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Dynamic Analysis

Prof. Dr Kurian V. John

Outline of contents
Overview: Introduction
Single Degree of Freedom System
DAF for Fixed Platforms: Examples
Floating Structure Dynamics

Dynamic Analysis

Overview: Introduction
As the offshore platforms are always
subjected to the dynamic wave loads,
it is essential that the engineers
responsible
for
the
design,
construction and maintenance of these
platforms, have a fairly good idea of
the dynamic behavior of these
structures.
This presentation will supplement
your knowledge and explain some
basic ideas regarding the types of
dynamic analysis used for fixed and
floating types of platforms.
Dynamic Analysis

Course goals
The participants shall be able to
Formulate the basic equation for SDOF system
Draw and interpret the frequency Vs DAF graph
Differentiate between frequency & time domain dynamic
analysis
Differentiate between coupled and uncoupled dynamic
analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Lesson 1
Single Degree of Freedom
System

Single Degree of Freedom System


D

H
15m

22.5m

15m

The analysis of an offshore structure using


stiffness matrix methods and joint loadings
based on extreme environmental conditions
necessarily neglects any dynamic effects
associated with the wave-induced periodic
motion of the structure.
Such a static analysis can, therefore, only be
applied when the dynamic loadings are small
in comparison with the maximum static
loadings.

F
15m
A

Let us consider an approximate analysis of a


typical platform as shown in the Figure.

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System


Regular sinusoidal water waves
are assumed and the forces on the
structure
are
represented
approximately
by
a
single
concentrated force F acting at the
top of the structure and of the form

F = F0 sin t
where is the frequency of the
wave, t is the time & F0 is the
amplitude of the idealized wave
force, chosen so as to give the
same static deck deflection as that
found from the actual distributed
wave force acting on the structure.

It is assumed that one-half of the


mass of the support structure is
lumped into the deck mass to
give an effective deck mass M
given by
M = MD + MS/2
where MD is the deck mass & MS
is the total virtual mass of the
support structure (actual mass +
added mass resulting from its
motion in water).

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System

With this simplification,


support structure itself may
regarded as mass less and
response calculated using
equilibrium methods.

the
be
its
the

Because there remains only


one movable mass (the effective
mass at the top of the structure) and
only one direction of sensible motion
(the horizontal direction), the
analysis for dynamic response in
this case is known as singledegree-of-freedom
dynamic
analysis.

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System


Now, the total horizontal force FT
acting at the top of the structure
can be regarded as the sum of the
applied force F, the inertia force

M x

and a resistive damping force


represented approximately by

C x

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System


where C denotes a constant damping
coefficient and x is the response so that
we have the total force acting at the top
of the structure given by

F F M x C x
T

From the static equilibrium methods,


the total force FT can be related to the
horizontal displacement x at the top of
the structure by the equation

FT = K x
where K denotes the stiffness of the
structure.
Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System


Thus,
the above equations,
on combining

we get
0

M x C x Kx F sin t

Let us use the parameters:


natural frequency n = (K/M)1/2
critical damping Cc = 2(KM)1/2 = 2Mn
damping ratio = C/Cc

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System


The complete solution consists of the free
oscillation known as the complementary
function and the forced oscillation known
as the particular solution.
However, the damped motion of the transient
oscillation disappears after a few initial
oscillations following the start of the motion.
The number of cycles of the transient
oscillations depends on the amount of
damping in the system.
The damping values for offshore structures
typically range from about 5% to 10% of
critical damping.

OFFSHOREENGINERING:ADVANCESANDSUSTAINABILITY

Single Degree of Freedom System


Only
the
steady-state
oscillations at the frequency of
the forcing function remain.
The damping in waves is
usually
higher
than
the
damping in the free oscillation
of the system.

where X is the amplitude of


oscillation and the (lagging)
phase angle between the
motion and the external force.

The valuesF0of X and


X
can be obtained as
1/ 2
2
2
K M 2 C

tan

We get the steady-state


solution as

x = X sin (t-)

C
K M 2

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System


Defining the static deflection of
the spring-mass system XS

XS = F0/K
1
X
The solutions
may be

1/ 2
2
in
non-dimensional
X Swritten
2
2


as
form
1 2

2
tan

1
n

This constant X/XS is called


the
dynamic
amplification
factor (DAF).
It can be observed that the DAF
will be very high when the
natural frequency is close to the
wave frequency.

If the DAF is less than 1.1, it is


enough that the design is based
on a regular design wave and
static methods of analysis.

Dynamic Analysis

Single Degree of Freedom System

Dynamic Analysis

Suggestions for practice

Determine the natural frequency of the offshore platforms


in your Jurisdiction for the predominant degrees of
freedom.

Dynamic Analysis

Lesson 2
DAF for Fixed Platforms:
Worked Examples

DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples

H
15m

22.5m

15m

F
15m
A

Example 1
Consider the steel offshore structure with side
face as shown in the Figure and determine if a
static analysis is appropriate for a design wave
having height of 12 m and a period of 6 s. All four
sides of the structure are identical.
Vertical members have outside diameter of 1.2 m
and wall thickness of 38 mm. Horizontal and
diagonal members have outside diameter of 600
mm and wall thickness 13 mm.
When nodal loads of 100 kN each were applied at
joints D & H, the resulting horizontal displacement
was obtained as 26 mm by matrix methods.
The deck weighs 2220 kN & the support structure
weighs 2160 kN in air. The value of CM may be
assumed as 2. may be taken as 1.025 t/m3.
Assume a damping ratio of 5%.
Dynamic Analysis

DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples


Solution:
D

H
15m

22.5m

15m

F
15m
E

Stiffness for the shown side frame = 2*100 /0.026


= 7692.3 kN/m.
The remaining side frame also has same stiffness.
Hence the total stiffness of the structure = 2*7692.3
= 15385 kN/m.
Deck mass = 2220/9.807 = 226.37 t.
Mass of support structure = 2160/9.807 = 220.25 t.
Vertical legs are assumed to be filled with water up
to MSL.
The water mass is 4*1.025(/4)*1.1242*22.5 =
91.54 t
The total actual mass of support structure is 220.25
+ 91.54 = 311.79 t.

Dynamic Analysis

DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples

C
22.5m

B
15m
A

The added mass of support structure is calculated as


follows.
2 verticals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*1.22*22.5 = 52.17 t
2 lower diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*15
H
= 8.69 t
15m
2 upper diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*7.5
= 4.35 t = 65.21 t
G
Doubling this for other side, we get = 130.42 t
15m Front face
Lower diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*21.21 =
12.3 t
F
Upper diagonals = 2*1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*10.61 =
6.15 t
E
Horizontal = 1.025*(2-1)*(/4)*0.62*15 = 4.35 t
Dynamic Analysis

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DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples

H
15m

22.5m

15m

F
15m

Adding & doubling for back face, total for


faces
= 45.6 t
Total added mass of support structure
= 130.42 + 45.6 = 175.8 t

Total mass M of the structure = MD + (1/2)MS


= 226.37 + (1/2)(311.79+175.8) = 470.17 t

Natural frequency n = (15384/470.17)1/2


= 5.72 rad/s

Dynamic Analysis

DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples

H
15m

22.5m

15m

F
15m
A

Damping ratio = 0.05


= 2*/6 = 1.0472 rad/s
/n = 0.1831, (/n)2 = 0.0335,
[1-(/ n)2]2 = 0.9341
[2*(/ n)]2 = 0.000335
X
1
1
X
1/ 2
1/ 2
2
2
X
2
DAF= S XS 2 2
2

1 1 2 2
n n n n

1/(0.9341+0.000335)1/2 = 1.0345
The dynamic response is only 3.45% above the
static response.
Hence a static analysis is appropriate.
Dynamic Analysis

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DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples

Example 2

Figure gives the details of a gravity


platform. Determine the dynamic
amplification factor for the horizontal
response of the deck when acted upon
by a wave of 8 s period, if the damping
ratio is 2%.

The value of CM may be assumed as 2.


may be taken as 1.025 t/m3 for sea
water and 2.4 for concrete.

Dynamic Analysis

DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples


For this simple structure, the stiffness K
relating horizontal force and displacement
at the top of the structure is expressible as
K = 3EI/L3
E is Youngs Modulus
= 27500* 106 N/m2 = 27.5*106 kN/m2
I = Moment of inertia = (/64)*(54-44) =
18.11 m4
L = Effective length of structure = 40 + 10
= 50 m
K = 3* 27.5*106* 18.11/503 = 11953
kN/m

Dynamic Analysis

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DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples


Deck mass = 14 * 103/9.807 = 1427.55 t
Column mass =2.4*(/4) * (52-42) *50*=
848.23 t
Added mass = (2-1)*1.025*(/4)*52*40 =
805.03 t
Total mass M = 1427.55 +
(848.23+805.03)/2 = 2254.18 t
Natural frequency n =
(11953/2254.18)1/2
= 2.30 rad/s
Damping ratio = 0.02
= 2*/8 = 0.7854 rad/s

Dynamic Analysis

DAF For Fixed Platforms: Worked Examples


/n = 0.3415, (/n)2 = 0.1166
[1-(/n)2]2 = 0.7804
[2*(/ n)]2 = 0.000187
11
XX

1 / 12 / 2
XXS S
2 22 2
2
2

1 22
1

n
n


n n

= 1/(0.7804+0.000187)1/2 = 1.132
The dynamic response is 13.2% above the
static response.
Hence a static analysis is not appropriate
and dynamic analysis is required.
Dynamic Analysis

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Provisions in PTS 20.073


4.8 Fatigue Analysis

4.9 Dynamic Analysis

A dynamic spectral fatigue


analysis will be required during
detailed design.

The fundamental natural modes


of vibration in each of the primary
orthogonal direction shall be
determined. If fundamental mode
natural periods exceed 2.5 s,
additional inertia loads due to
dynamic response effects shall be
considered
for
all
in-place
analyses using the method
documented in
PTS 20.061 Practice for the
Dynamic Analysis of Fixed
Offshore Platforms For Extreme
Storm Conditions

Linearized Foundation
2% damping
Frequency Domain
Linear Airy Wave Theory
Transfer Functions
Wave Spectra
SCF

Dynamic Analysis

Suggestions for practice


1. Determine DAF for the horizontal vibration of a Jacket
Platform under your Jurisdiction using this approximate
method and compare with the values given in the design
calculations.
2. Determine DAF for the horizontal vibration of any GBS
that you have come across or read about .

Dynamic Analysis

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Lesson 3
Floating Structure Dynamics

Floating Structure Dynamics


Frequency domain analysis has been
applied extensively to problems of
floating structure dynamics and is
particularly useful for long term response
prediction.
It can estimate random wave
responses through spectral formulation.
Simpler than time domain computation
and the results are simpler to interpret
and apply.
Preferred at the preliminary design
stage
The significant limitation is that all
nonlinearities in the equation of motion
must
be
replaced
by
linear
approximations.

Time domain analysis utilizes


the direct numerical integration of
equations of motion allowing the
inclusion
of
all
system
nonlinearities such as:
Fluid drag force
Mooring line force
Viscous damping etc.
The significant disadvantages
are increased computer time and
increased complexity in the
computed results making it
difficult to interpret and apply.

Dynamic Analysis

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Frequency Domain
Formulations

Dynamic Analysis

TLP : Surge & Heave

Dynamic Analysis

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TLP: Pitch & Tether Tension

Dynamic Analysis

Triangular TLP: Model Tests


0.35
RAO Surge (m/m)

0.3
0.25

Graph of Surge RAO Vs


Frequency
Analyt
Experi

0.2

0.15
0.1

0.05
0
0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Frequency (Hz)

Dynamic Analysis

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Spar: Model Tests

Dynamic Analysis

Truss Spar : Surge & Heave

Dynamic Analysis

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Semisubmersible : Surge

Dynamic Analysis

Semisubmersible : Heave

Dynamic Analysis

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Time Domain Procedure


In time domain, the equation of motion is solved using numerical
integration technique incorporating all the time dependent nonlinearities
such as
stiffness coefficient changes due to mooring line tension variation with
time, added mass from Morison equation, viscous damping and
evaluation of wave forces at the instantaneous displaced position of
the structure.

At each step, the force vector is updated to take into account the
change in the mooring line tension. The equation of motion is solved by
an iterative procedure using unconditionally stable Newmark Beta
method or Wilson Theta Method.
Dynamic Analysis

Time Domain Procedure

Dynamic Analysis

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Coupled/Uncoupled Analysis
Fully integrated analysis is a comprehensive analysis applying
simultaneous analysis of the platform and the mooring lines after
dividing them into various types of finite elements.
It is very
complicated, consumes large amount of time and the software available
are very costly. Also, the technology regarding this analysis has not yet
been completely developed.
Uncoupled analysis assumes the platform as a rigid body and the
mooring lines as linear spring supports.
Coupled analysis considers
a) Platform as rigid body and mooring line inputs given based on a
separate analysis done on mooring lines.
b) Mooring Lines made up of elements and platform motion inputs
given based on a separate analysis done on the platform. These
types of analysis are quiteDynamic
common
and preferred now.
Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

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