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Mohr's Circle

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Transformation equations for plane stress.

Procedure for constructing Mohrs circle.

Stresses on an inclined element.

Principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.

Introduction to the stress tensor.

y

y1

y1

yx

y1x1

x1

x

x

x1

x1y1

xy

x1

xy

y1x1

x1y1

yx

y1

x

x1

2

x

x1 y1

x

y

sin 2

cos 2

xy

xy sin 2

cos 2

If we vary from 0 to 360, we will get all possible values of x1 and x1y1

for a given stress state. It would be useful to represent x1 and x1y1 as

functions of in graphical form.

2

x

x1

cos 2

x

x1 y1

xy sin 2

sin 2

xy cos 2

the two equations together.

2

x

x1

Define

2

x1 y1

2

avg

2

x

y

xy

and R

2

x

avg

xy

Substitue for

x1

avg

avg

and R to get

2

x1 y1

R2

avg,0)

and radius R.

Mohrs circle, after the German civil

engineer Otto Mohr (1835-1918). He

developed the graphical technique for

drawing the circle in 1882.

The construction of Mohrs circle is

one of the few graphical techniques

still used in engineering. It provides

a simple and clear picture of an

otherwise complicated analysis.

4

y

y1

y1

x1

y1x1

avg

2

x1 y1

x1

x1y1

x1

x1

avg

x

x1

R2

y1x1

x1y1

y1

x1y1

The reason for doing this is that 2 is then positive counterclockwise,

which agrees with the direction of 2 used in the derivation of the

tranformation equations and the direction of on the stress element.

Notice that although 2 appears in Mohrs circle,

stress element.

appears on the

5

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

right) and x1y1 as ordinate (positive downward).

Locate the centre of the circle c at the point having coordinates x1

avg and x1y1 0.

Locate point A, representing the stress conditions on the x face of

the element by plotting its coordinates x1

x and x1y1

xy. Note

that point A on the circle corresponds to = 0.

Locate point B, representing the stress conditions on the y face of

the element by plotting its coordinates x1

y and x1y1

xy.

Note that point B on the circle corresponds to = 90.

Draw a line from point A to point B, a diameter of the circle passing

through point c. Points A and B (representing stresses on planes

at 90 to each other) are at opposite ends of the diameter (and

therefore 180 apart on the circle).

Using point c as the centre, draw Mohrs circle through points A

and B. This circle has radius R.

(based on Gere)

6

y

yx

xy

y

y

x

x

B ( =90)

xy

xy

yx

x1

c

R

xy

A ( =0)

avg

x

x1y1

1.

radius cA, because point A corresponds to = 0 and hence is

the reference point from which angles are measured.

2.

coordinates x1 and x1y1. Point D represents the stresses on the

x1 face of the inclined element.

3.

located at an angle 2 + 180 from cA (and 180 from cD). Thus

point E gives the stress on the y1 face of the inclined element.

4.

the point on Mohrs circle corresponding to the x1 face moves

counterclockwise through an angle 2 .

(based on Gere)

y

yx

y1

xy

x

x

B ( =90)

xy

2 +180

E ( +90)

yx

x1y1

x1

x1y1

D( )

R

y1

y1x1

y1

A ( =0)

x1

x1y1

x1

x1

x1

y1x1

x1y1

y1

x1y1

Principal Stresses

y

yx

xy

y

x

x

B ( =90)

2

p2

xy

yx

x1

p1

2

A ( =0)

P2

1

p2

P1

x1y1

10

y

yx

xy

B ( =90)

x

x

xy

min

yx

x1

c

R

max

directions of the

y

shear forces.

A ( =0)

max

max

max

s

s

max

x1y1

11

element below. Draw the Mohrs circle, determine the principal stresses and

the maximum shear stresses, and draw the corresponding stress elements.

c

80 50

2

x

avg

50

15

65 2 25 2

25

15

54.6 MPa

84.6 MPa

A ( =0)

2

c

B

15 69.6

1, 2

1

69.6

c R

1, 2

50 MPa

B ( =90)

y

80 MPa

80 MPa

A

25 MPa

max

max

s

69.6 MPa

15 MPa

50 MPa

12

50 MPa

25

80 15

21.0

y

80 MPa

80 MPa

25 MPa

tan 2 2

0.3846

2 2

2 1 21.0 180

201

100.5

10.5

50 MPa

A ( =0)

2

54.6 MPa

2

o

100.5

84.6 MPa

B ( =90)

84.6 MPa

10.5o

54.6 MPa

13

50 MPa

2 2 21.0

2 s min

(90 21.0)

y

80 MPa

s min

80 MPa

min

25 MPa

69.0

34.5

account

50 MPa

A ( =0)

15 MPa

15 MPa

smin

B ( =90)

smax

55.5

-34.5o

x

15 MPa

15 MPa

69.6 MPa

max

2 2 21.0

2 s max 21.0 90

s max

111.0

55.5

14

element below. Find the stresses on an element inclined at 30 clockwise

and draw the corresponding stress elements.

50 MPa

= c R cos(2 2+60)

y1 = c + R cos(2 2+60)

x1y1= -R sin (2 2+60)

x1 = -26

y1 = -4

x1y1= -69

x1

C ( = -30)

y

80 MPa

80 MPa

-60

A ( =0)

25 MPa

50 MPa

y1

4.15 MPa

25.8 MPa

B ( =90)

D

-60+180

x

-30

25.8 MPa

4.15 MPa

D ( = -30+90)

x1

= -30

2 = -60

68.8 MPa

15

Principal Stresses

1=

54.6 MPa,

2=

-84.6 MPa

Since the element is in plane stress (

the third principal stress is zero.

54.6 MPa

2 = 0 MPa

3 = -84.6 MPa

= 0),

1=

Mohrs circles can

be drawn, each

based on two

principal stresses:

1 and

1 and

2 and

A ( =0)

B ( =90)

16

3

3

1

3

1

3

17

What is the maximum shear stress?

y

yx

xy

x

x

xy

yx

x1

max(1,2)

A

max( 2,3)

overall maximum

x1y1

max(1,3)

2

2

2

1

2

3

2

18

y

yy

yx

yz

xy

zy

xx

xx

zx

xz

zz

xx

xy

xz

yx

yy

yz

zx

zy

zz

Shear stresses off diagaonal

xy = yx, xz = zx, yz = zy

z

yy

assembled into a 3x3 matrix known as the stress tensor.

19

From our analyses so far, we know that for a given stress system,

it is possible to find a set of three principal stresses. We also know

that if the principal stresses are acting, the shear stresses must be

zero. In terms of the stress tensor,

xx

xy

xz

yx

yy

yz

zx

zy

zz

0

0

0

0

In mathematical terms, this is the process of matrix diagonalization in which the eigenvalues of the original matrix are just the

principal stresses.

20

stress element below. Find the principal stresses.

50 MPa

y

80 MPa

80 MPa

xy

yx

80

25

25

50

this matrix.

25 MPa

50 MPa

for values of such that:

Ar = r where r is a vector, and A is a matrix.

Ar r = 0 or (A I) r = 0 where I is the identity matrix.

For this equation to be true, either r = 0 or det (A I) = 0.

Solving the latter equation (the characteristic equation)

gives us the eigenvalues 1 and 2.

21

det

80

25

( 80

2

25

50

)(50

30

) ( 25)( 25) 0

4625 0

84.6, 54.6

54.6 MPa, as before.

used to find the angles at which the principal stresses act. To find the

eigenvectors, we substitute the eigenvalues into the equation (A I ) r

= 0 one at a time and solve for r.

80

25

25

50

x

y

80 54.6

25

25

50 54.6

0

0

x

y

0

0

134.6

25

25

4.64

0.186 y

0.186

is one eigenvector.

1

22

80

25

25

x

y

50

80 ( 84.6)

25

4.6

25

25 134.6

0

0

25

50 ( 84.6)

x

y

0

0

x 5.388 y

5.388

is the other eigenvector.

1

Before finding the angles at which the principal stresses act, we can

check to see if the eigenvectors are correct.

54.6

0

D

D

0

84.6

0.186 5.388

1

1

80

25

25

50

C 1M C

1

AT

where A matrix of co - factors

det C

0.179 0.967

0.179 0.033

C 1

C 1

23

0.179 0.967

0.179 0.033

80

25

25

50

0.186 5.388

1

1

54.6

0

0

84.6

0.186

1

0.183

5.388

0.938

0.183

0.983

And then assemble them into a rotation matrix R so that det R = +1.

0.983

0.183

0.183

0.983

det R

R

So

cos

sin

sin

cos

RT M R

24

original stress state of the element) can be transformed to matrix

D (representing the principal stress state).

RT M R

0.983

0.183

80

0.183 0.983

25

25

50

0.983

0.183

0.183

0.983

84.6

0

0

54.6

y

54.6 MPa

o

100.5

84.6 MPa

84.6 MPa

10.5o

Mohrs circle, and eigenvectors all

give the same result for the principal

stress element.

54.6 MPa

25

Finally, we can use the rotation matrix approach to find the stresses

on an inclined element with = -30.

R

M

M

cos( 30 )

sin( 30 )

sin( 30 )

cos( 30 )

0.866

0.5

0.5

0.866

RT M R

0.866

0.5

0.5 0.866

80

25

25

50

0.866 0.5

0.5 0.866

y1

25.8

68.8

x1

xy

68.8

4.15

yx

y1

25.8 MPa

Mohrs circle, and the stress tensor

approach all give the same result.

4.15 MPa

-30

x

25.8 MPa

x1

4.15 MPa

68.8 MPa

26

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