Assignment Student’s Names: Student’s ID Session

Semester Muzamil Kousar, 06010611-011 B.S (HONS) 7th

Department Subject

Psychology Organizational PSY-405 Nonverbal Effectiveness of Five Person Communication Network

Course Code Topic

Communication And

Submitted Date Supervisor’s Name

5th January, 2010
Miss Humaira Murtaza


“The body says what words cannot.”
(Martha Graham, Choreographer)

Content Table Introduction
Components Of Emotional Experience
• Physiological/ Physical Component • Behavioral Component • Cognitive Component

Non-Verbal Communication

• Non-Verbal Communication Divides Into Four Broad Categories • Channels Of Nonverbal Behaviors 1. Static Features
2. Dynamic Features

Interpersonal Communication
• Elements of Interpersonal Communication • Effective Interpersonal Communication • Five Person Communication Network
1. Chain network
2. 3.

• • • •

Nonverbal Communication Cues Can Play Five Roles Common Mistakes How to improve non-verbal communication Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Cues

Y network Star network

4. Circle network


All-Channel Network

Conclusion References

• Effects of Five Person Communication Networks

As human beings, we have all experienced a range of emotions from happiness, sadness, love, hate, to indifference along with many other emotions. Emotions are feelings, highly subjective personal tendencies to respond to internal and external variables. Emotions have cognitive, physiological and behavioral components. Our cognitive appraisals and evaluations of events in our lives are key determinants to our emotional responses. Emotions are accompanied by physiological arousal of the automatic nervous system that leads to physical symptoms such as increase in respiration and heart rate. The behavioral component of emotions is expressed in our nonverbal body language including facial expressions.

Components Of Emotional Experience




Physiological/ Physical Component
The physical component of emotion is a psychological arousal that usually accompanies the emotion the body is feeling. If the body did not experience this arousal, the intensity of this emotion would be greatly decreased.

Behavioral Component
This component has been called the outward expression of our emotions. Body gestures, posture, facial expressions, and our tone of voice display what emotions we are feeling. Many of our facial expressions are universal. For instance, if somebody has a mad look on their face, it doesn't matter what language they speak or where they are from. However, some emotional expressions are influenced by our cultures and society's rules for displaying emotions.

Cognitive Component
The cognitive component is how we interpret certain situations or stimulations. This determines which emotion our body will feel. For example; if you are alone, sitting in the dark, watching a frightening movie, and you hear a loud noise, you may become frightened... fearing that there is an immediate threat or that you are in danger. This emotional response to this imaginary threat is just as powerful as it would be to a real threat. Our perception to the imaginary threat is what makes it feel real to us and causes the emotion in our body. Facial expressions clearly reflect the intensity of emotional experiences such as happiness, sadness, anger, and sorrow: all can be understood from emotional expressions. However these vary from person to person.

Non-Verbal Communication
The first scientific study of nonverbal communication was Charles Darwin’s book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). He argued that all mammals show emotion reliably in their faces. Studies now range across a number of fields, including, linguistics, semiotics and social psychology. We send a nonverbal message every time we send a verbal one. At times the nonverbal message may stand alone. The nonverbal element of the communication process is comprised of several factors including appearance, facial expressions, eye contrast, gestures, touch, posture, voice, silence, time, and space between sender and receiver.

Non verbal Cues

The power of nonverbal communication cannot be underestimated. In his book, Silent Messages, Professor Albert Mehrabian says the messages we send through our posture, gestures, facial expression, and spatial distance account for 55% of what is perceived and understood by others while the Tone of voice is 38% account and Words are 7% account. In fact, through our body language we are always communicating, whether we want to or not! We use body language to convey a message and typically do unconsciously.

Non-Verbal Communication Divides Into Four Broad Categories
Physical: This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions. Aesthetic: This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing. Signs: This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens. Symbolic: This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols.

Channels Of Nonverbal Behaviors
If the team members show a true awareness to non-verbal cues, the organization will have a better chance to succeed, for it will be an open, honest, and confronting unit. Argyle and his associates have been studying the features of nonverbal communication that provide information to managers and their team members. The following summarizes their findings:

Static Features

The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.


People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face, side-to-side, or even back-to-back. For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors frequently face one another.


Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing. These are not the elements of posture that convey messages. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange.

Physical Contact

Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.

Dynamic Features
Facial Expressions

A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures.


One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic.


A major feature of social communication is eye contact. It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom. The above list shows that both static features and dynamic features transmit important information from the sender to the receiver.


Lamb believes the best way to access an executive's managerial potential is not to listen to what he has to say, but to observe what he does when he is saying it. He calls this new behavioral science "movement analysis." Some of the movements and gestures he has analyzed follow:

Forward and Backward Movements

If you extend a hand straight forward during an interview or tend to lean forward, Lamb considers you to be an "operator"- good for an organization requiring an infusion of energy or dramatic change of course.

Vertical Movements

If you tend to draw yourself up to your tallest during the handshake, Lamb considers you to be a "presenter." You are a master at selling yourself or the organization in which you are employed.

Side-to-Side Movements

If a person take a lot of space while talking by moving his arms about, he is a good informer and good listener. He is best suited for an organization seeking a better sense of direction.

Facial Expressions

Facial expressions usually communicate emotions. The expressions tell the attitudes of the communicator. Researchers have discovered that certain facial areas reveal our emotional state better than others. For example, the eyes tend to reveal happiness or sadness, and even surprise. The lower face also can reveal happiness or surprise; the smile, for example, can communicate friendliness and cooperation. The lower face, brows, and forehead can also reveal anger.

Eye Contact

Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. The superior in the organization generally maintains eye contact longer than the subordinate. The direct stare of the sender of the message conveys candor and openness.

Tactile Communication

Communication through touch is obviously non-verbal. Used properly it can create a more direct message than dozens of words; used improperly it can build barriers and cause mistrust. Person can easily attack someone's space through this type of communication. Touch not only facilitates the sending of the message, but the emotional impact of the message as well.

Personal Space

Personal space is a person’s "bubble" - the space person place between himself and others. This invisible boundary becomes apparent only when someone bumps or tries to enter his bubble.


How does a person arrange the objects in his environment - the desks, chairs, tables, and bookcases? The design of his office, according to researchers, can greatly affect the communications within it. Some managers divide their offices into personal and impersonal areas. This can improve the communication process if the areas are used for the purposes intended. His pecking-order in the organization is frequently determined by such things as the size of his desk, square feet in his office, number of windows in the office, quality of the carpet, and type of paintings (originals or copies) on the wall. It is obvious that his personal space and environment affect the level of his comfort and his status and facilitate or hinder the communication process.


Is the content of person message contradicted by the attitude with which he is communicating it? Researchers have found that the tone, pitch, quality of voice, and rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the content of the message. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is important, not just as the conveyor of the message, but as a complement to the message.

Silence and Time

Silence can be a positive or negative influence in the communications process. It can provide a link between messages or sever relationships. It can create tension and uneasiness or create a peaceful situation. Silence can also be judgmental by indicating favor or disfavor - agreement or disagreement. For example, suppose a manager finds a couple of his staff members resting. If he believes these staff members are basically lazy, the idleness conveys to him that they are "goofing off" and should be given additional assignments. If he believes these staff members are self-motivated and good workers, the idleness conveys to him that they are taking a well-deserved "break."

Nonverbal Communication Cues Can Play Five Roles
Repetition: They can repeat the message the person is making verbally Contradiction: They can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey Substitution: They can substitute for a verbal message. For example, a person's eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words and often do Complementing: They may add to or complement a verbal message. A boss who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message Accenting: They may accent or underline a verbal message. Pounding the table, for example, can underline a message.

Common Mistakes
You’re not subtle. Be objective about your own observations to make sure you aren’t offending others by broadly mimicking their speech or behavior. Remember, most people instinctively send and interpret nonverbal signals all the time, so don’t assume you’re the only one who’s aware of nonverbal undercurrents. Finally, stay true to yourself. Be aware of your own natural style, and don’t adopt behavior that is incompatible with it. You bluff. Thinking you can bluff by deliberately altering your body language can do more harm than good. Unless you’re a proficient actor, it will be hard to overcome your body’s inability to lie. There will always be mixed messages, signs that your channels of communication are not congruent. It’s a prime example of leakage, and something others will detect, one way or another.

You rush to accuse based on body language alone. Incorrect accusations based on erroneous observations can be embarrassing and damaging and take a long time to overcome. Always verify your interpretation with another communications channel before rushing in. You could say something like, “I get the feeling you’re uncomfortable with this course of action. Would you like to add something to the discussion?” This should draw out the real message and force the individual to come clean or to adjust his or her body language.

How to improve non-verbal communication
Three key points can be defined to improve non-verbal communication:

Look at the whole situation
When the non-verbal behavior of a person is an emotional response, it is reflection of what is going on within his or her mind or what sort of a situation he or she is in. It can therefore be use to better understand the person’s non-verbal behavior.

Note Discrepancy between Verbal and Non-Verbal Language
Often non-verbal signals show that the verbal communication is not accurate or the information provider is either hiding something or lying.

Note Subtleties
It is important to note the subtleties or hidden motives. A genuine or fake smile by be discovered to improve non-verbal communication. Cultural differences play an important part in body language. Different gestures and moves or different non-verbal communications may be interpreted differently across cultures.

Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Cues: Eyes


Nonverbal Expression

Possible Meaning

Direct eye contact


Lack of contact


Looking Down/ away

Avoidance, Preoccupation

Fixed Staring

Uptightness, Psychosis

Eye Blinking

Anxiety, Excitement

Squinting or Wrinkled Brow

Frustration, Concern, Attention to detail

Dilated Pupils

Alarm, Interest

Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Kinesics: Mouth
Images Nonverbal Expression Possible Meaning


Greeting, Positive mood, Contradiction

Tight Lips

Stress, Anger/ Hostility, Concentration

Trembling Lips

Sadness, Anger, Anxiety

Biting/ Chewing of Lips

Anxiety, Bad Habit

Open Mouth

Surprise, Boredom/ Fatigue/ deep

Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Kinesics: Facial Expressions
Images Nonverbal Expression Possible Meaning

Flushed Face

Embarrassment, Anxiety

Eyes Open Wide & Mouth Opening

Surprise, Sudden Insight

Furrowed Brow With Tight Mouth

Deep Thought/ Concentration Irritation/ Displeasure, Rejection of a Interviewer Response

Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Kinesics: Shoulders and Arms
Images Nonverbal Expression Possible Meaning

Shrugging Shoulders

Uncertainty or Ambivalence, Indifference

Slouched Shoulders

Sadness, Withdrawal/ Shyness Bad Posture, SelfProtection

Folded Arms

Closed to Contact, emotional distance

Open Gesturing

Openness to Disclosure

Stiff and/or Unmoving

Anger, Anxiety

Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Kinesics: Legs and Feet
Images Nonverbal Expression Possible Meaning

Crossing & Uncrossing

Anxiety/ Nervousness, Depression Self-Protection

Foot Tapping

Anxiety, Impatience

Stiff and/or Controlled Movements

Closed to Contact, Repressed Attitude, Sore Muscles

Sample of Possible Interpretations of Common Kinesics: Body Movement
Images Nonverbal Expression Possible Meaning

Leaning Forward

Attentiveness, Interest

Leaning Away or Back

Withdrawal, Rejection Relaxation or Comfort

Turned to the Side

Avoidance, Fear of Rejection

Habitual Movement (e.g., Tapping, Hair Twirling)

Focused Attention, Uncomfortable, Impatience, Bad habit

Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people.

Elements of Interpersonal Communication


Effective Interpersonal Communication
Following are some of the characteristics of effective interpersonal communication:  Intended to help the employee rather than discourage him or her  Specific to the situation or the need of the employee  Useful for correcting the situation or suitable to the situation. Other Variable Effecting Interpersonal Communication Some other variables also effect interposal communication, such as: Trust; expectations; values; status; compatibility. If the employees do not trust the boss or his judgment, the communication is likely to be ineffective. All other variables mentioned above also effect interpersonal communication.

Five Person Communication Network

A communication network is the linkages among work groups, departmental or organizational members, we are concerned with communication networks, which are systems of communication lines linking various senders and receivers. The flow of information is regulated by several factors: the proximity of workers to one another, the rules governing who communicates with whom, the status hierarchy, and other elements such as job assignments and duties.

Five Alternative Communication Networks for a Five-Person Team
Centralized networks (Chain, Y, and Wheel) where the flow is centralized or directed through specific members. Decentralized networks, (Circle, All-Channel) where the communication flow can originate at any point and does not have to be directed through certain central group members. Five major types have been studied in depth with the Centralized networks and Decentralized networks.
1. Chain network 2. Y network 3. Star network 4. Circle network 5. All-Channel Network 1.

Centralized networks Centralized networks Centralized networks Decentralized networks Decentralized networks

Chain Network

The first centralized network – the chain – represents a five-member status hierarchy. A message originates at the top or bottom of the chain and works its way upward or downward. The flow of information in a chain system is relatively slow process, but it is direct with all members in the hierarchy being made aware of the message since it must pass through each link.







Y Network

A related communication network is the Y. It is also a hierarchical network and represents four levels of status within the organization, but its last level of communication involves more than one person. Both chain and Y are similar in speed of communication and formality of who communicates with whom.







Star/Wheel Network

The wheel network involves two status levels: a higher status member (usually a work supervisor) and four lower-lever members. The higher status member is the centre or hub through which all messages must pass. There is no direct communication between lower-level members. An example might be a sales manager and his four salespersons in the field.






Circle Network

The circle network represents communication between members who are immediately accessible to each other, such as workers positioned side by side on an assembly line. Because messages can originate anywhere and no rules govern the direction in which messages can be sent, it can be difficult to trace the original source of a message. It has a fairly quick rate of transmission






5. All-Channel Network

An all-channel network allows complete freedom among communication links. Any member can freely communicate with any other member and all members are accessible to each other. Communication can be very rapid and there is maximum opportunity for feedback. Boards of directors, problem-solving task forces and employees working as a team are examples of this form of communication.






There has been extensive research on communication networks; most of it has been conducted in laboratory settings. The results of these studies indicate that each of the different networks has different strengths and weaknesses.
 Centralized networks are faster and make fewer errors in dealing with simple repetitive

tasks than do decentralized networks.
 Decentralized networks, on the other hand, are better at dealing with complex tasks such

as problem solving. In general, straightforward, repetitive tasks, such as assembly or manufacturing work, tend to operate well with a centralized communication network,

while creative tasks, such as group working on a product advertising campaign, are best accomplished using decentralized networks.
 One reason why centralized networks may have difficulty in solving complex problems is

because of information overload on the central person. Because messages cannot be passed on intact to the various members efficiently and quickly, group performance suffers.
 The type of network can also affect the satisfaction of network members. Because of

restriction in who can initiate and who can communicate with whom, members in centralized networks have lower levels of satisfaction. More specifically, the persons in the central position tend to have high levels of satisfaction due to their role, whereas the non-central members have extremely low satisfaction Some of the research has been criticized for oversimplifying the process. Evidence suggests that in the workplace, the differences in the speed and efficiency among the various networks may disappear over time as the group involved learns to adjust to the required pattern. Because most of the research has been conducted in laboratory settings, there has been some concern about whether these studies will generalize to actual workplaces, although the findings do allow us to model (although simplistically) the communication networks in work organizations.

Effects of Five Person Communication Networks

Degree of centralization Leadership predictability Average group satisfaction Range in individual member satisfaction

Very High Very High Low High

High High Low High

Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate

Low Low Moderate Low

Very Low Very Low High Very Low



 Communication Skills. (n.d.). Retrieved December 25, 2009
 MCM 301 Lecture Handouts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 25, 2009
 PSY 632 Lecture Handouts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 25, 2009
 MGMT 623 Lecture Handouts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 25, 2009
 Interpersonal communication systems. (n.d.). Retrieved December 25, 2009 %3Frid %3D208+inter+personal+communication+network&cd=4&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk

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