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Porphyry and Gnosticism

Author(s): Ruth Majercik

Source: The Classical Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 1 (May, 2005), pp. 277-292
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association
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Classical Quarterly 55.1 277-292 (2005) Printed in Great Britain





The recentpublicationof a new editionof the Nag HammadiGnostictext Zostrianos'

anda recentstudyby Zambon2on PorphyryandMiddlePlatonismprovidean opportunity to take a new look at the philosophicalinfluenceson three of the so-called
'Platonizing' texts in the Nag Hammadi Library:Zostrianos (NHC VIII, 1),
Allogenes (NHC XI, 3) and The Three Steles of Seth (NHC VII, 5).3 The debate on

influencehas been dividedamongthose who thinkthatthe philosophicalvocabulary

commonto thesetextsderivesfroma generalMiddlePlatonicbackground4
who arguethat the influenceis Neoplatonic.5Whatcomplicatesthis pictureis that
Gnostic texts with the titles Zostrianos and Allogenes are also mentioned by
Porphyryin his Life of Plotinus (Plot. 16). Porphyryindicatesthat these and other
Gnostic works known to Plotinus and his circle were in the possession of
'Christianheretics'.6If so, one would expect these texts to be Christianizedin one
form or another.But this is not the case with the three tractsmentionedabove,
I C. Barry,W.-P.Funk,P.-H.Poirier,andJ. D. Turner(edd.),Zostrien(NH VIII, 1) BCNH,
SectionTextes24 (Quebec,Louvain,and Paris,2000).
2 Marco Zambon, Porphyre et le moyen-platonisme (Paris, 2002).

3 The fourthof these 'Platonizing'textsis Marsanes,whichhas also beenrecentlypublished

in a new editionby W.-P.Funk,P.-H.Poirer,andJ. D. Turner(edd.),Marsanes(NH X) BCNH,
SectionTextes27 (Quebec,Louvain,and Paris,2000).
4 JohnD. Turnerhas writtenextensivelyoverthe yearson the MiddlePlatonicinfluencesin

these texts. His latest work on this subject is Sethian Gnosticism and the Platonic Tradition,

BCNH, SectionEtudes6 (Quebec,Louvain,and Paris,2001).

5 See L. Abramowski,'MariusVictorinus,Porphyriusund die r6mischenGnostiker',ZNW
74 (1983), 108-28; R. Majercik, 'The existence-life-intellect triad in Gnosticism and
Neoplatonism',CQ42 (1992), 475-88. Turner(n. 3), 209-31, and(n. 4), 582-8, now suggests
thatMarsanesmay have been influencedindirectlyby Iamblichusand/or Theodoreof Asine.
6 Plot. 16.1-2: yEyrvaau8t Kar'alTov rwv XpuartavCvrroAAol
11v Kal
i'AAot, aLptETLKOL

fuAoao/ ag av6ypvot. Of particular concern is the phrase rroAAol

1Ev Kat 00hAot,
which has been variously translated as 'many and others' or 'many others' or
translated either as 'sectarians' in the ordinary
'the many and the others', and the word atpEILKOf

rI, graAatas

Greeksense or as 'heretics'in the Christianheresiologicalsense. Some have pointedout that

Porphyry'sGreek is not that unusualand give examples of similar constructionsin other
Greekworks. There is an extensive literatureon this subjectwhich has been compiled into
an annotatedbibliographyby M. Tardieu:'R6pertoirechronologique(1933-1990): des publicationsrelativesau chapitre16 de la Viede Plotin', 547-63. This bibliographyis an appendix
to his article'Les gnostiquesdansla Viede Plotin:analysedu chapitre16', in L. Brissonet al.
(edd.),Porphyre:La Viede Plotin2 (Paris,1992).To my knowledge,whathasbeen overlooked
in this debateis thatPlotinususes virtuallythe samephrasingin Enn. whenhe refersto
the 'many other' doctrines of the Gnostics: 7roAAa,iv o"v Kat' AAa,uPhAAov


were many other [doctrines],ratherall ...'). It seems that Porphyry,then, when composing
chapter16 of the Life, found it useful to consult Plotinus'treatiseAgainst the Gnostics.In
this instance,he borrowswhat Plotinussays aboutthe teachingsof the Gnosticsand applies
this terminologyto the Gnosticsthemselves.In doing so, he also lets us know that these
Gnostics were 'Christianheretics': 'At his time, among the Christians,there were many
others, indeed heretics.' On alIpErLKoias a technical term borrowed from the Christians, see

Tardieu,'Les gnostiques' (cited above), 513-15; M. J. Edwards,'Neglected texts in the

studyof Gnosticism',JThSn.s. 41 (1990), 34-5. In a recentwork,Edwardsalso notesthe connectionbetweenPlot. 16.1-2 andEnn. See NeoplatonicSaints(Liverpool,2000), 28,
n. 155.

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which are all now considered by the majority of scholars as examples of a nonChristian form of Sethian Gnosticism.7 Thus it is unlikely that the texts mentioned
by Porphyry in Plot. 16 are the same as those discovered at Nag Hammadi.8
Zambon's contribution to this debate is his detailed analysis of the continuing
Middle Platonic influences on Porphyry throughout his career - in addition to the
influence of Plotinus - and his demonstration, in particular, of how both are combined in Porphyry's Commentary on the Parmenides. In this regard, Zambon both
confirms and strengthens Hadot's thesis that Porphyry is the true author of this otherwise 'anonymous' commentary.9This is of particularimportance, since this commentary is one of the principal philosophical sources utilized in the aforementioned
Gnostic texts. But this is not all. The authors of these texts have also borrowed
material from other writings of Porphyry and, as a consequence, these texts display
a wide range of Porphyrian themes, doctrines, and terminology. The purpose of
this paper is to demonstratethis Porphyrianinfluence and to suggest the circumstances
in which these texts may have been written.
Zostrianos is the longest of the aforementioned texts and contains the greatest number
of borrowings from Porphyry. Throughout the text, this Porphyrian material is regularly inserted into a series of revelatory speeches given by various angelic figures to
Zostrianos, as seer, in the context of a heavenly ascent through the aeons.'0 An exception to this patternis found at the beginning of the tract (2.13-20) when Zostrianos first
reflects on 'that which he seeks'. What follows is a list of terms probably drawn from
the Sentences and Isagoge: 'thought and sensation, species and genus, part and whole,
contains and contained, corporeal and incorporeal, substance and matter'."1This list is
subsequently followed by a question concerning the first principle (3.6-13):
How,beinga simpleone, does It differfromItself,in thatIt existsas hyparxis,form[0s3og],and
blessedness,andgivingpoweris alivewith life? How is it thatthe hyparxiswhichdoes not exist
has appearedfroma powerwhich does exist?
view thatall formsof gnosti7 See Turner(n. 4), 57-125 andpassim. Fora comprehensive
cism are Christianor 'Valentinian'in origin, see S. Petrement,A Separate God, trans.
C. Harrison(San Francisco,1990).
8 Forthe view thatthe Nag Hammadiversionsof ZostrianosandAllogeneswerethe sameas
those knownto Plotinusandhis circle, see Turner(n. 4), 198-9 and 709-24.
9 See P. Hadot,Porphyreet Victorinus,2 vols (Paris,1968);hereaftercited as PV I and PV
II; Zambon(n. 2), 35-41, who also providesa comprehensiveoverviewof the scholarshipon
this subject.In a recentarticle,I havealso presentedadditionalevidenceforPorphyrianauthorship of this commentary.See R. Majercik,'Chaldeantriads in Neoplatonicexegesis: some
reconsiderations',CQ 51 (2001), 266-86. Additional evidence is also presentedin this
paper. For a recent view that the 'Anonymous' commentary is Middle Platonic or
Neopythagoreanin origin, see G. Bechtle, The Anonymous Commentaryon Plato's
Parmenides(Bern, Stuttgart,and Vienna, 1999). For critical commentson this work, see
Zambon(n. 2), 40, who underscoresthe doctrinalandlinguisticweaknessesin Bechtle's arguments.Cf. Turner(n. 4), 724-44, who also arguesthatthe 'Anonymous'commentaryis Middle
Platonic. Zambon's critique of Bechtle is also applicable here. For the view that the
'Anonymous' commentarymay be the work of a follower of Porphyry,see A. Smith,
'Porphyrianstudiessince 1913', ANRW2.36.2 (BerlinandNew York, 1987), 738-41.
10 On otheraspectsof Zostrianos(style,genre,dramatispersonae,Gnosticmyth,andritual),
see the 'Introduction'to Zostrien(n. 1), 1-157.
1 Onthoughtandsensation,see Sent. 16 Lamberz;on substance,see Isag. 4.21-5.6 Busse;
on matter,Isag. 11.12-17 Busse.Forthe remainingtermsin this list see below,sections(b) and
(d). For a recentEnglishtranslationand extendedcommentaryon the Isagoge, see J. Barnes,

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This question is a paraphrase of material concerning the One found in Porphyry's

Commentary on the Parmenides, 14.4-16:
And thusbeing one and simple,this Itself [Parm.143A] differsfromItself in termsof act and
hyparxis.In one respect,it is one and simple;in another,it differsfromItself. Forthatwhich
differsfromthe Oneis no longerone andthatwhichis otherthanthe simpleis no longersimple.
It is thenone andsimpleaccordingto its firstform[I84av],thatis, accordingto the formof Itself
takenin Itself-power-or becauseit is necessaryto nameit as an indicationthatit is ineffable
and inconceivable.But it is neitherone nor simple accordingto hyparxis,life, and thought

Additional material drawn from the Commentaryon the Parmenides focuses on the
This is a Porphyrian hapax, attested in In
concept of 'preconception'
Parm. 2.20 and in Latin (praeintelligentia,
praenoscentia) in the Porphyriantexts utilized by Marius Victorinus (?? 37, 43, 70-1 PV II). In Zostrianos, the Greek form is
preserved in Coptic as tWcoi-r


rpolvvoLa) and thus confirms Hadot's

reading of In Parm. 2.20 contra the correction of Usener.12 As in the Commentaryon

the Parmenides, this term is linked with that of 'conception' ('vvota) and 'silence'
as in Marius Victorinus (?? 37 and 70 PV II), with what
(aytL). It is also linked,
Hadot terms two 'modes of intellection': one 'by which we know God' and that
which is 'proper to God'.13 In Zostrianos, the terms ennoia and sigi also carry this
same double meaning. The Greek form of proennoia is also preserved in Allogenes
with the same double sense:

Zost. 20.15-18: The InvisibleTriplePower,the preconceptionof all [of these], the Invisible
Spirit,a silence14of all of these....
Zost. 24.10-13: ... through the conception which is now in silence and through the
Zost. 60.12-13: ... in a conceptionand a preconception....
Zost. 65.7-8: [... he is the]pre[conceptionof] every conception....
Allogenes48.9-13: Since it is impossiblefor [entities]to graspthe All which is establishedin
the place that is beyondperfect,they graspit by meansof a preconception.
Allogenes64.34-6: ... the TriplePowerof thepreconceptionof the InvisibleSpirit.
In Parm.2.19-21: ... to stand5 beforethe ineffablepreconceptionof him thatrepresentshim
throughsilence, withoutit knowingthatit is silent....
In Parm.6.23-6: Therefore,it is notpossibleforone who aimsat havinga conceptionof himto
graspthis conceptionwhile holdingon to thingswhich are alien to him.
Further, the concept of the first principle as 'the Pre-existent' (6 irpoi~rapt3) - is
missing from the fragments of Porphyry's Commentary on the Parmenides
also attested in Coptic in Zostrianos, where the Greek form is again preserved
(tCgoFn NRynmplc= j 7Tpo6irap6t). In Marius Victorinus, this term is translated
into Latin as praeexsistentia (?? 37 and 43 PV II).
Zost.84.15-22: The knowledge[gndsis]of thePreexistent[is] in the simplicityof the Invisible
Spiritwithinthe henad.The henadis similarin unity-that which is pure andformless.

In Parm. 6.13-14: ... the knowledge [gndsis] of that one exists in simplicity....
In Parm. 4.9-10: ... through his own henad [68th'4r aavroi3v83os] and solitude....

12 See note ad loc. LSJ

(1996) now lists Hadot'sreadingof 7~roevvoLain its supplementof
'words' and lists Porphyry as the author of the 'Anonymous' Commentaryon the
Parmenidesin its supplementof 'authorsandworks'.
13 PV 1.117,n. 6, 417-18.

14 O[ycir]H my correction;
o[yrrHr]H (edd.)
see Hadot, PV I.118, n. 2.
15 On

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In Parm. 6.33-34: ... having filled himself with his own henad [i7s4abroO
in his simplicity....
In Parm.9.3-4: ... his powerand intellectare co-unifed[avvr'qvo0Oat]

Similarterminologyis foundin the Divine Namesof Ps.-Dionysius,whereGod is

describedas 'monadandhenadbecauseof the simplicityandunityof his transcendent

A directdepenandformlesssimplicity'.18
andas a 'transcendent
dence on Porphyry'sCommentaryon the Parmenidesis possible here,'19but it is
more likely that this materialwas derived from Porphyry'sCommentaryon the
Chaldean Oracles,20as Ps.-Dionysius mentions 'the divine Oracles' and 'the
sacred Oracles', respectively,as his immediatesource.21 This would also be the

case in the followingpassage,wherePs.-Dionysiusagainmentions'the sacred

Oracles' while, at the same time, citing virtuallyverbatimpassages from
on the Parmenides:

DN 588A, 108.6-9 Suchla:We dare not speakor say anythingaboutthe superessential[rrmpi

andhiddendivinity22apartfromwhathas been divinelyrevealedto us by the
16 See note ad loc. for Hadot'sreconstruction
of a difficultlacunain the textat this point.His
in line 34 is now confirmedby the use of the
conjectureof the word 'simplicity'
(TrA677770ro) in the parallelpassagein Zost. 84.17.
into Coptic
same term,transliterated

DN 589D; 112.11-12 Suchla:... .iovc8a /Lv KaL v6a86L' T7v `7T~A6T7-aKaiv6r'7-qa r7,S
18 DN 592B; 114.5-6 Suchla: ... T-v TrEpqv%7Kati

19 Thisis the view of S. Lilla, 'Pseudo-Denysl'Areopagite,
Porphyreet Damascius',in Y. de
Andia(ed.), Denysl'Ardopagiteet sa post&riteen orientet en occident(Paris,1997), 117-35,
who notes numerouscitationsfromthis commentaryin the Divine Names.
20 See Marinus,VitaProcli, ? 26, 30.17-19 Saffrey-Segonds,who mentions 'countless
commentariesof Porphyryand lamblichuson the Oraclesas well as relatedwritingsof the
Chaldeans'.These commentariesare lost. A few fragmentsfrom Proclus' Commentaryon
the Oracles are extant and are included in E. des Places's editions of the Oracles. See
Oracleschaldaiques(Paris, 1971', 19892),206-12 (citationsfrom the Oraclesin this paper
are from my edition, The ChaldeanOracles [Leiden, 1989].) On Ps.-Dionysius'connection
with the Athenian School, see now I. Perczel, 'Pseudo-Dionysiusand the Platonic
Theology',in A.- Ph. Segonds and C. Steel (edd.), Proclus et la theologieplatonicienne
(Paris, 2000), 491-532; H. D. Saffrey,who has written frequentlyon various 'objective
links' between Ps.-Dionysiusand Proclus,most recently 'Le lien le plus objectif entre le
Pseudo-Denyset Proclus',in J. Hamesse(ed.),Roma,magistramundi:itinerariaculturaemedievalis (Louvain-la-Neuve,1998),791-810. Fora comprehensivesummaryandanalysisof the
life andworksof Ps.-Dionysius,see S. Lilla, 'Denys l'Arbopagite(Pseudo-)',in Dictionnaire

des philosophes antiques 2 (Paris, 1994), ? 85, 727-42.

21 DN 589D; 112.7 Suchla: 7rphs rCovOEiwv Aoyowv; 592B; 114.2 Suchla: 3SLaTWv LEpwCv...
Aoylwv, and passim. Cf. Synesius, De insomn. 135A, 155.13 Terzaghi: aKovUAr(W
Aoyiwv = introductionto fr. 118 of the Oracles; Marinus, Vita Procli, ? 26, 30.19-20
Aoyiots. It shouldbe notedthatPs.-Dionysiususes the same terSaffrey-Segonds:7ro0 OBdogS

minologywhencitingwordsandphrasesfromthe Bible, thuseffectively'harmonizing'the two

22 The referenceto God as 'the superessentialandhiddendivinity'probablyderives,in part,
froman interpretative
readingof fr. 18 ('thehypercosmicpaternalabyss')of the Oracles.Onthe

word 'hidden', cf. fr. 198*: (6) KPaLOS (SL

Synesius, H. 1(3) 233: Kpv' av r wLV;2(4)
jiWav; 2(4) 70: Kpb0cov auiiptpa;
2(4) 201: Kpvftag tov6o0s; 4(6) 13: rb Kp7TrrTv
21, 105: KpvOLkav
to the 'ineffable
... airipta; 1(3) 196-7: ag T6 Kpv1r6vEvov/4O
De princ. ? 106, 3.90.22-3 W-C: a3rr'roi3
abyss'); 6(7) 24: 6 KprrTT6r5EVo
? 110,
1gVO), Kal 7TOv3veOv~EEVOVKP')LOV KaUplOV
,~ri9S W-C:
KpvlLOV 8 aKOca/OV ... .1V .. .T br~PKOaLOVO
Parm. ? 151, 1.49.12 W-C: El yAp Kai 8La"KaUoS
, &sart,
Kplbtog. The term 'hidden' in

these texts has been variously consideredas Chaldean,Orphic,and Neopythagorean.See

Westerinkand Comb s, note to Damascius,? 106 above.

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sacred Oracles [~xKrcv

Y Epv Aoyiwv].For ignorance [dyvwata] of its superessentiality
[brEpova6rtproS]23 is beyond
[brEp A6yov Katvoi)v] andbeing.24
In Parm.2.11-12: (God is) superessential[LbrEpovalog]....
In Parm.2.15-16: ... nor dare to attributeanythingto thatone....
In Parm.9.24-6: Since thatone remainsbeyondall reasonand all thought[br7ip7rrvra A6yov
of him.
Kat r~caavv6qaLv]in our ignorance
Another passage in the Divine Names (attributedto 'the divine Oracles') describes
God in terms similar to those found in the Hymns of Synesius. Synesius, in turn, is
dependent on Porphyry's Commentary on the Oracles for this terminology.25
DN 589C, 112.2 Suchla:(Godas) theprincipleof simplicityfor thosebeingsimplifiedandprinarA6rr~rKa'7Tr6vVLOpAVWV
ciple of unityfor those being unified[cv~&7TrAovp'ovwv
Hymn9(1) 58-62 Lacombrade:Pure henad of unities
Ayvd6], first monadof
monads,the one who unifiesthe simplicitiesof summits

What these passages indicate is that Porphyry integrated material from his
Commentary on the Parmenides into his Commentary on the Chaldean Oracles.
The opposite is also true, as attested in In Parm. 9.3-4 (cited above), where
Porphyry says of the Chaldean first principle that 'his power and intellect are
co-unified in his simplicity'.26 This statement is an interpretative reading of fr. 4 of
the Oracles: 'For power is with him but intellect is from him.' 27 The naming of
God as prohyparxis - preserved in Greek in Zostrianos and attested in Latin in
the writings of Marius Victorinus probably derives from Porphyry's
Commentary on the Parmenides.
In sum, every term in Zost. 84.15-22 (knowledge, pre-existent, simplicity, henad,
unity, pure, formless), as well as the structureof the passage as a whole, can be traced
back to Porphyrian speculation about the nature of the first principle. These passages
also indicate that Porphyrywas the first to introduce the term 'henad' into Neoplatonic
speculation about the One28 as well as the consistent metaphysical usage of the term

The term 'superessential'


) is also Porphyrian,

the first time in Greek literature in his Commentary on the

attested for (rrA6-rs).29
23 Theterm
is rare.It is otherwiseattestedonly in TheodoretandMaximusthe
Confessor.See Lampe,PGL s.v.
24 On variantreadingsof this line see S. Lilla, 'Zurneuen kritischenAusgabeder Schrift
Uber die g6ttlichenNamenvon ps. DionysiusAreopagita',Augustinianum3 (1991) 443-4;
Perczel(n. 20), 511-12.
25 See W. Theiler,'Die chaldiiischenOrakelunddie Hymnendes Synesios',in Forschungen
zumNeuplatonismus(Berlin, 1966), 252-301; Hadot,PV I, esp. 461-74.
26 See Hadot,PV II, note ad loc., who comparesMariusVictorinus,Adv.Ar. 1.50.10(=? 41
PV II): 'simplicitateunus qui sit, trespotentiascouniens'.
27 On the Chaldeantriadfather,power,intellect,see
Majercik(n. 9), 266-78.
28 This is the view of I. P. Sheldon-Williams,'Henads
and angels: Proclusand the PsDionysius', Studia Patristica 11 (Berlin, 1972), 65-71, at 69. On the theory of divine
henads in later Neoplatonism,see H. D. Saffrey and L. G. Westerink,'Introduction'to
Proclus: Thdologieplatonicienne 3 (Paris, 1978), li-lxxvii, who attributethis theory to
Syrianus.For the view that lamblichusintroducedthe theory of henads, see now J. Dillon,
'Iamblichusand henads again', in H. J. Blumenthaland E. G. Clark (edd.), The Divine
lamblichus:Philosopherand Man of Gods (London,1993), 48-54.
29 Plotinuswas apparentlythe firstto considerthis termin a metaphysicalsense; see Enn. thatwhich is 'trulyOne' is 'outsideall multiplicityand simplicity';
the name 'One' as 8 r-nvTrwr7TA16r)r6EarLTaptaavTLKov;
cf. Porphyry,Hist. phil. (220 F
Smith= fr. xv Nauck):Tr0v i ydp CpaivEtrjTvr7EptlabiVrv
yar TA6ra.

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Parmenides30 and subsequently found in the writings of the later Neoplatonists and
commentators on Aristotle as well as in a wide range of Christian sources from the
mid-fourth century onward.
But this is not all. Additional material in Zostrianos indicates that the author of this
tractatewas also familiar with other works of Porphyry,as demonstratedin the following passages.
(a) Saviour and saved, flee femininity, save yourself true self as intellect
The concept of 'saviour and saved' and the admonition to 'flee femininity' are both
found in Porphyry's Letter to Marcella. Although a condemnation of the feminine in
one form or another can be found in other Nag Hammadi texts, the phrase 'flee femininity' has no parallel in either Greek or Gnostic sources.31 It is a coinage of
Porphyry. The theme of 'saviour and saved'-applied, respectively, to intellect and
soul in the Letter to Marcella-is also found in the Porphyrian material utilized by
Marius Victorinus, who applies it to the Son as Life (? 51 PV II): salvans et
salvata a semet ipse. The theme also appears in Allogenes and Steles Seth.32
Zost. 131.5-16: Flee from the madnessand bondageoffemininityand choosefor yourselfthe
salvationof masculinity....Saveyourselfso that the soul maybe saved.The kind fatherhas
sent you the saviourand has given you strength.
Zost.44.1-4: Thetype of personwhois savedis the one who seekshimselfandhis intellectand
findseach of these.
AdMarc.? 33 Wicker:Therefore,do not be overly-concerned
aboutwhetheryourbody is male
or female;do not regardyourselfas a woman,Marcella,for I did not devotemyself to you as
such.Flee from everyfeminineelementof the soul as if you are clothedin a male body.
Ad Marc.? 9 Wicker:Is it not, then,out of place for you, who areconfidentthatthereexists in
you thesaviourand thatwhichis savedandthe destroyerandthatwhichis destroyed,wealth
and poverty,fatherandhusband,andmasterof all truegoods, to yearnfor the shadowof a
leaderas thoughyou do not havethetrueleaderwithinyourselfandall wealthin yourpossession?This wealthyou mustlose andforgetif you descendintothe flesh at the expenseof the
saviourand thatwhichis saved.
AdMarc.? 26 Wicker:AndIntellectitselfbecomesa teacher,a saviour,a nourisher,a guardian,
and a guide which elevatesthe soul.
De abst. 2.49.2 Bouffartigue-Patillon:The truephilosopher... in every way saves himself
De abst. 1.29.4 Bouffartigue-Patillon:Forthe ascentis to no otherthanthe trueself... The
trueself is intellect,andthusthe end is to live accordingto intellect.
(b) Corporeals and incorporeals
The distinction between corporeals or bodies (ra
and incorporeals (ra
(Lamberz). The Coptic
forms of these terms are cited below in the passage from Zostrianos. In one instance,
the text of Zostrianos supports an alternative reading of line 6 in Sent. 2.
30 In Parm.2.11. LSJ (1968) and (1996) omit this citation,althoughthe editorsof the latter
now acknowledgePorphyryas the authorof the 'Anonymous'commentary(see supplementof
'authorsandworks').The adverbialform,barEpovalos,
is also a coinage of Porphyry,Sent. 10,
4.10. This form is not cited for Porphyryin eithereditionof LSJ.
31 See F. Wisse, 'Flee femininity:antifemininityin GnosticTextsandthe questionof social
milieu',in K. King(ed.),Imagesof theFemininein Gnosticism(Philadelphia,1988),297-307;
repr. in E. Ferguson,D. M. Scholer,and P.C. Finney (edd.), Studies in Early Christianity
(New Yorkand London,1993), 161-71.
32 Allogenes50.33-6: 'Andyou shall safely escapeto thatwhich is yours,which is already
savedanddoes not need to be saved';StelesSeth 125.19-21: 'You arethatone who will not be
saved nor has been saved by them.'

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Zost.21.3-19: ... fromthemall in numerousplaces,whateverplace theyplease and whatever

place they wish. Theyare everywhereand nowhereand they contain Spirit.For they are
ma] and are superiorto corporeals[ZeN[AT]cwM.].33 They are
undivided,with living thoughtsand a power of truth,and they abide with that which is
purerthan those. It is in this respectthat they are purer,and not in the mannerof bodies
[[NIC]wMa]whichare in a singleplace.
Sent. 1, 1.3-4 Lamberz:Everybodyis in aplace, butnoneof the incorporealsby itself, as such,
is in a place.
Sent. 2, 1.5-6 Lamberz:The incorporealby itself, in thatit is superiorto every [bodyand]34
place, is presenteverywhere,not by extension,but indivisibly.
Sent.3, 2.1-2 Lamberz:Theincorporealby itself,not beingpresentto bodiesin termsofplace,
is presentto them wheneverit wishes.
Sent.27, 16.1-3 Lamberz:The substanceof the body does not preventthe incorporealby itself
frombeing whereit wishes and as it pleases.
Sent.27, 16.11-13 Lamberz:Again (the incorporeal),whereverit maybe, is foundthereby a
certaindisposition,since it is everywhereand nowherewith respectto place.
(c) Universal and particular, perfect and wholly perfect, part and whole, in common
In the following passages the term 'perfect' (rAELosr) is equivalent to 'particular'
and the term 'wholly perfect' (7rav-rAEto~) is equivalent to 'universal'

the Copticscribeof Zostrianos

Withone exception(18.13),

theGreekformof thesewords:

Zost. 18.11-17: In relationto each (aeon)thereexists a particularand [primary]form,so that

theytoo mightbecomeperfect(entities).As forthe aeonsof Autogenes,theyarefour,perfect
entities which derivefrom the whollyperfect (entities) [which are prior to] [the perfect
Zost.22.13-20: The sameprinciplealso appliesto the aeons:to understandthatthese entities,
in thatthey areparts, areperfect. Thosewhich belong to the whole..,. become distinct,yet
thereis a commonality35 which exists betweenthem.
is made of like parts, so that
Sent. 22, 13.13-16 Lamberz:Noeric substance[~jvoEpdoiuoiaa]
entitiesexistbothin theparticularintellectandin the whollyperfectintellect.But in the universalintellect,particularentitiesexist universally,whereasin theparticularintellect,both
universalentities {andparticularentities} existparticularly.36
Proclus,In Tim.1.422.14-19 (=fr. LIISodano):Porphyrysaysthatthe reasonwhy (the starsare
beautiful)is thatamongthemthepart is a whole.Foreverythingwhich is in the whole comexists in each starparticularly,on accountof the unityof the intelligible
pletely [ rravrEA6.g]
forms.And it is certainlytruethatamongthe stars,each of theparts is in someway a whole,
because each becomes a whole as a result of its commonalitywith the whole [r~Tarvra

Proclus,ET 64: ... theperfectproceedsfrom the whollyperfect....

(d) Species and genus, part and whole, contains and contained

Thesetermsaredrawnfromthelistin Zost.2.13-20 citedabove(p. 278)andprobably derive from Porphyry's Isagoge:

scribehas committedan errorof dittographywhich
(my emendation).The
was not
by the editorsof Zostrien.The manuscriptreadingis otherwisenonsensical:
'Forthey are incorporealsandare superiorto incorporeals.'Turner,however,offersa possible
See note ad loc.
with the
34 Codex a of the Sententiae adds
aowltaTOsKat afterEaUT andthus concurs, part,
Greek original of Zostrianos. Lamberz: KpEL770Va7raVTO
= KoLwwvia.See Crum 553B.



On this passage,see Hadot,PV 1.411-12.

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Isagoge 7.27-8.3 Busse:Thusthe individualis containedby the species andthe species by the
genus. For the genus is a type of whole, but the individualis a part. The species is both a
whole and a part, but a part of anotherand a whole, not of another,but in others. The
whole is in the parts.
Isagoge 15.15-16 Busse: They differ in that the genus contains the species, but the species is
contained and does not contain the genera.

Proclus,ET 66: Everyexistentis relatedto everyothereitheras wholeorpart or same or other.

For some containbutthe remainingare contained.... But if somethingcontainsit mustbe a
whole, but if it is contained it must be a part.

(e) Time and eternity

In Zostrianos, the Gnostic figure Barbelo functions as a complex aeonic entity situated
second in rank after the Invisible Spirit.37In the following passages, her function is
that of a metaphysical principle identified with Intellect and eternity in the manner
that Intellect is identified with eternity in Porphyry's teaching. In addition, the appearance of the triad hyparxis-power-act in this passage also confirms a dependency on
Porphyry, who was the first to introduce this and similar triads (hyparxis-powerintellect) into Neoplatonic speculation.38 The linking of the triad with Intellect is
found in Porphyry's Commentaryon the Parmenides, 14.15-26.
Zost.78.10-16: In termsof act, powerand hyparxis,she (=Barbelo = Intellect)has not originatedwithtime.Rather,[shehasappeared]frometernity,havingstoodbeforeit39eternally.40
Hist.phil. 223F Smith= fr. xvIIINauck:But Intellectdoes not originatewith time- andnot
even when time exists does time pertainto hinm-for Intellectis always withouttime and
alone is eternal.
Sent. 44, 58.8-9 Lamberz:This, then, is eternity;it subsistsalong with Intellect.
Sent. 44, 58.23-5 Lamberz:Thus,as time subsistsalong with the motionof Soul, so eternity
subsistsalong with the permanenceof Intellectin itself; eternityis no more separatefrom
Intellectthantime is from Soul.
A central theme in Allogenes is that of 'learned ignorance', an expression that is found
in Porphyry's Commentary on the Parmenides. It is also attested by others who are
either dependent on or familiar with Porphyry's writings, including Marius
Victorinus,42 Augustine,43 and Ps.-Dionsyius.44 The anonymous author of the
Tilbingen Theosophy is also familiar with this expression and directly attributes it
to Porphyry.45 This concept is also found in Zostrianos with reference to the
37 On the role of Barbeloin Zostrianos, see Turner'sdiscussionin Zostrien, 95-115.
38 See Hadot,PV 1.424-32.
39 The use of the masculinesuffixin line 15 for the pronomialform
impliedreferenceto eternityin the form of eNe2, which is a masculinenoun. The feminine
form,MNTfi-c Ne2, is otherwisefoundin lines 14 ('from eternity')and 16 ('eternally').
40 Fora differentreadingof this passage,see note ad loc.
41 EditionsofAllogenes (NHCXI, consultedarethoseof J. D. Turner

K. L. King, Revelation of the Unknowable God (Santa Rosa, 1995).

42 Ad Cand. 14.1 (=? 19 PV
II): in ignoratione intellegibile (with reference to knowing the


43 De ordine 2.16.44, 131.15-16 Green: 'qui scitur melius nesciendo' (with reference to the

Kat voiv Kat ov'alav abr7irb~EpOUvatJLq77o0
44 DN 588A;108.8-9 Suchla: yap vbrEp
ayvwaia(with referenceto 'the superessential
the Phoenician,the fellow studentof Ameliusand
45 *427F Smith= ? 65 Erbse:'Porphyry
discipleof Plotinus,speaksthus:"Concerningthe FirstCausewe know nothing;for he is the

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Invisible Spirit (see below). As for 'the Unknowable'as a designationfor the first
principle in Allogenes, the Coptic form nTI.TrcoYWN is a translation of rb
clyvwaTov. The latter form is found in In Parm. 2.31. Although the term
'Unknowable' is found in other Gnostic sources as a name for the highest principle,46
its repeated usage in Allogenes in connection with the theme of 'learned ignorance'
suggests that the author of the tract most likely drew it from Porphyry's
Commentaryon the Parmenides.47
Of further interest in Allogenes is the utilization of the Porphyrian themes 'know
yourself' and 'withdrawal to self'48 in connection with the triad hyparxis, vitality,

mentality.Specifically,Allogenes- duringthe course of a heavenlyascent- is

instructedby various 'Luminaries'to 'know himself' by 'gazing on' or 'listening
to' his own 'blessedness'and then to 'seek himself' by 'withdrawing'to aspectsof
the triadhyparxis,vitality, mentality.The triadicelements of this ascent seem to
be modelled on the Porphyrianidea that the personalsoul is the triadicimage of
the universalsoul- a conceptthatis foundin MariusVictorinus(? 60 PV II) in connectionwith the triadbeing, life, intellect.If so, thenwe can supposethatAllogenes,
by 'withdrawing'to elementsof the triadas he ascends,effectivelyunitesthe triadic
natureof his own soul with thatof Soul above.The conceptof 'standing'in connection with this ascentis probablymodelledon a similar'exercise'foundin Porphyry,
In Parm. 2.14-31.

(a) Learnedignorance
In the following passages, the Coptic form for 'be/was ignorant'
is equiv(,TeIMc) to &yvota;
alent to ayvoecv;the form for 'ignorance'(MNT'aTcoywN)is equivalent
the form for 'knowledge'
the form for 'to know' (eiMe) is equivalent to

of q`yvcuos.
(-tfrNwclc) is a transliteration


thatone whomif you mightknowhim,be ignorantof

Allogenes59.29-32: ... the Unknowable,
Allogenes60.8-12: Do not knowhim [sc. the Unknowable],for that is impossible;but if by
meansof an enlightenedconceptionyou might knowhim, be ignorantof him.
Allogenes61.1-3: [As though]I were ignorantof him [sc. the Unknowable],I [knew]him.
Allogenes 61.14-20: I was seekingthe ineffableand UnknowableGod, whom if one might
knowhim, one would be entirelyignorantof him.
Allogenes 64.11-14: ... the unknowableknowledgewhich alone belongs to him. And he is
joined with the ignorancethatsees him.
Zost. 80.18-21: The InvisibleSpiritwas never ignorant[nordid he not] know....
In Parm. 4.34-5: ... the one who is never in ignorance [ev ayvol6].
In Parm. 5.11-15: And how knowing does he not know [yLyvJaUKWV
ob y[LtyVjKEL];and how
he does not know
knowing is he not in ignorance [yLyvWiaKwvobK 'v yvoig E'rvV]? That
[oV yLyvCaKEL]is not because he was originally in ignorance ['v ayvoiq] but because he transcends all knowledge [riars ...

objectof neithersensiblecontactnorintellectualknowledge,butknowledgeof him is ignorance

[abrofi yvao)s

q a~yvwaia]."'

See H. D. Saffrey, 'Connaissance et inconnaissance de Dieu:

Porphyreet la Theosophie de Tiibingen',in id., Recherchessur le neoplatonismeapres

Plotin (Paris,1990), 11-30.
46 See Lampe, PGL s.v.


DN 593B; 116.7-8 Suchla:rb "v, Tb

iyvwoarov, rT br7EpobULov.

Thethemesof 'knowyourself'and 'withdrawalto self' arealso foundin Zostrianos;see

17.15,22.7-10, 44.17-22, 45.12. Fora discussionof thesethemes,see Hadot,PV 1.88-91 and
esp. 91, n. 1; 327, n. 5; J. Bouffartigueand M. Patillon,Porphyre,de l'abstinence1 (Paris,
1977), liii-lx; Zambon(n. 2), 47-51, 316-17; P. Courcelle,'Le Connais-toi-memechez les
neoplatoniciensgrecs', in id., Le Neoplatonisme(Paris,1971), esp. 155-6.

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In Parm. 9.24-6: Since thatone remainsbeyondall reasonand all thoughtin our ignorance
of him.
[4v ... ayvwoalL]
In Parm. 10.25-7: (The soul) has no means forjudging the knowledge[--v yvcoZmv]
of God;
rather,what suffices for the soul is the image which constitutes the ignorance [7ir?
dyvwocra] thatit has of God.
In Parm.2.30-1: ... (thatone) whomwe do notknowbut,perhaps,mightknowif somehowwe
becomeworthyof advancingtowards(the) Unknowable[rt-,iyvwarov]itself.
(b) Know yourself withdrawal to vitality and hyparxis
In the following passages, the Greek verb avaXcpEtv('to withdraw') is transliterated
into Coptic as ANZAxcWpI.
As in the previous section, the Coptic form eiMe (='to
know') is equivalent to the Greek verb YLYVWoKELV.49
Allogenes 59.10-15: O Allogenes, gaze in silence on the blessednessthat is yours, that by
which you knowyourself as you (truly) are, and seeking yourself, withdrawto vitality,
which you will see moving.
Allogenes59.18-23: But if you wish to stand,withdrawto hyparxis,andyou will findit standing and at rest....
Allogenes60.16-20: I listenedto the blessednessby which I knewmyselfas I (truly)am, andI
withdrewto vitalitywhile seeking(myself).
Allogenes60.28-32: AndwhenI wishedto standfirmly,I withdrewto hyparxis,whichI found
This tract consists of a sequence of three hymnic prayers addressed to God in terms of
three aspects or phases of his divine nature. In his lowest phase he is praised as
Autogenes or the Self-Begotten; in his middle phase he is Barbelo, the male
virgin; in his highest phase he is glorified as the Unbegotten. Each phase, from
highest to lowest, is also characterized as a movement away from unity to division,
but a division that remains undivided: the Unbegotten is 'undivided', a 'pure
monad', and an 'undivided triple power'; Barbelo is a 'great monad' as well as the
'first division' and a 'triple power'; Autogenes is 'divided everywhere yet remains
one' and is also a 'triple power'. This concept of 'undivided divisions' is also
found in the Hymns of Synesius, where it is applied to the first principle as monad
and triad (Hymn 1(3) 210-16 Lacombrade): 'I praise you monad, I praise you
triad. You are a monad although a triad, you are a triad although a monad. A
noeric division holds that which is divided yet undivided.' For Synesius, each
moment of the triad is manifested in Christian terms as Father, Will, Son and in
Chaldean terms as Ineffable (=Paternal) Abyss, Centre, Craftsman.
In addition, Steles Seth also reflects material found in Macrobius' Dream ofScipio,
where the 'Monad' is described as 'everywhere undiminished and always undivided'
and is equated-following the Plotinian-Porphyrian order of hypostases-with the
'Highest God', 'Intellect', and 'Soul'.51 In Steles Seth, the Unbegotten is equivalent
49 Cf. Sent.40, 50.16-20 Lamberz:'Forthosewho areable to withdraw[XwpErv]
into their own substanceand are able to know [YLVWKEZV]
their own substance,take part in
knowledgeitself and the form of knowledge,becauseof the unityof knowerandknown.'
50 Editionsof Steles Seth (NHC VII, 5) consultedare those of J. M. Robinsonand J. E.
Goehring(Leiden, 1996) andP. Claude(Quebec, 1983).
51 In Somn. 1.6.7-9, 19.24-20.11 Willis. See J. Flamant,Macrobeet le neo-platonisme
latin, a"lafin du IV sidcle (Leiden, 1977), 330-1, who suggeststhatthis materialwas drawn
from Porphyry'sCommentaryon the Timaeus.For a summaryof Macrobius'borrowings
fromthis and otherworksof Porphyry,see ibid. 646-80.

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to the HighestGod(or the One),Barbeloto Intellect,andAutogenesto Soul. In terms

of this verticalschema,the authorof Steles Seth (120.23-6) describesAutogenesas
the medianbetweenBarbeloand the sensibleworld of Nature:'He [sc. Autogenes]
came forth from that which is superior[sc. Barbelo]for the sake of that which is
inferior [sc. Nature].He came forth in the middle.' 52 In Synesius, Hymn 2(4)
106-11, virtuallythe same expressionis appliedto Will (='the outpouring')as the
mean term betweenFatherand Son: 'In orderthat the Fathermight be pouredout
on the Son, the outpouringitself has found a shoot. It stood in the middle, God
issued fromGod.'53In this instance,'will' functionslike 'life' as the mean term in
the horizontalschema hyparxis, life, thought/intellect.This triad is attested in
Porphyry'sCommentaryon the Parmenides 14.15-16 as well as in Steles Seth
125.28-32. It is also attestedin the Porphyriantexts of MariusVictorinus(?? 10,
22, 25, 28 PV II). In ?22 (=Ad Cand. 2.22-3, 29) the triad is schematizedwith
'life' as boththe meanandendterm:exsistentia(= trap7e), vita, intellegentia;exsistentiam,voi-v,vitam.The schemawith 'life'- ratherthan'intellect'- as the end term
is also found in Zostrianos.54 Elsewhere,the placementof 'life' after 'intellect'
(being, intellect, life) is attested in Proclus, In Tim. 3.64.28-65.7, for both
Sodano)andTheodoreof Asine (= Test.17 Deuse) in connecPorphyry(=fr. LXXIX
tion with a discussionof the movementof the planets.55
Of furtherinterestin Steles Seth is the list of divinenameswhich formpartof the
hymnicpraisesofferedto the Unbegottenin 124.18-29. In each instance,a given
name is attestedfor Porphyryeitherdirectlyor throughan intermediary.
= ' ovrowsrrpobv.
124.18-19:ThetrulyPre-existent:TnHCTp cppnT

The neuterform7rpo6v--asappliedto the firstprinciple-is preservedseveraltimesin

Greekin the Porphyrianmaterialutilizedby MariusVictorinus(?? 2, 20-2, 41, 78
PV II). In Zostrianos80.14-16, the Pre-existentis describedas the one who is
placed 'over all' (21z-NNAi THpoy). These terms are the Coptic equivalent of
Porphyry'sfamiliarreferenceto the God 'over all' (ri trdaL), an expressionwhich
is found several times in the Commentaryon the Parmenidesand elsewhere.56
Hadotconsidersthis expressiona 'virtualsignature'of Porphyry.57
1eNe2 = 6 7rpoatwvtoror r6
nl CopnFT

This term is a coinage of Porphyry.See Proclus,PT 1.11, 51.4-10 S-W (=232F

Smith):'Porphyry... in his treatiseOn Principles ... demonstratesthat Intellectis
eternal,yet none the less has (something)in itself thatis pre-eternal(7rpoauWvtov),
< and that which is pre-eternal[-r ... rrpoaLivLov]
> in Intellectis unitedto the
One'; Hist. Phil. 223F Smith= fr. xvIII Nauck: Intellect 'proceedspre-eternally
Cf. Plotinus,Enn., whereSoul is similarlysaid to be 'establishedin the middle'
betweenIntellectandNature.Plotinus'remarksarepartof his commentaryon P1l.Ti. 35A.
53 Cf. lines 96-7: yoihtkov
54 Zost.14.13-14: existence,blessedness,life; 15.4-17: life, blessedness,existence;66.2367.2 and 75.7-11: existence,vitality,blessedness;75.16-18: divinity,blessedness,life. The
substitutionof blessednessfor intellectis constantin Zostrianosand is also found in Marius
Victorinus,?? 41 and 44 PV II. See Hadot, PV 1.292, n. 4, who comparesAugustine,De
anotherto be blessed,as if he couldunderciv. Dei 8: 'Noris it one thingforhimto understand,
standandnot be blessed;but for him, to live, to understand,to be blessed is to be.'
55 Deuse providesa detailed discussionof the 'being, intellect, life' triad in his note to

Test. 17.

56 See In Parm 1.4 (andnote ad loc.), 1.18, 10.14.

57 See PV 1.113.

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S fromits cause,God';Proclus,ET 107; 96.8: 6 S alwv

(v-qpT27Trat) ElS
7rpoaLLtoov. The word 'pre-eternal' is not otherwiseattestedin paganGreek
sources.59 Among Greek Christian writers, it appears frequently from the mid-fourth
century onward, most often in connection with the Son as the 'pre-eternal' Logos.60 In
Victorinus, this term is translated into Latin as praeaeternus (? 51 PV II).

124.26:The Non-substantial:
rTTITOyclC = 6 dvovatos or r' avo{6tov.
The term avocaLosappears along with 'voktjaosin Porphyry's Commentary on the
~ 2v vot)aLov) in connection
Parmenides 12.5-6 (KaKEdVO

the two 'ones'of P1.Prm.142b.61

withhis exegeticalcommentson the natureofrTOVTO
inGreek(??78 and86aPVII)andinLatintransit is preserved
lation(? 36b)as the firsttermof thetriadavo'utoS,
withneuterterms(Travov'tov,ro &woov,Tobvovv)is foundseveraltimesin Ps.substance')
Dionysius.62 Thistermis also foundin Allogenes47.34 ('a nonsubstantial

to thefirstprinciple.
andin 53.30-1 ('thenon-substantial
The latterexpressionis also foundin Zost.78.4-5 and79.5-6 (in reconstructed
lacunae). In Zost. 79.7-8, AToycCIa appears with the term prohyparxis. The term
avoutsor is also attested in other Gnostic sources,63 but its usage in Steles Seth,
Allogenes, and Zostrianos most likely derives from the same Porphyrian source or
sources in which the other divine names in this list were found.
124.26-7: The Existence which is prior to existences:
"tYTF.XlPeC sT2aeH
= qrrapTSL
TO)4 2brTrdpEwv.
Hyparxis also appears as a name for God in Allogenes and Zostrianos, as noted in the
previous section. In Neoplatonic speculation, the name Hyparxis appears as a name
for the first principle in a list preserved in Proclus, PT 3.7, 30.5-6 S-W:
'Hyparxis which transcends all things.' In Victorinus (?? 43 and 49 PV II) the
Latin equivalent, exsistentia, is also used as a name for God. Both Zostrianos and
Victorinus also attest to the usage of prohyparxis or praeexsistentia as a name for
God and similarly utilize hyparxis or exsistentia as the first term of the triad existence-life-intellect
(and variants). Since this triad is also attested in Porphyry's
Commentary on the Parmenides,64 it is possible that this is the source in which all
de Porphyre',in EntretiensHardt 12 (Geneva,
58 rpoatwviws, cf. Hadot,'La metaphysique
Hadot's conjecturehas now been affirmedby A.-Ph.
1965), 146, n. 4; MSS 7rpoatow.Lo.
Segonds, 'Appendix: les fragmentsde l'Histoire de la Philosophie', Porphyre: Vie de
Pythagore,Lettrea"Marcella,ed. and trans.E. des Places (Paris, 1982), 193, n. 4. See also
Zambon(n. 2), 288-90. The adverbialform is otherwise attestedonly in Ps.-Dionysius,
where it is used in specific connectionwith materialdrawnfrom Porphyry'sParmenides
(see below, n. 60).
59 LSJ (1968) and (1996) cite only the referencein Proclus'Elementsof Theology.
60 Of particularinterestis its single usage as an adverbin Ps.-Dionysius,DN 817D, 183.810 Suchla:'Rather,he is the being [rb
oLvac] for things which exist, and not existingthings
alone, but even the being itself of existents derives from the one who exists pre-eternally
E Tro) 7TpoaLWCVLW Cf. In Parm. 12.26-7: '... so
that even (the One) itself is being, that which exists ovyros].'
before being [a'UTE Ka'aC-7o7r EIVaL7r
61 See Hadot,PV 1.273-4 and n. 1.
62 DN 697A, 146.7-8 and 732D, 177.12 and 14 Suchla;MTh 1040D, 148.1-2 Suchla
63 UntitledTextin the BruceCodex,chs. 2, 10, 17, 21, 22, as descriptiveof 'the Father'as
well as lesser entities;Hippolytus,Ref 6.42, with referenceto the 'FirstFather'in Marcus'
system;7.21 in connectionwith Basilides'Aristotelianism.
64 In Parm. 14.15-16

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these terms were found. This triad becomes commonplace in later Neoplatonism,
notably as preserved in the writings of Proclus and Damascius.65
124.28-9: The Pre-essentialwhich is prior to essences:
NZeNOYCI. 1 = 7

q vp6



Proousia is a hapax. The neuter form, -ObrpooVOtov, is found in Porphyry, In Parm.

10.25, and in Synesius, Hymn 1(3) 222:T-6 rpoo'atov 0v.66 Iamblichus, DM 8.2 and
The masculine form otherwise
10.5, preserves the masculine form, 6
Didymus, Trin. 484A, 68(8) 1-3 Seiler,
where God as 'Paternal Hypostasis' is praised as both b?rpoa6togand rpoov"tos.
In determining where and under what circumstances the authors of these Gnostic texts
may have been influenced by Porphyry's writings, the viri novi or 'modem men' mentioned by Amobius of Sicca in his Adversus nationes, 2.15, are of particularinterest.
Since Courcelle, the growing consensus of scholars has been that these opponents of
Amobius were a group of individuals influenced by Porphyry.67This consensus of
opinion has recently been strengthened in an article by Beatrice68 and a recent book
on Amobius by Simmons.69 Beatrice points out that Eusebius, like Amobius, uses
the same expressions, o vEot ('the modems') and of vEaoEpoLTcoV q~LAoAoo5oov
more recent philosophers'), in his specific attacks on Porphyry. He further notes that
Eusebius, like Amobius, also uses the word Torior('arrogance') to describe Porphyry,
a Greek term first transliteratedinto Latin (typhus) by Amobius and subsequently
used in connection with the viri novi in 2.15 and elsewhere.70He also points out that
Augustine, in De ordine, similarly describes as 'arrogant' (superbia)
certain opponents who reject the Christian doctrine of the incarnation, a likely attack
on Porphyry and/or his followers. As for Simmons, he argues that the viri novi are
also the main focus of Amobius' attacksin Book 1 of the Adversus nationes and demonstrates that Amobius, in constructing his attack, utilizes the same methods against
Porphyryand his followers that Porphyry had used against the Christians.71
Of further interest is Arnobius' repeated complaint that the viri novi depend upon
themselves for the salvation of their souls. In 2.33 he sums up his critique in the following statement: 'You place the safety of your souls on your own selves and believe
that by your own efforts you become divine.' This statement nicely summarizes
Porphyry's teaching on the soul as reflected in his Letter to Marcella and treatise
On Abstinence, and further attested now in Zostrianos. Indeed, in Adv. nat. 1.52 the
65 See Majercik(n. 9), 278-86.
66 Cf.
irpoavoratlos in line 152 andH. 5(2) 52.
67 See P.
Courcelle,'Les sages de Porphyreet les "virinovi" d'Arnobe',REL31 (1953),
257-71; P. Hadot,PV 1.83;E. L. Fortin,'The viri novi of Arnobiusand the conflictbetween
faith and reasonin the early Christiancenturies',in D. Neiman and M. Schatin(edd.), The
Heritage of the Early Church(Rome, 1973), 197-226; P. Mastrandea,Un neoplatonico
latino, Cornelio Labeone (Leiden, 1979), 127-56 (argues that Porphyrianmaterial in
Arnobiusis mediatedvia Labeo);Smith(n. 9), 766-8.
68 P. F. Beatrice,'Un oracleantichr6tien
chez Arnobe',in Y. de Andiaet al. (edd.),Mimorial
Dom Jean Gribmont(Rome, 1988), 107-29.
69 MichaelBland Simmons,Arnobiusof Sicca (Oxford,1995), 216-17 and nn. 1-13.
70 See L. Berkowitz,IndexArnobianus(Hildesheim,1967), s. v. The term appearsnine
71 See Simmons(n. 69), 222-318 andpassim.

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name Zostrianosappearsin a list of authoritieswhich also includesZoroasterand

Julian.The name Zoroasteralso appearswith Zostrianosin the colophonat the end
of the tractZostrianos.72 As for the name Julian,this is a referenceto Julianthe
Theurgist,the purportedauthoror compilerof the ChaldeanOracles,a sacredtext
amongthe laterNeoplatonistson whichPorphyrywasthe firstto writea commentary.
Thereareseveralallusionsto the Oraclesin theAdversusnationes.73 To this evidence
we can addmentionof the namesPlato,Cronius,andNumeniusin Adv.nat.2.11 and
of PlatoandPythagorasin 2.13. As Simmonspointsout, the samenamesalso appear
as authoritiesin Porphyry'sCaveof theNymphs.74 ThenameZoroasterappearsin this
text as well.75
A furtherconnectionto Porphyryis foundin Adv.nat.2.19. Here,Arnobiusaccuses
'the modems' of typhus because they claim that their skill in the liberal arts
('grammar,music,rhetoric,geometry','rulesgoverningnouns',and 'the tonalintervals of sounds')makesthem 'equalsof God'.In 2.6, Amobiusaccusesthemof flauntbecausethey know how 'to inflectverbs and
ing their 'wisdom and understanding'
nouns throughthe cases and tenses'. On this last point, we can note the many
instances in Marius Victorinus, Zostrianos, Allogenes, and Steles Seth where a

methodof paronymsis utilizedin the constructof triadsto describedifferentlevels

of ontic reality(to be-to live-to think;being-life-intellect; essentiality-vitalitymentality).This method is also discussed by Proclus in his Commentaryon the
Parmenidesas one of threeways to describedivine reality.The othertwo methods
include that of distinguishingbetween God and the state of being God and that
method which understandsGod as the Cause who possesses all things within
himself.76All threemethodsare found in the Porphyriantexts utilized by Marius
Victorinus(?? 20, 41, 77-8 PV II). As for Amobius' remarkassociating'the tonal
intervalsof sound' with becoming 'equalsof God', it can be noted that the ascent
of Philology in Martianus Capella's The Marriage of Philology and Mercury is

exactlycorrelatedwith an ascendingsequenceof tones and half-tones,the culmination of which is Philology'sdeification.77

The inclusionof referencesandallusionsto
the ChaldeanOraclesin this text indicatesdependenceon a Neoplatonicauthor,generallyagreedto be Porphyry.78
The liberalartsare also a majorconcernof Augustinein his De ordine2.12.3516.44. In a recent work, I.Hadothas persuasivelyarguedthat the cycle of seven
liberal arts was first introducedby Porphyry.She also arguesthat the connection
betweenthese artsandthe ascentof the soul in the De ordinewas probablymodelled
on analogousmaterialderivedfromPorphyry'streatiseOn theReturnof the Soul, the
likely sourceof this sectionof the De ordine.As such,masteryof these artsbecomes
linked with knowledgeand contemplationof the highest realities.79In De ordine
2.5.16 Augustine specifically identifies these realities with Neoplatonic teaching
72 Onthesenames,seeM.J.Edwards,
52', Vig.Chr.42 (1989),282-9.
73 SeeCourcelle
(n. 67),passim;desPlaces(n. 20),29-32; Simmons(n. 69), 168-71.
74 See Simmons(n. 69), 160-1.
75 De ant. nymph.? 6, 60.5and12Nauck.
76 See In Parm. 1106.1-1107.9 Cousin;Hadot,PV 1.356-75.


?? 169-206,49.14-55.19Willis

See S. Gersh,MiddlePlatonismand Neoplatonism:TheLatin Tradition2 (NotreDame,

1986),597-646, fora detailedanalysisof thetextandits sources.

79 I. Hadot,Artsliberauxetphilosophiedanslapensee antique(Paris,1984), 101-36. Hadot

(137-55) also arguesthat MartianusCapella's The Marriage of Philology and Mercuryis
dependenton Porphyry'sOn the Returnof the Soul.

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and Christian doctrine by stating that 'the principle of all things is one God all-powerful [omnipotens] and triple-powerful [tripotens], Father, Son and Holy Spirit'. In
Marius Victorinus, Adv. Ar. 4.21.26 and 22.9 (?? 76 and 77 PV II), God is also
described as 'triple-powerful' (rpL86vcalxoSest deus) and 'principle of all things'
(omnium principium). Victorinus, however, does not then equate God's 'triple
power' with the Christian Trinity but with the Neoplatonic triad 'to be, to live, to
understand' (esse, vivere, intellegere). As 'principle of all things', Victorinus is
specifically commenting on Enn. (apX-,
IqTWvrwv)in the context of a short commentary on this passage. This is the only place in Victorinus' writings where Plotinus
is directly cited. However, it is clear from Victorinus' remarksthat he is not commenting on the text directly, but is utilizing a post-Plotinian source-probably a short commentary or summary of Porphyryon this passage-in which the triad 'to be, to live, to
understand' was also found.80
As for the term 'triple power', Victorinus translates it as tripotens in Adv. Ar. 1.50.4
with reference to God and in 1.56.5 with reference to the triadic nature of the human
soul. It is only in these two passages in Victorinus and in Augustine's De ordine
2.5.16 that tripotens is attested in Latin."' Elsewhere, the Greek forms of this term,
7rp86Vactosgand rpL86vatas, are frequently attested in the Gnostic texts Pistis
Sophia, The Books of Jeu, and the Untitled Text in the Bruce Codex, where they
are regularly used to describe various triple-powered gods and spirits. In none of
these texts, however, are these terms linked with the Neoplatonic philosophical
material found in Zostrianos, Allogenes, and Steles Seth. Although the word
hyparxis is attested once in the Untitled Text, it is used here only in its ordinary
sense of 'possessions'.82 The word TpL)8va/los is also found in the later
Neoplatonic tradition, but is rare and never applied to the first principle.83
This suggests that Victorinus' usage of this word was found in a source or sources
that combined both Gnostic terminology and Porphyrianphilosophical ideas. We have
already seen this combination of terms in Zostrianos, Allogenes, and Steles Seth.
Victorinus, however, does not seem to be familiar with these specific texts.
Although he shares much of the same philosophical language and terminology
found in these texts, what is missing in Victorinus are the various Gnostic elements.
The one exception is his utilization of the word 'triple power'. Indeed, as Tardieu has
recently demonstrated, sections of Zostrianos are, in fact, a Coptic translation of the
same Greek source utilized by Victorinus in Adv. Ar. 1.49 and 50.84 In analysing this
material, Tardieu puts forward the following arguments: (i) that the gnostic work
Zostrianos mentioned by Porphyry in Plot. 16 is the same as the Zostrianos found
at Nag Hammadi; (ii) that the author of the common material in Zostrianos and
Marius Victorinus must, therefore, be pre-Plotinian; (iii) that this individual must
be 'a great figure in the history of Platonism'; (iv) that Numenius is the most likely
80 See Hadot,PV 1.419; cf. id., Marius Victorinus(Paris, 1971), 209-10. On Porphyry's
'commentaries'and 'summaries'of the Enneads,see Plot. 26. For a detailedanalysisof this
terminology, see M.-O. Goulet-Caze, 'L'arriere-planscolaire de la Vie de Plotin', in
L. Brissonet al. (n. 6), 1.305-27.
81 See A. Souter, A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 A.D. (Oxford, 1949), s. v.

82 Chapter 15, 256.5 Schmidt and MacDermot

83 See
Majercik (n. 5), 480; cf. C. O. Tommasi, 'Tripotens in unalitate spiritus: Mario

Vittorinoe la gnosi', Koinonia20 (1996), 53-75.

84 M. Tardieu, Recherches sur la formation de l'Apocalypse de Zostrien et les sources de

Marius Victorinus, and P. Hadot, 'Porphyre et Victorinus': questions et hypotheses, Res

OrientalesIX (Burs-Sur-Yvette,1996), esp. 112-13 and 123-5. For additionalparallelsand

see Abramowski(n. 5), 108-28, and Majercik(n. 5), passim.

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possibility.85 Hadot, in response to Tardieu, rejects this thesis in favour of a Christian

or Gnostic intermediary, arguing that the presence of the term pneuma or 'spirit' in
Adv. Ar. 1.50.4-5 (tripotens in unalitate spiritus) as descriptive of God makes it unlikely that Numenius was the author of these passages. Hadot notes that such a usage
would be 'nearly impossible for a Platonist'.86 Tardieu thinks that Numenius could
have appropriatedthis term from his knowledge of the Bible.87
The strongest argument against Numenius, however, is the philological evidence.
The terminology in Adv. Ar. 1.49 and 50 includes many of the same philosophical
terms utilized in Zostrianos, Allogenes, and Steles Seth to describe the first principle:
exsistentia (= 3rrap~s),praeintellegentia (= rpolvvota), praeexunalitas (= vbyr-S),
sistentia (=rrpoivlrap~ts),simplicitas
rpo6v (Victorinus preserves the
for Numenius.88
Rather, this is the vocabulary
Greek). None of these terms is attested(=ar,
of post-Plotininan Neoplatonism, initiated by Porphyry in his Commentary on the
Parmenides and Commentary on the Chaldean Oracles and appropriated by the
later Neoplatonists, Christian writers like Marius Victorinus, Synesius, and Ps.Dionysius, as well as the Gnostic authors/redactors of Zostrianos, Allogenes, and
Steles Seth.
It is from this common source, then, that Marius Victorinus most likely borrowed
the Gnostic term 'triple power'. Since this source also contains a good deal of
Porphyrian terminology, the author must have been part of a milieu in which
Gnostic and Neoplatonic interests were viewed with equal interest. Such a milieu
can be identified with the viri novi mentioned by Arnobius and would include the
authors/redactors of Zostrianos, Allogenes, and Steles Seth. As Arnobius indicates,
these 'modems' were also familiar with the Chaldean Oracles. The same is true of
Augustine and Marius Victorinus. Further, all these individuals were North
Africans - an area in which Porphyry's writings were widely known and circulated.
It is in North Africa as well that the Gnostic writings in the Nag Hammadi Library
were collected and buried in the Egyptian desert some time in the mid-fourth
century. Recent analysis has now demonstrated that other works in this collection
were also rewritten or redacted in the light of contemporary fourth-century issues
and debates.89 It is in this time and context, then - congenial to a mix of
Porphyrian and Gnostic elements - that the texts analysed in this paper were most
likely written.
University of California, Santa Barbara


85 Tardieu(n. 84), 110-13.

86 Ibid. 114; see also 117-25.

87 Ibid. 112-13.
88 See E. des Places,Numenius,Fragments(Paris,1973), 'IndexVerborum.'
89 See R. Mortley,'"Thenameof the Fatheris the Son"(Gospelof Truth38)', in R. T.Wallis
andJ. Bregman(edd.),Neoplatonismand Gnosticism(Albany,1992),239-52. Mortleyargues
that? 38 of the Gospelof Truth(NHCI, 3), whichdealswith the problemof 'naming',is a late
additionto the text influencedby Arianconcernsat the time of Aetius andEunomius,both of
whomwere influencedby the Neoplatonismof the day. Tardieuconcurswith Mortley'sargumentin an addendumto thepaper.Morerecently,F. E. Williamshas arguedthatthe finalredaction of TheConceptof OurGreatPower(NHCVI, 4) can be datedto a periodshortlyafterthe
deathof Julianthe Apostate(d. 363), who is crypticallyalludedto in the text as the 'archonof
the west'. See Mental Perception, A Commentary on NHC VI, 4: The Concept of Our Great

Power (Leiden, 2001), lxii. On the generalphenomenonof the 'rewriting'of many of the
Nag Hammaditexts, see L. Painchaud,'La classificationdes textesde Nag Hammadiet le phenomenedes re6critures',in L. PainchaudandA. Pasquier(edd.),Les Textesde Nag Hammadiet
le problkmede leur classification(Quebec,Louvain,andParis, 1995), 51-85.

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