You are on page 1of 86

uk*hRxD.

fv>*h>fv>ysDR
eD>f*hRxD.fv>oH.fv>zD
unDulod;qJ;vRv>-u>;oh.fng

unDydmfrk.fu&>

yulqhysd>

qhrJmu;

w>jyXunDulod;w>qJ;w>vR'D;w>vh>vk.xgx.
tqduwX>wbsDzJtHwl>x.Ju0DR

qhzguGmvkmbJ
yulxJul

qhySd>

qhbX.
'D;eH.CD;

w>*h>cd.wD
eD.*H>

ubsH;yR

(1)bJ'D;unDrd>zd

(2) yulyod;rh>w>vXt&h'd.

(3)yulyuR-uX;vXy*hRoh.ng

(4)unDeH.tuvkmuvkm

17

(5)ydmcGgqhuRtuvkmuvkm

23

(6)ydmcGgxJul'D;zsD.cH

27

(7) cd.zX.tuvkmuvkm

28

(8)cd.usDRtuvkmuvkm

34

(9)zJtuvkmuvkm

36

(10)xHzSH.

39

(11),D>wud;

40

(12),D>'d.ysHR

40

(13)cD.usDRph

40

(14)unDzdw>yD;w>vDvXw>xgvXvk.

41

(15)w>*DRoh.wz.

41
1

w>fuwdRv>ng
unDydmfrk.fu&>tHR td.fxD.fwh>fySJRxD.fteH.f(30)vH'D; yw>f[l;w>f*JRwz.fp;
xD.fv>(1985)eH.fvHRvHR 'd.fxD.ftgxD.f'D; vJRxD.fvJRxD0J'.feh.fyor>tvD>fwtd.fb.f$
unDydmfrk.fu&>td.f0J'D;tw>fynd.fEGHxH.f'D; tgwuh>fw>fynd.fwz.ftHRb.fxGJb.fbs;
vdmfto;v>xH&l>fuD>foJ;'ftrh>fw>fy.fCkmfrRoud;w>fv>unD w>f*JRvdmftylR w>frR
e>fy>>ftgxD.fo;v>xH&l>fuD>foJ; w>fok;xDxD.funDydmfrk.fwz.f tw>foh.fnge>fy>>f'f
od;uohxd.fzHb.fcd.f'D; ydmfcGgwz.feh.fvDR$ v>w>fynd.fEGHxH.ftusg w>fynd.fv>trh>f
w>fu>RCmfunDw>fqJ;w>fvRy.fCkmfph>fuD;0J'.fwxH.feh.fvDR$unDydmfrk.fu&>[l;*JR'D;
usJ;p>;rRzsgxD.funDw>fqJ;w>fvRv> yw>fzH;w>frRtylReh.fvDR$ weH.ftHR yo;td.f'k;
td.fxD.fvHmfwbh.fv> b.fC;'D;w>fymfzsgxD.funDw>fqJ;w>fvR v>trh>funDw>ful
w>fod;eh.fvDR$ cd.fe>ftg*RxH.f0Jv> rh>fw>fv>t*hRwrHRv> w>fuuGJ;zsgxD.fuhR unD
w>fbk;w>fxg'D; w>fulw>fuRtuvkmfuvkmf'fod;utd.f uhR'D;w>frReD.frRCgwu;
'H;b.fol.fbD.fo;p>fwz.f uoh.fnguhRph>fuD;unDw>ful w>fuRtw>f[JuJxD.fo;
tuH.ft0hR'D;tcDynDwz.feh.fvDR$ y0JunDzdtg*RywtJ.f ulod;uhRunDzdtult
od;v>Rb.f'D; y0JweDRv>tJ.fulod;unDuluR'.fvJmf ywoh.fngv>RunDulod;tcD
ynDv>Rb.f$v>w>feh.ftCdvHmfwbh.ftHRyxk;xD.ftDR td.f'D;tw>fynd.fv> unDzdw
z.fuohoh.fnguhR tw>fulw>fuRtuvkmfuvkmf'D; tcDynDwz.feh.fvDR$ yq>rk>fv>f
ph>fuD;v>unDzdwz.f utJ.fultJ.fuRuhRtultod; 'D;ymfuz>v>to;v> unDul
od;cDzsdulod;tHRCHvR'd.fr;td.fzsgySJR'D;ol;oh.f vRuyDR'D;td.f'D;tcDynDtCdvDR$ u
nDuluRwz.f td.f0Jtuvkmfuvkmf'D;tuH.f ph>fuD;td.f0J'.ftguvkmfeh.fvDR$ rh>fw>fCH
w>fvR'd.fr; zJv>yxH.fb.funDulod;wz.f w>fuluRtDRtd.fzsguH.fChqJ;(bSJ.fp>>f)
uvmfeh.fvDR$ w>ftJ.fuluRuhRunDulod;tHR rh>fph>fuD;w>fy>RCmf unDzdw>f qJ;w>f
vR'D; yw>frh>fw>f'funDwuvkmf(Karen Identity)tod;ph>fuD;e.fvDR$ unDydmfrk.fu
&>tJ.f'd;pH;bsK;b.fySRud;*Rv> ty.fCkmfv> w>fwJzsgxD.funDuluRtcDynD unD
zdv>xHcs>uD>fcs>v>,lmfCDRtpkw>frRp>R'fod; w>fCkxH.foh.fnguhRwbsDtHR uuJxD.f
2

vd.fxD.ft*D>fySRv>[H;w>frReD.frRCg'D;'k;uJ xD.fuhRvHmfwbh.ftHR'D; ySRt*kRt*Rud;


*R'J;v>ty.fCkmfv> w>fxk;xD.fvHmfwbh.ftHR ue>ft*D>feh.fvDR$
yrSHRyyS>fw>fuwdR'dtd.f0J=uk*hRxD.fv>*h>fv>ysDReD>f*hRxD.fv>oH.fv>zD/ tod; rfunDzd
ud;*R utJ.fultJ.fuRuhRt ultod;'D; td.fzsgCHCHvRvRv>[D.fcd.fwbh.ftHR tcs>
'fySRwuvkmftod;eh.fwuh>f$

eD>funDzD
eJ.f&GJ.f
unDydmfrk.fu&>
vgthjzh.f 5 oD 2015 eH.f

1$ bJ'D;unDrd>fzd
unDzdwz.fp;xD.fv>t[JEkmfvDRqluD>fy,DRylR vk>ftD.fto;orlv> w>fzJ;ck;
zJoH.fusDeD.fzs;rHRe.fvDR$cDzsd t0Joh.f zJ;ck;zJ;oH.ftCd rRe>fw>ftD.fw>ftD'D;w>fulw>fod;
e.fvDR$ zJt0Joh.fxd.fvDRck;tq>uwD>f zSHvDRCkmf0J'D;bJcsHph>fuD;vDR$ weDReDRck;'DwvD>f
e.fol.fvDR0JxJbJcsHe.fvDR$zJe.ftq>uwD>fw>fyShRw>fqgv>usd.fphwtd.f'H;b.f$td.f'.f
w>fwDvJw>fzdw>fvHRvDR$tgwuh>fySRwDvJtD.ftHo.f'D;bJ w>fvJtD.fbk'D;bJe.fvDR$v>
w>fe.ftCdyrSHRyyS>f'k; yvD>ftzdtvHR'D;pH;0Jw>fuuRw>f0go>uvkmf w>f0go>u
vkmfe.frh>f0JrhRtHo.f'D;bJe.fvDR$'D;rR0Jv>xg'ftHR=
w>fuuRbk uuR[k
w>fuReD>f*hR ,tD.fCk
'fo;yS>fpH;wh>f0Jtod;rk>frqgweHRtHRw>f0go>uvkmfuR0J'D;v>tusgbJwuvkmfyw
xH.fv>RtDR'.fvJmfb.fe.fvDR$yySRunDzdv>tol.fbJtd.fwh>f'.fxJv>unDzdv>yud
&dr;up>>fcd.fwz.f'D; uD>frkmf}wDRup>>fcd.f{dRe.fvDR$ rhrh>funDzdv>ttd.fv> w>fvD>fw>f
usJt*Rwz.fywxH.fv>tol.fbJv>Rb.f$ b.fq.funDzdv>uD>fuFD.fwJ.f up>>fuvd
usgwz.f yxH.fv>t0Joh.fol.f'H;bJe.fvDR$cJtHRtgwuh>fySRol.f0JCdxl.fv> [H.fuydmf
[H.fuyRv> w>furRcd.f oc>.ft*D>f{dRe.fvDR$

w>f'k;uJxD.fbJqlvk.f
w>fv>bJe.ftd.f0JcHuvkmfv>trh>f0JbJoh.f bJ0.f(bJChcd.f)e.fvDR$wkRySRrRbkrR[k0HR
ydmfrk.fwz.f0HxD.ftuktCh>f'D; vJRqltoH.fylR v>uvJR'J;uhRbJt*D>fvDR$ t0Joh.f
vdChuhR0Jv>rk>f0HRv>cHuhRtd;uGHmf0Jtbh.f'D; rRuGHmfw>furl.furSgwz.f0HR vlRuGHmfbJ
4

tcsHv>'d.fuGHRe.fvDR$'d.fuGHRe.f ySRwhrh>fohr;'D; evlRbJrkmf'd.fwuh>fvDR$ tgwuh>fySRwh


'd.fuGHRv>(oh.f*hRvJ)vDR$rhrh>fbJoh.fe.f ySRrh>fwvlRtDRv>'d.fuGHRemfouhoh0JvDR$ySR[H;
xD.fbJv>td.f'D;tcsH0HR ySRvh>ftDRv>u[.fvdRwbsDCDoh0JvDR$ bJv>w>fvlRuGHmftcsH
wz.f z>Ekmf0JqlpJmfylRrRb>pJmftcd.f 'fod;bJokw'HuGHmf'D; w>fb.ft>b.foDokwEkmfvDR
w*hRt*D>fe.fvDR$ydmfrk.fwz.fzJtcsK;tq>uwD>f ykmf0JbJv>csH.fykmfbJe.fvDR$ v>cHuhRt
0Joh.f0Hmf0Jv> u[.f'D;'k;uJxD.f0Jv>vk.f'DbdvDR$vk.fv>ySRcl.ftDRwz.frReD.fCmf0JweJ
weJ rhwrh>fwzswzsh'D; p>eD.fCmf0J0HR cGDxD.f0Jv>vk.fcGDtvdRe.fvDR$ v>cH'fod;tok
wxD.fwJmfw*hR 'D;ySRb.fCh.fCkmftDR'D;rhRe.fvDR$ wkRxHcsDuvmf [ko;z;vH'D; ySRpdmf
vDRuGHmfoy>R ySR[H;xD.fuhRvk.f0HR bs;vDRpJRtDRv>vk.fuFD>fbdtvdR 'D;ySRb.fcGHtDRv>
vk.fcGHo.f 'fod;rHRzSH.f'D;w>ftql.ft'H;wz.fuvDRwJmfuGHmft*D>fe.fvDR$ vk.fcGHo.fe.fw>f
vJRrRe>feJ;rk>fo.f'D; ySRb.fusDoh.fz;(rRoh.fz;)tDRcHcDvdChtDRe.fvDR$ w>fe.f0HRtvD>fcH
bJuJxD.fqlvk.f0gwuvkmfvH ySRrh>ftJ.f'd;tvGJ>fv>t*kRt*R'D; b.fvJRusDe>fwn.f
rRulRo.f wcD;bh.fud.fbh.fwDRys>fbh.foh.f*DRo.fCD.fbh.fy[H.fv.fwzH.fz; 'd.fbh.f
ubDth.f'D;u.fbh.fud.fo.fpk.fCkmf'D;ysHRx;eDRCDRv.f(tv.f Blue tzD Pink )ymfCh
tDR0HRcsDtDR z>EkmfvDRvk.fvDR$wuGH'dtCh 'GJ.ftltDR0HR tcsgeh.fySRrh>fcsDCkmf'D;oh.fbh.feh.f
tvGJ>fwvDRb.f$ub.fpkmfCkmf'D; [ko;wRqH.f(zdqH.fv.fo.fud>fuGHo.f)'fod;vk.fu
us>Rt*D>feh.fvDR$wcsK;'H;v> ySRubk;xD.fqh bk;xD.f,.fw>fulw>fuR 'H;b.fe.fvk.f
weJweJtHR ySRzsD.fxD.fv>ySRcD.fvh>fcd.f weDRzsD.fvDR0Jv>tcD.frk>f cHbdtvdR rhwrh>fv>
uFdRuGDR'htvdR0HRrRe>f w>fuH;nmfwvd.fzd rhwrh>fp;cdrRud.fvd.f0J0HR cl.fxD.fvk.fv>t
vdRe.fvDR$ w>fe.f0HRtvD>fcHySRp;xD.fbk;x.foh0JvHe.fvDR$ w>f'k;uJxD.f bJqlvk.fe.fydmf
rk.fwz.fb.frR0J wqDb.fwqDv>w>f0Ho;plRtylR wkRtuJxD.fvk.fwpkvDR$ v>w>fe.f
tCdydmfcGgwz.f rRtd.ftDR v>xg'ftHR=
ypDuG>fzDoh.fv.ftluG>fzDo;plRwo;plR
ypDuG>fzDoh.fv.fbDuG>fzDo;wDwo;wD

ydmfrk.fwz.fph>fuD;wbsDbDsuwdR'd.fuwdRoGgvDRto;'D;pH;0J=
zDvh>fbJjyHuyDRvkRvh>fweHRySJRCh>fcH'k
wbsDbDsuwdRtH.fvDR0D>fvDRto;'D;pH;0J=
eD>fpkwuHRoG.ftpkeD>fwrHrhRw0gbk
eD>fpkwuHRoG.ftpkpSDRbkbh.fuJxD.fv>[k
wbsDbsDydmfcGgwz.fph>fuD;pH;0J=
ySR*RzSD.fv>usd.fv>ph,J,zSD.fv>vk.fwzs
w>fwtd.fxge>fpDqhpDtd.fbh.fqhtd.fvhRuhR
w>fxgw>fulw>fod;td.f'H;0Jv>owd>fwuvkmfvDR$vDRqD'.fw>fbSJ*DR bSJ0gbSJoklbSJzd
wz.f'D;uJRc>.fuJRbgzdwz.f rh>fySRbk.fowd>frd>fyS>ftCdtcd.fz>.f tzsD.fcH tqhysd>f t
eH.fwz.fxg0Jv>owd>frhwrh>fxgCgCkmf0J'D;vk.fvDR$yo;yS>fpH;0J=
bJol'd.f[JvDRv>bSJ
bJ*DR'd.f[JvDRv>bSJ
u[.fe>f[lu[.f*JR
'd.fuGHRe>f[l'd.fuGHR*JR
eD>fpkw&lRcD.fweJR
wvh>fb.fbJtd.fwuJ

2$yulyod;rh>f w>fv>t&h'd.fug'd.f
y0JySRunDzdwuvkmftHRp;xD.fv>y[JEkmfvDRqluD>fy,DR'D;wkRvDRv> rk>frqgweHRtHR
td.fvH0JteH.f(2000)tbsJ.fbl;xD.fqlteH.f (3000)C.fC.fvHtCd yulyod;v>tCH
tvRySJR'D; tol;toh.ftvk>ftySR'D; tcDynDt'd.ft,dmfwz.ft*h>fe.f ywoh.fnguhR
cJv>mfv>Rb.f$v>w>f*h>ftHRyrHSRyyS>fpH;ymf0J=
6

zdvHRrk.fcGgxH.fw>ftg
w>frkmfvJRtDRqlySRusg
rJ;,GRvDRxGHxH;td.f,HR
rHrD>fe>f[lxJtrHR
qhuH.fChrh>fwxH.fuhR
w>frkmfxHrlcd.fw*hR
yrh>fwvlRCkoh.fnguhRyulyod;yw>fqJ;w>fvRwz.fb.f'D;yue>f[lxJtrHR{dR'D;yu
vDRbs>uGHmfv>ySRusge.fvDR$ v>w>fe.ftCd yb.foh.feD.fxD.fuhR xDbdxgzdv>tpH;0J=
ySRul.fohCkuhRtxH;
ymf'd.fymfuJrd>fy>fzH
w>ftJ.fxlxH;zsguyDR
uJ'd.fuJxDpdurDR
xlxH;td.frleoh.fng
ewvDRbs>v>ySRusg
v>w>fCkuhRyxlyxH;yw>fqJ;w>fvRtusg w>fv>y*hRymf'd.fymfuJ'D; ymfol.fymfo;
uhRtDRtgrHRtusgyulyod;rh>f ph>fuD;w>fv>t&h'd.fug'd.fwrHRvDR$ t*h>ftHR rk>frqg
weHRtHRyySRuvkmfvDRrk>fjyH_ygoukRq;';'D;uvkmf*Rw>fqJ; w>fvRwz.f 'd.fb>uGHmfySR
tgwh>fr;vHtCd yudsmf'.fvJmfuvDRr>fC.fC.fcDzsdv>ywuwdRtDRv>[H.fv>CDb.ft
CdvDR$vDRqD'.fw>fyzdyvHRv>rk>frqgweHRtHRwz.f wtJ.f'd;uwdRuhRtup>ftusdmf
b.f$ 'fySRuvkmfwuvkmft od;td.fwh>f'.f yub.ftJ.fyulyod;yb.fuRtDR yb.fCk
oh.fngt*h>ftyD>f 'D;rRzsgxD.fuhRyySRuvkmftw>fqJ;w>fvR cDzsdw>fulw>fod;wz.f
e.fvDR$v>uD>fuFD.fwJ.ftylRc&Hmfzdu&l>fw>fbl.fw>fbgwz.f wD.fxD.f0JqlpDRyRv>w>fymf
zsgxD.f unDzdw>fqJ;w>fvRt*D>f t0Joh.fw>.fyD.fwJoud;0J rhrh>funDbs>xHc&Hmfzd
cd.fe>fwz.fpH;0JzJt0Joh.fxD.fbl.fxlbg,GR wbsDv>fv>fuuluod;0JunDulod;tCd

yuxH.fb.fuD>fuFD.fwJ.fylR unDzdwz.fzJtvJRql o&dmfpdRrdRbl.fxlbgt,GRtcgul


od;0JunDuluRyuG>fCHvR*hR'd.fr;vDR$rhrh>foDcgol( RC)w>fbgwcDpH;0Jud;EGH'J;rk>fzDz;
(Friday)e.f v>w>fymfzsgxD.f unDzdw>fqJ;w>fvRt*D>f t0Joh.f utd.f'D;w>f uRunD
ulod;v>uFdud;zs>.f'J;e.fvDR$ v>w>fe.ftCdyuxH.fv> uD>fuFD.fwJ.ftylRrh>f wkRCDRzJ
rk>f,J>feHRe.fySRunDzdwz.f ulod;0JunDtultod;e.f vDR$w>ftvk>ftv>ftHR b.fvdmf
o;'D;yrSHRyyS>ftxgv>tpH;0J=
erh>fe>f[l,GR[JuhRo*>>f,GRqh*hR,.f*hR
erh>f[l,GR[JvDRo*>>f,GRqhoD,.foD
t0Jeh.frh>fw>fvD.fzsgxD.fw>fymfuJup>f,GRzJybl.fxlbg,GRtcgyrh>fod;unDtultod;
v>b.fw>fxgtDRv>pkv>vk.fbJwz.fvDR*mf yvD.fzsgxD.fyunDzdtw>fqJ;w>fvReh.f
vDR$wrh>fxJrk>feHR'd.frk>feHRvDRqDtq>uwD>fr; yod;xD.ftDRb.f$ wrh>fph>fuD;bs>xHc&Hmf
zdwz.fub.fvlRydmfxGJ'D;rRtDR wrRwohb.feh.fwrh>fb.f$ ub.frR'ftHR'fEkRph>fuD;w
rh>fb.f$v>c&Hmfzdw>fbgtylRtd.f'D;w>fobshv>w>fbl.fxD.fbgxD.ftylRvDR$'d;oehRxD.f
to;v>ySRw*R'D;w*Rtw>fxH.ftw>fo;td.ftw>fq>wJmftzDcd.fvDR$ rh>f'.fw>fwJ
oh.fngvdmfo;v>unDzdv>uD>fuFD.fwJ.fwz.ftw>ftd.fo; {dReh.fvDR$ xgzdt*RwwDR
pH;u'D;0J=
xd.fvH.f'h.fn.fcsH;wcl;
*k>foh.f';bDw>>fytl;
rR'.ftxg'D;tqh
*hR'.ftDRtqhuH.fCh
vJR'.ftusJySRww>
usJ.fusDCgCkmfwvDRb>

'fq.fzduD>fzdw>fzdvHRzdC>fwz.ftd.f'D; tzH;tbh.ftuk'.f0JtCd ySRoh.fngtDRohv>t


rh>fq.fzduD>fzdrEkRwuvkmf vJ.fe.fvDR$y0JySRunDwuvkmftHRytd.f'D; yulyod;v>t
vDRqD 'D;CHvRr;wz.fvDR$ yub.fohy>RCmf yw>fqJ;w>fvRv>trh>f yulyod;oh.f
wz.ftHRvDR$zJyulyuRxD.f yw>fulw>fod;wbsDCD ySRoh.fngySRv>yrh>fySRunDzdvDR$
yrSHRyyS>fpH;0J ==
ySRunDtvHmfvDRr>f
td.fwh>f'.fv>vk>fv>xg
ySRunDtvHmfwtd.f
td.fwh>fv>vk.fvdRx.fvdR
rh>fv>yvHmfvDRr>ftCd yo;yS>fwz.frh>ftJ.f'd;r.fvdmfyd.fvDR tzdtvHRv>w>f
wrHRrHR'D;'d0Jv>vk>fv>xg rhwrh>frR0Jv>vk.fvdRx.fvdRvDR$ 'fod;zdvHRwz.fuymf
ol.fymfo; o;uvDRyvdmfvdmfo;uoht*D>f w>f*h>fw>fusdRwz.f xg0Jv>x.fvdRcd.f
z>.fvdRqhuRvdRvDR$ zHo;yS>fv>ngw*RpH;0J ySRv>tz;vHmfqD0J;b.fwz.f z;w>fuH.f
w>fuGJ;v>ySRxg0Jv>qhvdRtcDynDb.f0JvDR$

3$yulyuR -u>;v>y*hRoh.fng
unDrk.fwz.ftd.f'D;tw>fohw>fb.f v>w>ftleH.fuH.fqhtl tuvkmfuvkmfy0J
v>pdRcJtHRwz.fyrRydmf xgydmfuhRtcHwb.fcJv>mfb.f$ySRweDRxg0Jb.f'.fu,>mfud;0J
trHRto.fwb.fb.f$ 'D;tcDynDph>fuD;wJuhR0Jw b.fwySdRv>Rb.f$ vDRqD'.fw>fu
nDzdv>uD>fuFD.fwJ.f'D;unDzdv> uD>frkmf}wDRwz.fxgw>f bk;w>fohtuvkmfuvkmfvDR
qDe>f'H;unDzdv>ttd.fv> [D.fu0DRt*Rwz.fe.fvDR$ v>uD>f&h.fwbh.fCDtylR u&l>f
wbh.f'D;wbh.f xg0Jtultod;wz.f vDRqDvdmfto;wu;'H;b.fu&l>fwbh.f CDt
ylR'.fvJmf xg0Jtuh>ft*D>ft( design, pattern ) w'H;od;vdmfto;'H;b.ft'd uD>frkmf}wDR
tylR uD>fq.ftd.f0Jo>bh.f v>trh>fbkod.fuD>fq.f vlRoDuD>fq.f'GJ.fvduD>f q.fwz.f
9

e.fvDR$ vDRqD'.fw>fbkod.fuD>fq.f wbh.ftylRu&l>ftd.f0J(11)bh.fvDR$v>t usgbSg'>


u&l>fwu&l>fCDtylR wdndo0DbSg'>o0Ded.fylRrJ>fy;o0Dwz.f td.fu&l>fw bh.fCDemf
ouh tl0JeH.fuH.fqhtl w'H;od;vdmfto;b.f$ vDRqDvdmfto;wo0D'D;w o0De.fvDR$
ytJ.f'd;ymfzsgxD.f u&l>fud;bh.f'J; [D.fu0DRud;bh.f'J; tw>fqJ;w>fvRt w>fulw>fod;
t'HRpJv>tCHvR'D; tw>fvDRqDvdmfto;wz.f emfouhywrRe>fb.f cJv>mfb.ft
Cdrh>fw>fv> tvDRo;tk;'d.fr;vDR$ 'fe.ftod;uD>fuFD.fwJ.ftylR uF;0;wbh.f'D;wbh.f
[D.fu0DRwbh.f'D;wbh.ft w>fulw>fod;qhb>.fwz.f q;xD.f0Jw'H;od;vdmfto;ph>f
uD;b.f$ w>f0JtHRymfzsgxD.fv> y0JunDrk.fwz.fytd.f'D; yw>fpkoh cD.fb.fv> tvDRqD
e>f'H;uvkmf*Rwz.f'D; rh>fw>fv>tu>yhSRu>uvHR'd.fr;tCd y-u>;ymfuz>v>yo;
v>yw>fohw>fb.f'D; yw>fqJ;w>fvRwz.ftHRe.fvDR$ b.fq.fySRv> twJyF;uhRunDzd
vk>fv>fxloElw>fqJ;w>fvR'ftrh>f yunDw>fulw>fod; w>fu,>u,Jwz.ftd.f'H;0J
weDRtCd yb.fo;ckv>ySRtd.f'H;0Jv> tu>RCmfuhRyunDulod; tw>fqJ;w>fvRt
cDynDoh.fwz.fe.fvDR$ yw>fulw>fod; w>fu,>u,Joh.fwz.f td.f0Jtgu vkmftgrFd
tCd tcDynDph>fuD;td.fv>v>ySJRySJRv> w>fulw>fod;wz.ftvdRe.fvDR$ y0JunDzd
yw>fulw>fod;v> w>foh.fngymfyeD.fvDRwH>fvDRqJ;'D; rh>fw>fulw>f od;wH>feD>fv>rd>fy>f
zHzkv>ys>R[h.fogwh>fwz.fe.frh>f0J=
1$ qhuH.f(qhrd>fol)
2$ qhrd>f0g(qh0guzDz;xD wkRvDRv>cD.f'hudmf)
3$ qhb>.f(b.fw>f'J;uH.f'J;0hRtDRv> w>fo.f0g0gzdwuvkmfyud;v>b>.fo.f
e.fvDR)
4$ eH.f*DRzd
5$ eH.fvgrh.f
6$ eH.ftlcD.fxH;(eH.fo>c>.f)(xd.fchc.fuvDRpGg)
7$ eH.fCD;oh.fwz.f'D; w>foh.fwz.ftHR rh>funDydmfrk.fwz.f tw>fulw>fod;
eD>feD>fvDR$'fe.ftod;ySRunDzd 'ftrh>fyulbSJwz.f xgod;ph>fuD;tultod; tuvkmf
10

uvkmftd.f'D;trHRto.f'.f0Jpkmfpkmf'ftrh>f=
qhusD.f';qhwl>fwJ>f'>qhGJRwlmfqho0H;zdqhwk>fxD.fqhuDRvDRqhvh>fqhuH.fChqh
vgwz.fe.fvDR$

(u) unDydmfrk.fqhuR tuvkmfvkmf


1$ qhrd>f0g (qhod;plRqh0guzDz;xDwkRvDRcD.f'hudmf)
unDrk.fzdv> rkmf}wDRup>>fcHuvdusg'D;v> uD>fuFD.fwJ.fup>>fuvdusgvDRqD
'.fw>fv>td.f'H;v> rd>fvky>fv>ftusgwz.f yxH.fb.fv>t0Joh.fuR0J qhrd>f0gzdwz.f
vDR$unDzdo.frk.f'D; rk.fueDRzdwz.ftqhrd>f0gzdtHR w>fvD>fweDRud;0Jv>qhod;plRqh
od;pRvDR$unDzdv> rkmf}wDRuD>f&h.f vlRoDuD>fq.fwz.f xgqhrd>f0ge.f wohCh0JeDw
wDRb.f$xgobsh0J'Dwbh.fngvDR$rhrh>fw>fvD>fv>t*R Ckmf'D;uD>fuFD.fwJ.fySRunDzdwz.f
yxH.fb.fv>txgqhrd>f0g e.fohCh0JzJto;egyS>futd.fwpkrk>f'd.f'D;v> tcD.fxH;e.foh
Ch0JqH;qH;zd v>vk.ft*DRe.fvDR$ rhrh>fbSg'>u&l>ftqhrd>f0ge.f ohCh0JwDwDt,D>f'he.f
vDR$qh0gz;xDtHR b.fw>frRe>ftDRv>bJvk.fbJ'Dwbh.fngvDR$ qh0gymfzsgxD.f0Jw>fpD
w>fqSHtyeD.ftCd ySRod;tDRoh'.fxJrk.fueDRpDqSHv> woh.fngb.fydmfcGg'H;b.f'D;w>foH.f
olrDmfusgwtd.fb.f'D;tDRoh.fwz.fvDR$zJw>fzH;w>frRuwD>f t0Joh.fp>Cmftqhv>,D>f
wud;(uH>fwlmfCmft,D>f'h) rhrh>fzJw>frRrl;rRyGJtq>uwD>f t0Joh.fysJvDRz;xD0J'Dw
bh.fwuH>fwlmft,D>f'hv>Rb.f$
qhrd>f0gtHRw>fxgtDR'd.f'fod; ySRuRb.ftDRuvhuv>t*D>f'D; txDwcD vDRwkR
v>cD.f'hudmfvDR$ t0Joh.fwz.fuR0J'fe.f wvd.fzsD.fcHuRqhzdv> tzDvmfb.f$qhrd>f0gtHR
w>fxgtDR0HRq;wH>f0JtwdR 'D;ymfvDRwJmf0J zJtpkcHuyR'D;tudmfbdt*D>fvDR$q;0J}wD>f
'.ftpktcd.f,l>fvDR$ rh>fv>w>fq;wH>ftDRwH>fwH>fbH.fbH.f'fod;tHRtCd t0Joh.frh>fwod;
w>fv>tzDvmfeDwrHRoemfuh tzH;tn.fwzsgxD.fb.f$rh>fr;qhuRv> v>tzsgCHvR
11

vDRtJ.f'D;bH.fb>*hRr;v> rk.fueDRzd'D;ydmfrk.fqH;zdwz.ft*D>fvDR$ 'fxd.fuH.fbD'D;eD>fodrD


w>fxk;vDRz;tDRwohb.ftod; qhrd>f0gzd'D;unDrk.fvd.fbd unDrk.fvDRCDwz.fw>fxk;
z;tDRwohb.fe.f ySRv>trh>funDzdwH>feD>funDzdqSHqSHwz.f oh.fng0Jud;*R'J;eh.fvDR$

2$ qhusD.f';
qhusD.f';=q;bSJ.fqhv>b>.fu0DRusDR'Dbh.fng'fyvDtcHuD>f tod;vDR$

3$ qhwl>fwJ>f'>
qhwl>fwJ>f'>=q;bSJ.fqhv>b>.f 'fwl>fwJ>ftzDtod;z;'hz;}w>fvDR$

4$ qhGJRwlmf
qhGJRwlmf=e.fq;bSJ.fqhv>b>.f usJR0JwH>fobSH.f{dRv>t'D.fwlmfwcD'D;ud;0Jv>qhGJR
wlmfvDR$

5$ qho0H;zd
q;bSJ.fqhv>b>.ftd.f'D;u0DRzdeJ.fuJ.f{dR 'fxHo0H;to;uH>fylRu0DR usDRe.fvDR$

6$ qhwk>fxD.fqhuDRvDR
qhwk>fxD.fqhuDRvDReh.fwk>f0Jb>.fv>vk.ftvdR0HR wk>fxD.fuhRv>qhbSJ.ftvdRvDRplmfvDR
pJRvDR$

7$ qhvh>f
qhvh>frh>fq;bSJ.f0J td.f'D;tusdRylR'fvh>ftod;

12

8$qhuH.fCh
qhuH.fChe.fwtd.fv>t*h>ftudsRb.f$ q;0JtjyHweDR toGgweDR t0gweDR 'D;t*DR
weDRvDR$qh b>.ftd.f'H;0Jtgr;'fchcgw>fq>uwD>f vJvdmfto;tod; q;bSJ.f0J'D;trHR
to.fwtd.fv>Rb.f'fyrSHRyyS>ftq>uwD>fb.f$weDRq;0J'fzDzdwzd;wzd;tod;weDRq;
bSJ.f0J'frk>f[JxD.ftd.f'D;t,JRtod;weDRq;wdRys0J'D;td.f'H;0Jtgr;vDR$

9$ qhvg=qhvgtHR
yud;ph>fuD;v>yulqhrd>folvDR$ v>tudmf'D;t,D>f'he.f q;0Jw>f wdRyhs'fup>>fwzs>.f
wzs>.ft od;vDR$q;0Jw>fwdRyhs 'fxd.fcsK.ftrJ>ftod;vDR$ v>up>>f0JtHRtpdcd.fe.fq;
0J'fbkrk>fbkpJRtod;o>bdvDR$tuyRcH bdq;0J'fbkv.ftod;'D;t c>.fo;wbdq;0J'f
bkysdmftod;vDR$weDReDRtuyRcHbdq;0J'fbkpJRtod;'D;tc>.fo;w bdq;0J'fbkysdmft
od;vDR$weDRq;0J'fySRqJ;vDRxd.fcsK.frJ>fo>bdtod;vDR$v>w>fwdRyhswyhs'D;wyhstb>.f
p>Reh.fq;0J'fusd.frJmfo.ftod;rhwrh>f'fqDzdtcD.fvD>ftod;vDR$ v>twH>fvmf tudmfbd
'D;tqhuRcD.fxH;wcDq;0J'fod; n.ftCHvDR$qhvgtvdR q;bSJ.f0JtzDwz.frh>fw>fymf
zsgxD.f ySRunDtw>ftd.fw>fqd;tvD>ftusJ tw>fzH;w>frRtw>f qJ;w>fvRw>fvk>f'd.f
yShR'd.fwz.fvDR$

10$qhb>.f
qhb>.fe.fw>fxg'.fqhwukmf,d,dzd0HR'D;w>fu,>u,J*hRxD.ftDRv>vk.f tvGJ>fo>u
vkmfvGH>fuvkmf w>fq;tDRv>tuH.ftuGJ;'.f0J(t*h>f'.f0J)vDRwH>fvDRqJ;0HR w>fu,>
u,JtDRv>b>.fo.fe.fvDR$ zJqhtcD.fxH;e.f w>fq;xD.fw>fuH;nmft*DRzdw bh.f0;w
&H;qhuRcD.fxH;vDR$ ySRo;yS>fv>ngq;csH;qhcD.fxH;v>tpk 'D;q;bs;0JvDR$ ySRcJtHRw
z.fq;qhuRcD.fxH;v>pJ; rh>fq;0Jv>tpkwcDwq;bs;0Jx;cd.fb.f$ tCdyrh>fq;csH;
qhcD.fxH;e.fy-u>;uG>fvdySRo;yS>fv>ngwz.fq;0JvDR$ 'fe.ftod;eH.ftwdRv>tqJ;uhR
0Jwz.f ySRq;wH>ftDRv>pJ;ph>fuD;vDR$ 'fod;ySRurR e>fvk.ftvGJ>ftuvkmfuvkmft*D>fySR
13

ydmfrk.fwz.fvJR qlyS>fylR'D;usDe>foh.fbh.fwrHRrHR v>upk.fvk.ft*D>fvDR$ vDRqD'.fw>fw


n.fbh.fwrHRtHR wkRySRud;vdmfo;v>uvJRusDe>f0Jtbh.fv>yS>fylRe.f t0Joh.fvJRxJySR
v>tw>fur.fwtd.fb.fwz.fvDR$ rh>fv>ySR'fe.ftod;wz.frh>fvJR y.fCkmfv>ySRusge.f
'D;ySRrh>f csD'D;pk.fvDRvk.fe.f tvGJ>fwpJbl;'D;vk.f b.ftCdvDR$ b.fq.fySRv>trRur.f
w>fySRrh>fwoh.fng 'D;rh>fvJRCkmf'D;ySRwcD wkRySRzDvk.fpk.fvk.f 'D;tvGJ>frh>fwpJbl;b.fe.f
ySRoh.fng0JwbsDCDv>ySRvJRw>ftusgw*R*Rtw>fur.ftd.ftCdb.foHuG>foH'd;uhR0J
0HRySRb.fvJR usDu'D;toDwbsDe.fvDR$zJySRpk.fwn.fxHtcge.f td.fph>fuD;'D; w>f'k.fw>f
xktgr;([H.fzdCDzdub.ftd.fud;*R)wb.ftD.fwRqH.fb.f$ w>fwb.ftD.f'h.fbkn.fvH.f
w>fv>tvDRuvl;vDRuvJ'ftrh>fck.fr-whRoGhbdxl.fwz.fe.fb.fvDR
qhb>.ftcDynD=ydmfrk.fv>tuqSDw*RcJtHRwkRCDRql w>fqD[H.fqDCDtvD>f'D;x>.fvDR
*DRvDRt o;v>w>ftd.frlcg qlngt*D>fe.fvDR$
w>fuH;nmf*DR=ymfzsgxD.fydmfrk.fw*Rv>qD[H.fqDCDe.fub.fuG>fq>.frJmf'D;w>fud>fw>f*DR
w>fuDw>fcJw>fe;w>fzDS.fv> [H.fylRCDylRvDR$
b>.fo.fv>tzDcd.fw*h>f=vJRcDzsdw>fud>fw>f*DRb.fq.ftd.f'D; w>fo;'lv>v>ySJRySJRtCd
rRe>RuGHmfw>foh.fwz.fe.f'D; e>fb.fuhRw>fol.frHo;rkmfv>[H.fylRvDR$
b>.fwu&l>fpkmfpkmf=ymfzsgxD.f[H.fzdCDzd 'D;rd>fy>fwz.frRoud;w>frd>fy>fv>tvD>f zdv>
tvD>ftCd [H.frkmfCDy>R 'D;w>frk>fv>fv>ySJRe.fvDR$
b>.fv>txD.f'D*h>fwz.f=rh>frd>fy>fcH*RzD.fvdmfpk'D;rRoud;w>f e>fy>>fvdmfo;cHcD,>fb;
b>.fv>tC.ftcd.fqltxD.f'D*h>fwz.fttd.f=rh>fzdo.fwz.fuoeRo;v> rd>fy>f'D;'du
e.frd>fy>fuvk>f
w>f'J;uH.f'J;0hRwz.f
t*DR=rd>fw*Rq>x>.f'l'l v>[H.fCDylR
14

tbD0g=rd>fw*Rtd.f'D;w>fo;unDRv>[H.fCDylR
tvg[h=rd>fw*Rtd.f'D;w>fol.fwDo;&Rv>0RzDcd.f
tvGJ>fwz.ftd.f'D; t*h>ft0D'.f0JpkmfpkmfvDR$
b>.fv>w>fqDvDRtDRwul>fpkmfpkmf tb>.fp>Re.f vk.fv>w>f'J;uH.f'J;0hRtDRwz.f
b.fw>fqDvDRph>fuD;tDRw *h>fw*h>fpkmfpkmfe.fvDR$
o>*h>fw*h>fe.frh>f0J'.f= rd>fy>f'D;zdoh.fwz.frh>fw>fwrHRCD 'D;b.fw>fymfyeD.ftDRv> unD
uvkmfv>trh>fpSDRbSJydS>fwz.fe.fvDR$b>.f'D;vk.foh.fwz.ft'D*h>fub.fClvdmfo;e.f
vDR$ qh'Dwbh.fb>.f'D;vk.ftvGJ>fv>w>fqDvDRtDRwz.fub.f ySJRxD.fEGH*h>fe.fvDR$ b.fw>f
ud;tDRv>trJmfubsH;EGHubsH;e.fvDR$EGHubsH;rh>fwySJRe.f wb.frSHRvD>fyS>fvD>fb.f$ trJmf
EGHubsH;rh>f unDzdEGH'l.fe.fvDR$qhb>.ftuvkmfuvkmfe.f vDRqDvdmfto;wqH;wuh>f
vDR$ zJtubsH;td.ftvD>fe.fb.f x>tDRv>zDwzD;'D;tcD.f'hw'hpkmfpkmf'.f0J 'D;b.fw>f'k;
pJbl;tcD.fwylRCDe.fvDR$ w>ftHRymfzsgxD.f0J
x>=rd>fub.fvDR*mfxd.frd>f[kqDrd>fyS>f ub.fu>RzSd.fzdvHRwz.f
tcD.f'h'D;tcD.fwz.f=zdvHRtd.fv>w>fvD>ftgwDRtgylR
cD.fpJbl;wz.f =rh>fvDRz;b.fq.fub.fxH.fzSd.fvdmfuhRo;rRoud;w>fv>o;wzs>.fCD
(EGH'l.fEGHx>rh>fzkxd;rJy>fzdvHR w'l.fCDwx>CDvDR$)

11$qhuH.f(qhrd>fol)
b.fw>fxgtDRv>eJo>qdw>f'J;uH.f'J;0hRoh.fwz.frh>f0JqDcD.f'hwuDRc.fzDxHo
bSJzD'D;w>f'J;uH.f'J;0hRtDR'ftvD>ftd.ftod;vDR$b.fq.fw>fuR'.ftDR xJySRv>tqD[H.f
qDCDwh>fvHoh.fwz.fvDR$

15

tcDynD
qDcD.f'h=ymfzsgxD.frd>f([H.fup>frk.f)wz.fub.fvJRcDzsd w>ftd.frltuvkmfuvkmf
wuDRc.fzD=rd>fwz.fub.ftd.f'D;w>fuDRol.fuDRo;w>f0Ho;plRv>[H.f'l.fCDx>tylR
xHobSJ=rd>fwz.fub.ftd.f'D;w>fo;unD v>[H.f'l.fCDx>tylR
w>f'J;uH.f'J;0hRcJv>mfe.f rh>fph>fuD;w>fohwRv.fwcg v>rd>fwz.fuxk;e>fzdt
o;'D; ymfzsgw*Rtw>fol.fplR o;plRe.fvDR$

12$qhySd>f
eH.f'D;qhunDv>zShyS>fo0D rJR0hRu&l>f rkmf}wDRuD>f&h.f
ydmfrk.fzdv>o0DzJe.fwz.f wkRrh>fto;td.fwqHCkeH.fvHe.f ol.fuho;yS>fwz.f 'k;
ulxD.fuRxD.ftDR qhunD'D;eH.funD 'D;od.fvDRt0Joh.fv>ub.f[H;xD.fzD.f xD.fw>fzH;
w>frR'ftrh>fw>fpkohw>fzH;w>frR 'ftrh>fw>fbk;w>fxg'D; ub.frR0JvDR wH>fvDRqJ;u'k
vDRwH>f'D; rRvdmfydmfvDR0Jv>xg'ftHR td.ftdwohtd.ftdvdtd.ftd'fqDzgrJ>fudtcDynD
rh>f0J 'fqDzgysd*kmfusJ;p>;td.ftdvdto;tod;e.f t0Jph>fuD;ub.f*kmfusJ; p>;rRvdoht
o;v>w>fzH;w>frRe.fvDR$ eH.ftHRud;0JtrHRv>eH.fqDzgrJ>fud cDzsdv>ttl0JtuGJ;vDR
*mf'fqDzgrJ>fudtod;e.fvDR$ ySRrk.fueDRv>tuR xD.fqhrd>fuH.f'D;eH.ftHRe.f ymfzsgxD.f0J
v>t0Joh.frh>fySRv>t'd.fwk>fcd.fySJRvH'D;zH;w>frRw>fohvHe.fvDR$ eH.f'D;qhtHRtgwuh>fySR
uluRv>rk>feHRvDRqD'fe.fvDR$ ySRrk.fueDRv>w'd.fwkmfcd.fySJR'D; zH;tD.frRtD.fwoh'H;w
z.fe.f wuR0J'.fqh rd>fuH.fwbh.ftHR'H;b.f$
b.fq.foemfuh wkRt0Joh.fuluRxD.fqhrd>fuH.f'D; eH.ftltHRe.f yb.foh.fngv>
t0Joh.f'd.fwkmfcd.fySJR0J'.fvHe.fvDR$ qhuRymfzsgxD.fv>t0Joh.frh>fySRu'kvDRwH>f cDzsdv>
qhuRtHRw>fxgtDR0HR w>fuhRq;xD.fuhRu'D;0JtwdRzd oh.fwz.fwbsDu'D;e.fvDR$ ySR
v>tuRqhuRtHRtgwuh>f rh>f'.fySRv>txD.fyS>f0HR0J'.fe.fvDR$ rhrh>feH.fwcDySRud;*R'J;
16

ul0J'.fohvDR$ w>fwymfvDRqDv>ub.frh>fySRv>xD.fyS>fr;ulohwrh>fb.f$ 'fe.ftod;qh


ph>fuD;ySRrk.fueDRuR0Johe.fvDR$emfouh ySRrk.fueDRv>tuR0Joh.fwz.fe.f tup>f'.f0J
xge>f0J'D; wkRrh>ft0Joh.fuRxD.fqhrd>fuH.f'D;ySRoh.fng v>t0Joh.fzH;tD.frR tD.f'.f0JohvH
'D; xD.fyS>fvDRz;oh0JvHe.fvDR$
('fywJwh>fvHv>x;tod; unDrk.fzdwz.f rhwrh>fv>tqD[H.fqDCD'H;b.fe.f
wulxD.fod;xD.fb.feH.ftl'D; qhrd>foleDwbsDb.f$ b.fq.funDzdv>'GJ.fvduD>fq.f rJ;0hR
u&l>fwz.f td.f'D;txloEl'fw>fymfzsgv>x;tCd rh>fw>fv>twzd;rH'D; unDzdv>vlR
oDuD>fq.f'D;bkod.fuD>fq.fwz.fb.f$ w>f'd;oeRxD.fto;xHo;uD>fo;tzDcd.ftCdvDR$
w>fpH;0Jv>unDqSHqSHwz.ftd.f0Jv>vlRoDcd.fvlRoDu&l>feh.fvDR$)

4$ unDeH.ftuvkmfuvkmf
eH.fusD0geH.f&.feH.fuH.f (eH.fpdS.f)eH.fuH.fcH(bSJ'hvdmfrk>fxD.f)rDRe>fySRteH.f Cd.f
x.ft eH. f eH. fr Jmf eH.f* D Rzd eH. fvgrh. f eH. ft lc D. fx H; (eH. fo >c>.f) (eH.f xd. fc hc .f uvDRpGg )
eH.fCD;oh.fwz.feh.fvDR$
'fywJwh>fv>x;tod;ySRunDwz.f 'ft'l.ftx>td.fqd;tvD>ftusJ vDRqDt
od; xg0Jtultod;wo0D 'D;wo0DwvDR*mfvdmfto;b.f$xg0JeH.fcHc>.fweDR eH.fo>
c>.f(eH.fcD.fxH;tl)weDR0HRq;pJbl;uhR0Jq;uhR0JtwdRe.f vDR$yrSHRyyS>fv>ys>Rwz.f xg0J
eH.fcHc>.feH.fCD;tc>.ftH.ftH.fzd'D; rRe>f0JysHRcsH;0JteH.fv>tuyRo>csH;ymf0JtcDynDv>
ydmfrk.fwz.fwb.ftJ.fb>t0Rb.f$p>wH>feH.fv>t,D>f'hvdR 'D;ysHRe.fvDR$

(1)$eH.fusD0g
eH.fusD0ge.fxg0Jv>vk.ftol'D;tc>.fo;xg0Jt0g usD0g0Jwbdwbd 'D;tc>.fo;cHcD
tHRq;pJbl; uhR0JzJt usD0gto;wcDe.fvDR$ eH.ftHRtgwuh>f uD>fwDtl yul ydmfrk.fw
17

z.f'D;bSJzdv>ttd.fbl; 'D;yulwz.ful0JvDR$ rhrh>fySRbSJzdwz.f eH.ftc>.f o;e.fwusD0g


0Jv>vk.f0gb.f$uH.fChuH.fwlmf0Jv>t*DRutd.fpkvGH>fpkrk>fvDR$

(2)$ eH.f&.f
eH.f&.frh>ftol'Dbh.fb.fq.ftc>.fo; usDbD0JwbdusD*DR0JwbdvDR$ xg0J cHc>.f0HRq;pJ
bl;uhR0JvDR$ usDbDusD*DR0Jutd.fwys>fC.fC.fvDR$ ySRv>tuleH.ftHRtgu w>>frh>f0J
uJRc>.fuJRbgzdwz.fvDR$ rhrh>fbSJrdRySRwz.f wusD*DRusD bD0Jb.f$xg*DR0Jtc>.f o;tHR
v>owd>fvDR$

(3)$ eH.fuH.f(eH.fpdS.f)
eH.f'Dbh.fnge.fuH.fwlmf0JwusdRwusdR'fCd.fzdpdrh>f*hR 'fq>.fv>R od;rh>f*hR'D; tvJG>frh>f
t*DR rhwrh>ftol'ft0Joh.fo;vD0Jtod;xg0JvDR$ xg0JcHc>.f0HRq; pJbl;uhR0JvDR$
uH.f0Jv>vk.ft*DRtbDt0gvDR$ eH.ftHRv>wDtlzdwz.ftusg ySRv>t ul0Jtguw>>f
rh>fuJRc>.fuJRbgbSJzdwz.fvDR$ ySRuJRbgzdud;0Jv> eH.fpd&Sh.f 'D;ySRbSJzd ud;0Jv>
eH.fuH.fvDR$ ySRuJRbgzdwz.frh>f*hRySRbSJzdwz.frh>f*hR v>ys>RzHzktpdRxg0Jv>o wd>fvDR$

(4)$ eH.fuH.fcH (bSJ'hvdmfrk>fxD.f)


eH.fuH.fcHe.fw>fxgtDRcHc>.f'D;wc>.f'D;wc>.fe.f xg0J w>fusD0gwuyR w>fxgoCHRt
uyRwcDvDR$ usD0g0JvGH>fbdusD*DR0JvGH>fbdvDR$ tc>.f 0JtHRymf0Jv>w>fzDcd.fwcDvDR$ t0J
wc>.fxg0J w>fusD 0gvGH>fbd0HR xguH.fxg0hR0JuH.f0J wysdRwydsRvDR$ rhrh>fw>fwdRyhse.fymf
0Jz;vJ>f'D;w>fuH.ft*Rwz.f cHcgo>cge.f ymfwh>f0J tolwysd>fwysd>fvDR$ xguH.f0Jv>
w>fwdRyhs'h.frJmfcsHw>fqGJ.fo;w>fo0H;zD w>f'HcsH w>f0.fodv.fpD;uyhRw>fud;vh>f
td.f'H;0Jtgr;v>yud;uhR tDRwb.fv>Rb.fvDR$ eH.fcHc>.f tHRq;pJbl;uhR0JvDR$ eH.ftHR
b.fw>fxgtDR v>ySR bSJzdv>'hvdmfrk>fxD.fwz.f'D;rh>fv> w>fuH.fw>ftltDRuDuDcJcJtCd
cJtHRySRxgohwtd.fv>Rb.f$td.fwh>f'.fpSR*R{dRvDR$
18

(5)$ rDReh>fySRteH.f
rDRe>fySRv>ttd.fv> yudup>>fcd.fwz.frh>f*hR td.fv>wDtl rk>fxD.f uvHRpd; wkRv>uD>f
rkmf}wDR wz.frh>f*hRuD>fqDxH;uD>fcs>.fvGH>fxl.f'loxl.fwz.frh>f*hR tqhb>.fqhrd>folw
z.fxg0Jq;0Jtl0J CHCHvRvRuDuDcJcJ0HR rhrh>ft eH.fwcDtg wuh>fxg'.f0JtolvJvJ
rhwrh>ftvgtJ;t*DR'D;ul0JvDR$ weDReDRv>to;p>f'H;wz.f eH.ftvGJ>ftolrhwrh>ft*DR
e.f xgwdRys0Jv>tvk; t*DRCJ;wbdwbd 'D;weDRxgwdR uhG0Jph>fuD;vDR$

(6)$Cd.fx.fCd.f0.fteH.f
unDzdv>ttd.ftqd;v>Cd.fvdmfusdtx.f0;0; wkRv>wD eD>fup>>fcd.fwz.ful0JvDR$
xg0Jt*DR'Dbh.f'D;v>tc>.fo;e.fxg'D.fwlmf0Jv>t0gtvg tbDwusdRwusdRvDR$
v>t0gtvgtbDtusdRe.f uH.f0Jv>vk.f'f tvGJ>ftd.ftod; tCd yrh>fwymfol.fymf
o;b.f'D;ywxH.fb.f$ cJtHRrD.fvrFJ.fz.ft.frl'dRuD>fyoH.fwz.f xg0Jtgr;'D;rh>fv>
w>fxgtDRv>pJ;zDu[.fnDtCd xk;xD.f&RvDReH.ftHRql uD>fy,DR 'D bh.fvDR$

(7)$ eH.frJmf
eH.frJmfe.fySRultgwuh>fv>ys.fvdmfusdxHx.fwuyRvDR$ v>ngySRxgv> owd>fyuG>f*hR
r;vDR$ yrSHRyyS>fv>ys>Rwz.fxg0Jv>eJrk>fwqd'D;twdRtd.f0JwqHCkbd trJmftd.fCkbh.f
twCHRtd.fo>qHvGH>fbdvDR$ tgw uh>fw>fxgtDRv>vk.ft*DR'D;twdR wz.fxg0Jv>
tbDrh>f*hRt*DRvk;rh>f*hRtvgtJ;rh>f*hRvDR$ cJtHRv>uD>fyoH.frFDrF; wcDxg0Jtgr;vDR$

(8)$rkmf}wDReH.f
eH.fo>c>.feH.fo>c>.frhwrh>f(eH.fcD.fxH;tl)eH.fo>c>.ftHRuuJ xD.ft*D>f b.fw>fxgtDRo>
bsDvDR$ ySRb.fxg0JeH.fudmfxH;wbdeH.fb>.fwDRwbd'D;tcD.fxH;tlwbdwbd'D;wbd
e.fw>fb.fxgtDRcHbh.ft*D>fvDR$ rh>f0HRySRb.fwHmfwJmfuhRtDR'D;uJxD.f 0JeH.fcHbh.ft*D>fvDR$

19

eH.fwbd'D;wbd w>fb.fq;wH>fuhRtDR wu'g0HRwu'ge.fvDR$ tgwuh>fySRxg v>vk.f


t*DRvDR$b.fq.fpdRcJtHRySRxg0Jv>vk.ftvGJ>ftuvkmfuvkmfvDR$'fe.ftod;qhwz.f
w>fxgph>fuD;tvGJ>ftuvkmfuvkmf'D;ySRul'Dqd0J'D;eH.fuJxD.feH.f'D;qhuR'Dqd(zJ;&Sh.f)e.f
vDR$eH.fcD.fxH;tltHR 'huH.f'h0hR0Jtl0JtzD'f y,>RxD.fw>fuH.fv>tzDcd.ftod;vDR$

(9)$ eH.fCD;
eH.fCD;(eH.fcHc>.f)eH.fCD;tHRySRxgv>vk.fbJySRxg0JwbdCD0HR ySRq;wH>f uhR0Jv>tc>.f
o;wDwD 0HRwHmfwJmfuhR0JvDR$vk.fbJe.ftvGJ>frh>f'.ft0gvDR$ ySRo;yS>fv> ngwxgeH.ft
c>.fz;vJ>fb.f$ xg0Jutd.f'.fo>ys>fC.fC.fvDR$ rh>fv>t0Joh.fwuleH.f 'D;us>>fCDR0J'D
wcDb.ftCdvDR$t0Joh.fuleH.fe.fcsH;0Jv>tuyRo>xH.f'D;tcDynDrh>f0JwcsH;e.fzd*D>f
vHR*D>fjyKuhR0JtzduvRt0RuvRvDR$ cHcsH;wcsH;e.f tup>ft*D>ft0Jb.f[H;Cmf0Jt
rlt'g t0HuvR[JuhRcsH;0J0HR bsH;vDR0JtcDynDrh>f0J rgub.ftd.f&lRtd.feJR y>RCmfvR
uyDR td.f*>>ftd.fus>R wb.fpDRusDRb.f$ t0Joh.ft,D>fuH>fe.f zhse>f0Jvk.f'D; p>0Jv>
t,D>f'htvdR vk.fe.frh>fvk.fxH*hRwvk.fxHb.frh>f*hRwbh.fvDR0JeDwbsDb.f$ zJtuleH.f'D;
csH;vDRuhR0Jv> vk.f,D>fuH>fv>ttd.fxDbd v>t,D>f'hvdRtHRe.fvDR$ zJtbk;eH.f tcgwdR
ysh0JqH;qH;zdwwDR'D;twdwwDRwwDRph>fuD;e.fvDR$ w>fwdRyhsqH;qH;zde.ftcD ynDrh>f0J
uJxD.frd>f'D;w>fud>fw>f*DRtd.fvH$ emfouhyrRe>Rw>fvDR$ rhrh>ftwdwbde.fymf zsgxD.f
w>ftJ.fw>fuGHw>fClw>fzd;vDR$
(10)$ eH.frk>f,l.f
(11)$ eH.fuH>frJ
(12)$ eH.frkpH.fcH
(13)$ eH.fxH0gx.f(tluGJR)
(14)$ eH.fvH
20

(15)$ eH.fySd>f
'l.fx>EGHcDuRv>oDyrSHRyyS>ftxgw,k>fpH;0J=
1$ rd>fwl>fv>ys>RvDREGHcD
y>fuDRv>ys>RvDREGHcD
vDRv>eD.fbDusD.fwcD
vDRv>pDRyulweDR
vDRz;,k>f[J0.fuvDR
uD>fwrkmf,GRxD.f,GRvDR
2$ v>ys>Rrd>fzdw'l.fCD
v>ys>Ry>fzdw'l.fCD
vDRv>eD>fy'J;w'l.f
vDRv>rDRe>fySRw'l.f
vDRv>rSHR'D;ySRpdmfz;
td.f*kR*DRv>tHRv>b;
3$rd>fp>Rv>ys>Rwx>CD
y>fp>Rv>ys>Rwx>CD
vDRv>eD>fyt.fwx>
vDRv>cFJ.f0hR0DRcHx>
0.fuvDR ,k>f[JvDRz;
uD>f[;*DR vDRrk>fvDRz;
'fyrSHRyyS>ftxgw,k>ftw>fymfzsgtod;y0JunDzdwz.f yrh>frd>fp>Rv>ys>Rwx>
CDy>fp>Rv>ys>Rwx>CDtCd v>xH;v>oDyw>fulw>fod;urh>f'.f w>f'fod;od;vDR$cDzsd
v>w>fq>uwD>fw&H;to; w>fwkRtd.fvdmfo;wnDb.ftCd yw>fulw>fod;wz.fw>f
uH.fChuH.f0hRw>ftltzDwz.f vDRqDvdmfuhRto;wpJ;wpJ;vDR$
21

t'drDRe>fySRt'l.ftx>v>yudup>>fcd.fwz.f'D;rDRe>fySRv>wDtlrk>fxD>fuvHRxH;
wz.fuD>fqDxH;uD>frkmf}wDR'loxl.frD.fvrFJ.fwkRbsH;'0J.fwz.ftqhysd>frh>ft0gz;xD'D;
tcD.fvh>fcd.fwkRv>tpd;ege.ft*DRvDR$ydmfrk.fwz.f q;qhb>.fqhrd>fol qhtlwz.ftuh>f
t*DR'fod;od;vDR$eD>fy'J;tzdtvHR v>trh>frd>fxH;v>rk>fxD>fwz.f wkRv>wDeD>fup>>fcd.f
wz.fuRqhysd>f'fuD>frkmf}wDRqhysd>f 'D;rDRe>fySRqhysd>ftod;vDR$
pDR0hR0DRtzdtvHRv>ttd.fxHx.fpGhwkRv>thph.f yFH.fo.f,.f0wH.fwz.fuR0Jqh
ysd>f'fuD>frkmf}wDRqhysd>fweDR 'frDRe>fySRqhyds>fweDRvDR$ydmfrk.fwz.fq;bSJ.f0Jqhvgv>zDzdw
z.f'D;tgwuh>ful0JeH.frJmfvDR$'fyoh.fngwh>fvHtod;xHx.fpGhrh>f[D.fcd.ftd.fzsgxD.foDtCd
yok;vDRyo;wqDb.fwqDvDR$v>w>fe.ftCdyulyod;wz.fv>xH;v>oDe.furh>fw>f
'fod;od;b.fq.fcDzsdeH.fvgw>fq>uwD>fw&H;to;tCd'fyw>fvJRcDzsd'D;yw>ftJ.f'd;t
od;yxgtDRyq;tDRvDR$v>w>fe.ftCdtvD>ftd.f0Jv>uyxd.fuhRwJmfuhRxHw>>fcD'fxg
zdw,k>ftHRpH;0Jtod;vDR$yySRuvkmfunDzd'ftrh>fpSDR'D;ydS>ftd.fph>fuD;v>uD>fuFD.fwJ.ftg
r;vDR$t0Joh.fwz.f'fySRunDzdv>uD>fy,DRtod;uD>f&h.fwbh.f'D;wbh.fu&l>fwbh.f'D;
wbh.fxguH.fxgtl0JteH.ftqhtrFdrFdyuG>f*hR'd.fr;yrh>fymfzSd.fuhRunDtultod;wz.f
uvDRv>phtgr;rh>fv>unDulod;cJtHRtyhSRuvHR'd.f0J'd.fr;'D;w>frRtDR,Hmf0JeD>f0Jv>mf
q>v>mfuwD>ftCdtvk>ftyShR'D;tup>fe.fu>uD.fCDRy>R0JupD'DvDR$
v>ys>RyEGH'l.fEGHcDEGH'l.fEGHcDw'l.fCD
xd.fuhRwJmfuhRxHw>>fcDxd.fuhRwJmfuhRy>R[>cD
xd.fuhRtq>rh>fb.fvHyEGHcD'fcs>.fxD.fbH

22

5$ydmfcGgqhuRtuvkmfuvkmf
(1)$qhzduhG(qhzguGmf)
zJw>fbk;0Jtcg,HR0Jvk.ft*DRw,HR t0gw,HRtolw,HRzJ tzHb.fcd.fySJRySJRwkRw>f
xgtDR'D;euxH.fb.fqhe.fwdRyhs0Jt*DRtolt0g'D;w>fxgtDRwkRvDRzJ,D>f'hzJtb>,D>f
wJmfcd.fe.fvDR$ySRzkyS>foD;ohySRzdo.fcGgoD;0Johph>fuD;vDR$eod;xD.f0HRevJR[;td.foud;
qhyDRusDemfouhySRxg0JySRoD;0JvDRwkRzJ,D>f'hzJtvDRb>,D>fusKmf(,D>fwJmfcd.f)e.fvDR$
qhyDRusDtHRw>fbk;w>fxgtDRvDRqDe>f'H;qhzduhGwuh>fvDR$t*h>f'ftHRw>fwbk;tDR,HR
tDR'fqhzduGhb.f$rhrh>fw>fbk;tDRv>vk.f*DRz;vJ>f0HRw>fbk;vDRu'D;v>vk.f0gzJpktzHb.f
cd.fz;vJ>f0HR w>fbk;u'D;tDRv> vk.f*DRz;vJ>fe.fvDR$ qhyDRusDtHR ySRzkyS>fod;oh ySRzd.fo.f
cGgod;0JohySRod;0J0HRySR[;td.foud;ySRo0Dzdv>[H.fwzs>.fb.fwzs>.foh0JySRvJRqlySR[H.f
ySRCDySR'lySRo0Doh0Je.fvDR$w>fv>qhyDRusDe.fySRwxg0JwkRvDRv>cD.f'hudmfb.f$ySRxg0J
tvDRxDuw>>fzJcD.f'k.fwDRvdRe.fvDR$

(3)$qh*DR(qhysd>f)
ySRxgph>fuD;0JcHuvkmfw>wuvkmfe.fySRxg0JxJvk.f*DR0HRwdRvDR0Jt0gxJod;pkrk>fus>>fzJ
ySRzHb.fcd.fcHuyR'D;cHbde.fvDR$wuvkmfe.fbdvDR0JtEGHz;xDvDRpJRydmf0JqhwdRvGH>fwdR
tusdRvdRe.fvDR$qhysd>f'ftHRwuvkmfe.fnDEk>fySRtd.f'H;v>rd>fvky>fv>ftylRwz.fod;0JzJ
tvJRrRvk>ftk.fxgzJySRoHtcg 'D;zJySRwhySRzsDw>ftcg'D;zJeH.fxD.fb; vgxD.fb;ySRuH>f'D
[H.ftpk(vgcl;uH>fpk)v>tymfzsgxD.fuhRweH.fus>RzH;w>frRw>f0HRymf zsgw>fpH;bsK;pH;zSd.f
uhRxHup>fuD>fup>fw>fxHw>fwDup>ftcge.fvDR$

(4)$bSJqhysd>f
unD'l.fx>v>ttd.fv>wDtlwz.frh>f0JbSJ rdRySRyulrDRe>fySRuJRc>.fuJRbgwz.fvDR$
'fe.ftod;t0Joh.fwz.ftd.f'D;tqhysd>fv>trh>f0JbSJqhysd>f rDRe>fySRqhysd>fyulqhysd>f'D;yrh>f
23

eDRz;vDRu'D;wcDtd.f0JcHuvkmfv>trh>fbSJv>'hvdmfrk>fEkmf'D;bSJv>'hvdmfrk>fxD.ft0Joh.f
td.f'D;tqhysd>f'.f0Jv>tvDRqDvdmfto;e.fvDR$'hvdmfrk>fxD.f tqhysd>fe.frh>f0Jt0g'D;txD
wcDwkRvDRv>tcHud>fe.fvDR$xg0Jtysd>fEHGbd'D;tysd>fwbd'D;wbdtvGJ>fe.futd.fxJ
od;'D;pkq.fvDR$tysd>fte.fxg0JtvGJ>fv>tvk;'D;v>qhysd>ftcD.f xH;e.ftl0JtzD'J;uH.f'J;
0hR0Jv>w>fxd.f}wH;'D;w>f0>fodv.f w>f'HcsHn.frJmfcsHn.fto'H.fuyDR,kRw>fud;vh>f
'D;t*kRt*Rtgr;vDR$tudmf'D;tpke.fxgwH>f0Jv>odql.ft*DR tgbDtvgt0ge.fvDR$
odql.fv>txgCkmf0Je.fymfwh>f0JtEGHtEGHweDRp>zSd.fzs>.fov>.fuhR0Jwzs>.fwzs>.fe.f
vDR$v>tudmfvdRxg0Je;cHbh.fvDR$'hvdmfrk>fEkmftqhysd>fe.fxDe>f'H;'hvdmfrk>fxD.ftqhysd>f
vDR$tysd>ftd.fEHGbdwbdwbdtvGJ>ftd.fwpkrk>f'D;tysd>ftvGJ>frh>f0Jt*DRvDR$zdo.fqhysd>frh
wrh>fqhysd>fweDRxg0Jtysd>fxJ,J>fbd'D;ud;0Jv>qhysd>fp>vDR$rhrh>fv>tcHwcDxg0J'f'hvdmf
rk>fxD.fxg0Jtod;'D;tgxD.f0JrJmfwJ;vJ;te>fvDR$t0Joh.fpH;0Jv>wbsDrh>fySRuG>fod'D;rJmf
wJ;vJ;wz.fvDR$v>tcD.fxH;uH.fChuH.f0hR0Jtl0JtzD'frJmfouGDRtod;'fn.ftod; n.ft
rJmfcsHtod;vDR$qhysd>fwz.frR0Jtudmfz;vJ>f'D;zJtvJRtuhRtzH;trRw>ftcgxk;xD.f0J
tpkwcDv>tudmfvDR$v>tcHuH.fChtc>.fo;vdRvdRe.fuH.f'D.fwlmf0JxJod;pkrk>fcHbd
vDR$ySRbSJzdwz.fymfuJn.f'd.fr;rh>fv>tw>fpH.fpdRwJpdRtd.f0Jv>wbsD,GR[h.fogtDRbkcsH
v>to.fxD.fweH.fo>bsDb.fq.frh>fv>twy;uJ0JwuwDR0J*hR*hRb.ftCdbkcsHCh> f
td.fclol.ftDR'D;t0Joh.fvlRCkuhRbkcsHb.fq.fwxH.f0Jb.f$rh>fv>n.f'k;eJ.fuhRtDRtCd
xH.fuhR0JbkcsH'D;pH;bsK;pH;zSd.f0Jn.f'D;us;vDRe>fp>R0Jphn.fwbh.fv>trJ>fcHvDR$bkwcD
qd.fCD.f0Jn.fv>ySRrh>ftD.f,RwrDySRub.ftD.fph>fuD;eRwrDvDR$ySRbSJzdwz.fud;eH.f'J;zJ
eH.fxD.foDydsmfxD.f0J[d.fbs.f'D;v>[d.fbs.ftvdRe.fxh0Jn.fCH'D;tpd;ege.fxh0Jn.f'fn.f
trJ>fcHtod;vDR$v>tqhvgtqhysd>ftvdRe>fxg0Jq;0Jn.ftrJmfcsHn.fo'H.fn.frJ>fcHw
z.fvDR$bSJrdRySRqhysd>fe.fxDwkRv>tcD.fvh>fcd.f'D;tcHwcDwtl0JtzDb.f$wuH.fChuH.f0hR
0Jb.f$uH.f'D.fwlmf'.f0JxJwbd{dRvDR$tysd>ftd.fEHGbdtysd>ftvJ>fwcDxg0Jwpkrk>f'd.fwbd
'D;wbdtvGJ>frh>ft*DRvk;(qDoGH.f)vDR$uJRbgtqhysd>ftxDwkRcD.fvh>fcd.f'D;tysd>frh>ft*DR
vDR$v>tc>.fo;wcDxg0Jtysd>fz;vJ>f'D;tysd>frh>ft*DRvDR$v>tc>.fo;wcDxg0gtysd>f
z;vJ>f'D;tysd>fttH.fwkRtcd.fxd;vDR$weDReDRxg0Jtc>.fo;'D;tyhsuyRe.fv>t*DR'D;
24

wxg0Jtyds>fwbdwbdv>Rb.f$tcHwcDuH.f'D.fwlmfvDR0JvDR$tudmf'D; tpkxgwH>f0Jv>
odql.ft*DRtbDtvg'D;odql.fv>ttd.fwh>f'ftEGHtod;p>zs>.fov>.f0JvDR$

(5)$yulqhysd>f
weDRtl0JtzD'Dbh.fv>vk.ft0guH.f0Jv>vk.ft0gtCdwbsDbsDyrh>fwymfol.fymfo;'D;y
wxH.fw>ftlw>fuH.fwz.fb.f$rDRe>fySRqhtysd>fb.fw>fuRtDRv>yudup>>fcd.funDzdw
z.fuD>fqDxH;cs>.fvGH>fxl.fuD>frkmf}wDR'loxl.fwkRbsH;'0J>fe.fvDR$qhysd>ftHRxDwkRv>cD.fe>.f
cHvDR$p;xD.fv>cD.fvh.fcd.fwkRv>cD.fe>.fcHe.fxguH.fChuH.f0hR0Jv>vk.ft*DRvDR$rh>fv>xg
0Jv>vk.ft*DRcJv>mftCdwbsDbsDw>ftltDRw>fuH.ftDRwz.fyrh>fwymfol.fymfo;ywxH.f
tDRb.f$w>fuH.fChuH.f0hRtDRv>w>fxd.f'd.fp>w>frJmfuGDRw>f'dudrJmfcsHHw>fuGDRChtd.f'H;
0Jtgr;v>yud;uhRwb.fv>Rb.fe.fvDR$tudmftpke.frRe>fv>vk.ft*DRt0gtvg'D;zhs
0Jtod;'D;q;wH>fuhR0JvDR$vk.fv>ttd.fwh>fwz.fymfuhR0J 'ftEGHtod;vDR$

(6)$uD>frkmf}wDRqhysd>f(qhyh>fEHG)
uD>frkmf}wDRqhysd>fe.fxg0Jv>vk.ft*DR'Dwbh.fngvDR$'D;wdRys0Jv>t0gwbdp;xD.fv>
tzHb.fcd.fy>>fwkRv>qhysd>ftcD.fxH;vDR$qhysd>fweDReDRohCh0Jp;xD.fv>to;egyS>fwkRv>
qhcD.fxH;v>vk.ft*DRvDR$vk.f0gv>twdRyhs0Je.ftvJ>f utd.fcHpkrk>fC.fC.fvDR$ rh>fv>oh
Ch0Jv>vk.ft*DRtCdyrh>fwymfol.fymfo;b.f'D;ywxH.ftuH.fb.f$vk.fv>tohCh0Jt
bsJ.fe.fymfwh>f0J'D;xk;vDR0JtEGHvDR$tudmf'D;tpke.f yD>f0Jv>vk.ft*DR'D; tbD'D;t vgyS>f
0HRq; xD.f0JvDR$

(7)$qhzg*DR
qhtHRvDR*mf'D;qhyh>fEGH'Dwbh.f b.fq.ftEHGwtd.fb.f$qhzg*DR'fod;tHRtg'.f w>fwuh>f
ySRxgod;0JxJv>ySRuD>frkmf}wDRzdwz.fvDR$ySRv>tuRxD.fqhzg*DRtHReb.foh.fngv>t
rh>fySRv>tqD[H.fqDCDvH$ySRunDzdv>uD>frkmf }wDRwz.fwkRtqD[H.fqDCDvH'D;ySR'k;uR
25

xD.ftDRv>qhzg*DRtHRe.fvDR$ySRzd.fo.fcGguRwohb.f$ySRxg0Jv>vk.f*DR'Dwbh.fngwdRyhs
0Jv>t0gwbdp;xD.fv>tzHb.fcd.fwkRvDRv>tcD.fxH;b.fq.femfouht0gv>twdR
yhs0Je.ftd.f'.fpkrk>fw0mfzdvDR$qhzg*DRtHRok;Ch(ohCh)0Jp;xD.fv>tcD.fxH;wkRv>to;
egyS>fvDR$twdRyhst0gwbdzdtHRtcDynDrh>f0JySRunDzdtJ.fw>frkmfw>fck.f'D;rh>fph>fuD;w>fwD
w>fvdRtyeD.fw>fpDw>fqSHtvGJ>f*DRrh>fw>fol.f'lo;'le.fvDR$w>fohCh(w>fok;Ch)qht
cD.fxH;tcDynDrh>f0JySRunDzdwb.ftd.frHchrhoyhRb.f$qhpk'k.f'D;qhudmfbde.fyD>fe>f0Jv>
vk.ft0gtbD'D;tvgyS>f(vgol)CH;CD.f'D.f0HRq;xD.f0Jv>tudmfbdtvdR'D;qhpkwDR
vdRe.fvDR$zJtudmfxH;'D;twH>fvmfe.fq;z;'h0J(q;z;-w>f0J)tcDynDrh>fySRunDzdwz.f
tJ.fwl>fwH>fwl>fwrHSRb.ftJ.fwrSHRwysDRvDR$tz;-w>ftcDynDrh>f0J0Rwz.fwD'D;tzdtrg
b.fu[kbH;u,mfb>t[H.fzdCDzdeh.fvDR$tEGHv>txd.fvDRpJR0JtcDnDrh>fySRunDtw>f
[JvDRp>RvDRoGJ.fvDR$qhzg*DRtHRySRxg0J0HRySRb.fq;pJ;bl;uhR0Jp;xD.fv>tcD.fxH;'D;ymf
[duhRzJ0JzJtudmfbd'D;tpkwDRt*D>f{dRe.fvDR$p;xD.fzJtwH>fvmf'D;tudmfbdcHuyRv>mf
e.fq;vDRqD0JwwDRvk.fwrFdwwDRwrFd'ftyD>fqhudmfvk.ftvGJ>ftod;yuG>fvDR*mf'fySR
q;( Cross stick)b.fq.ft0Joh.fud;0Jv>ySRvD'H.fw>fe.fvDR$
tok;Ch'DudsR=cgxD.fcD.fcgwcgb.fwcgqlw>frRe>R
tok;Ch'k;udmf=w>ftJ.fw>fuGHw>fwDw>fvdRw>f'dol.f'do;w>frRoud;w>fw>fClw>f
zd;
tok;Chus>>f=w>fClw>fzd;yeD.f
tok;ChusdRcJv>mf=ymfzsgxD.funDuvkmf zdjyHtguvkmfrh>ftd.fv>w>fvD>ftgylRtgwDR
b.fq.f 'D;tw>fpH;w>fu wdRrh>fvDRqDvdmfto;b.fq.f EGH'l.fv>mfrh>fw>fwrHRCDvDR$
udmfbdtEGH=qhtudmfbdtEGHv>w>fysJvDRpJR0Je.frh>funDzdtw>ftJ.fwl>fwH>fwl>fwrSHRt
yeD.f

26

tEGHcD.fxH;z;'hcHusdR =ymfzsgxD.funDzdtd.f'D;w>fol.fvJ>fo;vJ>fy>f([H.fcd.fw*R)ub.f
td.f'D;w>ftJ.fw>fuGHv>'l.fzdx>zdtzDcd.f$
qh'Dwbh.fymfzsgxD.fy>fw*Rtd.f'D;w>fo;'lv>v>ySJRySJRv>uvk>ftD.f[H.fzdCDzdt*D>f rR
rkmfvdmfo;wDvdRv>zdrgzDcd.f'k;eJ.f'd*hRwJmfb.f$v>[H.fylRCDylR(y>fub.frh>fySR'lySRCdR)'f
qhzg*DRtod;vDR$

6$ydmfcGgxJul'D;zsD.fcH
zsD.fcHtzk.fzsD.fcHxDcD.fw'd0g(u'd0g)xJul
ydmfcGgxJul'D;zsD.fcH=unDydmfcGgv>tuRqhysd>fz;xDwkRv>cD.fe>.fcHwz.fwvd.ftulxJul
wvd.ftulzsD.fcHb.f$rhrh>funDydmfcGgv>tuRqhysd>f wkRv>tcHuD>fwz.fvd.f0Jv>ub.f
ulzsD.fcHvDR$yrh>fuG>fuhRunDzdv>trh>fySRwDtlzd'D;uD>frkmf }wDRzdwz.frh>fySRulzsD.fcHwz.f
vDR$

zsD.fcHtzk.f
xg0Jw>fuH;nmfcHbh.f'D;q;pJbl;uhR0JvDR$v>tEGHtd.fwcDq;pJbl;uhRv>tc>.fo;ymf
wh>f0Jt}wD>ftcD.ftuH.f'k.fvDR$v>t,D>f'hwcDu>fcsH;vDRuhR0JeDpkrk>fo>bd'D;q;wH>fuhR
0JvDR$tcD.ftxDwkRvDRcD.fvh>fcd.fvDR$zJtvJRuhRzH;rRtcgul0JzsD.fcHtHRvDR$v>t,D>f'h
v>tu>fcsH;vDR0JtylRe.f'>Ekmf,D>fwud;rhwrh>fysHR'D;p>CmfuhR0Jv>t rJmfngwcDvDR$

zsD.fcHxDcD.f
zsD.fcHtcD.fxDtHRtgwuh>frh>f'.ftolvDR$b.fxg0Jw>fuH;nmftvJ>fweDRt tH.fweDR0HRr;
q;pJbl;uhR0JvDR$wkRpJ;zDu[.fw>fuH;nmfwz.fy>>fxD.f'D;wHmf 0J'D;q;uhR0JvDR$zsD.fcH
27

tHRrRto;'f,dRzsD.fcHtod;e.fvDR$ zJttd.fv>[H.fv>CDvJRtd.foud;td.fy[>vJRbl.f
xlbg,GRvJRrl;vJRyGJtcgul0JvDR$

w'd0g(u'd0g)
w'd0grh>fxJult0g'Dbh.fvDR$ v>ydmfcGgwz.fuuvHRuvJto;t*D>frh>f*hR v>uul0J
t*D>frh>f*hRxg0Jw>fuH;nmf 'f,.fwdRysto;v>t'D.fCDRtod;0HR q;pJbl;uhR0JvDR$ w
'd0gtcD.fxH; tc>.fo;'D;tcd.f'Dwz.fxg0JtwCHRcHbdvDR$

xJul
xge>f0Jw>fuH;nmfwdRys0Jv>t*DR'D;q;pJbl;uhR0J(ESpfeHpyf)vDR$wkRoH.foGgy>>fxD.f'D;
w>fxgtDRwc>.fCDvDR$cJtHRpJ;zDu[.fwz.fxg0JnDtCdxguhR0JtvGJ>ftuvkmfu
vkmf'D;&RvDRto;wkRuD>fy,DR'Dwbh.fngtCdunDzdwz.fulb.f0Jwu;'H;b.fySRxl
vHRzdt*Rwz.f'D;uvkmf*Rwz.ful0Jrkmfr;vDR$unDzdtvGJ>frh>fw>ft*DRtCdrfyuymf
ol.fymfo;'fod;yw>fo;'lokwvDRr>fw*hRt*D>fvDR$

7$ cd.fz>.ftuvkmfuvkmf
cd.fz>.f0gcd.fz>.f*DRcd.fz>.fwdRuGhcd.fz>.fuH.fudmfvmfcd.fz>.fuH.f unDzdtultod;tusg
cd.fz>.frh>fw>fCHw>fvRw>fu[kunD>fw>fv>w>fySJRwrHRvDR$
cd.fz>.ftd.ftuvkmfuvkmf'D;unDzdwz.ftw>ftd.fw>fqd;tw>fvD>fw>fusJvDRqDvdmft
o;tod;tcd.fz>.fvDRqDvdmfto;wpJ;wpJ;vDR$b.fq.fyrh>feDRz;tuvkmfe.fyuxH.f
b.f'ftzDvmftod;vDR$

28

1$cd.fz>.f0g
cd.fz>.f0ge.f w>fxgtDRt0gvJvJ'D;w>frh>fuH.ftDR'.f vJmfuH.ftDRv> vk.ft0gvDR$

2$cd.fz>.f*DR
cd.fz>.f*DRe.f w>fxgtDRv>vk.ft*DRvJvJ'D;w>frh>fuH.ftDR'.fvJmf uH.ftDRv>vk.ft*DRvDR$

3$cd.fz>.fwdRuGh
cd.fz>.f0gcd.fz>.f*DR tvdRw>fuH.ftDRv> t0gwbdwbd jyHu'HzdvDR$

4$cd.fz>.fuH.fudmfvmf
cd.fz>.fuH.fudmfvmfrh>fcd.fz>.fv>w>fxg'D.fwlmf'D.fCDRtDRv>t0geDpkngwcD'D;t*DRpkng
wcDvDR$

5$cd.fz>.fuH.f
cd.fz>.fuH.ftd.f0JtuvkmfuvkmftCd 'fw>fuH.ftDRtod; w>f,k>fe>fph>fuD;trHRvDR$ w>f
uH.fv>w>fxg uH.ftDRv>cd.fz>.ftvdRwz.fw>fuH.f(w>ftl)ph>fuD;tDRv> qhysd>fqhvgt
vdR'D;v>eH.ftvdRph>fuD;vDR$ yrSHRyyS>fv>ys>R wz.frh>fySRe>R vk.fe>Rx.ftCd cd.fz>.fuH.f
wz.fxg0JtuvkmfuvkmfvDR$ ydmfrk.fydmfr>Rwz.fph>fuD;'fod;uxgx.fuuH.fw>f (utl
w>f) uoht*D>ftrd>fwz.fod.fvdtDRtCdySRrRxg'D;pH;0J=
erd>fzseRv>wbHohw>fuH.fv>eeD>fqH;=w>fuH.fw>f0hR w>ftltzDwz.f b.fol0J
eJEGHqdwkRv>o>qHcHqdvDR$ ydmfrk.fwz.fph>fuD; v>w>fymfzsgw>fohw>fb.fw>fo;plRw>f
vDRwH>fvDRqJ;e.fb.fxg0JuDuDcJcJCHCHvRvRvDRbSH;vDRwDR'D;wbsDbsDydmfrk.f
v>eD>fcduh>f*DRwCHw vRuJmfqd;wz.f w>frRtDRv>xg'D;pH;0J=
29

cd.fbd.fw'd.fuDuDtJ;
cd.fbd.fqH;xJqDth.fyJ
ydmfrk.fv>w>frRtDRv> xg'fod;tHRoh.fwz.fxgvk.fxgx.f ckzH;ck;rRtCdwJq>0J=
cd.fbd.f'd.fwe>ftySR
pkcHcDrRw>frh>foh
e>ftySRcJv>mfcJqh

6$ cd.fz>.fw>fq>.f
uH.f0Jcd.fz>.f 'fod;q>.ftuh>ft*DR

7$w>fqDzdpH.f
uH.f0JvDR*mfv>qDzdpH.fvDR

8$w>fud;vh>f
uH.f0JvDR*mfv>uD;vh>foh.fwuvkmftv.fwdR&J.fto;(rhwrh>f)qDvJuH.fzd;0J'fqDxD.f
v>>fqDtod;

9$w>fp>ud.fzD
uH.f0JvDR*mfv>yvHmfvlmfud.fzd *DRwpJ;pJ;'D;tcd.fplcHpl

10$w>fuyDR'>
uH.f0JvDR*mfv> uyDRq;xD.ft'>

30

11$w>frJmfzs>.f
uH.f0J'fw>ftrJmfouGDRtod;

12$w>fqDcD.f
uH.fz;qDtcD.ftod;

13$w>frJmfzs>.fbd;xD.f
uH.fvDR*mfv>yrJmfuGDR'D;tC>Rbd;xD.fxl.fto;'D;tzDwcDcHbd

14$uH.fChu_yD>fwD>f
uH.ftzs>.fv>tbDwzs>.fwzs>.fxJpkq.fcd.fegphRwbd.fzSd.f wbd.fzSd.f

15$uH.fwdRysmf
uH.fwdRyswdRysmfe.f uH.f0Jv>'D.fCDRtvk.fwbdwbd

16$uH.fqJ;wyd.f
uH.fv>t*DRwzs>.fwzs>.f

17$uH.fwy,GJ>fwy,GJ>f
uH.fv>tbDtolweDRxJod;pkrk>f,lmf xJod;pkrk>f'd.ftxDtd.fwzH; td.fwpd;uH.f'D.fwlmf
weDRuH.fq>x>.fweDRvDR$

18$uH.fpH.fbSJ
uH.fpH.fbS>.fuH.fpH.fbSJrh>fcd.fz>.fol uH.fChv>t0gjyHu'H{dR'fxd.fvGH>ftudmftod;
31

19$uH.fu0DR
rh>fcd.fz>.fowd>fuH.f0Jtzs>.f0;w&H;v>t*DRrh>f*hRtbDrh>f*hRtolrh>f*hR

20$w>fuydR
uH.f0JcHux>'D;vDR*mfv>wRo.fuydR zd;b>csHuH.fCh t*h>ftyD>fwtd.f uH.fwzs>.fzs>.f
v>t0grh>f*hR t*DRrh>f*hRtjyHrh>f*hRtoGgrh>f*hRe.fvDR$
cd.fz>.fuH.fwz.ftgwuh>fw>fxgtDRtvJ>fwxgbsJ.f'D;weDRe.fvJ>ftd.f0Jwys>f
bsJ.fvDR$rhrh>ftxDwcDtgw uh>futd.f0JcHys>fwxgo>ys>fvDR$cd.fz>.fcJv>mf v>w>fxg
tDRtvk.ftpd;ege.f w>fymfwh>ftDR'ftEGHtod;vDR$ cd.fz>.fuH.fwz.ftgwuh>fw>fxguH.f
tDRv>tpd;egcHuyR'D;tc>.fo;ymf wh>f0Jt0gvJvJ t*DRvJvJvDR$
'fyymfzsgwh>fv>x;tod; yunDtultod;wz.ftd.f'D;tcDynDt'd.ft,dmf'D;
ydmfrk.fydmfr>Rwz.f xg0JuH.f0Jcd.fz>.fe.f 'fod;ydmfcGgwz.fv>tz>.ftDR uo;wD'D;tDR u
yvD>fy'Dto;uoh.feD.ftDRt*D>fvDR$
t'd=uH.f0Jv>w>f'HcsHw>f0.fodv.fuvDRzH;uGDto;wz.frh>f'fod;uoh.feD.ftD.fvl>fuG>f
vl>fcsHtD.f'HuG>f'HcsH
eo;rh>fwD'fxd.fuH.fbDutJ.feR'feD>fodrD
cl.feD>fvhpH;ogo;plR cl.fuhRrk.fthv>w>fylR
weDReDRrh>fw>fymfzsg tw>f[JvDRp>RvDRoGJ.f w>ftd.fw>fqd;w>fvD>f w>fusJw>fzH;
tD.frRtD.fwz.fvDR$weDReDRph>fuD;rh>fw>fymfzsgw>fqJ;w>fvRwz.f w>fvk>f'd.fySR'd.fwz.f
vDR$ cd.fz>.fweDRxgCkmf'.fvJmfv> w>frHRvmfw>f'lw>fCdR tql.fvDR$

32

cd.fz>.f0go>e>.fvGH>fe>.f
ySRunDwz.frh>fySRv>tzH;rRw>fv>ck;ylRoH.fylRb.fCh>fxD.fCh>fvDRv>to;o rluylRzsJ;
t*D>fb.fy'h.fto; yvD>fy'Dto;wbd,l>fCDtCdz>.ftcd.fvDR$'fod;tcd.fbd.f tokw
bs;v>oh.f'h 0.f'h'D;xg0Jcd.fz>.fweDRtd.fvGH>f e>.f'D;weDRo>e>.fph>fuD;vDR$
cd.fz>.f0gvGH>fe>.ftHRcsH;uhR0Jo>e>.f'D;rh>fz>.f0Jp>wH>f0Jv>tcd.fvD>fcHtudmfusR
xH;vDR$wbsDbsDbd.fxD.fpS>RxD.fw>fv>tylR'D;p>wH>fuhRte>.fwz.f'D;qGHEkmf0J0.f'D;,d;0J
v>tzHb.fcd.fvdRvDR$to>e>.fwz.fzJttd.fv>ck;ylRoH.fylRtcgz>.f0J'D;qSd;vDRzD*DRzDbD
v>tcd.fz>.f0gtzDvmfte>fukzDcd.fvDR$

w>ftEGHt'D.fb.fyvD>f
unDtultod;wz.f tcd.fz>.ftx>.fEGHwz.ftd.f'D;tEGH'D;t'D.fvDR$ rh>fw>fymf
zsgtw>f[JvDRp>RvDRoGJ.fw rHR'D;rh>fw>fymfzsgw>fwDw>fvdR w>fpDw>fqSH w>fwb.f'HG;
b.f'Ggv>w>fwCHwvRb.foh.fwz.fvDR$ zJydmfrk.f*hRydmfcGg*hRrh>frRw>fvJRw>fuhRw>fv>
wb.fusJ{dRuylR{dRb.f'D;w>ftEGHt'D.fwz.fymfzsg0JvDR$v>w>f*h>ftHRrRtd.fvdmfto;
v>xg'D;pH;0J=
,qdrd.f zDtd.fobs
zDudmfcH bs;v>*h>f'h
,qdrd.f zDtd.fobs
zDtd.f'D;tq+.ft'h
ydmfrk.fzdwz.fwcD rhwrh>f w>fb.f'D;wl>fe>fcD.fwuJb.ftCdpH;0J=
,td.f'.f ,w>f*hR*hR
,qd;'.f ,w>f*hR*hR
ySRvlRykmfb>,wbh
33

ySR'hykmfb>,wbh
y>.fwv>.f zDrd>fod;qh
td.fokwpH;w>f'fe.f
v>w>fe.ftCdyunDzdtultod;wz.ftd.f'D;tEGHe.f tcDynDtd.f0JvDR$

8$cd.fusDRtuvkmfuvkmf
u,>u,J*hRy0J
yo;yS>fpH;0J=uk*hRxD.fv>*h>fv>ysDR eD>f*hRxD.fv>oH.fv>zD
unDy dmfr k.fy dmfr>Rwz.fr h>f* hRydmfcGgwz.fr h>f* hRv>w>fr RCHr RvRxD.fo;t*D>f
td.f'D; w>fu,> u,Jto;tuvkmf uvkmfvDR$yySRunDwz.frh>f ySRtJ.fw>fwDw>fvdR
w>f*hRw>f0gtCd ymf'd.fymfuJ0J xl'D;phwz.f'd.fr;vDR$ (uAsmq&mOD;-uifO),>RxD.fySR
unD'ftrh>f (awmifrD;cif)ySRtJ.fzJ;ck;ql;ck;(awmifaiGcif) ySRtJ.fySRC>RySRCd>f 'ftrh>f
zJphxHzSH.fphyoH;phcd.fusDRph,D>fwud;phcd.fusDRphoh.fwz.fvDR$wu;'H;b.f y>>fwkRv>
xl.frDph>fuD;rR0Jv>ph (xl.frDph)e.fvDR$ v>yod;w>ftusgw>foh.fwz.ftHR y.fCkmfph>fuD;
tCdtvD>ftd.f v>yuoh.fnguhRtDRph>fuD;vDR$

cd.fusDRph
cd.fusDRphe.fydmf0JbH.fov.f ymf0JtuGDR'fod;uw,mfrRvJ>fxD.frRtH.f vDR0Ju oht*D>fe.f
vDR$cd.fusDRphtbh.fb.feh.feDpkngwcDvDR$

cd.fuH>fzJbH
cd.fuH>fzJbHe.frh>fySRydmfphblovgeDpkrk>f'd.f'D;txDwcDtd.fcHys>f'D;uGDR0Jwulmf 'D;ttd.fwh>f
34

e.fusDRv>tcd.f bd.fxH;vDR$ySRv>trRohtD.fb.fwz.f rR0Jcd.fusDRph'D;weDR rR0Jv>zJbH


vDR$ v>w>f*h>ftHRySRrR0Jv>xg'D;pH;0J=
pDRwcGg usDRcd.fuH>fph
ymftrmf cJv>mfcJqh
wbsDbsDrk.fueDRzd.fo.fcGgwz.frRtd.fvdmfto;v>xg'D;pH;0J
vJRw>fcH*R cd.fusDRph
,ymfwh>f ,cd.fusDRph
euG>fv>cH uG>frh>f*hR
ySRv>tw>fwtd.fw,>Rwz.frRxg'D;pH;0J
cd.fw'd.f zJbHwbD
tJ.fySRzd ySRrd>fo;vD
zJbHy>>f zJbHwbD
eD>fcd;zJbH y>>ftoD

cd.fp>
ySRv>tw>fwtd.fwz.frR0Jcd.fp>v>vk.fzhsvDR$ rk.fueDRwz.fvh>f0Jcd.fp>v> vk.f*DRvk.f
bD'D; zd.fo.fcGgwz.fbH xD.f0Jv>tcd.fbd.fxH;vDR$

cd.fp>phn.f
rk.fueDRwz.fwk>feh>fphn.fwbh.fwbh.fv>vk.f0HRuGDR0Jv>tcd.f

oH.fusDRph
oH.fusDRphe.frh>frRe>f oH.fv>oH.fusDRph'D; usDR0Jw0mf{dRvDR$ zJtcGHcd.fcGHe>f0HR qSd;vDR0Jv>
tcd.fbd.fcD.fxH; vDR$
35

e>fpJRe>fzD(e>f'H;)
v>w>frRCHrRvRxD.fo;t*D>fydmfrk.fwz.frRe>f 0Je>f'H;phuGDRvDR$ weDRrRxl.fzsd0Jphn.f'D;
'k;pJbl;0Jv>e>f'H;tvdRvDR$weDReDRydmfe>fph'fx;oGJtod; 'HcsHtod;'D;'k;pJbl;0Jv>e>f'H;
tvdRvDRplmfvDRpJRvDR$ySRv>tw>fwtd.fw,>Rb.fwz.frRe>f0Jvk.f*DR vk.f0g'D;'>Ekmf0J
v>te>ftylRvDR$weDRrRph>fuD;0Jv>usL;'H;vDR$

9$zJtuvkmfuvkmf
v>w>fu,>u,Jtusgrk.fueDRzdwz.ftgwuh>fvHmfzJtuvkmfuvkmfvDR$v>
zJtuvkm fu vk mft usgzJ p he .fy d mf0 Jt uvkm fu vk mf p h>fu D;vDR$wbsD bsDv Hm fz J w pSR
e>f,J>fysHR b.f$xgwus;pH;0J=
vgzdxD.foDwcGJ;'J;
eD>fvHmfzJph trJmfqJ;
vgzdxD.foD ted;pl
eD>f'd.fxD.foD trHR[l
zJtd.ftuvkmfuvkmfzJxlzJphzJbHzJb>.fzJrhRChzJvk.fzJusL;'H;zJcsd.fuk'D;utd.f'H;0J
v>ywoh.fngb.fvDR$

zJphx;oGJ
zJphx;oGJe.fydmfe>f0Jph'fx;oGJtod;vDR$

zJphzs>.f
zJphzs>.fe.frRe>f phzs>.f'fw>f*DRtHRtod;'D;wk>fEkmf0Jphzs>.fwz.fv>ysHRz;xDvDR$
36

zJph'HcsH
ydmfph'fod;'HcsHwzs>.fwzs>.f0HR'D;'k;pJbl;0Jv>phuGDRqH;qH;zdwzs>.f'D;wzs>.ft uql;vDR$

zJb>.f
zJb>.fe.frh>ftwk>fe>fb>.fcsHwz.fvDR$

zJusL;'H;
usL;rh>fw>fzdC>fwuvkmfvDR$ w>fud;ph>fuD;tDRv>cd.fyDRthvDR$ y,DRud;v>(a&ykd;
aumif)vDR$w>fv>usL;e.ft'H;vg[hu -wh.f'h.f'D;xJpkrk>fpkq.fvDR$td.f0JcHuvkmfvg
[h'D;t*DRvDR$ zJ(usL;'H;) e.fw>fwk>fe>f0Jb>.fcsHcH zs>.fo>zs>.f0HR wk>fe>f0JusL;'H;wbh.f
wk>fu'D;0Jb>.fcsHcHzs>.fo>zs>.f0HRwk>fe>f0JusL;'H;wbh.fvDR$v>zJo.ft*D>fwk>f0JusL;'H;cH
bh.fwbsDCDvDR$

zJvk.f
ydmfrk.fo;p>fweDReDR[H;e>fvk.f*DRvk.fbD'D;rRud.fvd.f0Jwzs>.fb.fwzs>.fweDReDRp>0J'fzDzd
wzd;wzd;tod;'D;'k;uJxD.f0J'fzJo.ftod;e.fvDR$ rh>fwrR0Jv>vk.fb.f'D;rR0Jv>odql.f
tvGJ>ft*DRtvgtbDwz.f 'D;wk>fuhR0Jv>ysHRe.f vDR$

zJcsd.fuk
unDv>ttd.fbl;v>yD.fvJ.feHRwz.fzJxHxD.f0HRxHvDRuhRe.fx>e>f0Jcsd.fbDcsd.f*DRzdcsd.fuH.f
Chzdwz.f'D;wk>f0J'fzJtod;vDR$

zJbH
w>fv>zJe.fyySRuvkmfymfvk>fymfySRtDRtge>f'H;xlwuh>fvDR$w>fuwdR'Drd>fzgpH;0Jusd.ftd.f
37

phtd.fzJbHtd.fxltd.fvDR$usd.fe.frh>fyySRuvkmftw>fvk>f'd.fySR'd.fwrHR'D;w>fymftDR'ft
o;orltd.ftCdw>fud;tDRv>usd.fw'kvDR$ v>zHpdR zkpdRup>>fcd.fwz.f usd.ftd.ftgr;
vDR$rh>fv>usd.ftd.ftCdphn.fwz.ftd.ftg0JwkRySRb.f'>EkmftDRv>uwHRtylR'D;cl.fvDR
tDRvDR$v>cHusd.fwz.fw>f[JySRtDRtySR*hRr;'D;ySRwoh.fngusd.ftvk>ftySRb.ftCdySR
qguGHmfusd.fwz.fvDR$p;xD.fzJusd.fwtd.fv>Rb.fe.f w>fzSD.fw>f,mfwkRtd.f ySRtCdySRxk;
xD.fqgphn.fwz.fwkRtv>mfu'D;'D;cJtHRuJxD.fw>f utkupGgv>w>f0HRw>fumfvDR$zJ
bHph>fuD;td.fv>unDzdtd.fqd;tvD>fw>fvD>fo>wDRvDR$ w>fv>zJbHe.f td.fv>tylR'D;
[JxD.fv>t0HylRe .fud;rk>f*DR'J;vDR$zJbHe .ftzs>.foGgxJod;'D;rd>f*Hmfo.f(rd>f*Hmfzd)C.f
C.f'D;tvGJ>fe.fbDyS>fvDR$ yrSHRyyS>fpH;0JzJbHrh>ftd.f0;uqDtpk'D; yrh>fo;vD uqDyvJvdmf
v>uqDe>fwbsDCDvDR$ zJbH[JxD.fv>t0H'fyDRzdwbd tbdtod;'D; w>f'D.fwJmftDRw
vd.fwvd.fzd'D; rh>fv>tylRtd.ftCd w>fwk>fvHmftDRe>f0JvDR$ w>fpH;0JySRv> tuwdRw>f
wDwDvdRvdRr;'D; vJRCk0JzJbHe.fxH.fe>f0JvDR$ v>w>fe.ftCd ySR*kmfusJ;p>; Ckb.fq.f
w>fwxH.fe>f tDRb.ftCdySRrRxg'D;pH;0J=
zJbHo.fpJRv>rk>fEkmf
o.fzJbHpJRv>rk>fEkmf
'd;uoh.fvJRtDRwwkR
'd;uqDvJRtDRwwkR
eD>f'D;pDvJRtDRrh>fwkR
zJbHo.fvDRqS.fvDRq+
zJbHe.fwrh>fw>foltDRxJw>fu,>u,J w>fvk>f'd.fySR'd.f{dRb.f$ tbsK;td.f0Jtg
r;vDR$ zJbHv>yudmfvdR tbsK;tzSd.f w>fpH;0Jyrh>fwDrh>fvdRyw>ftd.frlrh>fu qSDe.frh>fvHmf
zJbH'D;yrh>f[;rh>f vJRb.fzJySRxlvDRwJmf phvDRwJmfrh>f*hRcl.fvDRCmf'.fvJmfyxH.fe>ftDRvDR$
yrh>fymfvDRtDRv>xlurl.ftd.ftvD>fe.fxlwz.f[JpJbl;tDRvDR$rhrh>fxlv>tb.frh.ftl0HR
(txnfysuf)wz.ft0JwtJ.f0Jv>Rb.f$ zJbHrh>ftd.fv>[H.fylRe.f [H.frkmf[H.fck.f'D;w>f
qgtt>toDwz.fw[JrRbl;ySRb.f$zJbHrh>ftd.fe .fyrRxD.ftD.fxD.f'D;yw>ftd.fw>f,>R
38

vDR$zJbHe.frRe>Rw>fw&Jwc;wvd>fegxHw>ft>w>foDwz.fvDR$zJbHe.f*hRph>fuD;v>u
oH.fuoDvDR$ySRrh>fb.f&J>foH&J>fuD;e.f ySRpk.f'k;tDtDRzJbHtxH'D; &J>foH&J>fuD; [;*DRuGHmf
vDR$w>fogwuk;tw>fqgph>fuD;ypk.f'k;tDtDRzJbHtxH'D;bsg0JvDR$ydmfrk.fydmf r>Rv>ng
wz.fwk>f0JzJbHz;xD'D;vHmf0Jw0Dw0DvDR$ weDReDRwk>f0Jzk.fzk.f'D; vHmf0JvGH>fysHR,J>fysHRvDR$
zJtd.f'H;0Jtgr;v>unDzdwz.ftJ.f0J'D;vHmf0JvDR$ySRunDtJ.fvHmf0JzJe.frR0Jv>xg'D;
pH;0J=
xHw*hR xHtvD>fvHR
zJw*hR zJtvD>fvHR
rSHRpl;uGHmf v>wlRe>.fxH;
yS>fpl;uGHmf v>wlRe>.fxH;
vHmfohvHmfohtDRv>xH
*hRe>ftoD y>>fv>cH

10$xHzSH.f
unDrk.fzdwz.ftgwuh>fod;0JxHzSH.fphvDR$ xHzSH.fphtd.f0JtbH.ftzs>.f tjyHtoGg td.ft
uvkmfuvkmfvDR$ xHzSH.fweDRtd.fv>tuGDRtuDGRb.fq.fweDReDRe.fb.fw>fydmfe>f tDRtd.f
'D;tudmfylR 'fod;ySRrh>fod;xD.ftDR zJpk'hudmfe.f unDt*D>fvDR$ wvd.fySR zsD.fvDRtDR v>pk
v.fpkcd.fwuyRe.fb.f$ydmfrk.fo;p>fwz.f od;xHzSH.ftbdtgr;vDR$ xHzSH.fv>xH*RuD>f*R
[Jpdmfqg0JxHzSH.frhRCh(u>fnDr;) td.f'D;tvGJ>ftuvkmfuvkmfph>fuD;yShRoD;0JvDR$ od;0JxH
zSH.fphxHzSH.fwd>fbDwd>f*DRxHzSH.frhRChwz.fySJRtpk'hudmfvdRvDR$ v>w>fe.ftCdt0Joh.fqk
bkqk[krh>f*hR CRbkCR[krh>f*hR zJt[;v>ySR v>fusge.f wcsK;exH.f tup>fe.fee>f
[lv>zJphwz.f oD.f-uhoD.f}udoD.fpGHoD.fpGJ rh>fw>frRrkmfto;'D;ySRv> te>f[l w>fwz.f
to;ph>fuD;e.fvDR$ySRv>txHzSH.fphwtd.fb.fwz.fuwdRqH;vDRto;'D;pH;0J=
39

w>fwtd.f v>eD>ftpk
yk>f[J0J>f[J ,o;tk;

11$,D>fwud;
unDydmfcGgv>tulzsD.fcHwz.ftd.f'D;,D>fwuD;vDR$,D>fwud;e.fxge>f0J w>fuH;nmfeDpkrk>f
o>bd'D; ymfwh>fvk.fz;xD(tEGH)vDR$ tEGHtHRzsuhR0J'fysHRwcD wbd'D; p>Cmf0Jv>t,D>f
'hvDR$ weDReDR rR0Jv>q.fzduD>fzd tzH;eDpkrk>fcHbd'D; rRxl.fzsd0JtylR wcDwylR'D;p>Cmf0J
v>ysHRvDR$ bSJt,D>fwud;e>fxg0Jv>w>fuH;nmft0g eDpkrk>fvGH>f bd'D;q;pJ bl;uhR0Jt
uyRcHcDvDR$ '>Ekmf0Jphn.fwbh.fwbh.fv>,D>fwud;tylRvDR$ unDv>trRoh tD.fb.f
wz.fydmfe>f0Jph n.fv>,D>fwud;vDR$ tgwuh>fpuDRpbg tzdtvHRwz.ft,D>fwud;
phtd.ftCd w>frRtDRv>xg'ftHR
puDRtzdpDR&J.frDR
,D>fwud;phbs;vh>fvDR

12$,D>f'd.fysHR
unDydmfrk.fwz.fteH.ftgwuh>ftc>.ftH.ftCd ydmfrk.fv>ngwz.fp>t,D>f'hv>ysHRwbd
'D;w>fud;tDRv>,D>f'd.fysHRvDR$

13$cD.fusDRph
ydmfrk.fydmfr>Rwz.ftd.fph>fuD;'D;cD.fusDRphvDR$rh>fv>ydmfrk.fteH.fwz.fzk.ftCdzJtusD>feD.ft
cgw>fClRw>fC>fth.ftDRtCdxge>f0Jw>fuH;nmfz;xDwbd'D;bHCmf0JtcD.fcHcDph>fuD;vDR$
40

unDzdw>fyD;w>fvDv>w>fxgv>vk.f
unDzdwz.fv>u'>Ekmfw>f'D;pdmfxD.fpdmfvDRw>ft*D>fxge>fx>.ft'd.ftqH;t
uvkmfuvkmfvDR$x>.fweDRtl0JtzD*hRr;vDR$x>.fweDRxg0Jz;'d.fv>t}wD>f[ko;wemf
vDR$xg0J,.fxge.ftpd;egwuyRq;wH>fuhR0J'D;zJtrHtcgqGHEkmftcD.fcHcDv>tylR'D;
xlxD.fto;v>,.fxge.fvDR$ w>fwz.ftHR rh>f0JunDzdwz.f tw>fu,>u,J v>w>f
Ckoh.fngtDRe.fvDR$yunDtw>fulw>fod;wz.ftvGJ>fe.fzJyrSHRyyS>fv>ngwz.ftpdR
w>ftvGJ>fv>trRe>f0JnDwz.fzDe>f0JtCdw>ftvGJ>fwtd.ftg'fod;ypdRyvmfx;cJtHR
v>Rb.f$ rfyuymfol.fymfo;oud;uhR yrSHRyyS>fv>ngwz.f teH.ftqhtvGJ>fwz.f
wuh>f$

41

15Iw>*DRoh.wz.
bJoh.txl.<tv.<tzD

zJvlRuGHmbJtcsHtcg

ySRykmbJ

ySRbdbJ

ySRvh>bJ

ySRcGDvk.

ySRuFD>vk.<cGHvk.

ySRcGDvk.vXuFdRuGDR'hvdR

qhrd>0gvXrkm}wDRuD>&h.<vlRoDcd.

qhrd>0gvXuD>uFD.wJ.(Cd.0>)

qhbX.vXvlRoDcd.<rkm}wDRuD>&h.<qhto;eH.td.(65)eH.

rkm}wDRuD>&h.<bkod.uD>q.<vhoXcd.o0D<qhrd>ol

csX.vGH>xl.uD>&h.<qhrd>ol

qhySd>vXrk>,k>uD>q.<rJ>[D;qD;uD>&h.

qhbX.vXrk>,k>uD>q.<rJ>[D;qD;uD>&h.

rDRM>ySRteH.'D;tqh(wDtluD>&h.)

yulqhuR'D;yulteH.(wDtluD>&h.)

rkm-wDRuD>&h.<'GJ.vduD>q.<eH.rJ;0hR<qhrJ;0hRChyS>o0D(ph.)
wDtluD>&h.<xDwxl.uD>q.<CDbdvdmo0D<
rDRM>ySRqhulqhuR(xGJ)

ph.qlxGJ=rkm}wDRuD>&h.<bkod.uD>q.<wdndeH.'D;qh<rkm}wDRuD>&h.bkod.uD>q.
qDbSJ'Xo0DeH.uH.qhtl<rkm-wDRuD>&h.<'GJ.vduD>q.<eH.rJ;0hR<
qhrJ;0hRChyS>o0D<wDtluD>&h.<xDwxl.uD>q.<CDbdvdmo0D<rDRM>ySRqhulqhuR

rk>,l>qhz;uGm'D;rk>,l>qhrd>0g

zko&.'d.olelmEkmvDRo-wDRunDqhz;uGmw>qJ;w>vR

wDtluD>&h.(rDRM>ySRqhysd>)

rDRM>ySRqhysd>

qhzg*DRrkm-wDRuD>&h.M.b.w>uRtDRxJvXySRvXttd.'D;t[H.tCDvDRI

qhysd>vXw>xgtDRvXbJ

unDqhysd>

qhysd>vXw>xgtDRvXbJ

cd.zX.

rkm-wDRuD>&h.<bkod.uD>q.=wdndo0DeH.

cs.vGH.xl.uD>&h.=CJ'Xo0Dqhrd>ol

rkm-wDRuD>&h.<bkod.uD>q.

qhuR'lysm,muD>&h.=vhwDRcd.o0D<rhrh>
vXeH.M.csX.vGH>xl.uD>&h.=vX>'d.uD>
q.wcD

qhuRcs.vGH>xl.uD>&h.vX>'d.uD>q.
rhrh>vXeH.wcDM.rkm-wDR
uD>&h.=vlRoDuD>q.

qhuRySd>(rk>,l>[D.u0DR)

uF;0;w;<vX>CD.<rD.vH.cFg
unDqhuR'D;eH.

unDqhuR'D;eH.
vXuD>uFD.wJ.w
uyR

unDqhuR'D;eH.
vXuD>uFD.wJ.w
uyR

rkm-wDRuD>&h.qhuR

eH.rJ;0hR(rkm-wDRuD>&h.)

rkm-wDRuD>&h.qhuR

zJphrk.<zJphcGgtuvkmuvkm

xHzSH.ph

zJph

xHzSH.ph

pkbH

unDw>oHusHyD;vD