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Outline of contents

Overview: Introduction

Single Degree of Freedom System

DAF for Fixed Platforms: Examples

Floating Structure Dynamics

Dynamic Analysis

Overview: Introduction

As the offshore platforms are always

subjected to the dynamic wave loads,

it is essential that the engineers

responsible

for

the

design,

construction and maintenance of these

platforms, have a fairly good idea of

the dynamic behavior of these

structures.

This presentation will supplement

your knowledge and explain some

basic ideas regarding the types of

dynamic analysis used for fixed and

floating types of platforms.

Dynamic Analysis

Course goals

The participants shall be able to

Formulate the basic equation for SDOF system

Draw and interpret the frequency Vs DAF graph

Differentiate between frequency & time domain dynamic

analysis

Differentiate between coupled and uncoupled dynamic

analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Lesson 1

Single Degree of Freedom

System

D

H

15m

22.5m

15m

stiffness matrix methods and joint loadings

based on extreme environmental conditions

necessarily neglects any dynamic effects

associated with the wave-induced periodic

motion of the structure.

Such a static analysis can, therefore, only be

applied when the dynamic loadings are small

in comparison with the maximum static

loadings.

F

15m

A

typical platform as shown in the Figure.

Dynamic Analysis

Regular sinusoidal water waves

are assumed and the forces on the

structure

are

represented

approximately

by

a

single

concentrated force F acting at the

top of the structure and of the form

F = F0 sin t

where is the frequency of the

wave, t is the time & F0 is the

amplitude of the idealized wave

force, chosen so as to give the

same static deck deflection as that

found from the actual distributed

wave force acting on the structure.

mass of the support structure is

lumped into the deck mass to

give an effective deck mass M

given by

M = MD + MS/2

where MD is the deck mass & MS

is the total virtual mass of the

support structure (actual mass +

added mass resulting from its

motion in water).

Dynamic Analysis

support structure itself may

regarded as mass less and

response calculated using

equilibrium methods.

the

be

its

the

one movable mass (the effective

mass at the top of the structure) and

only one direction of sensible motion

(the horizontal direction), the

analysis for dynamic response in

this case is known as singledegree-of-freedom

dynamic

analysis.

Dynamic Analysis

Now, the total horizontal force FT

acting at the top of the structure

can be regarded as the sum of the

applied force F, the inertia force

M x

represented approximately by

C x

Dynamic Analysis

where C denotes a constant damping

coefficient and x is the response so that

we have the total force acting at the top

of the structure given by

F F M x C x

T

the total force FT can be related to the

horizontal displacement x at the top of

the structure by the equation

FT = K x

where K denotes the stiffness of the

structure.

Dynamic Analysis

Thus,

the above equations,

on combining

we get

0

M x C x Kx F sin t

natural frequency n = (K/M)1/2

critical damping Cc = 2(KM)1/2 = 2Mn

damping ratio = C/Cc

Dynamic Analysis

The complete solution consists of the free

oscillation known as the complementary

function and the forced oscillation known

as the particular solution.

However, the damped motion of the transient

oscillation disappears after a few initial

oscillations following the start of the motion.

The number of cycles of the transient

oscillations depends on the amount of

damping in the system.

The damping values for offshore structures

typically range from about 5% to 10% of

critical damping.

OFFSHOREENGINERING:ADVANCESANDSUSTAINABILITY

Only

the

steady-state

oscillations at the frequency of

the forcing function remain.

The damping in waves is

usually

higher

than

the

damping in the free oscillation

of the system.

oscillation and the (lagging)

phase angle between the

motion and the external force.

X

can be obtained as

1/ 2

2

2

K M 2 C

tan

solution as

x = X sin (t-)

C

K M 2

Dynamic Analysis

Defining the static deflection of

the spring-mass system XS

XS = F0/K

1

X

The solutions

may be

1/ 2

2

in

non-dimensional

X Swritten

2

2

as

form

1 2

2

tan

1

n

the

dynamic

amplification

factor (DAF).

It can be observed that the DAF

will be very high when the

natural frequency is close to the

wave frequency.

enough that the design is based

on a regular design wave and

static methods of analysis.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

in your Jurisdiction for the predominant degrees of

freedom.

Dynamic Analysis

Lesson 2

DAF for Fixed Platforms:

Worked Examples

H

15m

22.5m

15m

F

15m

A

Example 1

Consider the steel offshore structure with side

face as shown in the Figure and determine if a

static analysis is appropriate for a design wave

having height of 12 m and a period of 6 s. All four

sides of the structure are identical.

Vertical members have outside diameter of 1.2 m

and wall thickness of 38 mm. Horizontal and

diagonal members have outside diameter of 600

mm and wall thickness 13 mm.

When nodal loads of 100 kN each were applied at

joints D & H, the resulting horizontal displacement

was obtained as 26 mm by matrix methods.

The deck weighs 2220 kN & the support structure

weighs 2160 kN in air. The value of CM may be

assumed as 2. may be taken as 1.025 t/m3.

Assume a damping ratio of 5%.

Dynamic Analysis

Solution:

D

H

15m

22.5m

15m

F

15m

E

= 7692.3 kN/m.

The remaining side frame also has same stiffness.

Hence the total stiffness of the structure = 2*7692.3

= 15385 kN/m.

Deck mass = 2220/9.807 = 226.37 t.

Mass of support structure = 2160/9.807 = 220.25 t.

Vertical legs are assumed to be filled with water up

to MSL.

The water mass is 4*1.025(/4)*1.1242*22.5 =

91.54 t

The total actual mass of support structure is 220.25

+ 91.54 = 311.79 t.

Dynamic Analysis

C

22.5m

B

15m

A

follows.

2 verticals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*1.22*22.5 = 52.17 t

2 lower diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*15

H

= 8.69 t

15m

2 upper diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*7.5

= 4.35 t = 65.21 t

G

Doubling this for other side, we get = 130.42 t

15m Front face

Lower diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*21.21 =

12.3 t

F

Upper diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*10.61 =

6.15 t

E

Horizontal = 1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*15 = 4.35 t

Dynamic Analysis

10

H

15m

22.5m

15m

F

15m

faces

= 45.6 t

Total added mass of support structure

= 130.42 + 45.6 = 175.8 t

= 226.37 + (1/2)(311.79+175.8) = 470.17 t

= 5.72 rad/s

Dynamic Analysis

H

15m

22.5m

15m

F

15m

A

= 2*/6 = 1.0472 rad/s

/n = 0.1831, (/n)2 = 0.0335,

[1-(/ n)2]2 = 0.9341

[2*(/ n)]2 = 0.000335

X

1

1

X

1/ 2

1/ 2

2

2

X

2

DAF= S XS 2 2

2

1 1 2 2

n n n n

1/(0.9341+0.000335)1/2 = 1.0345

The dynamic response is only 3.45% above the

static response.

Hence a static analysis is appropriate.

Dynamic Analysis

11

Example 2

platform. Determine the dynamic

amplification factor for the horizontal

response of the deck when acted upon

by a wave of 8 s period, if the damping

ratio is 2%.

may be taken as 1.025 t/m3 for sea

water and 2.4 for concrete.

Dynamic Analysis

For this simple structure, the stiffness K

relating horizontal force and displacement

at the top of the structure is expressible as

K = 3EI/L3

E is Youngs Modulus

= 27500* 106 N/m2 = 27.5*106 kN/m2

I = Moment of inertia = (/64)*(54-44) =

18.11 m4

L = Effective length of structure = 40 + 10

= 50 m

K = 3* 27.5*106* 18.11/503 = 11953

kN/m

Dynamic Analysis

12

Deck mass = 14 * 103/9.807 = 1427.55 t

Column mass =2.4*(/4) * (52-42) *50*=

848.23 t

Added mass = (2-1)*1.025*(/4)*52*40 =

805.03 t

Total mass M = 1427.55 +

(848.23+805.03)/2 = 2254.18 t

Natural frequency n =

(11953/2254.18)1/2

= 2.30 rad/s

Damping ratio = 0.02

= 2*/8 = 0.7854 rad/s

Dynamic Analysis

/n = 0.3415, (/n)2 = 0.1166

[1-(/n)2]2 = 0.7804

[2*(/ n)]2 = 0.000187

11

XX

1 / 12 / 2

XXS S

2 22 2

2

2

1 22

1

n

n

n n

= 1/(0.7804+0.000187)1/2 = 1.132

The dynamic response is 13.2% above the

static response.

Hence a static analysis is not appropriate

and dynamic analysis is required.

Dynamic Analysis

13

4.8 Fatigue Analysis

analysis will be required during

detailed design.

of vibration in each of the primary

orthogonal direction shall be

determined. If fundamental mode

natural periods exceed 2.5 s,

additional inertia loads due to

dynamic response effects shall be

considered

for

all

in-place

analyses using the method

documented in

PTS 20.061 Practice for the

Dynamic Analysis of Fixed

Offshore Platforms For Extreme

Storm Conditions

Linearized Foundation

2% damping

Frequency Domain

Linear Airy Wave Theory

Transfer Functions

Wave Spectra

SCF

Dynamic Analysis

1. Determine DAF for the horizontal vibration of a Jacket

Platform under your Jurisdiction using this approximate

method and compare with the values given in the design

calculations.

2. Determine DAF for the horizontal vibration of any GBS

that you have come across or read about .

Dynamic Analysis

14

Lesson 3

Floating Structure Dynamics

Frequency domain analysis has been

applied extensively to problems of

floating structure dynamics and is

particularly useful for long term response

prediction.

It can estimate random wave

responses through spectral formulation.

Simpler than time domain computation

and the results are simpler to interpret

and apply.

Preferred at the preliminary design

stage

The significant limitation is that all

nonlinearities in the equation of motion

must

be

replaced

by

linear

approximations.

the direct numerical integration of

equations of motion allowing the

inclusion

of

all

system

nonlinearities such as:

Fluid drag force

Mooring line force

Viscous damping etc.

The significant disadvantages

are increased computer time and

increased complexity in the

computed results making it

difficult to interpret and apply.

Dynamic Analysis

15

Frequency Domain

Formulations

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

16

Dynamic Analysis

0.35

RAO Surge (m/m)

0.3

0.25

Frequency

Analyt

Experi

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Frequency (Hz)

Dynamic Analysis

17

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

18

Semisubmersible : Surge

Dynamic Analysis

Semisubmersible : Heave

Dynamic Analysis

19

In time domain, the equation of motion is solved using numerical

integration technique incorporating all the time dependent nonlinearities

such as

stiffness coefficient changes due to mooring line tension variation with

time, added mass from Morison equation, viscous damping and

evaluation of wave forces at the instantaneous displaced position of

the structure.

At each step, the force vector is updated to take into account the

change in the mooring line tension. The equation of motion is solved by

an iterative procedure using unconditionally stable Newmark Beta

method or Wilson Theta Method.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

20

Coupled/Uncoupled Analysis

Fully integrated analysis is a comprehensive analysis applying

simultaneous analysis of the platform and the mooring lines after

dividing them into various types of finite elements.

It is very

complicated, consumes large amount of time and the software available

are very costly. Also, the technology regarding this analysis has not yet

been completely developed.

Uncoupled analysis assumes the platform as a rigid body and the

mooring lines as linear spring supports.

Coupled analysis considers

a) Platform as rigid body and mooring line inputs given based on a

separate analysis done on mooring lines.

b) Mooring Lines made up of elements and platform motion inputs

given based on a separate analysis done on the platform. These

types of analysis are quiteDynamic

common

and preferred now.

Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

21

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