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A reference model is a concept of framework of how communication should take
place between two network elements. All the processes required for this effective
communication are grouped into layers which reduces complexity. Each layer
provides service to the layer above it in the protocol specification. Reference model
hides the details of network hardware and different network elements to
communicate, independent of their physical connection.
OSI Reference model
OSI (Open System Interconnection) was developed by ISO in 1984, which is the
primary architectural model for inter-computer communication. It is a descriptive
network scheme which ensures greater compatibility and interoperability between
various types of network technologies. It describes how information or data
forwards from one application through a network medium to another application
located on another network.
OSI has seven layers, each has particular network functions. Each layer
communicates with the same layer’s software or hardware on others computers.
The lower 4 layers concerned with the flow of data between two ends through
network and the upper 4 layers are provide services to the applications.

. it translates between multiple data formats by using a common format. In simple. . application needs to transfer the integer value 1. For Eg. If necessary. HTTP. it connects to a FTP server via FTP Protocol Examples – Telnet. at the presentation layer the value 1 will be converted to a generic value using a encoding scheme. provides Encryption & Compression of data. Through browser to upload a file to a FTP server. FTP. The main functionality of this layer is to identify the application program requested communication partner and establish the communication channel. SNMP Presentation Layer Functionality of this layer is to encode/decode the specific data format into generic data format so that the data is readable by the application layer of another system.Application Layer This layer mainly used by the application program. For example.

chooses the best route to forward the data. Tiff.. to start. FTP  Connection-less service – Provides unreliable. .. MPEG. many organizations separate their network layer addressing into smaller parts known as subnets. Switches and bridges operate at this layer. Examples – Network file system (NFS). tracks the location of the devices in the network and determines the best way to move data i.e. TCP. AppleTalk Data-Link Layer The functionality of this layer is to ensure that messages are delivered to the correct device among LAN using hardware addresses and translates messages from the network layer into bits for the physical layer to transmit. token ring etc) from the network layers  Medium Access Control – controls and communicates directly with the physical network media through the network interface card. end-to-end data transport service. manage and cleanup the sessions established between the presentation layer entities. SQL.e. HTML Session Layer Session management is done by this layer i.Examples – JPEG. Routers operate this layer. Eg. This layer supports the connection-oriented and connection less transport layer protocol services. Eg. Data link layer is subdivided into two sub-layers  Logical Link Control – hides the underlying network types (Ethernet. regulates the flow of information to ensure end-to-end connectivity between host applications reliably and accurately.. Voice and video traffic Network layer This layer manages the device addressing.  Connection-Oriented service – Provides reliable. Manage the network and control the flow of packets. half-duplex and full-duplex. Examples – IP. RPC Transport Layer This layer segments and re-assembles data into a data stream. It ensures the dialogue communication between two hosts by offering three different modessimplex. UDP. end-to-end data transport services by establishing a logical connection between two hosts. IPX.

This layer defines things like pin outs. It sends and receives the data in form of bits to and from the physical carrier (wire). RJ45. Wi-Fi. 802. physical data rates. Examples – EIA/TIA-32.11. HDLC Physical Layer This layer deals with the physical characteristics of transmission medium. modulation and encoding of data bits on carrier signals. RS232. voltage levels. .Examples – Ethernet. FDDI. NRZ.