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DESIGN BASIS
For Construction of Structures on South Boulevard
The following design basis is assumed for the preliminary analysis and design of the structures on
South Boulevard.
1. Material Strength
- Minimum concrete cylindrical compressive strength = fck =30MPa; Ecm=30GPa, c = 1.5;
cu=0.0035; assumed aggregate = limestone.
- Reinforcement Type = B500C (For both Longitudinal and Transverse directions)
s = 1.15,
2. Building Type
The building is a reinforced concrete structure, constructed top-down. The structure has reinforced
concrete frame system with added shear walls or cores, also termed as "Frame Equivalent Dual
system".
3. Gravity Loads
Based on the architectural usage, the minimum distributed design loading to be applied on the
structures is in accordance with Eurocode-1 "Actions on structures". However, for specific
mechanical or equipment loads, the loading data should be explicitly provided.
Type
Finishes
Partitions
Live (Shops)
Live (offices)
Live (Stairs)
Live (Car Parking)
Live (Heavy Trucks)
Equipment Live Load
Soil
Snow

Load (kN/m2)
2.0
1.5
5.0
3.0
6.0
3.0
5.0
10.0
Using s = 20 kN/m2
2.5

4. Effective section properties


The cracked section properties assumed for the section design and deflection control checks is as
follows:
Element
Effective EI
Beams
0.5
0.7 in compression (inner columns)
Columns
0.5 in tension (Edge columns)
0.5*EI & 0.5*GA
Walls
Rigid offsets with factor 0.5
Joints

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5. Wind Resistant Design


The wind loading on the structures is considered based on the design guidelines of Eurocode-1
"Action on structures; Part1-4: General actions - Wind actions". Basic wind speed is assumed
equal to 33 m/sec. However, actual value of wind speed will be required depending on the local
wind zonation maps of Macedonia.
6. Seismic Design
The seismic design parameters are assumed as follows in accordance with Eurocode-8 Part 1
based on the information provided in the "Elaborate: Geotechnical investigation on location
foreseen for construction of structures on south boulevard".
Foundation Soil: Silty Sand and Sandy Clay [geotechnical Report]
Ground type: C [Eurocode 8 Table 3.1 and NSPT from Geotech. Report]
* The Ground Category in accordance with Macedonian Regulation is II.
Horizontal PGA on Rock (PoE = 10% in 50 years) for Design basis Earthquake = 0.3g. [Ref:
Annex1]
Importance Class = II: I = 1.0
Building Ductility Class = DCM (ductility class medium)
Consequence class = CC3; Reliability Class = RC3
Behaviour Factor = 3.14
Mass Source:
All Dead load + Probable Live load + Snow load has to be included in the effective mass for
seismic forces calculation. The factor for combination is selected from EC-0 and is as follows;
Dead = 1.0; Live = 0.6 (0.5 recommended in Macedonian Regulation); Snow = 0.2
Maximum lateral deflection for building during seismic event = Total height/600 (in accordance
with Macedonian Code)
7. Soil Parameters for Foundation Design
The bearing capacity of the soil is assumed as 400 kN/m2 as per geotechnical investigation report.
The value of subgrade Modulus Kv, in order to define soil-structure interaction, is approximated
using equation 3.1 below, (Bowles, 1996).
Kv = 40[c Nc + z Nq + 0.5 B N ] --------------------------------- (3.1)
where,
c = Cohesive strength
Nc N Nq = Coefficients from Terzaghi
B = width of foundation
z = Depth of foundation bottom level
= Specific weight of the soil
However, the value of subgrade modulus "Kv" should be explicitly provided in the geotechnical
calculation report.

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8. Pile Capacity
The minimum allowable pile capacity along with its subsequent diameter should be specified. In
addition, horizontal sub-grade modulus "Kh" for lateral stability of piles and vertical subgrade
modulus "Kv" for raft foundation design should be explicitly provided.

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ANNEXURE -1