at making connections. composed or compassionate? Like the question of whether the atom is wave or particle. the bond of all bonds is the phenomenon we call God. while losing the ability to see the bigger picture. They are a sort of digital version of one-dimensional man. Net result -.99% of the universe. the network of networks. and reproducing it periodically at given points in time. Is it possible that the interest in individual transformation developing in the world of business could lead to a resurgence of moral values. Thinking of God that way gets us past some of the great theological divides of the past. Other systems tend to develop the analytical skills to such an extent that students become experts at analyzing any and everything. which has all but disappeared according to Sam Swaminathan. both relevant and irrelevant.' True spirituality is an exquisite awareness of the interconnection of all things. imagine God as the living awareness in the space that makes up about 99. Just take our educational systems. No importance is given to reflection and intuition.makes it so. Progress doesn't come easy. .

If Intel didn't have a Gordon Moore. Let us learn to bring back the spirit of inquiry.The desire to explore and inquire is born out of curiosity. The problem is . (I wish the list were longer). 'Rubbish. if you know what's good for you. or watched closely until they have given up their curiosity.' Tell me. Knowingly or unknowingly. The spirit of inquiry requires megatons of why.' Children learn to use the phrase. but so few pause to ponder how it started. His curiosity took him to this couple. Do you know how McDonalds began? The only reason McDonalds exists today is the curiosity of a salesman called Ray Kroc. who should either not be hired. than the phrases themselves. the leader asks what and why? There perhaps isn't a more powerful word in the lexicon as far as idea generation and imagining go. Just get on with it and do as you are told. pal. school. 'You can't measure the best things in life. But what happens in real life? How often have you heard this as a child from an elder. and corporations systematically destroy this great gift of nature freely and equally given to us all. if PepsiCo didn't have a Roger Enrico. Think of the wondrous word 'why. as a student from a teacher. my reply is simple. and the rest is history. which required the ceaseless use of why. don't ask why. if ABB didn't have a Percy Barnevik. they would go back to their drawing boards and get their charges to start asking 'why' as often as Ray Kroc did. Without why there wouldn't be much progress and development. If they did. corporate performance appraisals should mandate measurement of the spirit of inquiry among its staff.' The one great difference between the manager and the leader lies in the questions each asks.' Gee. And the few who venture to defy this edict are marked as mavericks. teachers and parents eat at McDonalds today. 'Listen. right? So don't tell me you don't measure qualitative items. the McDonalds. The teachers says. these corporations wouldn't be where they are today. if Apple hadn't had the two Steves. if Rubbermaid didn't have a Wolfgang Schmitt. The effect is so devastating and compounding that it ripples right through corporations and communities. I can hear human resource managers sneering and saying. In fact. do you guys measure leadership or not? Those who seem to have greater leadership are sent spiraling up the ladder. who couldn't simply stop wondering why a small unknown mom and pop outfit would want so many of the multimixers he sold. Cast your mind back to the teaching of phrases at schools. While the manager asks how and when. But a great deal more attention is required to helping children understand the power of analogies and metaphorical thinking.' Well. because you can't measure it. and begin to use it quite well. Why is how new ideas are born. the do-no-gooders. I haven't seen worse behavior on the part of supposedly responsible people. and as a subordinate from a superior. 'He felt like a fish out of water. homes. So many managers.

And. Attempts to agree on this as their combined mission might foster a deeper dialogue between the two than has been yet the case. In our view reviving the spirit of inquiry is the joint responsibility of the arts and the sciences. And that's why there aren't enough great guys at the top. and try figuring out what factors are involved in the fruit being finally borne. even if that something is awfully insufficient. together with the ability to uniquely imagine what could be. The hard stuff comprises the fruit that is eventually sold to make money. the insights developed by this enterprise should be the ones that guide the worldwide business enterprise as it seeks its moral and spiritual role in the world. on the other hand. Prahalad now believe. the hard stuff is important. why would I do that? I would simply wait to see the results of the harvest. that everyone cares about. you could estimate more meaningfully what the longterm results are likely to be.Hard is soft. meaning the soft stuff is hard to measure and so we make excuses and don't measure it. 'I ain't stupid. Take a fruit bearing tree. I can hear some say. you got a handle on the soft stuff. step back for a moment. Imagine you are his boss. And this should come as no surprise. but for heaven's sake don't forget the soft stuff. and sadly enough get away with it). Just try and put some numbers against these parameters. while the hard stuff is easy to measure and so we go about over measuring it. The list goes something like this: o o o o o the farmer's knowledge of the business his/her understanding of the soil conditions his intuition about the amount of chemicals required his ability to look at the leaves and decide that the chemical characteristics of the terrain need modifying his zealous devotion to farming and his farm I could go on adding to the list. as writers such as Gary Hamel and C. because everyone is busy doing something. Just learn from nature. school. and the workplace? Indeed. it is the spirit of inquiry. And that's just fine. If. . K.that the measures are woefully inadequate since they exclude the real issues. that differentiates the highly successful business enterprise from the laggards.' Well. Remember. The guy could simply be killing the golden goose for great shortterm results (a legion of CEOs do precisely that. this wouldn't work unless you saw results over a long period of time. Isn't it time people in charge got back to basics and get the spirit of inquiry back at home. Because it's the soft stuff. right? Well. Soft is hard -. with untold long-term negative consequences. dammit. and are about to evaluate him. Sure.

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