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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY

CHAPTER 7 (BDR)

MINERALIZED TISSUES: AN
INTRODUCTION TO THEE SKELETON

THE SKELETON
Composed of mineralized tissue,
ligaments, tendons and bursue
(space)
Mineralized tissue: MOSTLY
BONE but also madeup of dentin
(mostly bone), cartilage, enamel
or enameloid substance)
Bone ARISES FROM THE
OSTEOBLAST
Dentin: Harder than the bone
BUT softer than enamel. From
the mesodermal papilla
ARISES FROM THE
ODONTOBLAST
Cartilage: Fromed from the
osteocytes
ARISES FROM THE
CHRONDOBLAST
Enamel: Hard tissue, made up of
ganoin
ARISES FROM THE
AMELOBLAST
Before the formation of the
skeletal tissue: There is a
synthesis of collagen BY THE
FIBROBLASTS
Collagen: proteinaceous fiber
Formed by the aggregation of
fibrils

BONE
Matrix of collagenous fibers
Spaces are impregnated with:
HYDROXYAPATITE CRYSTALS
This is made up of: Calcium,
Phosphate and Hydroxyl ions
Crystals: OSTEOBLAST deposits

MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES
AND WATER bind the crystals to
the collagenous matrix
OSTEOCYTES occupy the
LACUNAE or the tiny-filled pools
of interstitial fluid
CANALICULI interconnecting
lacunae (extensions)
Function: houses the
protoplasmic processes
COMPACT BONE
Layers of lamellae or the
mineralized collagenous bundles
arranged around the
HAVERSIAL CANAL
Haversian canal: arteriole,
venules, lymph vessel and nerve
fibers
Canal + lamellae = HAVERSIAN
SYSTEM
Long bones (shaft): Haversian
systems are more or less parallel
to the long axis of the bone
PERIOSTEAL BONE: lamellae
from the OSTEOBLAST
(periosteum layer)
Most amphibians, few reptiles,
some insectivores and rodents
lack the haversian system
SPONGY BONE
Or Cancellous bone
Bony Trabeculae and Bone
Marrow
Trabeculae: forms a rigid
framework and for MAXIMUM
STRENGTH in areas of stress
NO haversian system +
irregularly arranged lamellae
MARROW: Cavity between two
trabeculae
- connective tissue
- HEMOPOETIC TISSUE:
produces the red blood cells

and SOME types of white


blood cells
Lined with the endosteum
Function: remodel and
deposit bone

DENTIN
Same constituents as Compact
and Spongy Bone
Odontoblasts are not trapped
during OSTEOGENESIS
Depost DENTIN
Leave processes called the
cananiculi (called the dentinal
tubules)
Outer layer of the DERMIS
(coated with enamel)
FOUND IN THE SCALES OF
BASAL-RAY FINNED AND
ELASMOBRANCH FISHES AND
TEETH

May be COMPACT OR SPONGY


LAMELLAR OR NONLAMELLAR
PERIOSTEAL BONE:
Membrane BONE
NO Haversian system
Many are dermal origin: FROM
THE DERMATOCRANIUM
(Lower jaw: Meckels cartilage)

ACELLULAR BONE
NO processes or canaliculi
Thin layer of ACELLULAR
BONE OR ASPIDIN
Made up of FIBROUS PLATES
OF FLEXIBLE SCALES (modern
fishes and teeth)

MEMBRANE BONE AND


REPLACEMENT BONE
BLASTEMA: aggregation of
mesenchyme differentiates to
tissue, muscle, cartilage or bone
Fibroblasts: secrete collagen
MEMBRANE BONE
Not preceded with cartilage after
it is deposited
Lower jaw, skull, pectoral
girdles (intramembranous
ossification)
Dentin: dermal layer of the skin
(vertebrates, urodeles,
apodans)

REPLACEMENT BONE
Deposited WHERE THE
HYALINE CARTILAGE EXISTS
Impregnation of collagenous
matrix and hydroxypatite
crystals
ENDOCHRONDAL
OSSIFICATION: CARTILAGE
must first be REMOVED before
bone is deposited (See in
neurocranium and the
splanchocranium)
EPIPHYSES AND DIAPHYSIS:
part of endochrondal
ossification centers
EPIPHYSEAL PLATE: Between
the ephiphyses and diaphysis
(place where there is growth and
elongation)
CHONDROGENESIS
CARTILAGINOUS FISHES have
no endochrondal ossification

CARTILAGE
Formed within a matrix of
COLLAGENOUS TISSUE
Cells are in the LACUNAE
Has mucopolyssacharides
NO Cananiculi
NO Blood vessels
CHONDROCYTES: supplied with
oxygen and nutrients from the
CAPILLIARIES

PERICHONDRIUM: bounding
membrane formed by
chondrification
HYALINE CARTILAGE:
precursor to replacement bone
FIBROCARTILAGE: Cartilage is
thick, dense collagenous bundles
in the interstitial matrix
ELASTIC CARTILAGE:
Elastic fibers (pinna of the ear,
outer walls of ear canal,
epiglottis)
CALCIFIED CARTILAGE:
Calcium salts are deposited
(shark jaws)

SKELETAL REMODELLING
Bones are for
Support
Storage for calcium and
mineral salts
Homeostasis
Bone resorption: response of
the PTH (parathyroid hormone in
lowering calcium levels)
Skeletal remodeling: Cartilage
and bone are being resorbed and
replaced in process
Cartilage and bone undergo
remodeling
MOST ACTIVE in growing
skeletons
Remodeling:
Response to stress
(mechanical stress)
TENDONS, LIGAMENTS AND
JOINTS
Packed bundles of collagen
TENDONS: Muscle to Bone
LIGAMENTS: Bone to Bone
Tendons and ligaments are flat
and wide called
APONEUROSES

SESAMOID CARTILAGES OR
BONES: mineralized nodules in
tendons or ligaments
JOINT OR ARTHROSIS: Two
bones or cartilages meet
JOINT IS DIATHROSIS (freely
movable)
AMPHIARTHROSIS: limited
movement
SYNARTHROSIS: sutured
joined (irregular jagged seam
at the junction of two bones)
Mammalian skull

MINERALIZED TISSUES
Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Matrix is COLLAGEN
Invertebrates: Calcium
carbonate
Bone, dentin and enamel is
restricted to VERTEBRATES
CARTILAGE can be found in
invertebrates

REGIONAL COMPONENTS OF
THE SKELETON
1. Axial Skeleton
Notochord and vertebral
column
Ribs and sternum
Skull and visceral skeleton
2. Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral and pelvic girdles
Skeleton of paired fins and
limbs
Skeleton of median fins of
fishes
HETEROTOPIC BONES
Develop by: Endochondral and
intramembranous ossiciation

OS CORDIS: Interventricular
septum of heart of deer and
bovines
OS PENIS: septum between
spongy bodies of penis of
dogs, basal primates, many
other mammals

OS CLITORIDIS: female
mammals
ALSO FORMS THE GIZZARD
(birds) which serves as the
stomach