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In Depth Reading

In-depth reading (or detail) is the most involved and essential. The purpose of this style is
to understand the concepts and arguments that the text contains.
In depth reading us used to :
- Gain deeper meaning and comprehension of a text
- Research detailed information for and assignment
- Read difficult sections of a text

B. Strategies for in-depth reading

There are four different strategies or method that should enhance your comprehension :
1. The RAP strategy,
2. The RIDA strategy,
3. The Five S method, and
4. SQ3R

1. The RAP strategy
 The acronym, RAP stands for Read, Ask and Put. To start, create and exhibit a RAP
poster, with the acronym and definition of each term written across. Encourage students
to voice out their understanding of the poster. Once you have heard their thoughts,
As always, for better understanding of the strategy, it is best to model the process. You
can also use the “think aloud strategy” to scaffold the learning. Choose a reading portion
and model the different steps. While modeling, be sure to mention the following points:
 The RAP strategy is a good for textbook explanation and research articles.
o Read (a paragraph or a section)
Read loudly, clearly and slowly the passage that you have chosen. As you read,
pause and voice out loudly your thoughts focusing on unfamiliar words within the
passage, their meanings, synonyms, the context they were used in and a general
summarization of your understanding regarding the content. If there are
diagrammatic representations involved, describe your thought process regarding
those too. In this step, you can encourage students to break up their reading
assignments to simpler portions like a paragraph, a stanza or a section. Chunking
of these sections aids in recollection of facts and it is easier to comprehend
smaller portions instead of larger ones, as they may get lost within the content.
o Ask yourself some question about what you have just read
Ask yourselves questions. These questions should be able to help you identify the
main ideas and the key details of the particular section that you have read. First
off, describe and define what is meant by main ideas and key details. Students are
told that the main ideas are the central theme, chief topic or essence of the section,
while key details are that information that supports the main idea or serves as
additional information. Next use leading questions like “this paragraph is about;

or the central theme of this paragraph is; or the key points in this paragraph are,”
to demonstrate this step. You can hand out prepared index cards to help with this
step or encourage students to frame a question in relation with the content that
you have read out. The aim of this step is to recall facts. Students are encouraged
to write down the points based on memory. Only if needed, are they allowed to reread the passage to find the details.
o Put the answer in your own words (and make notes if you need)
Put the information in your own words. After you have identified all the main
ideas and key details of the lesson, re-frame them in your own words. Think of
synonyms for the important words and when framing your sentence, ensure that it
is clear, using correct grammar and has the same meaning as the content read out.
In this step, you can start with describing one main idea and its supporting details.
Write down your sentence on the board. Ask students to give in their inputs on the
different ways the sentence can be framed. You can also create a list of synonyms
on one side of the board, so that the words are not repeated. As students
understand the process, try expanding on the other information.
To scaffold the learning, practice the strategy in groups, followed by pairs and
when all have mastered the practice they can do it individually. Let students
reflect on the other areas in which the strategy can be applied to facilitate
Principles of the RAP strategy :
- Actively interacting with the passage
- Maintaining a high level of focus and attention
- Allowing of “chunking” for longer passages
- Uses recall and memory practice
RAP activities:
 Create a RAP checklist. When using the strategy, instruct students to use the checklist
and to mark out each step after completion.
 Have a RAP print sheet, with a space after each step. In the Read column, students
can note down unfamiliar words, the synonyms, etc. Under the Ask column, they can
write down their leading questions and answers, the main ideas and details. The Put
column will require them to paraphrase the information they have identified in the
previous two sections.
 When students are placed in pairs, they can take turns to read, ask while collectively
paraphrasing the information. This can then be shared with the rest of the class.
Similarly, when in groups, students can be assigned different jobs that of a reader, one
to write down synonyms, to frame leading questions and to paraphrase. These jobs
can also be circulated among the members so that each familiarizes themselves with
the steps of the strategy.
 RAP can be used as an in between activity or closure activity to summarize the
information and helps teachers to gain feedback regarding their comprehension.

2. The RIDA strategy
 The RIDA strategy relates to descriptive and narrative text .
o Read
o Imagine the scene you have just read about
o Describe it to yourself
o Add more detail as you read
 This strategy makes you reflect on the details about places, people, actions, and events
and create a picture based on the words and style of language used by an author.
 You can note which imagery has the most powerful effects and add your reactions in the
form of margin notes.
3. The Five S strategy
 The Five S method is a power-reading method that reminds students to use the
appropriate reading style and save time (Gawith, 1991).
o Skim : Read the introduction, summary and first and last sentences of each
o Scan : Where is the information on …?
o Select : do you need to read all this chapter? Select sections that you need to know
more about.
o Slurp : Read in-depth and more slowly selected sections. Can you tell yourself
about this concept now? Read again if necessary.
o Summarise : Use a map, keyword, index cards, or question as a framework for
some notes. Take no more than 10 minutes.
4. The SQ3R strategy
SQRRR is a reading comprehension method named for its five steps: survey, question,
read, recite, and review. The method was introduced by Francis Pleasant Robinson in
his 1946 book Effective Study, based on principles documented in the 1930s.
The method, created for college students, can also be used by elementary school students,
who can practice all of the steps once they have begun to read longer and more complex
texts (around fourth grade)
o Survey : Skim through the material you are about to read, noting headings, subheadings, diagrams, graphs, etc. this step it used the give you a general overview
of the material you about to read.
o Question : Ask yourself dome question about the material while you are reading,
use the section/chapter headings, question at the end of chapter or reading
objectives from study guides.
o Read : Read the material using a slower in-depth reading style. Pause frequently
to answer the question you have raised, then read on. Read with a pencil and
make margin notes or underline words or phrases which are important (e.g.
definitions). Read all of the material, including charts and tables.

o Recite : Make notes from memory on the sections you have just read. Tray to
recall the main headings and concepts.
o Review : check your recall notes against the section that you read. Add in
anything important that you missed out. Put a* by these points so that you attend
to them when you go through these notes the next time. Repeat the review process
a number of times.
1. The teacher should explain the SQ3R method and inform students that the
principles of SQ3R are going to be applied to their upcoming n reading
2. Explain to students that SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read ,
Recite and Review. This acronym summarizes the principles of the reading
method to increase comprehension.
3. An outline of the five steps of SQ3R should be written on the blackboard
by the teacher with students taking notes on this reading method. These
notes will be their point of reference when they need to review the
4. Step 1: Survey – The objective is to gather information about the content
in order to focus on what the reader will be learning. Surveying involves
looking over the reading in its entirety and noting any pictures, bold print,
titles, charts, subheadings, captions or any other written expressions that
stand out from the printed text.
5. Step 2: Question – The objective is to stimulate curiosity and get the
reader to concentrate on what is about to be read. Students should be
encouraged to form questions before they read, questions that spring from
the illustrations, headings, titles or any other surveyed materials
encountered in a text.
6. Steps 3 and 4: Read and Recite – The objective is to relate the material
they are learning to the questions they formed and to increase retention by
talking about the answers. The text must be read first and then questions
about the reading are answered.
7. Step 5: Review – The objective is to increase retention and recall of
the learned material. Summarizing what has been discussed or learned is
part of the review process.
8. Once all five steps are explained, it is a good idea to model the SQ3R
method by "thinking aloud" with the students as they read through an
assignment. Surveying together, questioning together and even reading
and talking together is a good idea when students first learn this method.

This practice provides a "walk through" for the students before they
attempt to use this method independently.

REFERENCES accessed on 29 December 2014
(online).2014.Professional Learning Board. accessed on 29