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A Treatise On The Chief Good And Evil.

Introduction.
The following treatise was composed by Cicero a little before the publication of
his Tusculan Disputations. It consists of a series of Dialogues, in which the o
pinions of the different schools of Greek philosophy, especially the Epicureans,
Stoics, and Peripatetics, on the Supreme Good, as the proper object or end (fin
is) of our thoughts and actions, are investigated and compared. It is usually re
ckoned one of the most highly finished and valuable of his philosophical works;
though from the abstruse nature of some of the topics dwelt upon, and the subtle
ty of some of the arguments adduced, it is unquestionably the most difficult.
He gives an account himself of the work and of his design and plan in the follow
ing terms. (Epist. ad Att. xiii. 19.) What I have lately written is in the manner
of Aristotle, where the conversation is so managed that he himself has the prin
cipal part. I have finished the five books De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, so as
to give the Epicurean doctrine [pg 094] to Lucius Torquatus, the Stoic to Marcus
Cato, and the Peripatetic to Marcus Cato. For I considered that their being dea
d would preclude all jealousy. He does not, however, maintain the unity of scene
or character throughout the five books. In the first book he relates a discussio
n which is represented as having taken place in his villa near Cum, in the presen
ce of Caius Valerius Triarius, between himself and Lucius Manlius Torquatus, who
is spoken of as being just about to enter his office as prtor, a circumstance wh
ich fixes the date of this imaginary discussion to b.c. 50, a time agreeing with
the allusion (B. ii. 18,) to the great power of Pompey. In the first book he at
tacks the doctrines of the Epicurean school, and Torquatus defends them, allegin
g that they had been generally misunderstood; and in the second book Cicero enum
erates the chief arguments with which the Stoics assailed them.
In the third book the scene is laid in the library of Lucullus, where Cicero had
accidentally met Cato; and from conversing on the books by which they were surr
ounded they proceeded to discuss the difference between the ethics of the Stoics
, and those of the Old Academy and the Peripatetics; Cicero insisting that the d
isagreement was merely verbal and not real, and that Zeno was wrong in leaving P
lato and Aristotle and establishing a new school; but Cato asserts, on the other
hand, that the difference is a real one, and that the views held by the Stoics
of the Supreme Good are of a much loftier and purer character than those which h
ad been previously entertained. In the fourth book Cicero gives us the arguments
with which the philosophers of the New Academy assailed the Stoics. And this co
nversation is supposed to have been held two years before that in the first book
: for at the beginning of Book IV. there is a reference to the law for limiting
the length of the speeches of counsel passed in the second consulship of Pompey,
b.c. 55, as being only just passed.
In the fifth book we are carried back to b.c. 79, and the scene is laid at Athen
s, where Cicero was at that time under Antiochus and Demetrius. He and his broth
er Quintus, Lucius Cicero his cousin, Pomponius Atticus, and Marcus Pupius Piso
are represented as meeting in the Academia; and Piso, at the request of his comp
anions, lays open the [pg 095] precepts inculcated by Aristotle and his school o
n the subject of the Summum Bonum; after which Cicero states the objections of t
he Stoics to the Peripatetic system, and Piso replies. While giving the opinions
of these above-named sects with great fairness and impartiality Cicero abstains
throughout from pronouncing any judgment of his own.
First Book Of The Treatise On The Chief Good And Evil.
I. I was not ignorant, Brutus, when I was endeavouring to add to Latin literatur
e the same things which philosophers of the most sublime genius and the most pro
found and accurate learning had previously handled in the Greek language, that m

y labours would be found fault with on various grounds. For some, and those too,
far from unlearned men, are disinclined to philosophy altogether; some, on the
other hand, do not blame a moderate degree of attention being given to it, but d
o not approve of so much study and labour being devoted to it. There will be oth
ers again, learned in Greek literature and despising Latin compositions, who wil
l say that they would rather spend their time in reading Greek; and, lastly, I s
uspect that there will be some people who will insist upon it that I ought to ap
ply myself to other studies, and will urge that, although this style of writing
may be an elegant accomplishment, it is still beneath my character and dignity.
And to all these objections I think I ought to make a brief reply; although, ind
eed, I have already given a sufficient answer to the enemies of philosophy in th
at book in which philosophy is defended and extolled by me after having been att
acked and disparaged by Hortensius.13 And as both you and others whom I consider
ed competent judges approved highly of that book, I have undertaken a larger wor
k, fearing to appear able only to excite the desires of men, but incapable of re
taining their attention. But those who, though they have a very good opinion of
philosophy, still think it should be followed in a moderate degree only, require
a temperance which is very difficult in a thing which, when once it has the rei
ns given it, cannot be checked or repressed; so that I almost think those men mo
re reasonable who altogether forbid us to apply ourselves to philosophy at all,
than they who fix a limit to things which are in their [pg 096] nature boundless
, and who require mediocrity in a thing which is excellent exactly in proportion
to its intensity.
For, if it be possible that men should arrive at wisdom, then it must not only b
e acquired by us, but even enjoyed. Or if this be difficult, still there is no l
imit to the way in which one is to seek for truth except one has found it; and i
t is base to be wearied in seeking a thing, when what we do seek for is the most
honourable thing possible. In truth, if we are amused when we are writing, who
is so envious as to wish to deny us that pleasure? If it is a labour to us, who
will fix a limit to another person's industry? For as the Chremes14 of Terence d
oes not speak from a disregard of what is due to men when he does not wish his n
ew neighbour
To dig, or plough, or any toil endure:
for he is not in this dissuading him from industry, but only from such labour as
is beneath a gentleman; so, on the other hand those men are over scrupulous who
are offended by my devoting myself to a labour which is far from irksome to mys
elf.
II. It is more difficult to satisfy those men who allege that they despise Latin
writings. But, first of all, I may express my wonder at their not being pleased
with their native language in matters of the highest importance, when they are
fond enough of reading fables in Latin, translated word for word from the Greek.
For what man is such an enemy (as I may almost call it) to the Roman name, as t
o despise or reject the Medea of Ennius, or the Antiope of Pacuvius? and to expr
ess a dislike of Latin literature, while at the same time he speaks of being ple
ased with the plays of Euripides? What, says such an one, shall I rather read the S
ynephebi of Ccilius,15 or the Andria of Terence, than either of these plays in th
e original of Menander? But I disagree with men of these opinions so entirely, th
at though [pg 097] Sophocles has composed an Electra in the most admirable manne
r possible, still I think the indifferent translation of it by Atilius16 worth r
eading too, though Licinius calls him an iron writer; with much truth in my opin
ion; still he is a writer whom it is worth while to read. For to be wholly unacq
uainted with our own poets is a proof either of the laziest indolence, or else o
f a very superfluous fastidiousness.
My own opinion is, that no one is sufficiently learned who is not well versed in
the works written in our own language. Shall we not be as willing to read

Would that the pine, the pride of Pelion's brow,


as the same idea when expressed in Greek? And is there any objection to having t
he discussions which have been set out by Plato, on the subject of living well a
nd happily, arrayed in a Latin dress? And if we do not limit ourselves to the of
fice of translators, but maintain those arguments which have been advanced by pe
ople with whom we argue, and add to them the exposition of our own sentiments, a
nd clothe the whole in our own language, why then should people prefer the writi
ngs of the Greeks to those things which are written by us in an elegant style, w
ithout being translated from the works of Greek philosophers? For if they say th
at these matters have been discussed by those foreign writers, then there surely
is no necessity for their reading such a number of those Greeks as they do. For
what article of Stoic doctrine has been passed over by Chrysippus? And yet we r
ead also Diogenes,17 Antipater,18 Mnesarchus,19 Pantius,20 and many others, and [
pg 098] especially the works of my own personal friend Posidonius.21 What shall
we say of Theophrastus? Is it but a moderate pleasure which he imparts to us whi
le he is handling the topics which had been previously dilated on by Aristotle?
What shall we say of the Epicureans? Do they pass over the subjects on which Epi
curus himself and other ancient writers have previously written, and forbear to
deliver their sentiments respecting them? But if Greek authors are read by the G
reeks, though discussing the same subjects over and over again, because they dea
l with them in different manners, why should not the writings of Roman authors b
e also read by our own countrymen?
III. Although if I were to translate Plato or Aristotle in as bold a manner as o
ur poets have translated the Greek plays, then, I suppose, I should not deserve
well at the hands of my fellow-countrymen, for having brought those divine geniu
ses within their reach. However, that is not what I have hitherto done, though I
do not consider myself interdicted from doing so. Some particular passages, if
I think it desirable, I shall translate, especially from those authors whom I ha
ve just named, when there is an opportunity of doing so with propriety; just as
Ennius often translates passages from Homer, and Afranius22 from Menander. Nor w
ill I, like Lucilius, make any objection to everybody reading my writings. I sho
uld be glad to have that Persius23 for one of my readers; and still more to have
Scipio and Rutilius; [pg 099] men whose criticism he professed to fear, saying
that he wrote for the people of Tarentum, and Consentia, and Sicily. That was al
l very witty of him, and in his usual style; but still, people at that time were
not so learned as to give him cause to labour much before he could encounter th
eir judgment, and his writings are of a lightish character, showing indeed, a hi
gh degree of good breeding, but only a moderate quantity of learning. But whom c
an I fear to have read my works when I ventured to address a book to you, who ar
e not inferior to the Greeks themselves in philosophical knowledge? Although I h
ave this excuse for what I am doing, that I have been challenged by you, in that
to me most acceptable book which you sent me On Virtue.
But I imagine that some people have become accustomed to feel a repugnance to La
tin writing because they have fallen in with some unpolished and inelegant treat
ises translated from bad Greek into worse Latin. And with those men I agree, pro
vided they will not think it worth while to read the Greek books written on the
same subject. But who would object to read works on important subjects expressed
in well-selected diction, with dignity and elegance; unless, indeed, he wishes
to be taken absolutely for a Greek, as Albucius was saluted at Athens by Scvola,
when he was prtor? And this topic has been handled by that same Lucilius with gre
at elegance and abundant wit; where he represents Scvola as saying
You have preferr'd, Albucius, to be call'd
A Greek much rather than a Roman citizen
Or Sabine, countryman of Pontius,
Tritannius, and the brave centurions
And standard-bearers of immortal fame.
So now at Athens, I, the prtor, thus

Salute you as you wish, whene'er I see you,


With Greek address, nobl Titus,
Y litos, nd tt ndnts .
nobl Titus. Fom this dy
Th g t Albuius ws my n my.
But su ly Svol ws ight. How v , I n n v  suffii ntly xp ss my wond 
wh n this ognt disdin of v ything ntionl os mong us. This is not
xtly th pl fo l tuing on th subj t; but my own f lings  , nd I h
v onstntly ug d th m, tht th Ltin lngug is not only not d fii nt, so
s to d s v to b g n lly [pg 100] dispg d; but tht it is v n mo op
ious thn th G k. Fo wh n hv ith  w ous lv s, o wh n hs ny good o
to o nobl po t, t l st ft  th  ws ny on fo him to imitt , found hi
ms lf t  loss fo ny ihn ss o onm nt of dition with whih to s t off hi
s s ntim nts?
IV. And I mys lf (s I do not think tht I n b us d of hving, in my fo n
si x tions, nd lbous, nd dng s, d s t d th post in whih I ws sttio
n d by th Romn p opl ,) m bound, fosooth, to x t mys lf s muh s I n t
o  nd  my f llow-ountym n mo l n d by my lbous nd studi s nd dilig n
 , nd not so muh to ont nd with thos m n who p f   ding G k woks, p
ovid d tht th y  lly do  d th m, nd do not only p t nd to do so; nd to f
ll in lso with th wish s of thos m n who  d sious ith  to vil th ms
lv s of both lngug s, o who, s long s th y hv good woks in th i own, do
not  v y muh bout simil on s in  fo ign tongu . But thos m n who wo
uld th  tht I would wit on oth  topis should b  sonbl , b us I h
v l dy ompos d so mny woks tht no on of my ountym n hs v  publish
d mo , nd p hps I shll wit v n mo if my lif is polong d so s to ll
ow m to do so. And y t, who v  ustoms hims lf to  d with  th s thing
s whih I m now witing on th subj t of philosophy, will om to th onlusi
on tht no woks  b tt  woth  ding thn th s . Fo wht is th  in lif
whih d s v s to b inv stigt d so dilig ntly s v y subj t whih b longs t
o philosophy, nd sp illy tht whih is disuss d in this t tis , nm ly, w
ht is th nd, th obj t, th stndd to whih ll th id s of living w ll 
nd ting ightly  to b  f  d? Wht it is tht ntu follows s th hi
f of ll d sibl things? wht sh voids s th pinipl of ll vils?
And s on this subj t th  is g t diff  n of opinion mong th most l n
d m n, who n think it inonsist nt with tht dignity whih v y on llows t
o b long to m , to xmin wht is in v y sitution in lif th b st nd tu s
t good? Shll th hi f m n of th ity, Publius Svol nd Mus Mnilius gu
wh th  th offsping of  f ml slv ought to b onsid  d th gin of th
mst  of th slv ; nd shll Mus Butus xp ss his diss nt fom th i opin
ion, (nd this is  kind of disussion giving g t oom [pg 101] fo th displ
y of ut n ss, nd on too tht is of impotn s  gds th itiz ns,) nd
do w  d, nd shll w ontinu to  d, with pl su th i witings on this
subj t, nd th oth s of th sm sot, nd t th sm tim n gl t th s sub
j ts, whih mb th whol of humn lif ? Th  my, p hps, b mo mon y
ff t d by disussions on tht l gl point, but b yond ll qu stion, this of ou
s is th mo impotnt subj t: tht, how v , is  point whih th  d s m
y b l ft to d id upon. But w now think tht this whol qu stion bout th n
ds of good nd vil is, I my lmost sy, thooughly xplin d in this t tis ,
in whih w hv
nd vou d to s t foth s f s w ould, not only wht ou
own opinion ws, but lso v ything whih hs b n dvn d by h s pt s
hool of philosophy.
V. To b gin, how v , with tht whih is
dotin of Epiuus, whih is w ll known
it is lid down by us in suh  wy tht
v n by th dh  nts of tht s t th ms
ing th tuth; not of onviting som dv

si st, w
to most p
it nnot
lv s. Fo
sy.

will fist of ll tk th


opl ; nd you shll s tht
b xplin d mo ut ly
w  d sious of s tin

But th opinion of Epiuus bout pl su ws fom ly d f nd d with g t p 


ision by Luius Toqutus,  mn omplish d in v y kind of l ning; nd I m
ys lf  pli d to him, whil Cius Tiius,  most l n d nd wothy young mn,
ws p s nt t th disussion. Fo s it hpp n d tht both of th m hd om to
my vill n  Cum to py m  visit, fist of ll w onv s d  littl bout li
t tu , to whih th y w  both of th m g tly d vot d; nd ft   whil To
qutus sidSin w hv found you in som d g
t l isu , I should lik muh
to h  fom you why it is tht you, I will not sy ht ou mst  Epiuuss mo
st m n do who diff  fom him in opinionbut still why you disg
with him whom
I onsid  s th only mn who hs dis n d th  l tuth, nd who I think hs
d liv  d th minds of m n fom th g t st os, nd hs hnd d down v y
p  pt whih n hv ny influ n on mking m n liv w ll nd hppily. But I
imgin tht you, lik my fi nd Tiius h  , lik him th l ss b us h n g
l t d th onm nts of dition in whih Plto, nd Aistotl , nd Th ophstus
indulg d. Fo I n hdly b p sud d to [pg 102] b li v tht th opinions wh
ih h nt tin d do not pp  to you to b o t. S
now, sid I, how f
you  mistk n, Toqutus. I m not off nd d with th lngug of tht philoso
ph ; fo h xp ss s his m ning op nly nd sp ks in plin lngug , so tht
I n und stnd him. Not, how v , tht I should obj t to loqu n in  philo
soph , if h w  to think fit to mploy it; though if h w  not poss ss d of
it I should not  qui it. But I m not so w ll stisfi d with his mtt , nd
tht too on mny topis. But th   s mny diff  nt opinions s th  
m n; nd th  fo w my b in o ous lv s. Wht is it, sid h , in whih y
ou  disstisfi d with him? Fo I onsid  you  ndid judg ; povid d only t
ht you  ut ly quint d with wht h hs  lly sid. Unl ss, sid I,
you think tht Phdus o Z no hv spok n fls ly (nd I hv h d th m both l 
tu , though th y gv m  high opinion of nothing but th i own dilig n ,) l
l th dotin s of Epiuus  quit suffii ntly known to m . And I hv  p 
t dly, in ompny with my fi nd Attius, tt nd d th l tu s of thos m n who
m I hv nm d; s h hd  g t dmition fo both of th m, nd n sp il 
ff tion v n fo Phdus. And v y dy w us d to tlk ov  wht w h d, no w
v  ny disput b tw n us s to wh th  I und stood th sop of th
s th 
i gum nts; but only wh th  I ppov d of th m.
VI. Wht is it, th n, sid h , whih you do not ppov of in th m, fo I m v 
y nxious to h ? In th fist pl , sid I, h is utt ly wong in ntul ph
ilosophy, whih is his pinipl bost. H only mk s som dditions to th dot
in of D moitus, lt ing v y littl , nd tht in suh  wy tht h s ms t
o m to mk thos points wos whih h nd vous to o t. H b li v s tht
toms, s h lls th m, tht is to sy bodi s whih by  son of th i solidit
y  indivisibl ,  bon bout in n int minbl vuum, d stitut of ny h
igh st, o low st, o middl , o futh st, o n  st boundy, in suh  mnn 
tht by th i onous th y oh  tog th ; by whih oh sion v ything whi
h xists nd whih is s n is fom d. And h thinks tht motion of toms should
b und stood n v  to hv hd  b ginning, but to hv subsist d fom ll t 
nity.
But in thos mtt s in whih Epiuus follows D moitus, h is usully not v 
y wong. Although th   mny [pg 103] ss tions of h with whih I disg
, nd sp illy with thistht s in th ntu of things th   two points
whih must b inqui d into,on , wht th mt il out of whih v ything is md
, is; th oth , wht th pow  is whih mk s v ything,th y disuss d only th
mt il, nd omitt d ll onsid tion of th ffii nt pow  nd us . How
v , tht is  fult ommon to both of th m; but th s blund s whih I m going
to m ntion  Epiuus's own.
Fo h thinks tht thos indivisibl nd solid bodi s  bon downwds by th
i own w ight in  stight lin ; nd tht this is th ntul motion of ll bod
i s. Aft  this ss tion, tht sh wd mn,s it ou d to him, tht if v yth

ing w  bon downwds in  stight lin , s I hv just sid, it would b qu


it impossibl fo on tom v  to touh noth ,on this ount h intodu d 
noth  pu ly imginy id , nd sid tht th toms div g d  littl fom th
stight lin , whih is th most impossibl thing in th wold. And h ss t d
tht it is in this wy tht ll thos
mb s, nd onjuntions, nd unions of
th toms with on noth  took pl , by whih th wold ws md , nd ll th
pts of th wold, nd ll tht is in th wold. And not only is ll this id 
p f tly hildish, but it fils in ff ting its obj t. Fo this v y div g
n is inv nt d in  most piious mnn , (fo h sys tht h tom div g
s without ny us ,) though nothing n b mo dis ditbl to  ntul phil
osoph  thn to sy tht nything tk s pl without  us ; nd lso, without
ny  son, h d piv s toms of tht motion whih is ntul to v y body of
ny w ight (s h hims lf lys it down) whih go s downwds fom th upp   gi
ons; nd t th sm tim h do s not obtin th
nd fo th sk of whih h in
v nt d ll th s th oi s.
Fo if v y tom div g s qully, still non will v  m t with on noth  s
o s to oh  ; but if som div g , nd oth s  bon stight down by th i
ntul inlintion, in th fist pl this will b distibuting povin s s
it w  mong th toms, nd dividing th m so tht som  bon down stight,
nd oth s obliqu ly; nd in th n xt pl , this tubul nt onous of toms,
whih is  blund  of D moitus lso, will n v  b bl to podu this b ut
ifully onm nt d wold whih w s
ound us. Ev n this, [pg 104] too, is ino
nsist nt with th pinipl s of ntul philosophy, to b li v tht th  is su
h  thing s  minimum;  thing whih h ind d n v  would hv fni d, if h
hd b n willing to l n g om ty fom his fi nd Polynus,24 inst d of s king
to p sud him to giv it up hims lf.

Th sun pp s to D moitus to b of vst siz , s h is  mn of l ning nd


of  pofound knowl dg of g om ty. Epiuus p hps thinks tht it is two f
t oss, fo h thinks it of just tht siz whih it pp s to b , o p hps
 littl lg  o smll . So wht h hng s h spoils; wht h  pts om s
nti ly fom D moitus,th toms, th vuum, th pp n s, whih th y ll , o
h inros of hih i is oing no ony h  s , bu so h  hink; n
  h infini n ss, hih h y  , is boow d fom D moitus; nd lso th i
num bl wolds whih  podu d nd p ish v y dy. And lthough I nnot
possibly g
mys lf with ll thos fni s, still I should not lik to s D m
oitus, who is pis d by v y on ls , blm d by this mn who hs follow d h
im lon .
VII. And s fo th s ond pt of philosophy, whih b longs to inv stigting n
d disussing, nd whih is ll d , thee yu maste as t seems t me s why una
med and defenceess. He ab shes def n t ns; he ays dwn n ues f d v s 
n and pat t n; he
ves n methd f daw n
cncus ns  estab sh n
p n
c pes; he des nt p nt ut hw capt us bject ns may be efuted,  amb
u
us tems expa ned. He paces a u jud
ments f th n
s n u senses; and f
they ae nce ed t appve f anyth n
fase as f t wee tue, then he th n
s that thee s an end t a u pwe f d st n
u sh n
between tuth and fas
ehd.
But n the th d pat, wh ch eates t  fe and mannes, w th espect t estab
sh n
the end f u act ns, he uttes nt ne s n
e
eneus  nbe sent m
ent. He ays dwn abve a thes the p nc pe, that natue has but tw th n
s
as bjects f adpt n and aves n, namey, peasue and pa n: [p
105] and he
efes a u pusu ts, and a u des es t av d anyth n
, t ne f these
tw heads. And athu
h th s s the dct ne f A st ppus, and s ma nta ned
n a bette manne and w th me feedm by the Cyena cs, st  I th n t a p
nc pe f such a nd that nth n
can appea me unwthy f a man. F, n my
p n n, natue has pduced and fmed us f
eate and h
he pupses. It
s pss be, ndeed, that I may be m sta en; but my p n n s dec ded that that

Tquatus, wh f st acqu ed that name, d d nt tea the cha n fm ff h s en
emy f the pupse f pcu n
any cpea peasue t h msef; and that he
d d nt, n h s th d cnsush p, f
ht w th the Lat ns at the ft f Munt Ves
uv us f the sa e f any pesna peasue. And when he caused h s sn t be ex
ecuted, he appeas t have even dep ved h msef f many peasues, by thus pef
e n
the ca ms f h s d
n ty and cmmand t natue hesef and the d ctates
f fathey affect n. What need I say me? Ta e T tus Tquatus, h m I mean wh
 was cnsu w th Cnus Octav us; when he behaved w th such seve ty twads that
sn whm he had awed Dec mus S anus t adpt as h s wn, as t cmmand h m,
when the ambassads f the Macedn ans accused h m f hav n
ta en b bes n h
s pv nce wh e he was pt, t pead h s cause befe h s t buna: and, when
he had head the cause n bth s des, t pnunce that he had nt n h s cmman
d behaved afte the fash n f h s fefathes, and t fb d h m eve t appea
n h s s
ht a
a n; des he seem t yu t have
ven a thu
ht t h s wn pea
sue?
Hweve, t say nth n
f the dan
es, and abus, and even f the pa n wh ch
evey v tuus man w  n
y encuntes n behaf f h s cunty,  f h s fam
y, t such a de
ee that he nt ny des nt see f, but even d se
ads a
peasues, and pefes even t endue any pa n whateve athe than t fsa e
any pat f h s duty; et us cme t thse th n
s wh ch shw th s equay, but w
h ch appea f ess mptance. What peasue d yu, O Tquatus, what peasue
des th s T a us de ve fm  teatue, and h sty, and the nwed
e f ev
ents, and the ead n
f pets, and h s wndefu ecect n f such numbes 
f veses? And d nt say t me, Why a these th n
s ae a peasue t me. S, t
, wee thse nbe act ns t the Tquat . [p
106] Ep cuus neve assets th
s n th s manne; n wud yu, O T a us, n any man wh had any w sdm, 
wh had eve mb bed thse p nc pes. And as t the quest n wh ch s ften as
ed, why thee ae s many Ep cueansthee ae sevea easns; but th s s the 
ne wh ch s mst seduct ve t the mut tude, namey, that pepe ma
ne that wh
at he assets s that thse th n
s wh ch ae 
ht and hnuabe d f themsev
es pduce jy, that s, peasue. Thse exceent men d nt pece ve that the
whe system s vetuned f that s the case. F f t wee nce
anted, eve
n athu
h thee wee n efeence whateve t the bdy, that these th n
s wee
natuay and nt ns cay peasant; then v tue and nwed
e wud be nt ns
cay des abe. And th s s the ast th n
wh ch he wud chse t adm t.
These p nc pes, then, f Ep cuus, I say, I d nt appve f. As f the ma
ttes, I w sh e the that he h msef had been a
eate maste f ean n
, (f
he s, as yu yusef cannt hep see n
, nt suff c enty accmp shed n th
se banches f nwed
e wh ch men pssess wh ae accunted eaned,)  at a
events that he had nt deteed thes fm the study f  teatue: athu
h I
see that yu yusef have nt been at a deteed fm such pusu ts by h m.
VIII. And when I had sa d th s, me f the pupse f exc t n
h m than f spe
a n
mysef, T a us, sm  n

enty, sa d,Yu, ndeed, have amst ent ey ex
peed Ep cuus fm the numbe f ph sphes. F what have yu eft h m exce
pt the asset n that, whateve h s an
ua
e m
ht he, yu undestd what he me
ant? He has n natua ph sphy sa d nth n
but what s bwed fm thes,
and even then nth n
wh ch yu appved f. If he has t ed t amend anyth n

he has made t wse. He had n s  whateve n d sput n


. When he a d dwn t
he ue that peasue was the ch ef
d, n the f st pace he was vey sht-s

hted n ma n
such an asset n; and secndy, even th s vey dct ne was a
bwed ne; f A st ppus had sa d the same th n
befe, and bette t. Yu
added, at ast, that he was as dest tute f ean n
.
It s qu te mpss be, O T a us, I ep ed, f a pesn nt t state what he
d sappves f n the they f a man w th whm he d sa
ees. F what cud h
nde me fm be n
an Ep cuean f I appved f what Ep cuus says? espec ay
[p
107] when t wud be an amusement t ean h s dct nes. Wheefe, a man

s nt t be bamed f epv n


thse wh d ffe fm ne anthe; but ev  sp
ea n
, cntumey, -tempe, cntent n, and pet nac us v ence n d sput n

,
eneay appea t me qu te unwthy f ph sphy.
I qu te a
ee w th yu, sa d Tquatus; f ne cannt d spute at a w thut f
nd n
faut w th yu anta
n st; but n the the hand yu cannt d spute ppe
y f yu d s w th -tempe  w th pet nac ty. But, f yu have n bject
n, I have an answe t ma e t these asset ns f yus. D yu suppse, sa d
I, that I shud have sa d what I have sa d f I d d nt des e t hea what y
u had t say t? Wud yu  e then, says he, that I shud
 thu
h the wh
e they f Ep cuus,  that we shud  m t u pesent nqu y t peasue b
y tsef; wh ch s what the whe f the pesent d spute eates t? We w  d,
sa d I, wh cheve yu pease. That then, sa d he, sha be my pesent cuse. I
w  expa n ne matte ny, be n
the mst mptant ne. At anthe t me I w
 d scuss the quest n f natua ph sphy; and I w  pve t yu the the
y f the d ve
ence f the atms, and f the ma
n tude f the sun, and that Dem
c tus cmm tted many es wh ch wee fund faut w th and cected by Ep cu
us. At pesent, I w  cnf ne mysef t peasue; nt that I am say n
anyth n

new, but st  I w  adduce a


uments wh ch I fee sue that even yu yuse
f w  appve f. Undubtedy, sa d I, I w  nt be bst nate; and I w  w 
n
y a
ee w th yu f yu w  ny pve yu asset ns t my sat sfact n.
I w  pve them, sa d he, pv ded ny that yu ae as mpat a as yu pfe
ss yusef: but I wud athe empy a cnnected d scuse than eep n as n

 be n
as ed quest ns. As yu pease, sa d I.
On th s he be
an t spea ;
IX. F st f a then, sa d he, I w  pceed n the manne wh ch s sanct ned
by the funde f th s sch: I w  ay dwn what that s wh ch s the subjec
t f u nqu y, and what ts chaacte s: nt that I ma
ne that yu d nt
nw, but n de that my d scuse may pceed n a systemat c and dey man
ne. We ae nqu  n
, then, what s the end,what s the exteme p nt f
d, w
h ch, n the p n n f a ph sphes, u
ht t be such that eveyth n
[p
1
08] can be efeed t t, but that t tsef can be efeed t nth n
. Th s E
p cuus paces n peasue, wh ch he a
ues s the ch ef
d, and that pa n s
the ch ef ev ; and he pceeds t pve h s asset n thus. He says that evey
an ma the mment that t s bn see s f peasue, and ej ces n t as the
ch ef
d; and ejects pa n as the ch ef ev , and wads t ff fm tsef as
fa as t can; and that t acts n th s manne, w thut hav n
been cupted by
anyth n
, unde the pmpt n
s f natue hesef, wh fms th s uncupt and
up
ht jud
ment. Theefe, he aff ms that thee s n need f a
ument  f
d scuss n as t why peasue s t be su
ht f, and pa n t be av ded. Th s
he th n s a matte f sense, just as much as that f e s ht, snw wh te, hney
sweet; nne f wh ch pps t ns he th n s equ e t be cnf med by ab u
sy su
ht easns, but that t s suff c ent meey t state them. F that the
e s a d ffeence between a
uments and cncus ns a ved at by at c nat n
, and d nay bsevat ns and statements:by the f st, secet and bscue p nc
pes ae expa ned; by the secnd, mattes wh ch ae pa n and easy ae bu
ht
t dec s n. F s nce, f yu ta e away sense fm a man, thee s nth n
ef
t t h m, t fws f necess ty that what s cntay t natue,  what a
ee
s w th t, must be eft t natue hesef t dec de. Nw what des she pece ve,
 what des she detem ne n as he
u de t see  t av d anyth n
, except
peasue and pa n? But thee ae sme f u sch wh see t cay ut th s
dct ne w th me acuteness, and wh w  nt aw that t s suff c ent that
t shud be dec ded by sense what s
d and what s bad, but wh asset that
these p nts can be asceta ned by nteect and easn as, and that peasue
s t be su
ht f n ts wn accunt, and that pa n as s t be av ded f
the same easn.
Theefe, they say that th s nt n s mpanted n u m nds natuay and ns

t nct vey, as t wee; s that we fee that the ne s t be su


ht f, and th
e the t be av ded. Othes, hweve, (and th s s my wn p n n t,) asset
that, as many easns ae ae
ed by many ph sphes why peasue u
ht nt t
 be ec ned amn

ds, n pa n amn
ev s, we u
ht nt t ey t much 
n the
dness f u cause, but that we shud use a
uments, and d scuss [p
1
09] the p nt w th pec s n, and a
ue, by the hep f caefuy cected eas
ns, abut peasue and abut pa n.
X. But that yu may cme t an accuate pecept n f the suce whence a th s
e 
nated f thse pepe wh attac peasue and ext pa n, I w  unf
d the whe matte; and I w  ay befe yu the vey statements wh ch have b
een made by that d scvee f the tuth, and ach tect, as t wee, f a happy
 fe. F n ne e the desp ses,  hates,  av ds peasue tsef meey bec
ause t s peasue, but because
eat pa ns veta e thse men wh d nt unde
stand hw t pusue peasue n a easnabe manne. N s thee any ne wh 
ves,  pusues,  w shes t acqu e pa n because t s pa n, but because smet
mes such ccas ns a se that a man atta ns t sme
eat peasue thu
h ab
u and pa n. F, t descend t t fes, wh f us eve undeta es any ab us
exet n f bdy except n de t
a n sme advanta
e by s d n
? and wh s
thee wh cud fa y bame a man wh shud w sh t be n that state f peas
ue wh ch n annyance can nteupt,  ne wh shuns that pa n by wh ch n sub
sequent peasue s pcued? But we d accuse thse men, and th n them ent e
y wthy f the
eatest hated, wh, be n
made effem nate and cupted by the
auements f pesent peasue, ae s b nded by pass n that they d nt f
esee what pa ns and annyances they w  heeafte be subject t; and wh ae eq
uay
u ty w th thse wh, thu
h wea ness f m nd, that s t say, fm ea
e
ness t av d abu and pa n, deset the  duty.
And the d st nct n between these th n
s s qu c and easy. F at a t me when w
e ae fee, when the pt n f ch ce s n u wn pwe, and when thee s nt
h n
t pevent u be n
abe t d whateve we chse, then evey peasue may
be enjyed, and evey pa n epeed. But n pat cua ccas ns t w  ften
happen, w n
e the t the b
at ns f duty  the necess t es f bus ness,
that peasues must be dec ned and annyances must nt be sh  ed. Theefe th
e w se man hds t th s p nc pe f ch ce n thse mattes, that he ejects s
me peasues, s as, by the eject n, t bta n thes wh ch ae
eate, and
encuntes sme pa ns, s as by that means t escape thes wh ch ae me fm
dabe.
[p
110]
Nw, as these ae my sent ments, what easn can I have f fea n
that I may n
t be abe t accmmdate u Tquat t themmen whse exampes yu just nw qu
ted fm memy, w th a nd and f endy fee n
twads us? Hweve, yu have
nt b bed me by pa s n
my ancests, n made me ess pmpt n epy n
t y
u. But I shud  e t nw fm yu hw yu ntepet the  act ns? D yu t
h n that they attac ed the enemy w th such fee n
s,  that they wee s seve
e t the  ch den and t the  wn bd as t have n thu
ht f the  wn ad
vanta
e,  f what m
ht be usefu t themseves? But even w d beasts d nt d
 that, and d nt ush abut and cause cnfus n n such a way that we cannt u
ndestand what s the bject f the  mt ns. And d yu th n that such ust
 us men pefmed such
eat act ns w thut a easn? What the  easn was I
w  exam ne pesenty; n the meant me I w  ay dwn th s ue,If thee was a
ny easn wh ch nst
ated them t d thse th n
s wh ch ae undubtedy spend
d exp ts, then v tue by hesef was nt the se cause f the  cnduct. One
man te a cha n fm ff h s enemy, and at the same t me he defended h msef f
m be n
sa n; but he encunteed
eat dan
e. Yes, but t was befe the eyes
f the whe amy. What d d he
et by that? Gy, and the affect n f h s cu
ntymen, wh ch ae the suest buwa s t enabe a man t pass h s  fe w thut
fea. He put h s sn t death by the hand f the execut ne. If he d d s w th
ut any easn, then I shud be sy t be descended fm s nhuman and mec 

ess a man. But f h s bject was t estab sh m  tay d sc p ne and bed ence
t cmmand, at the p ce f h s wn an
u sh, and at a t me f a mst fm dabe
wa t esta n h s amy by the fea f pun shment, then he was pv d n
f th
e safety f h s few-c t zens, wh ch he was we awae embaced h s wn. And t
h s p nc pe s ne f extens ve app cat n. F the vey p nt espect n
wh
ch yu whe sch, and yusef mst espec ay, wh ae such a d 
ent nve
st
at f anc ent nstances, ae n the hab t f vaunt n
yusef and us n
h

h-fwn an
ua
e, namey, the ment n f bave and ust us men, and the ex
t n
f the  act ns, as pceed n
nt fm any e
ad t advanta
e, but f
m pue p nc pes f hnu and a ve f
y, s ent ey upset, when nce t
hat [p
111] ue n the ch ce f th n
s s estab shed wh ch I ment ned just
nw,namey, that peasues ae passed ve f the sa e f bta n n
the
eate
 peasues,  that pa ns ae encunteed w th a v ew t escape
eate pa ns.
XI. But, hweve, f the pesent we have sa d enu
h abut the ust us and

 us act ns f ceebated men; f thee w  be, heeafte, a vey appp
ate pace f d scuss n
the tendency f a the v tues t pcue peasue.
But, at pesent, I w  expa n what peasue tsef s, and what ts chaacte
s; s as t d away w th a the m sta es f
nant pepe, and n de that
t may be ceay undestd hw d
n f ed, and tempeate, and v tuus that sy
stem s, wh ch s ften accunted vuptuus, effem nate, and de cate. F we a
e nt at pesent pusu n
that peasue ane wh ch mves natue tsef by a ce
ta n sweetness, and wh ch s pece ved by the senses w th a ceta n peasuabe
fee n
; but we cns de that the
eatest f a peasues wh ch s fet when
a pa n s emved. F s nce, when we ae fee fm pa n, we ej ce n that v
ey feedm tsef, and n the absence f a annyance,but eveyth n
wh ch s a
cause f u ej c n
s peasue, just as eveyth n
that
ves us ffence s
pa n,accd n
y, the absence f a pa n s 
hty denm nated peasue. F,
as when hun
e and th st ae d ven away by meat and d n , the vey emva f
the annyance b n
s w th t the atta nment f peasue, s, n evey case, the
emva f pa n pduces the success n f peasue. And theefe Ep cuus wu
d nt adm t that thee was any ntemed ate state between peasue and pa n; f
 he ns sted that that vey state wh ch seems t sme pepe the ntemed ate 
ne, when a man s fee fm evey st f pa n, s nt ny peasue, but the h

hest st f peasue. F wheve fees hw he s affected must nev taby be
e the n a state f peasue  n a state f pa n. But Ep cuus th n s that th
e h
hest peasue cns sts n an absence f a pa ns; s that peasue may aft
ewads be va ed, and may be f d ffeent nds, but cannt be nceased  amp
 f ed.
And even at Athens, as I have head my fathe say, when he was jest n
n a
d
-humued and facet us way upn the St cs, thee s a statue n the Ceam cus
f Chys ppus, s tt n
dwn w th h s hand stetched ut; and th s att tude [p
1
12] f the hand nt mates that he s amus n
h msef w th th s b ef quest n, D
es yu hand, wh e n that cnd t n n wh ch t s at pesent, want anyth n
?Nt
h n
at a. But f peasue wee a
d, wud t want t? I suppse s. Peasu
e, then, s nt a
d. And my fathe used t say that even a statue wud nt
say th s f t cud spea . F the cncus n was dawn as a
a nst the St cs w
th suff c ent acuteness, but t d d nt cncen Ep cuus. F f that wee the
ny peasue wh ch t c ed the senses, as t wee, f I may say s, and wh ch 
vefwed and penetated them w th a ceta n a
eeabe fee n
, then even a hand
cud nt be cntent w th feedm fm pa n w thut sme peas n
mt n f pe
asue. But f the h
hest peasue s, as Ep cuus assets, t be fee fm pa n
, then, O Chys ppus, the f st adm ss n was cecty made t yu, that the ha
nd, when t was n that cnd t n, was n want f nth n
; but the secnd adm ss
n was nt equay cect, that f peasue wee a
d t wud w sh f t.
F t wud nt w sh f t f th s easn, nasmuch as whateve s fee fm
pa n s n peasue.

XII. But that peasue s the bunday f a


d th n
s may be eas y seen f
m th s cns deat n. Let us ma
ne a pesn enjy n
peasues
eat, numeus
, and pepetua, bth f m nd and bdy, w th n pa n e the nteupt n
h m at
pesent  mpend n
ve h m; what cnd t n can we ca supe  t  me de
s abe than th s? F t s nev tabe that thee must be n a man wh s n th
s cnd t n a f mness f m nd wh ch feas ne the death n pa n, because deat
h s v d f a sensat n; and pa n, f t s f n
duat n, s a t fe, wh
e f sevee t s usuay f b ef duat n; s that ts bev ty s a cnsat
n f t s v ent, and ts t f n
natue f t s endu n
. And when thee
s added t these c cumstances that such a man has n fea f the de ty f the

ds, and des nt suffe past peasues t be ent ey st, but de
hts h mse
f w th the cnt nued ecect n f them, what can be added t th s wh ch w 
be any mpvement t t?
Ima
ne, n the the hand, any ne wn ut w th the
eatest pa ns f m nd and
bdy wh ch can pss by befa a man, w thut any hpe be n
hed ut t h m tha
t they w  heeafte be 
hte, when, bes des, he has n peasue whateve [p

113] e the pesent  expected; what can be sp en f  ma


ned me m seab
e than th s? But f a  fe ent ey f ed w th pa ns s abve a th n
s t be
av ded, then ceta ny that s the
eatest f ev s t  ve n pa n. And a n
t th s sent ment s the the, that t s the mst exteme
d t  ve w th p
easue. F u m nd has n the p nt whee t can stp as at a bunday; and
a feas and d stesses ae efeabe t pa n: n s thee anyth n
whateve
bes des, wh ch f ts wn nt ns c natue can ma e us anx us 
 eve us. M
eve, the be
nn n
s f des  n
and av d n
, and ndeed at
ethe f eveyth
n
wh ch we d, ta e the   se e the n peasue  pa n. And as th s s the
case, t s pa n that eveyth n
wh ch s 
ht and audabe has efeence t t
h s ne bject f  v n
w th peasue. And s nce that s the h
hest,  extem
e, 
eatest
d, wh ch the Gee s ca , b us i is r f rr  o nohing
s f, bu v ryhing is r f rr  o i,  mus onf ss h h high s goo i
s o iv gr by.
XIII. An hos ho  his in viru on , n, b ing ugh by h s  no
ur of  nm , o no un rsn h nur r quir s, i b  iv r  from h
gr  s bun r imginb if h y i is n o E iurus. For un ss hos
x  n n b uifu viru s hih your shoo ks bou rou   sur ,
ho ou hink h m ih r ris orhy or  sirb ? For s 
s m h ski
 of hysiins no for h sk of h r is f, bu from our  sir for goo
h h,n s h ski of h io, ho hs h kno g ho o nvig  v
ss   , is ris  ih r f r n o is uiiy, n no o his biiy,so i
som, hih shou b onsi r  h r of iving, ou no b sough f r if
i ff   nohing; bu  r s n i is sough f r b us i is, s i  r
, h ffii n us of  sur , hih is   giim obj  of  sir n 
quisiion. An no you un rsn h  sur I m n, so h h I sy my
no b brough ino oium from my using n un o ur or. For s h hi f nno
yn s o humn if ro  from ignorn of h hings r goo n h b
, n s by r son of h misk m n r of n  riv  of h gr  s  su
r s, n orur  by h mos bi r gri f of min,  hv n  o x ris is
om, hih, by r moving groun ss rms n vin  sir s, n by bnishing h
rshn ss of  rron ous [ g 114] o inions, off rs h rs f o us s h sur s
gui o  sur . For i is isom on hih x s sorro from our mins, 
n r v ns our shu ring ih f r: sh is h insrur ss ho nb s us o
iv in rnquiiy, by xinguishing in us  v h m n of  sir . For  sir
s r insib , n ruin no ony inivius bu nir fmii s, n of n o
v rurn h ho s . From  sir s ris hr , iss nsions, qurr s, s i
ions, rs. Nor is i ony ou of oors h h s ssions v n h ms v s, nor
is i ony gins oh rs h h y run ih bin vio n ; bu h y r of n
shu u , s i  r , in h min, n hro h ino onfusion ih h ir is
gr m ns.

s i

An h ons qu n of his is, o mk if horoughy r h ; so h h i


s mn is h ony on ho, hving u y  vniy n rror, n r mov  i
from him, n iv on n  ihin h bounri s of nur , ihou m nho
y n ihou f r. For h iv rsion n b ih r mor us fu or mor   
for humn if hn h hih E iurus m oy ? For h i i on h h r
 r hr kins of  sir s; h firs, suh s  r nur n n  ssry; h
s on, suh s  r nur bu no n  ssry; h hir, suh s  r n ih
r nur nor n  ssry. An h s r  suh, h hos hih r n  ssry
r sisfi  ihou muh roub or x ns : v n hos hih r nur n
no n  ssry, o no r quir  gr   , b us nur is f mk s h rih
s, hih r suffii n o on n i, sy of quisiion n of imi  qun
iy: bu s for vin  sir s, i is im ossib o fin ny imi o, or ny mo
rion in h m.
XI . Bu if  s h h ho if of mn is hron ino isor r by rror 
n ignorn ; n h isom is h ony hing hih n r i v us from h s
y of h ssions n h f r of ng r, n hih n  h us o b r h in
juri s of forun is f ih mo rion, n hih shos us  h ys hih
  o rnquiiy n  ; h r son is h r h  shou h si o
sy h isom is o b sough for h sk of  sur , n h foy is o b
voi  on oun of is nnoyn s? An on h sm rini   sh sy 
h v n  m rn is no o b sough for is on sk , bu b us i brings
 o h min, n sooh s n rnquiiz s h m by h I my   kin
of [ g 115] onor. For  m rn is h hih rns us o foo r son in 
siring or voiing nyhing. Nor is i suffii n o  i h ough o b o
n , n h ough no; bu  mus h r o h hs b n  i . Bu mny m
n, b us h y r nf b  n subu  h mom n  sur om s in sigh, n
 so r unb o k n h r o h   rminion h y hv form , giv 
h ms v s u o b boun hn n foo by h ir uss, n o no for s
h 
i h n o h m; n in h y, on oun of som  sur hih is rivi
 n unn  ssry, n hih migh b rour  in som oh r mnn r, n hih 
h y ou is ns ih ihou nnoyn , inur  rrib is s s, n injuri s
, n isgr , n r of n v n invov  in h ni s of h  g ribun
s of h ir ounry.
Bu h s m n ho ish o njoy  sur in suh  y h no gri f sh v r
ov rk h m in ons qu n , n ho r in h ir jugm n so s n v r o b ov
rom by  sur s o o h h y f  ough no o b on ; h s m n, I s
y, obin h gr  s  sur by ssing  sur by. Th y of n v n nur
in, in or r o voi noun ring gr  r in h r f r by h ir shunning i
 r s n. From hih onsi rion i is r iv  h in m rn is no o
b voi  for is on sk ; n h  m rn is o b sough for, no b u
s i vois  sur s, bu b us i ins o gr  r on s.
X . Th sm rini  i b foun o ho goo ih r s  o ourg . For 
h ishrg of bours n h nurn of in r n ih r of h m inrinsi
y  m ing; nor is i n , nor iig n , nor hfun ss, nor inusry hi
h is so muh xo , nor v n ourg is f: bu  uiv h s hbis i
n or r h  my iv ihou r n f r, n my b b , s fr s is in
our o r, o r  s our mins n boi s from nnoyn . For s h ho on
iion of rnqui if is hron ino onfusion by h f r of  h, n s i
is  mis rb hing o yi  o in n o b r i ih  humb n imb i
min; n s on oun of h  kn ss of min mny m n hv ruin  h ir r
ns, mny m n h ir fri ns, som h ir ounry, n v ry mny in  hv u
ry unon h ms v s; so  vigorous n ofy min is fr from  r n 
in, sin i  s is s  h, hih ony  s hos ho noun r i in [ g 116
] h sm oniion s h in hih h y  r b for h y  r born; n i is
so r r  for in h i r o s h h v ry gr  s r  rmin  b
y  h, n h sigh ins hv mny in rvs of r s, n h  n ms
r mo r on s, so s o b r h m if h y r o rb , n if no,  n 

r ih qunimiy ou of if , jus s ou of  h r , h n i no ong r


 s s us. By  hih onsi rions i is un rsoo h ori n i n
ss r no bm , n h ourg n i n r no ris , for h ir on
sk s; bu h h on in of onu is r j   s h r n of in, n
h oh r  sir  s h uhor of  sur .
X I. Jusi r mins o b m nion , h I my no omi ny viru h v r; b
u n ry h sm hings my b si r s ing h. For, s I hv r y sh
on h isom,  m rn , n foriu r onn   ih  sur in suh 
y h h y nno ossiby b s r  or ivi  from i, so so  mus
onsi r h i is h s ih jusi . Whih no ony n v r injur s ny on ;
bu on h onrry ys nourish s som hing hih rnquiiz s h min, 
ry by is on o r n nur , n ry by h ho s h nohing i b 
ning of hos hings hih  nur no  rv  my firy  riv .
Sin rshn ss n us n i n ss ys orur h min, ys mk i nx
ious, n r of  urbu n hr r, so oo, h r v r injusi s  s in n
y mn's min, i is urbu n from h m r f of is xis n n r s n 
h r ; n if i forms ny n, hough i x u s i v r so s r y, si
i n v r b i v s h h hs b n on i b on   for v r. For g n r
y, h n ik  m n o nyhing, firs of  sus iion ov rk s h ir ions
; h n h ommon onv rsion n r or of m n; h n h ros uor n h ju
g ; n mny v n, s s h s h n you  r onsu, hv giv n informion
gins h ms v s. Bu if ny m n  r o h ms v s o b suffii ny f n
 roun n ro   from h onsiousn ss of m n, si h y r  h kno
g of h Gos, n hink h hos v ry nxi i s by hih h ir mins r
 n u nigh n y, r infi  u on h m by h immor Gos for h sk
of unishm n. An ho is i ossib h ik  ions n v r hv s muh
infu n ors  viing [ g 117] h nnoyn s of if , s h y mus hv
ors inr sing h m from h onsiousn ss of our ions, n so from 
h unishm ns infi  by h s n h hr  of h iiz ns? An y , in
som o  , h r is no mo rion in h ir ssion for mon y n for honour 
n for ommn, or in h ir uss n gr in ss n oh r  sir s, hih quis
iions, ho v r ik y m , o no   iminish, bu rh r infm , so h
 i s ms  ough rh r o r srin suh m n hn o hink h  n  h
h m b  r. Th r for soun isom invi s s nsib m n o jusi , quiy, n
 goo fih. An unjus ions r no vng ous v n o h mn ho hs n
o biii s or r sour s; insmuh s h nno siy o h h n vours o
o, nor obin his obj s if h o s su  in his n vours. An h gifs o
f forun n of g nius r b  r sui  o ib riy; n hos ho ris
his viru gin h ms v s gooi, n ff ion, hih is h mos o rfu
of  hings o nb  mn o iv ih rnquiiy; s iy h n h hs
bsou y no moiv   for oing rong.
For hos  sir s hih ro  from nur r siy sisfi  ihou ny inj
usi ; bu hos hih r vin ough no o b om i  ih. For h y  sir
nohing hih is r y  sirb ; n h r is mor isvng in h m r f
 of injusi hn h r is vng in h is quir  by h injusi . Th
r for  rson ou no b righ ho shou ronoun
v n jusi inrinsi
y  sirb for is on sk ; bu b us i brings h gr  s moun of h
 is gr b . For o b ov  n o b  r o oh rs is gr b b us i
mk s if sf r, n  sur mor bunn. Th r for  hink ishon sy sho
u b voi , no ony on oun of hos isvng s hih b f h ik
, bu v n muh mor b us i n v r rmis h mn in hos min i bi s 
o br h fr y, n n v r  s him r s.
Bu if h ris of hos i ni viru s in hih h isours of  oh r
hioso h rs so s iy xus, nno fin ny n un ss i b ir   o
rs  sur , n if  sur b h ony hing hih s n ur s us o
is f by is on nur ; h n i nno b oubfu h h is h high s n

 gr  s of  goos, n h o iv h iy is nohing s


ih  sur .

x  o iv

[ g 118]
X II. An I i no x in in  f  ors h hings hih r ins rby on
n   ih his sur n soi o inion.
Th r is no misk ih r s  o h ns h ms v s of goo n vi, h i
s o sy, ih r s  o  sur n in; bu m n rr in h s oins h n h
y o no kno h h y r us  by. Bu  mi h h  sur s n in
s of h min r us  by h  sur s n ins of h boy. Th r for I gr
n h you  r sying jus no, h if ny hioso h rs of our shoo hink 
iff r ny (n I s h mny m n o so, bu h y r ignorn o  ) h y mu
s b onvi  of rror. Bu hough  sur of min brings us joy, n in
us s us gri f, i is si ru h h of h s f ings origin s in h
boy, n is r f rr  o h boy; n i o s no foo on h oun h b
oh h  sur s n ins of h min r no muh mor im orn hn hos o
f h boy. For ih h boy  r unb o f  nyhing hih is no u
y xis n n r s n; bu ih our min  f  hings s n hings o om
. For hough h n  r suff ring boiy in,  r
quy in in in our
mins, si  v ry gr  iion my b m o h if  b i v h ny
n ss n boun ss vi is im ning ov r us. An  my rnsf r his ss ri
on o  sur , so h h i b gr  r if  hv no suh f r.
This no is nir y vi n, h h v ry gr  s  sur or nnoyn of h
min onribu s mor o mking if h y or mis rb hn ih r of h s f
ings n o if i is in h boy for n qu  ngh of im . Bu  o no 
gr h, if  sur b k n y, gri f foos imm i y, un ss by hn
i h ns h in hs su   n k n h  of  sur ; bu, on h
oh r hn,  ffirm h m n o r joi  g ing ri of in v n if no 
sur hih n ff  h s ns s su s. An from his i my b un rsoo
ho gr    sur i is no o b in in. Bu s  r rous  by hos goo
hings hih  r in x ion of, so  r joi  hos hih  r o 
. Bu fooish m n r orur  by h r o ion of s vis; is m n r
 igh  by h m mory of s goo hings, hih r hus r n   by h gr
b r o ion. Bu h r is  f ing im n  in us by hih  [ g 119] b
ury v rsiy s i  r in  r u obivion, bu   ih  sur n 
igh on h r o ion of goo forun . Bu h n ih g r n  niv min
s    on h is s, h ons qu n is, h m nhoy nsu s, if h
s hs b n un ros rous; bu joy, if i hs b n forun .
X III. Oh h  s  ni, n mnif s, n sim  , n in y of iving  
! For s  riny nohing ou b b  r for mn hn o b fr from  i
n n nnoyn , n o njoy h gr  s  sur s of boh min n boy, o y
ou no s ho nohing is omi  hih n i if , so s o nb m n mor
siy o rriv  h hi f goo hih is h ir obj ! E iurus ri s ouh v
ry mn hom you ronoun o b oo  vo  o  sur h mn nno iv gr
by, un ss h iv s honourby, jusy, n is y; n h, if h iv s is
y, honourby, n jusy, i is im ossib h h shou no iv gr by.
For  iy in s iion nno b h y, nor n  hous in hih h ms rs r
qurr ing. So h  min hih isgr s n qurr s ih is f, nno 
s ny orion of  r n unr srin   sur . An  mn ho is ys giv
ing in o ursuis n ns hih r inonsis n ih n onrry o on no
h r, n n v r kno ny qui  or rnquiiy.
Bu if h  sur of if is hin r  by h grv r is s s of h boy, ho
muh mor mus i b so by hos of h min? Bu h is s s of h min r b
oun ss n vin  sir s of rih s, or gory, or ominion, or v n of usfu
 sur s. B si s h s h r r m nhoy, nnoyn , sorro, hih  u
n  sroy ih nxi y h mins of hos m n ho o no un rsn h h m

in ough no o gri v bou nyhing hih is unonn   ih som r s n or
fuur in of boy. Nor is h r ny foo ho o s no suff r un r som on o
f h s is s s. Th r for h r is no foo ho is no mis rb . B si s h s
hings h r is  h, hih is ys hnging ov r us s his rok is ov r Tn
us; n su rsiion,  f ing hih r v ns ny on ho is imbu  ih i f
rom v r njoying rnquiiy. B si s, suh m n s h y o no r o  h ir
s goo forun , o no njoy h is r s n, bu o nohing bu x  h
is o om ; n s h nno b  rin, h y  r h ms v s ou ih gri f
n  r h nsion, n r orm n  mos s iy h n h y fin ou, f r i
is oo [ g 120]  , h h y hv  vo  h ms v s o h ursui of mon y
, or uhoriy, or o r, or gory, o no ur os . For h y hv quir  no 
sur s, by h ho of njoying hih i s h h y  r infm  o un rk
so mny gr  bours. Th r r oh rs, of i n nrro mins, ih r 
ys  s iring of v ryhing, or s mon n, nvious, i- m r , huri
sh, umnious, n moros ; oh rs  vo  o mory  sur s, oh rs un
, oh rs uious, non, in m r , or i , n v r oninuing in h sm o
inion; on hih oun h r is n v r ny in rru ion o h nnoyn s o h
ih h ir if is x os .

Th r for , h r is no foo ho is h y, n no is mn ho is no. An  u


his muh mor foriby n ruy hn h Sois: for h y ss r h h r i
s no goo h v r, bu som imginry sho hih h y  , a ame showy rather t
a substatial; ad they isist upo it, that virtue relyig o this priciple o
f hoour stads i eed of o pleasure, ad is cotet with its ow resources as
adequate to secure a happy life.
XIX. However, these assertios may be to a certai extet made ot oly without
our objectig to them, but eve with our cocurrece ad agreemet. For i this
way the wise ma is represeted by Epicurus as always happy. He has limited desi
res; he disregards death; he has a true opiio cocerig the immortal Gods wit
hout ay fear; he does ot hesitate, if it is better for him, to depart from lif
e. Beig prepared i this maer, ad armed with these priciples, he is always
i the ejoymet of pleasure; or is there ay period whe he does ot feel more
pleasure tha pai. For he remembers the past with gratitude, ad he ejoys the
preset so as to otice how importat ad how delightful the joys which it supp
lies are; or does he deped o future good, but he waits for that ad ejoys th
e preset; ad is as far removed as possible from those vices which I have eume
rated; ad whe he compares the life of fools to his ow he feels great pleasure
. Ad pai, if ay does attack him, has ever such power that the wise ma has 
ot more to rejoice at tha to be grieved at.
But Epicurus does admirably i sayig that fortue has but little power over the
wise ma, ad that the greatest ad most importat evets of such a ma's life
are maaged [pg 121] by his ow wisdom ad prudece; ad that greater pleasure c
aot be derived from a eterity of life tha such a ma ejoys from this life
which we see to be limited.
But i your dialectics he thought that there was o power which could cotribute
either to eable me to live better, or argue more coveietly. To atural phi
losophy he attributed a great deal of importace. For by the oe sciece it is o
ly the meaig of words ad the character of a speech, ad the way i which arg
umets follow from or are icosistet with oe aother, that ca be see; but i
f the ature of all thigs is kow, we are by that kowledge relieved from supe
rstitio, released from the fear of death, exempted from beig perplexed by our
igorace of thigs, from which igorace horrible fears ofte arise. Lastly, we
shall be improved i our morals whe we have leart what ature requires. Moreo
ver, if we have a accurate kowledge of thigs, preservig that rule which has
falle from heave as it were for the kowledge of all thigs, by which all our
judgmets of thigs are to be regulated, we shall ever abado our opiios bec
ause of beig overcome by ay oe's eloquece.

For uless the ature of thigs is thoroughly kow, we shall have o meas by w
hich we ca defed the judgmets formed by our seses. Moreover, whatever we dis
cer by our itellect, all arises from the seses. Ad if our seses are all cor
rect, as the theory of Epicurus affirms, the somethig may be discered ad ud
erstood accurately; but as to those me who dey the power of the seses, ad sa
y that othig ca be kow by them, those very me, if the seses are discarded
, will be uable to explai that very poit which they are arguig about. Beside
s, if all kowledge ad sciece is put out of the questio, the there is a ed
also of all settled priciples of livig ad of doig aythig.
Thus, by meas of atural philosophy, courage is desired to withstad the fear o
f death, ad costacy to put aside the claims egedered by superstitio; ad b
y removig igorace of all secret thigs, traquillity of mid is produced; ad
by explaiig the ature of desires ad their differet kids, we get moderatio
: ad (as I just ow explaied) by meas of this rule of kowledge, ad of the
judgmet which is established ad corrected by it, the power of distiguishig t
ruth from falsehood is put ito ma's hads.
[pg 122]
XX. There remais a topic ecessary above all others to this discussio, that of
friedship, amely: which you, if pleasure is the chief good, affirm to have o
existece at all. Cocerig which Epicurus speaks thus: "That of all the thig
s which wisdom has collected to eable ma to live happily, othig is more impo
rtat, more ifluetial, or more delightful tha friedship." Nor did he prove t
his assertio by words oly, but still more by his life, ad coduct, ad actio
s. Ad how importat a thig it is, the fables of the aciets abudatly itima
te, i which, may ad varied as they are, ad traced back to the remotest atiq
uity, scarcely three pairs of frieds are foud, eve if you begi as far back a
s Theseus, ad come dow to Orestes. But i oe sigle house, ad that a small o
e, what great crowds of frieds did Epicurus collect, ad how strog was the bo
d of affectio that held them together! Ad this is the case eve ow amog the
Epicureas. However, let us retur to our subject: it is ot ecessary for us t
o be discussig me.
I see, the, that the philosophers of our school have treated the questio of fr
iedship i three ways. Some, as they deied that those pleasures which cocere
d our frieds were to be sought with as much eageress for their ow sake, as we
display i seekig our ow, (by pressig which topic some people thik that the
stability of friedship is edagered,) maitai that doctrie resolutely, ad,
as I thik, easily explai it. For, as i the case of the virtues which I have
already metioed, so too they dey that friedship ca ever be separated from p
leasure. For, as a life which is solitary ad destitute of frieds is full of tr
eachery ad alarm, reaso itself wars us to form friedships. Ad whe such are
formed, the our mids are stregtheed, ad caot be draw away from the hope
of attaiig pleasure. Ad as hatred, evy, ad cotempt are all opposed to ple
asures, so friedships are ot oly the most faithful favourers, but also are th
e efficiet causes of pleasures to oe's frieds as well as to oeself; ad me
ot oly ejoy those pleasures at the momet, but are also roused by hopes of su
bsequet ad future time. Ad as we caot possibly maitai a lastig ad coti
ued happiess of life without friedship, or maitai friedship itself uless
we love our frieds ad ourselves equally, therefore this very effect is produc
ed i friedship, ad friedship is combied with pleasure.
[pg 123]
For we rejoice i the joy of our frieds as much as we do
equally grieved at their sorrows. Wherefore the wise ma
fried as he does towards himself, ad whatever labour he
view to his ow pleasure, he will ecouter also for the
ied. Ad all that has bee said of the virtues as to the

i our ow, ad we are


will feel towards his
would ecouter with a
sake of that of his fr
way i which they are

ivariably combied with pleasure, should also be said of friedship. For admira
bly does Epicurus say, i almost these exact words: The same sciece has stregth
eed the mid so that it should ot fear ay eteral or log lastig evil, iasm
uch as i this very period of huma life, it has clearly see that the surest bu
lwark agaist evil is that of friedship.
There are, however, some Epicureas who are rather itimidated by the reproaches
of your school, but still me of sufficiet acuteess, ad they are afraid lest
, if we thik that friedship is oly to be sought after with a view to our ow
pleasure, all friedships should, as it were, appear to be crippled. Therefore t
hey admit that the first meetigs, ad uios, ad desires to establish itimacy
, do arise from a desire of pleasure; but, they say, that whe progressive habit
has egedered familiarity, the such great affectio is ripeed, that frieds
are loved by oe aother for their ow sake, eve without ay idea of advatage
itermiglig with such love. I truth, if we are i the habit of feelig affect
io for places, ad temples, ad cities, ad gymasia, ad the Campus Martius, a
d for dogs, ad horses, ad sports, i cosequece of our habit of exercisig o
urselves, ad hutig, ad so o, how much more easily ad reasoably may such a
feelig be produced i us by our itimacy with me!
But some people say that there is a sort of agreemet etered ito by wise me 
ot to love their frieds less tha themselves; which we both imagie to be possi
ble, ad ideed see to be ofte the case; ad it is evidet that othig ca be
foud havig ay ifluece o livig agreeably, which is better suited to it tha
 such a uio. From all which cosideratios it may be iferred, ot oly that
the priciple of friedship is ot hidered by our placig the chief good i ple
asure, but that without such a priciple it is quite impossible that ay frieds
hip should be established.
XXI. Wherefore, if the thigs which I have bee sayig [pg 124] are clearer ad
plaier tha the su itself; if all that I have said is derived from the foutai
 of ature; if the whole of my discourse forces asset to itself by its accorda
ce with the seses, that is to say, with the most icorruptible ad hoest of a
ll witesses; if ifat childre, ad eve brute beasts, declare almost i words
, uder the teachig ad guidace of ature, that othig is prosperous but plea
sure, othig hateful but paia matter as to which their decisio is either erro
eous or corruptought we ot to feel the greatest gratitude to that ma who, hav
ig heard this voice of ature, as I may call it, has embraced it with such firm
ess ad steadiess, that he has led all sesible me ito the path of a peacefu
l, traquil, ad happy life? Ad as for his appearig to you to be a ma of but
little learig, the reaso of that is, that he thought o learig deservig of
the ame except such as assisted i the attaimet of a happy life. Was he a ma
 to waste his time i readig poets, as Triarius ad I do at your istigatio?
me i whose works there is o solid utility, but oly a childish sort of amusem
et; or to devote himself, like Plato, to music, geometry, arithmetic, ad astro
omy? studies which, startig from erroeous priciples, caot possibly be true
; ad which, if they were true, would costitute othig to our livig more agre
eably, that is to say, better. Should he, the, pursue such occupatios as those
, ad abado the task of layig dow priciples of livig, laborious, but, at t
he same time, useful as they are?
Epicurus, the, was ot destitute of learig; but those persos are igorat wh
o thik that those studies which it is discreditable for boys ot to have leart
, are to be cotiued till old age.
Ad whe he had spoke thus,I have ow, said he, explaied my opiios, ad have
doe so with the desig of learig your judgmet of them. But the opportuity o
f doig so, as I wished, has ever bee offered me before to-day.
[pg 125]

Secod Book Of The Treatise O The Chief Good Ad Evil.


I. O this, whe both of them fixed their eyes o me, ad showed that they were
ready to liste to me:I the first place, said I, I itreat you ot to facy that
I, like a professed philosopher, am goig to explai to you the doctries of so
me particular school; a course which I have ever much approved of whe adopted
by philosophers themselves. For whe did Socrates, who may fairly be called the
paret of philosophy, ever do aythig of the sort? That custom was patroized b
y those who at that time were called Sophists, of which umber Georgias of Leot
ium was the first who vetured i a assembly to demad a questio,that is to say
, to desire ay oe i the compay to say what he wished to hear discussed. It w
as a bold proceedig; I should call it a impudet oe, if this fashio had ot
subsequetly bee borrowed by our ow philosophers. But we see that he whom I ha
ve just metioed, ad all the other Sophists, (as may be gathered from Plato,)
were all tured ito ridicule by Socrates; for he, by questioig ad iterrogat
ig them, was i the habit of elicitig the opiios of those with whom he was a
rguig, ad the, if he thought it ecessary, of replyig to the aswers which t
hey had give him. Ad as that custom had ot bee preserved by those who came a
fter him, Arcesilaus re-itroduced it, ad established the custom, that those wh
o wished to become his pupils were ot to ask him questios, but themselves to s
tate their opiios; ad the, whe they had stated them, he replied to what the
y had advaced; but those who came to him for istructio defeded their ow opi
ios as well as they could.
But with all the rest of the philosophers the ma who asks the questio says o
more; ad this practice prevails i the Academy to this day. For whe he who wis
hes to receive istructio has spoke thus, Pleasure appears to me to be the [pg
126] chief good, they argue agaist this propositio i a uiterrupted discours
e; so that it may be easily uderstood that they who say that they etertai suc
h ad such a opiio, do ot of ecessity really etertai it, but wish to hear
the argumets which may be brought agaist it. We follow a more coveiet meth
od, for ot oly has Torquatus explaied what his opiios are, but also why he
etertais them: but I myself thik, although I was exceedigly delighted with h
is uiterrupted discourse, that still, whe you stop at each poit that arises,
ad come to a uderstadig what each party grats, ad what he deies, you dr
aw the coclusio you desire from what is admitted with more coveiece, ad co
me to a ed of the discussio more readily. For whe a discourse is bore o u
iterruptedly, like a torret, although it hurries alog i its course may thi
gs of every kid, you still ca take hold of othig, ad put your had o othi
g, ad ca fid o meas of restraiig that rapid discourse.
II. But every discourse which is cocered i the ivestigatio of ay matter, a
d which proceeds o ay system ad priciple, ought first to establish the rule
(as is doe i lawsuits, where oe proceeds accordig to set formulas), i orde
r that it may be agreed betwee the parties to the discussio, what the subject
of the discussio really is. This rule was approved by Epicurus, as it was laid
dow by Plato i his Phdrus, ad he cosidered that it ought to be adopted i every
cotroversy. But he did ot perceive what was the ecessary cosequece of it,
for he asserts that the subject ought ot to be defied; but if this be ot doe
, it is sometimes impossible that the disputats should agree what the matter is
that is the subject of discussio, as i this very case which we are discussig
ow, for we are iquirig ito the Ed of Good. How ca we kow what the charac
ter of this is, if, whe we have used the expressio the Ed of Good, we do ot
compare with oe aother our ideas of what is meat by the Ed, ad of what the
Good itself is?
Ad this layig ope of thigs covered
what each thig is, is the defiitio
eig aware of it; for you defied this
e Ed, or the extremity, or the limit,

up, as it were, whe it is oce explaied


of it; which you sometimes used without b
very thig, whether it is to be called th
to be that to which everythig which was

doe rightly was referred, ad which was itself [pg 127] ever referred to ayth
ig. So far was very well said; ad, perhaps, if it had bee ecessary, you woul
d also have defied the Good itself, ad told us what that was; makig it to be
that which is desirable by ature, or that which is profitable, or that which is
useful, or that which is pleasat: ad ow, sice you have o geeral objectio
s to givig defiitios, ad do it whe you please, if it is ot too much troubl
e, I should be glad if you would defie what is pleasure, for that is what all t
his discussio relates to.
As if, said he, there were ay oe who is igorat what pleasure is, or who is i
 eed of ay defiitio to eable him to uderstad it better.
I should say, I replied, that I myself am such a ma, if I did ot seem to mysel
f to have a thorough acquaitace with, ad a accurate idea ad otio of, plea
sure firmly implated i my mid. But, at preset, I say that Epicurus himself d
oes ot kow, ad that he is greatly i error o this subject; ad that he who m
etios the subject so ofte ought to explai carefully what the meaig of the
words he uses is, but that he sometimes does ot uderstad what the meaig of
this word pleasure is, that is to say, what the idea is which is cotaied uder
this word.
III. The he laughed, ad said,This is a capital idea, ideed, that he who says t
hat pleasure is the ed of all thigs which are to be desired, the very extreme
poit ad limit of Good, should be igorat of what it is, ad of what is its ch
aracter. But, I replied, either Epicurus is igorat of what pleasure is, or els
e all the rest of the world are. How so? said he.
Because all me feel that this is pleasure which moves the seses whe they rece
ive it, ad which has a certai agreeableess pervadig it throughout. What the
, said he, is Epicurus igorat of that kid of pleasure? Not always, I replied;
for sometimes he is eve too well acquaited with it, iasmuch as he declares t
hat he is uable eve to uderstad where it is, or what ay good is, except tha
t which is ejoyed by the istrumetality of meat or drik, or the pleasure of t
he ears, or sesual ejoymet: is ot this what he says? As if, said he, I were
ashamed of these thigs, or as if I were uable to explai i what sese these t
higs are said. I do ot doubt, I replied, that you ca do so easily; or is the
re ay reaso why you eed be ashamed of arguig with a wise [pg 128] ma, who i
s the oly ma, as far as I kow, who has ever vetured to profess himself a wis
e ma. For they do ot thik that Metrodorus himself professed this, but oly th
at, whe he was called wise by Epicurus, he was uwillig to reject such a expr
essio of his goodwill. But the Seve had this ame give to them, ot by themse
lves, but by the uiversal suffrage of all atios. However, i this place, I wi
ll assume that Epicurus, by these expressios, certaily meat to itimate the s
ame kid of pleasure that the rest do; for all me call that pleasig motio by
which the seses are redered cheerful, n Gee , and vuptas n Lat n.
What s t, then, that yu as ? I w  te yu, sa d I, and that f the sa e 
f ean n
athe than f f nd n
faut w th e the yu  Ep cuus. I t, sa d
he, shud be me des us t ean f yu, f yu can mpat anyth n
wth 
ean n
, than t f nd faut w th yu.
We, then, sa d I, yu ae awae f what H enymus25 f Rhdes says s the ch
ef
d, t wh ch he th n s that eveyth n
u
ht t be efeed? I nw, sa d h
e, that he th n s that the
eat end s feedm fm pa n. We, what ae h s se
nt ments espect n
peasue? He aff ms, he ep ed, that t s nt t be su
h
t f ts wn sa e; f he th n s that ej c n
s ne th n
, and be n
fee f
m pa n anthe. And ndeed, cnt nued he, he s n th s p nt
eaty m sta en,
f, as I pved a  tte wh e a
, the end f nceas n
peasue s the em
va f a pa n. I w  exam ne, sa d I, pesenty, what the mean n
f the exp
ess n, feedm fm pa n, s; but uness yu ae vey bst nate, yu must adm t

that peasue s a pefecty d st nct th n


fm mee feedm fm pa n. Yu w
, hweve, sa d he, f nd that I am bst nate n th s; f nth n
can be me
ea than the dent ty between the tw. Is thee, nw, sa d I, any peasue fet
by a th sty man n d n n
? Wh can deny t? sa d he. Is t, as ed I, the sam
e peasue that he fees afte h s th st s ext n
u shed? It s, ep ed he, an
the nd f peasue; f the state f ext n
u shed th st has n t a ceta n
stab  ty f peasue, but the peasue f ext n
u sh n
t s peasue n mt
n. Why, then, sa d I, d yu ca th n
s s un e ne anthe by the same name
? D nt [p
129] yu ecect, he ej ned, what I sa d just nw,that when a
pa n s ban shed, peasue s va ed, nt ext n
u shed? I ecect, sa d I; but
yu sp e n adm abe Lat n, ndeed, but yet nt vey nte
by; f va et
as s a Lat n wd, and ppey app cabe t a d ffeence f cu, but t s
app ed metaph cay t many d ffeences: we appy the adject ve, va as, t
pems, at ns, mannes, and chan
es f ftune; t s ccas nay ped cated
as f peasue, when t s de ved fm many th n
s un e ne anthe, wh ch
cause peasues wh ch ae s m ay un e. Nw, f that s the va ety yu mean
, I shud undestand yu, as, n fact, I d undestand yu, w thut yu say n

s: but st , I d nt see ceay what that va ety s, because yu say, that
when we ae fee fm pa n we ae then n the enjyment f the
eatest peasu
e; but when we ae eat n
thse th n
s wh ch cause a peas n
mt n t the sens
es, then thee s a peasue n the emt n wh ch causes a va ety n the peasu
e; but st , that that peasue wh ch a ses fm the feedm fm pa n s nt
nceased;and why yu ca that peasue I d nt nw.
IV. Is t pss be, sa d he, f anyth n
t be me de
htfu than feedm f
m pa n? We, sa d I, but
ant that nth n
s pefeabe t that, (f that s
nt the p nt wh ch I am nqu  n
abut at pesent,) des t fw n that ac
cunt, that peasue s dent ca w th what I may ca pa nessness? Undubtedy
t s dent ca w th t, sa d he; and that pa nessness s the
eatest f pea
sues wh ch n the can pss by exceed. Why, then, sa d I, d yu hes tate, af
te yu have def ned the ch ef
d n th s manne, t uphd, and defend, and m
a nta n the pps t n, that the whe f peasue cns sts n feedm fm pa
n? F what necess ty f yu ntduc n
peasue amn
the cunc  f the v 
tues, any me than f b n
n
n a cutezan t an assemby f matns? The v
ey name f peasue s d us, nfamus, and a just bject f susp c n: theef
e, yu ae a n the cnstant hab t f say n
that we d nt undestand what
Ep cuus means when he spea s f peasue. And wheneve such an asset n s mad
e t me,and I hea t advanced petty ften,athu
h I am usuay a vey peacefu
a
ue, st  I d n such ccas ns
et a  tte an
y. Am I t be td that I
d nt nw what that s wh ch the Gee s [p
130] ca , and the Lat ns vuptas? Wh
ch an
ua
e s t, then, that I d nt undestand? Then, t, hw cmes t abu
t that I d nt undestand, thu
h evey ne ese des, wh chses t ca h ms
ef an Ep cuean? when the d sc pes f yu sch a
ue mst exceenty, that
thee s n need whateve f a man, wh w shes t becme a ph sphe, t be
acqua nted w th  teatue. Theefe, just as u ancests te C nc nnatus aw
ay fm h s pu
h t ma e h m D ctat, n  e manne yu cect fm amn
t
he Gee s a thse men, wh may n tuth be espectabe men enu
h, but wh ae
ceta ny nt ve-eaned.
D they then undestand what Ep cuus means, and d I nt undestand t? Hweve
, that yu may nw that I d undestand, f st f a I te yu that vuptas
s the same th n
that he cas . And, ndeed, we ften have t see f a Lat n wd
equ vaent t, and exacty equ pent t a Gee ne; but hee we had nth n

t see f: f n wd can be fund wh ch w  me exacty expess n Lat n w
hat des n Gee , than vuptas. Nw evey man n the wd wh undestands Lat n,
cmpehends unde th s wd tw th n
s,jy n the m nd, and an a
eeabe emt n
f peasantness n the bdy. F when the man n Tabea26 cas an excess ve pe
asue f the m nd jy, (t t a,) he says much the same as the the chaacte n
Cc  us's pay, wh says that he s jyfu w th evey st f jy.

Hweve, thee s th s d ffeence, that peasue s as sp en f as affect n

the m nd; wh ch s wn


, as the St cs th n , wh def ne t thus: An eat n f
the m nd w thut easn, when the m nd has an dea that t s enjy n
sme
ea
t
d. But the wds t t a (
adness), and
aud um (jy), d nt ppey appy
t the bdy. But the wd vuptas (peasue) s app ed t the bdy by the usa

e f a pepe wh spea Lat n, wheneve that peasantness s fet wh ch mves
any ne f the senses. Nw tansfe th s peasantness, f yu pease, t the m n
d; f the veb juv (t pease) s app ed bth t bdy and m nd, and the wd
jucundus s de ved fm t; pv ded yu undestand that between the man wh sa
ys,
I am tanspted w th
adness nw
That I am scace mysef....
[p
131]
and h m wh says,
Nw then at en
th my m nd's n f e, ...
ne f whm s bes de h msef w th jy, and the the s be n
tmented w th an

u sh, thee s th s ntemed ate pesn, whse an


ua
e s,
Athu
h th s u acqua ntance s s new,
wh fees ne the
adness n an
u sh. And, n the same manne, between the man
wh s n the enjyment f the peasues f the bdy, wh ch he has been w sh n

f, and h m wh s be n


tmented w th exteme an
u sh, thee s a th d man,
wh s fee a e fm peasue and fm pa n.

V. D I nt, then, seem t yu suff c enty t undestand the mean n


f wds,
 must I at th s t me f  fe be tau
ht hw t spea Gee , and even Lat n? And
yet I wud have yu cns de, whethe f I, wh, as I th n , undestand Gee
vey fa y, d st  nt undestand what Ep cuus means, t t may nt be w n

t sme faut f h s f spea n


s as nt t be nte
be. And th s smet
mes happens n tw ways, w thut any bame; e the f yu d s n pupse, as H
eac tus d d, wh
t the suname f ,27 b us h s ok ih oo muh obsuriy 
nur hioso hy; or h n h obsuriy of h subj  is f, no of h ng
ug , r v ns h is si from b ing  ry un rsoo, s is h s in h
Timus of Po. Bu E iurus, s I imgin , is boh iing, if i is in his o
r, o s k in igiby, n is so s king, no of n obsur subj  ik
h nur hioso h rs, nor of on  ning on r is ru s, s h mh m
iins r , bu h is isussing  in n sim  m r, hih is  subj  o
f ommon onv rsion mong h ommon o  . Ahough you o no  ny h 
un rsn h usu m ning of h or vou s, bu ony h h m ns by i:
from hih i foos, no h  o no un rsn h is h m ning of h
 or, bu h h foos his on fshion, n n g s our usu on ; for if
h m ns h sm hing h Hi ronymus o s, ho hinks h h hi f goo is
o iv ihou ny nnoyn , hy o s h r f r using h  rm  sur rh r 
hn fr om from in, s Hi ronymus o s, ho is qui r of h for of h
ors hih h m oys? Bu, if h hinks h h ough o , h  sur
hih onsiss in [ g 132] moion, (for his is h isinion h rs, h 
his gr b  sur is  sur in moion, bu h  sur of him ho is fr
from in is  s of  sur ,) h n hy o s h  r o im  h is i
m ossib , nm y, o mk ny on ho knos hims fh is o sy, ho hs ny
ro r om r h nsion of his on nur n s nsionshink fr om from in, n
 sur , h sm hing?
This, O Torquus, is oing vio n o on 's s ns s; i is r sing ou of our
mins h un rsning of ors ih hih  r imbu ; for ho n voi s
ing h h s hr s s xis in h nur of hings: firs, h s of b
ing in  sur ; s ony, h of b ing in in; hiry, h of b ing in su
h  oniion s  r  his mom n, n you oo, I imgin , h is o sy,
n ih r in  sur nor in in; in suh  sur , I m n, s  mn ho is  

bnqu , or in suh in s  mn ho is b ing orur . Wh! o you no s 
vs muiu of m n ho r n ih r r joiing nor suff ring, bu in n in rm
i s b  n h s o oniions? No, in , si h ; I sy h  m
n ho r fr from in r in  sur , n in h gr  s  sur oo. Do y
ou, h n, sy h h mn ho, no b ing hirsy hims f, ming s som in for
noh r, n h hirsy mn ho rinks i h n mix , r boh njoying h s
m  sur ?

I. Th n, si h ,  ru , if you  s , o  your qu sions; n, in , I


si  h b ginning h I ou rh r hv non of h m, for I h  rovi
n r  of h s  ious i is. Wou you rh r, h n, si I, h 
shou rgu rh oriy hn i iy? As if, si h ,  oninuous iso
urs b ong  so y o orors, n no o hioso h rs so! I i   you,
si I, h Z no h Soi si; h si, s Ariso h si b for him, h
  s king s ivi  ino o kins, n h rh ori r s mb  h o n
m, i is h os  fis, b us orors usuy s ok in  rh r iff
us , n i iins in  som h om r ss  sy . I i om y, h n, ih
your  sir s, n i s k, if I n, in n orori sy , bu si ih
h orory of h hioso h rs, n no h hih  us in h forum; hih i
s for   im s, h n i is s king so s o sui h muiu , o submi o
 v ry orinry sy . Bu hi E iurus, O Torquus, is [ g 133] x r ssing
his on m  for i is, n r hih by is f onins h ho si n b
oh of r iving h h r  subj  is in v ry qu sion, n so of jugin
g h h hr r of h hing is, by is sys m n m ho of onuing h
rgum n, h go s on oo fs, s i s ms o m , n o s no isinguish i
h ny ski   h iff r n oins hih h is in n u on roving, s in 
his v ry insn hih   r jus no s king of.
P sur is ronoun  o b h hi f goo. W mus h n o n h qu sion, Wh
 is  sur ? for oh ris , h hing hih  r s king for nno b x 
in . Bu, if h h x in  i, h ou no h si ; for ih r h ou m
inin h sm  finiion of  sur hih Arisi us i, nm y, h i is
h f ing by hih h s ns s r gr by n  sny mov , hih v n
 , if h y ou s k, ou   sur ; or s , if h hos rh r 
o s k in his on sy , hn ik
A h Gr ks from high My n,
A Min rv's Ai youh,
n h r s of h Gr ks ho r s ok n of in h s n ss, h n h ou 
his fr om from in on by h nm of  sur , n ou  s is h  f
iniion of Arisi us; or, if h hough boh  finiions goo, s in f h o
s, h ou ombin fr om from in ih  sur , n ou m oy h o
xr m s in his on  finiion: for mny, n h y, oo, gr  hioso h rs, hv
ombin  h s xr mii s of goos, s, for insn , Ariso , ho uni  in
his i  h ri of viru ih h ros riy of n nir if . Ci ho
28    sur o h is honourb . Dioorus, in his  finiion,   o 
h sm honourb n ss, fr om from in. E iurus ou hv on so oo, if h
h ombin  h o inion hih s h  by Hi ronymus, ih h ni n h ory
of Arisi us. For hos o m n isgr ih on noh r, n on his oun
h y m oy s r  finiions; n, hi h y boh ri h mos b uifu
Gr k, si, n ih r o s Arisi us, ho s  sur h hi f goo, v r
s k of fr om from in s  sur ; nor o s Hi ronymus, ho ys i on h
 fr om from in is h hi f goo, v r us h or  sur [ g 134] for h
 in ssn ss, insmuh s h n v r v n r kons  sur   mong h hi
ngs hih r  sirb .

II. Th y r so o isin hings, h you my no hink h h iff r n
 onsiss ony in ors n nm s. On is o b ihou in, h oh r o b
ih  sur . Bu your shoo no ony  m  o mk on nm for h s o 
hings hih r so x ingy unik , (for I ou no min h so muh,) bu

you n vour so o mk on hing ou of h o, hih is u ry im ossib
. Bu E iurus, ho mis boh hings, ough o us boh x r ssions, n in f
 h o s ivi h m in r iy, bu si h o s no isinguish b  n h
m in ors. For hough h in mny  s ris s h v ry  sur hih  
 by h sm nm , h v nur s o sy h h o s no v n sus  h h
r is ny goo h v r unonn   ih h kin of  sur hih Arisi us
m ns; n h mk s his s m n in h v ry  h r his ho isours
is bou h hi f goo. Bu in noh r book, in hih h u rs o inions of h
gr  s  igh in  onis form of ors, n in hih h is si o hv  
iv r  or s of isom, h ri s in hos ors hih you r   quin 
ih, O Torquus. For ho is h r of you ho hs no  rn h f Ep cuu,
 y, h  fum l m m? b cu h y    m  f h g   gv
y     gu  m    hppy l f ,  uc   w h u bl b v y.
C  , h  f , wh h  I m  l g h  m m f h  c cly. If
h h g wh ch  h ff c  cu  f pl u   luu u m  w 
  l  h m fm ll f  f h g,  f  h,  f p ,   h
w h m wh  h pp  l m   h     , w hul hv h g  f
 ful w h;  m  wul h  b f ll  w h pl u  fm ll qu , 
hv     yh g p ful  m lchly, f ll uch h g 
v l.
O h  T  u cul    h m lf  lg . I b g f yu, Tquu,  
h ,   ll m ,  h  wh Ep cuu y?b cu h pp    m , lhugh h
 w  h m lf,  ll  w h  h  Tquu m  . Bu h w   
ll pu u,    w h g  cf  c , I , h  ,   h   
cl w; bu yu   p c v wh h m . If,   I, h y  h g
 m  h , h  I  v  hll u  wh h m , bu [pg 135] h
wh h y. A f wh h y  h lu
p   pl ly ugh f m  
u u m     b blm  f h y  w  m , h l  buly; ju 
 f h w   y h p c      b fu ful w h f h y  
 cv u,  f h y f   h  g,   h,  p . A y , wh
 h bj c f m g y c p    h luu u,  f upp g y p
pl , wh, wh l l v g luu uly, wul  b  pv  by h cumm ph
lph , pv   ly h y gu g  ll h  v c . S ll, wul  y
u, Ep cuu, blm luu u m  f h m  fc f h  l v g  uch  m
    puu v y  f pl u ; p c lly wh ,  yu y, h ch f
pl u f ll   b f
fm p ? Bu y  w f  m  buch  m   f
 fm hv g y  l g u cupl , h h y w ll  v  u f h c 
v  l;   f fm f  g  h h h y  cly  p  g h
pg u f h Hym ,29
S  mh f l f f m  qu  uff c ,
Th  v h my b f h h  b lw,
 b g g up h Ep cu   m y f p ,  f h y w   g  u f
 m  c  ch : If   b  ,   f h u ; f  l  lg 
m ,  mu b l gh   g . Th    h g wh ch I   u , 
m ly, hw  m wh   v   luuy c p bly hv h  pp    u 
  .
VIII. Wh h   h u f y g, I hul hv h g   pch h m w 
h f h y ly   bu  h  pp   ? Th   h m  y g, I hu
l  blm  buch  m  f h y w    buch  m . I h m wy  m
gh y, I hul  blm v  w c  m  f h y w  v uu. Th  m f
 c ml y    h  luuy f  lf  h g  b blm . A, 
, O Tquu,  p  h uh, f pl u  h ch f g, h  qu  
gh   h  . F I hul b y  p cu  my lf, ( yu  
h hb  f  g,) m    buch    vm  v  h bl  b c 
wy fm bqu ,  h  h   y, wh l  ll uff  g fm  g 
, gg h m lv  g ; m  wh,  h y y, hv  v   h  l v   
h u      ,  wh, hv g  vu  h  p my,   uc  
 g c . [pg 136] N f u mg  h  buch  m  f h  l v pl 

ly. Yu, hw v , h  m   p  f  f    l g b v v, m


 wh, by h mplym  f h m  lful c   b ,  by c fully
cull g h ch c  puc f f h m , fwl ,  hu , v  ll 
g  
M  wh w  ch  w   fm fm g c .
A Luc l u y, m  wh
S  ,  cl h y w  w h w,
Th ll h flvu  ll  m  u ju 
  m   h jym  f luu  uch h, f h y    wy, Ep c
uu y h h    w wh h   h c b cll  g. L  h m
l hv b u ful by    up h m; l  h  clh , h  pl , h
  cl  f C h  v u, h bqu  g-m  lf, ll c p, 
ll I hul  v  b uc   y h h  m    v   luuy w  l
v g h  w ll  hpp ly. Fm wh ch  fllw,    h pl u 
 pl u , bu h pl u   h ch f g. N w Ll u, wh, wh  
yug m, w  pup l f D g   h S c,  f w f P u, cll 
 w  m b cu h    u  wh w m pl   h  , (f
     fllw h h m wh h   c  g h  mu  c  ly h
v  pl   u f  c m ,) bu b cu h hugh  f bu mll
mpc .
O  l, hw h m my b h m lf,
By whm yu' w  vlu ! Pu f yu,
Th w  m Ll u wul luly hu,
A  g ll u p cu    .
A  w w ll   by Ll u,  h my b uly cll   w 

m,

Yu Publ u, Gll u, yu wh lpl,


Yu   m  bl m; yu  v 
I ll yu l f hv  lly f   w ll,
Thugh p  g ll yu ubc  h pw,
A v gw hug ug .
Th m wh y h    wh,  h  bu   mpc  pl u h m
 lf,    h h m f  w ll wh  f  v yh g  pl u . A y 
h     y h Gll u h   m  f    h w h : f h wu
l [pg 137] b p  g uuly: h ly    h h h v  f   w ll. W
h uch  g y   v  p c pl   h   gu h b w  pl u  g
. A h ul f  c , h ll wh f  w ll f   h y w h, b
u h     fllw h ll wh f   h y w h  h  f f  w
ll. Ll u lwy f   w ll. Hw ? Luc l u hll  ll yu
H f    w ll  ', w ll g 
wh? Wh w h ch f p f h  upp ?
Cv  f pu  m ,
W ll,  wh l ?
w h ch ful m .
F h cm   bqu  w h  qu l m ,   u ly f pp  g h w
 f u . Ll u h   qu   gh   y h Gll u h v  f  
w ll; h  qu   gh  cll h m m  bl ; p c lly  h  v  h whl
f h      h p . A y    ff m h h    up 
h w h . Why h    h  f  w ll? B cu f  g w ll  f  g w 
h pp y, fugl y,  g  ; bu h  m w  h hb  f f  
g bly, h ,    lu , pfl g , gluu, u mly m . Ll u,
h , w  p f  g h flvu f  l  Gll u' ug , bu m 
ly   g h  f h ug  w h  ff  c ; wh ch h wul  hv
 f h h plc  h ch f g  pl u .

IX. W mu h   c pl u ,  ly     fllw wh   gh, bu
 v   b bl  l b cm gly. C w h  cll h h ch f g  l
f , wh ch w 
c p bly b  v    bqu ?
Bu hw   h h  ph lph  p   f h  f pp   ,m u
l   c y, m ul bu   c y,  h   h  ul 
 c y? I h f  plc , h h  m     v  ; f u f w
 h h m h . Nw h     v  g, bu b  g  p c . If h
h   h h   w  f pp   , ul  up fluu  , 
 h h ul pp    m gh b l ub v    w ,  c y
   c y, h wul hv b  ll  gh. A h wh hv l  wh
h  p    uully y . F    v c u  v     c   p 
 g u. Hw v , l  u p v  h , f h  p   l gc  gu g; h
[pg 138] p   cfu ly. W mu ubm   h   lg  h    m  
  gh. I  , hw v , ppv ,     much  I c   u , 
ph lph  p  g f h  c  y f   g bu  h    . I  p
 bl    bu  h    ? I y h h y mu b b h ,  c
 by h . F wh m  h   whm pp   30 w ll, wh c  y 
h h my w h pp y b cll  pp   v ? If , h w ll b v c u, h
ugh   l m    ;   ul  , bu ly  m  ;  h w ll
b luu u  h m m . Nw wh  f  ph lphy  h wh ch 
  b g w h  h  uc  f  pv y, bu  c  w h  m 
 g
f v c ? Alhugh  h   v   I m lg h   h      h
fc, ly I w h h wul p  h m lf b  . L  h m cll h  f l g
h w h  f u ;  l  h m p h m f    f h  bj c, 
, wh  p  g f v c , f  mp c ,  f h g   v c ,  b
bl   c    w    cp l chg . Hw v , ll h     by
h m w h  g  l f f m,   f   p  ;  I   blm h m,
f   b cm g   g   ph lph ,   f uch  g   pu 
,   f  h  w  g  f l ly.
Bu  ll, fm h fc f h  f  pp  g  mbc h pl u , (I m 
 h wh ch ll   cll by h  m ,) w h  g  l f g  , h
   m   g   ff cul ,  h, f h cul ly p u  c , h
  h g  hm ful h      m l ly h h wul   f 
h  f pl u . A h , wh  h h b  pu  h bluh, (f h pw 
f u  v y g ,) h    fug   y g h y    c p
bly b m  h pl u f h m wh  f
fm p . Bu h  f
f m fm p    cll  pl u . I   c , y h , bu h m
. Bu wh  yu y bu h h g b g u ly  ff  ?I w ll f  yu m
y m ,  I my y  um bl h,   cu u   mb g 
yu  , whm I c  ly cv c f wh v  I ch . Why h   w h  
 y h, [pg 139] f  b f
f pl u
fm p   h h gh   g
,  b   u f pl u  h h gh   g
f p ? B cu   
pl u wh ch  h cy  p , bu h b c f p .
X. Bu h  h     , h    g  pf h  h v y mm  wh
 h y h f pl u b c   wy h h     ll wh  m 
g h g c b cll  g, ( h fllw up h     w h h  m
 h h m  uch pl u   p c p bl by h pl  by h ,
  h  h g wh ch  c cy ugh  fb  h m  m  ,) h , l
  c  why ph lph , w h h  wh ch h cll h ch f g
  v   h g wh ch  wh    g f  w  , h h h m lf 
fm u h w hv     w h f pl u  ll, f w  f
fm
p . Hw c    h   m ! If h h l   m c c 
v     f    f h  ubj c, f h h  pp   g  h ug 
f p  g  h cmm m  g f w, h wul  v  hv fll   uc
h  ff cul . Bu   , yu 
wh   h   g. Th wh ch  
h v  cll  pl u  ll,  h l wh ch   l c v pl u , wh

ch  w   c h g, h m  bu  . F h cll h m g bl ,


 I my y, w -  pl u . A  m  h p    l ghly f h m h
yu m gh fcy yu w  l   g  Mcu Cu u. A  m  h l h m 
h ghly h h y h c fm v  h l gh    f wh l  g
  m  wh ch   v   h  pf f  ph lph , bu h b f h
c . F v c    cf   lf  lgug , bu p    l 
h m . H    f  ful w h luuy pv     b f
fm bu
l       fm f . Wh l p  g  h  wy h pp   b f h g
f  c pl , h m  wh w h  b cm  buch  my b cm ph lph  f
.
Nw,  my p  , h  g  f h ch f g   b ugh  h f  
g  f l v g  ml. A     ml  b   j c   pl u , 
      g;  hu p    v l. A Ep cuu y h c ll 
 c    h ubj c f h g  h v l  cm  by h  ml
wh ch   y   pv . Yu, , hv l  w h m p  ,  h 
 yu w [pg 140] w. Hw my   h   h m! F by  f  
c  wh ch  f pl u w ll  pul g f jug f h ch f g; pl 
u  b l y  pl u  m ? c , f h g  w ll, w  l  
g hw  p  fm Ep cuu. If   fm pl u    , h  c  ly
u      b  mp fm v l h  lf; wh ch w g; f   fm pl
u  m , wh ch, hw v ,  wh yu y, h  h  w ll b  pl u
  c  bl     v  b p  v . A  h m  m h ju
-b  ml yu  p  g f    b g  w h h h gh  pl u ; wh c
h h b   f   by yu  c    b g  p .
Hw v , Ep cuu        v h  gum  fm f,  v  f
m b , wh ch h l  up  m  f u   w  ;    y h
h y, u  h gu c f u ,  ly h  pl u f b g f
fm
p . F h   f pl u c c  h     f h m ;  h 
h   f f m fm p  y mpul by wh ch  c c up h m . Th
 f H ymu blu   h  m h g. F h pl u ly c up
h m  wh ch h h pw  f llu g h   . Th  f Ep cuu lwy
h  cu  h  pl u wh  w h g  pv h pl u  ugh f
ully; b cu h pl u wh ch c   m  bh llu  f 
  lf,  b ;  h     by h pl u wh ch    
wh ch h    h  g   bu f m fm p . Hw h  c  b p
p   y h u b g  w h   f pl u ,  y   pu h ch
f g  h ?
XI. Bu  f b , I   c   h h y c puc y jugm  
ll. F lhugh h y    pv ,    ll p bl f h m  b w
g. Ju    c my b b   c  by hv g b  m   pup
,  h  my b  ully;  h u f b       pv
 by v l uc , bu  wg ully. N   c c  y h u
c   h f     pl u , bu ly  lv  lf      
 p  v  lf f  uhu. F v y  ml h mm  h   b l
v   lf,  v y p f  lf,  bv ll    lv  w p c
pl p, m ly  m   by,  f w  pc   lv h  p
 [pg 141] p f ch. F h    h m   l  h by m
p f p c l c qu c ;      h g  l gh p c p  f
h  fc,  h  b g   m   c ,       h h g wh
ch  by u g v      p c pl g,    j c h cy
. Nw    g  qu   wh h  mg h  p my ul g, pl u
h y plc  . Bu  h  h h   h g b y pl u ,  l
mb,    ,  m  f h m ,   g y f h by,  h lh
, pp   m  b    f h g   gc . A  h  h whl q
u   f g  v l u. Nw Pl m  l A l hugh h h 
g wh ch I m    ju w h g   f g. A fm h   g   h
 p   f h Ol Ac my  f h P  p  c Schl, wh ch l  h m  

y h h g   g w  l v  ccc w h u h   y, 


jy h ch f g h g wh ch  g v  by u , w h h ccmp m  
f v u . Cll ph   h g  v u c p pl u ; D u h g c
p f m fm p . A ll h  m  ch h   f h g   g 
m  f h  h g wh ch I hv m   . A  ppu hugh  w  mp
l pl u . Th S c  f     b g g w h u , wh ch h y y c
 ly b l v g v uuly, l v g hubly. A h y  p   fuh  h
u l v w h  u  g f h h g wh ch hpp  ully,  l c g
h wh ch   ccc w h u ,   j c g h cy. S h 
 h  f   , ll f wh ch clu h y: , h f A  ppu  E

p cuu; h  c, h f H ymu; h h , h f C  : h
wh ch h y  m   w h m qul fy g   ; h , m ly, f Pl
m, Cll ph,  D u:   gl  , f wh ch Z   h uh, wh ch
 whlly  f    wh  b cm g; h   y,  h y. F Pyh, A
 ,  H  llu, hv lg  c u  bl v . Th   hv b  c
  w h h m lv ,    m h   g
w h h  b g  g; 
h A  ppu h  f     b pl u ; H ymu, f m fm p ; 
 C  , h jym  f wh  p   u by u  h p c pl g
.
XII. Bu wh  Ep cuu h g v  pl u h h gh  [pg 142]  , f h m 
h m pl u h A  ppu   h ugh  hv p  h m h g 
 h ch f g h h  ; f h m  h m h H ymu  , h wul
h  hv b   g g h f    H ymu' pl u ,    h
 f A  ppu.
F,   wh h y, h    c   by h    h m lv  h pl u
   g  h p    v l, h h  bu  m w gh  h  
 h h lw llw h m. W  h jug  f p v c , bu w c
 c  yh g wh ch    l glly cm u  h cg c f u  bu
l; ,  uch  c ,     pup h jug    h hb , wh  
h y puc   c , f  g, f h qu   b lg  my ju  c ; f
, f h m     cm u  h  ju  c , h    l fm f w
 wul  y h m g v vl  y  h   c  . Nw, wh   h
 h     jug  f? Wh h   h g  w   b  , f  h, 
  f ff; wh h     g  ll  mv g; wh h    qu  
u. Wh   c , h , w ll   puc , hv g f  f ll cll  
h   f h wl g f  v   hum ff , wh ch  pp ly cll  w
m;  hv g, f  h, c     lf h v u  wh ch   p
 u  h m    f ll h g, bu wh ch yu m u  b ly h 
 ll    hm   f pl u ? Th   c , hw v , f ll h  qul
 , w ll puc f  f ll,  p c g pl u , h h    m f
 ;  ly  m f  b g plc  by  lf  h  f h ch f
g, wh ch  wh w  l g f, bu  m v  f  b g plc  
c   v  w h wh  hubl .
Th m   c w ll b p  up f m fm p ; C   l w ll b
  g ;  w ll y  f    f h ch f g b ppv  f, wh ch h
y cl c   w h pl u ,  f m fm p ,  wh ch   v  f
wh  hubl . A   w ll l v w, wh ch  w ll c   v   v
 g ; f  w ll h  ly w h m m, h h g  g c p wh
  hubl , h g v l c p wh   gc ful; h v yh g l
 h  f  c qu c  ll, ,  ll v , f ly  much, h 
  h   b ugh f   v  , bu ly  l c    j c ;  l
,  w ll p f  h wh ch  [pg 143] hll p c v  b h m  chly 
w  w h wh  hubl ,   ch ,  h m  m , w h h p my g
 h g f u ,  w h h p f c  f h whl l f ;   w ll 
 ll h m cl ly, f  cm     gh u  g wh h  h c
v y b w  h m   f fc,  ly f w.

XIII. I w, fllw g h uh y f h  m, w ll  h m  h h 


; f,  f  I c, I w ll  m  h h  pu ,  w ll  g ll h 
 mpl p    wh ch h    c   f v u ,  jugm  wh ch
ugh  b u ly  mv     c fm ph lphy. F  f ll, I w ll
 c h p c pl  f A  ppu,  f ll h Cy  c,m  wh w   
f   plc h ch f g  h pl u wh ch p c lly c   h  
 w h  w  ,   g g h f m fm p . Th  m     p
c v h,   h  b f gllp g,    f plugh g,   
g f hu g,  m, l,  b f w bj c,  A l y, m ly,
f u  g  f c g  f h w    f ml g. Bu,  h
h  h,   lw mv g  lgu  h p  b  f ,    pl
u  ppg g h  p c , h y fc  l h h   v   ml w
b f h m pup ; h wh ch h g c pp   m m bu; 
 ll h    pp    A  ppu, wh c   h pl u  ly
h h gh , bu l h ly  , wh ch ll h   f u c    ly 
f h pl u .
Yu, hw v , h   ff  ly; bu h ,  I hv l y  ,  g g uly
wg,f  h    h f gu f h hum by,  h m bl   g
pw  f h hum m ,  m h m w b f  h   h h m
jym  f pl u ;  mu w l    H ymu, wh ch f g 

h m wh ch yu m  m , , I m gh y,  f  cll , m ly, f 
m fm p ; f     fllw, b cu p    v l, h  b f
f
m h v l  uff c  f l v g w ll. E u p   m c cly, wh 
h y,
Th m wh f l  v l,  
Ejy  g   g.
L  u  f   hppy l f  c  g,   h  p ll g f v l, bu  
h cqu    f g;  l  u   pcu ,  by  g h g, wh
h    f l g pl u , [pg 144]  A  ppu y,  f l g  p , 
 H ymu  , bu by  g m h g,  g v g u m   hugh. A
 ll h  m h g my b   g  h ch f g wh ch C   cll
 uch; wh ch h , hw v , bugh fw,   much f h pup f pv
g h  p  ,  f c c g h S c, w h whm h w  v c : 
 h  g f h   uch, h, wh     v u ,  pp  l ly  h
v m uh y,   b bl  p f c  hppy l f   m cmpl  m
 ,    h  h h whl f h  p    cu   bu; f h y
wh   v u pl u , wh ch  h h g wh ch bv ll h  v u h
  f mll mpc ,  f m fm p , wh ch, v  f  b  f m f
m v l,   v h l   h ch f g, m u f     wh ch  
 v y  ly  cmm    m   g  l,  y  I   u  why h
y    uch   ggly    c  m : f,  f h y h  b g
m h g    v u , f  f ll h y  h g f h l  p bl
vlu ; f w h y  h g  by  ,   f u  g v yh g wh c
h u h ppv  f  h h gh  g,  pl u . A  ll h  h
g pp    A    Pyh blu ly f  c qu c  ll,  h
 h y   h h  w l  lly   ff  c wh v  b w  b g   m
 p f c  f h lh,    m   bl c   f    , p pl
 ghly ugh hv lg g g v  up gu g g  h m; f, wh l h y 
  up  h v yh g w cmp    v u l ,  uch   g

  p v  f ll pw  f m g y  l c  f  l c cumc , 
 wh l h y gv  h g fm wh ch  cul  g  ,   wh ch  cul
  ly, h y   l y  y  v u  lf, wh ch h y w  pf  g 
mbc . Bu H  llu, wh ugh   f  v yh g  wl g , w,  ,
h h  w  g, bu wh h w w  h g   p bl g, 
uch   h l f cul b  gul  by ; h  f , h l h b   
c   lg  m g, f,  , h  h b    wh h gu  g 
 h m  c Chy ppu.

XIV. Yu chl, h ,  w h ly   m  g  b cmb ; f h c


  w h h Ac m c    uc    , f h y ff m h g, , 
 f h y  p   f  v g  y c   wl g , w h  fllw [pg 145
] wh v   pbbl . Bu w hv m ubl w h Ep cuu, b cu h cmb
  w  f pl u ,  b cu h  h  f ,  my h   c
, hv b  vc  f h p  ;  m hw  h , h p pl , wh, h
ugh h y hv h l  uh y, hv  v h l  h g   pw ,  
h    ; , ul  w  fu h m, ll v u ,  ll  pu ,  ll 
u gly, mu b b . A , hv g pu   h p   f ll h 
, h   m   c ,  b w  Tquu  m , bu b w  v u 
 pl u ;  h  c  Chy ppu,  m f g  cu    g  
uy,  f fm  p  g;  h h   h h whl qu     h ch
f g     h  cv y: bu I h  , f I hw h  l y f
wh  hubl ,  h    h g  b ugh f by   f  w
  c c ll c ,  f  w  , h ll yu gum    c
v hw; h  f , wh  I hv c bl h  wh  chc  , p 
g b fly,  h  m  qu  , I hll ppch ll yu gum , O Tqu
u, ul  my m my f l m .
W u , h , h  b hubl wh ch  uch h, l v g ll v
g u f h qu  ,  c b   v ly p   by  lf, w hu h 
g f y  w  pf    v  fm . A wh  chc   my b u
,   much by h  f    wh ch I hv mply , (lhugh h my
h lp  m  g ,)  by h cmm   m  f ll m ,  by h z l 
 cuc f v y v uu m; f uch  my h g f h  l  ,
b cu h y  b cm g, b cu h y   gh, b cu h y  hubl ,
v  hugh h y   p c v y vg l ly   ul fm h m: f m
  ff  fm b   my h  h g  , bu p c lly  h   p
 cul, h h y hv     ll c g v   h m by u ,   m 
, c v , v gu,  vlv g my h g  h m  m w h h g   
p  y, , f I my  y, gc u  p c v h cu  f h g,  h
 c qu c   c  ,   u m ph,   cmb  h g wh
ch  uc c ,   c c h fuu w h h p  ,   mbc
  v w h whl cu f  c   l f . Th m   h l m
m   u f h c y f m ,  cl    g
w h [pg 146] h m by
u ,  cv  ,  cum;  h,   g u w h ff c  f h
 f    l , h pc  fuh ,  u   h m lf   c y, f
 f ll f h  f llw-cuym ,  ub qu ly f ll ml;   Pl
 w  Achy,  cll c h h h b  b,  f h m lf l ,
bu f h  cuy  h  fm ly;  h h   bu  mll p  f h m
lf l f f h m lf. A  c h m u h mpl   m     f
fm ll
c   g h uh, wh ch  m  ly v  bl wh , b g f
c , w w h  w wh   g plc , v   h h v ; l   fm h
 b g  g w lv v yh g h  u , h   y, h  f hful
,  mpl , c  ,  w h wh  v , fl   c ful, uch  f
u, p juy, cu g  ju c .
Th m   h   lf m h g lg  mg f c , u   f cmm
 h  h f b  c ; h  g ll v  wh ch c b fl  m  ly
ubl , bu  g f c; m h g lfy  ubl m , f  g h g, y l
 g    , lwy v c bl . A, wh  h  h  f h hubl
hv b   c ,  fuh fllw, f h m b uy  u    h h 
h ,  wh ch    m    ;  wh  h l   f   h
h   p c v   h b uy   g y f ll h   p fm, w 
p  c  wh  hubl  w  c ; f,  c qu
c f h  h
v u  wh ch I hv l y m   ,  m v  h 
,     v u  ju y  by y w w  c ,   
f  h      y yh g wh ch my pp   ll uu    h 
g y f  m.

XV. H  , w, O Tquu, yu hv  p cu f wh  hubl cmpl  ly


f ll    f  h ;    c   whlly  h  fu v u  wh ch y
u l m   . Bu yu m  Ep cuu y h h w h g wh v 
f ,     u  wh,  wh  f qul y h p pl  
  b , wh pf   m u h ch f g by h  f wh  h
ubl . F f v yh g   f    h,  f h y y h pl u h
 p  , h  h y h h y  l g ly, (h   h  v y w
,)    u   
wh  l m  g ugh  b cv y  u  
h  w hubl ; f,  cum h , h y h h l  hubl
[pg 147] wh ch  ccu  gl u by cmm  p;  h, y h , lh
ugh   f  m pl  h m pl u ,  ll  ugh f h 
f pl u . D yu  
hw g ly h  w p   ff ? A bl ph l
ph , by whm  ly G c  Ily, bu ll h cu  f h bb 
  flu c , y h h    u  wh hubl   , f
 b   pl u , ul , p chc ,   h h g wh ch  p   by h
cmm cv   f h ppulc . Bu my p   , h h   f  v
  hubl ,  h  l hubl     cll   fm h c cum
c f  b g p   by h my, bu b cu   uch  h g h v 
f m  w  ucqu   w h ,  f h y   h g bu ,  wul 
ll b p  why by   f  w   c b uy  c ll c .
A  h g , b g fc   y l  h pw  f u , wh ch  lwy
   bl , y  h  plc wh yu l    l l wh l g,h  m
 c l v pl ly ul  h l l v  hubly. Nw h , wh  h
m  g f hubly?    m  h m  pl ly? If , h   m
 w ll cm  h , h  m c l v hubly ul  h l v  hub
ly. I  hubly cc g  publ c  p? Th  f h ff m h  m
c l v pl ly w hu h h publ c  p  h  fvu. Wh c b
m hm ful h f h l f f  w  m   p   h cv   f f
l? Wh  , h , h  h  plc h u  by h w hubl
? C  ly h g c p wh c b   v ly p   f  w  ; f
f  b p   f h  f pl u , h  wh  f p  , I hul l
 w,  h wh ch c b ugh f  h hmbl ? H    m, wh
l h plc  hubl    uch   h h ff m   b mp bl
 l v pl ly w hu ,  h  h hubl wh ch  ppul,  
ff m h  c l v pl ly w hu ppul y;   u  by
h w hubl yh g c p wh   gh,    v ly  b p  
by  lf  f  lf, fm   g   w pw   flu c  
 c u .
XVI. Th  f , Tquu, wh  yu   h Ep cuu    luly h  m
 cul  l v pl ly f h    l l v hubly,  w  ly, 
july, yu [pg 148] pp    m  b b g yu lf. Th  w uch  
gy  yu w,  ccu f h  g y f h h g wh ch w   c 
by h w, h yu b cm ll , h yu  up,  f   yu y  u
p u  f yu w  g v g  l m   my h hubl    ju c
 m  m  p   by Ep cuu. Hw b cm g w   yu  u h lgu
g , wh ch    c y f ph lph , h f h y    u  w hul
 hv  g    f ph lphy  ll! F   u f lv f h w
, wh ch  v y  lm mply  by Ep cuuI m  w m, f u , ju c , 
  mp c h m  f h m m bl pw  f m  hv b   h m lv 
 h uy f ph lphy.
Th   f u y , y Pl,  m cu  u; bu y  w   
w 
m w h h m. Wh  v h m  p  f  lf wul  c  f  cul b b
h l by h
y ! Why ? B cu    g  u   b bl   v  pl
u   h m  lful m . Why  ju c ll ?  wh   h h
 g v     h l  much-w pv b, H   m w h whm yu my pl
y31  h  . Th , hugh ppl   ly  h g, h  v y   v p
pl c ;  h  v y c w  flu c  by h fc,   by h

w  .
F h h g wh ch yu w  y g w  v y w   pw l  gum ,wh
 yu ug  h h w c  w  m   by h  w cc c ,  l by
f  f pu hm , wh ch  h  fl c   h m,  p h m  c
 f  h  w ll b fl c . O ugh   mg   m  m ,  w 
 h  m ,   g m, wh, wh v  h h  , p m  g h m lf
,    v yh g; bu h  l  u fcy  , wh w h g  h w 
 f  v yh g  u ful  cu , cfy, wy m, bl w h    v
 pl f  c v g y   c ly, w hu y w  ,  y  b g p
 vy  . D yu h  h I m p  g f Luc u Tubulu?wh, wh   p h
h b    g  jug up h [pg 149]  l f m  ,  m
y  flu c h   c    u gu  ly, h h   y  Publ u Scvl,
b g  bu f h p pl , m  m  b f h p pl , h  qu y h
ul b m  h c . I ccc w h wh ch  c
f h p pl , Cu Cp
, h cul, w    by h    v  g h ff . Tubulu mm
  ly w   b hm ,       m y  ply  h chg ,
f h m  w  u.
XVII. W  , h  f , qu  g bu  m wh  m  ly w c , bu b
u  wh m gl  cu g w h h  w c  , ( Qu u Pmp u32   wh 
h  pu   h  y f Num ,)  y  wh   f  f v yh g,
bu wh h h    g f h  g f cc c , wh ch  c h m 
ubl  ll   fl ; f  m wh  cll  cl   c    f f
m fm g g  h m lf, h h w ll v  p    g v  wh  
wg by h ; f wh l  h m  g f h w cfy (v uu)?
I  cll c   cc  b g p     cul  h l by Publ u S 
l u Rufu, wh  h  p  h c  wh ch h   v c  h  f 
 h  m : Th h h b  l f h   Qu u F u Gllu;  wh w l
l  h b  w   h h h    S  l u   c h wh h
l f b h  h m hul cm  h  ugh . S  l u    h h h  
. H cul  y  w h mpu y, f wh w h   cv c h m? N f u
b l v  h m;   w m l ly h h hul  ll  l wh    
w   , h h wh h   w  h  w ll h h h m h  qu 
wh ch h ugh  hv m . H  , m v , h hv g w  cmply w
h h Vc 33 lw, h   [pg 150]    v l , ul  h  f 
 w  f  cy p  . I my lf w v y yug wh  I w p    h 
cc , bu h  w  p   l my m  f h h gh  chc ,  
f whm hugh h m ugh  b g v   F  h cul cm  h  u
  h pv   f h Vc  lw. S  l u      v y lg h  
c ; f wh ch, f h h fllw  h p   f h m  wh p f   wh w
  gh  hubl  ll pf   vg , h wul  v  hv uch 
  gl p y. D yu h  h h w f w  u  u y  h  m
  h ccu? N  b  f :  h cy, h w   ch m, w g 
 h h  c ,  h  j c   h   ch , f h    g  vlu  m
 y wh ch w cqu    ly w hu v l g h lw, bu v  by h lw
. A m y  wh yu l h  wh  g f, v  w h g    , f
  h ff c  cu f my  g  pl u . A, h  f , v y g
 pp  f   b cu   f h  f wh  b cm g  hubl
, by h wh  c  h wh   gh  hubl   b ugh f 
w  ;  h m  f yu chl, wh m u
v yh g by pl u , mu 
cu  v y g      cqu  g  pl u , f y g  pp y
 y mp h  c    ,  c um u pl u   pcu 
by m y. A yu m  Ep cuu mu, f h w h   puu wh h h m lf
c   h ch f f ll g h g,  h m h Sc p   , wh h  p
p c f g  gly b f h m f h cul cmp l A bl   u  Af
c. A w h h  v w, wh g  g    h cu ! f h m u  h
whl f h   p  by h  f hu,  f pl u . A  l
m , yu w  m, b g c   by h pp c f m vg , w ll f
gh34 cug uly, f  hul b  c y. If h  pl  [pg 151]  u

v y  f pu hm
cv  , h w ll  j c ; f h   , h w ll  p 
, f h w ll b hughly m  f  c mp f  h, b hm ,  v
 f p , wh ch yu    p    l bl wh  yu hl  u  w
c  m    pu hm , bu  ubl wh  yu gu h  w  m h l
wy m g h v l  h  fu .
XVIII. Bu p cu  yu lf  m  ly cu g,    b p p   
c  h ly  y c cumc  h my   , bu l c  gly pw fu
l; , f c , Mcu Cu w, wh, hw v , lwy  c   h  w
ul g  p  ;    h  y u f  Pmp u ,  whm w 
ugh  f l g ful f h  v uu cuc; f, lhugh h  cl   
c july, h cul b uju w h p f c mpu y. Bu hw my uju c 
 c b cmm   wh ch  v h l    cul f  y gu f c g
! Supp yu f , wh  y g, h    yu    h  h  c
 h  ugh ,  y  h  v     w  h  w ll,  F u  ,  h
  v  m     y  h h h  , wh w ll yu ? Yu  
w ll   . P hp Ep cuu h m lf wul hv    ; ju  S u
P ucu h  f S u  ; h wh h l f b h  h m  , u  m f
,  l v g mg f h  w v u  h y,  l   p ,  h m
 v uu  up gh f ll m ; f h , hugh   w w h h h
b     by C u Pl u,  Rm  gh f h gh chc   g  f
u , f h   c f Nu ,   , cm f h  w cc  h  w w, 
, hugh h h    f h fc,   l   h  h cmm   wh ch h
h  c v  fm h  hub,  m v  h h  c  h . Bu I 
yu ( c yu wul c  ly hv c   h m m  yu lf),  yu
 u  h h pw  f u  ll h g  , much  yu yu
 lv , wh  f  v yh g  yu w vg , ,  yu yu lv  y,
 pl u ,  ll p fm c  fm wh ch   v   h yu  gu  
 by pl u , bu by p c pl  f uy,  h yu w up gh u h
m flu c v  yu h y v c u   g?
If yu  w, y C  , h   w ly g h   y plc ,  h 
m  w g g gly    [pg 152] w up  wh  h wul b 
g yu m vg , yu wul b c g w c ly f yu    w h m  
   w h  ;  y  yu cul  b pu h , f wh cul p bly cv
c yu? Hw v , I m w ll g  lg  h  p ; f   v  , ul 
 qu y, g f h  ju c pc  fm u ,  f ll h  h g 
 f    vg , h  g m c p bly b fu. Bu  h  
ubj c w hv pu  uff c  umb  f gum   h muh f Ll u,  
u b    R publ c.
XIX. Nw pply h m gum   m y,   mp c , wh ch   m 
 f h pp   ,  ub     . C w y h  m py uff
c   g  h  c  f m y, wh ulg  h  lu  uch  m
   hv  w    f h  cuc?   h  yh g wh ch   
clly flg  u, v  f  l f  pu  u ? Wh  bv m  ? D
h y     c clcul  f pl u ,     h bl , 
h  h  bl f h  cuy?   h y c   h  by  c   
u  mp u y f cug ? D yu h  , O Tquu, h h mp  u 
c  f yu, f h cul h  wh w  w y g, wul h  l   
yu   m  cc  g h m,   m  , wh  I   h h h  h 
g f h  w  , bu v yh g f h f h  publ c;  yu,  h c
y, ff m h h   h g c p w h  v w  h  w vg ? Bu
f yu w   w h  pl  yu lf fuh ,  w   y p ly h h 
 h g c p f h  f pl u , hw  yu h  h h wul b 
uch    ?
B  . L  Tquu, f yu w ll, hv c  l ly w h  v w  h  w 
vg , f I wul h  mply h p   h pl u , p c lly wh
 p  g f  m    m,  h  cll gu , Publ u D c u, h f 

m wh v  w cul  h fm ly,   h , I y, wh  h w  v g h m
lf,  uh g  h full p  f h  h  h m l f h my f 
h L , h   ll f h  w pl u ? F wh   wh  w h  f  
y, wh  h  w h h hul p  h mm   ly,  wh  h w  g h
 h w h m
g  z l h Ep cuu h   v  pl u   v g  b 
ugh [pg 153] w h? A ul  h  pl  f h  h b    v ly ll 
, h   wul  hv m     h  fuh culh p; , g , wul
h  , wh  f gh g g  Pyhu, hv fll   bl wh  h w cu
l,   ff   h m lf up f h  f h  publ c   h  v c m  
 u  up  ucc   fm h m fm ly. I w ll fb  g v g y m
mpl . I m gh g   f w fm h G , uch  L  , Epm , 
h
 fu m p hp. A f I w   b g  hu g up u w l f
uch c , I hul  bl h my p ,  cmp l Pl u  g v h
 lf up, bu h  f,  v u . Bu h y wul b  h f m
. A  Aulu V u, wh w c     h   v  jug , w  h hb
 f y g  h  cll gu , wh , f  m w    h b  puc , h
 w   ll b g umm , E h  w hv h w    ugh,  I   
w wh  ugh;  I h  h I hv w bugh fw w    ugh.
F, wh w ll yu y? W  pl u h w  up yu,  m hughly w
hy f yu c , wh l  ll  yug m,  b Publ u Syll f h c
ulh p? A wh  yu h ucc    pcu g  f yu fh ,  m gl
l m, wh  cul   h pv ,  wh  c  z   ll  m ,  m
p c lly f  h  culh p! A,  ,  w by h  v c h w u
lv  b hv   uch  m    cul h vg f h whl by f 
h c  z  h  h u w.
Bu hw m bly   yu  m  p  , wh   h    yu  w  p cu
f  m l  w h h m um u  c  v pl u , w h  p ,
h  p    fuu ;   h h , f  m uu  w h h g  
m  ff c g h  whl by, w h  pl u , h  p    hp  f
;    wh cul b m m  bl h h  ,  m hppy h h 
h ?  h  cclu , h p  w h g   v l,  pl u h g 
 g.
XX. Th  w  m f Luv um, cll  Luc u Th u Blbu, whm yu c 
m mb ; h l v   uch  wy h  pl u cul b mg    qu   ,
h h h   up flu y f . H w g y f pl u ,  c  cl jug
f v y p c  f ,  v y  ch. S f  mv  [pg 154] fm ll up 
  ,    p  h um u c f c  wh ch  plc ,   mpl  wh c
h    h  cuy;  f fm f  g  h, h h w l   bl f
gh g f h  publ c. H bu  h  pp   ,  cc g  h  v  
 f Ep cuu, bu by h  w f l g f  y. H  uff c   c  
lwy  cm  upp  bh h y  hugy. H  uch f  w  h
m  m  c     m y f  g  ;   l c  uch w  
gv h m pl u ,  w,  h m  m , f
fm huful qul  . H h
 ll h h  m   ppl c  wh ch Ep cuu h     c y, h
h y h f h y    , h c u  wh  g. H w f
fm v y  f p ;  f h h f l y, h wul  hv b  mp
 ly, hugh h wul hv b  m cl    cul  phy c  h  p
h lph . H w  m f  b u ful cmpl  , f p f c h lh, f h g
  flu c ,  h, h  whl l f w  u  up  c  f v y
p bl v y f pl u . Nw, yu cll h  m hppy. Yu p c pl  cm
p l yu   . Bu  f m , I w ll ,  , v u  m h m wh
m I p f   h mV u h  lf hll p  f m ,  h w ll  h   
 Mcu R gulu b f h  hppy m f yu. F V u   luly h
 h  m, wh , f h  w cc, u   cmpul , c p h f h pl
g wh ch h h g v   h  my, h h  u   Chg , w,  h v
y mm  wh  h w b g u  w h l pl    hug , m hppy
h Th u wh l   g   b  f  .

R gulu h h h cuc f g  w; h h b  w c cul; h h h


  umph;  y  h    h  h p v u pl  f h   g   
 gl u  h l m fu wh ch h cu , b cu f h  w g f
h  ccy;  m fu wh ch pp  p  bl  u wh h  f , bu
w cully pl   h m wh u  . F m   hppy,  b cu f
h l y,  lc v u ,  lugh ,  j  g, h cmp  f l v y, b
u f  v  hugh w u  w h f m   ccy. Luc  , hv
g b  v h  by fc by h g' , cll  h  f llw-c  z   w 
,  l w h  lf. Th  g f f h , Buu b g h l    mv  f 
h Rm p pl , w h cu f l b y  h [pg 155] whl  . A u 
f  g f h m my f h wm, h  hub  h  fh  w  m c
ul35 h f  y  f h  publ c. Luc u V g  u,  m f mll pp y
  f h p pl ,  y y  f  h  bl hm  f l b y, l w h
 v g  ugh  w h h  w h, h  h llw h   b u    
h lu f App u Clu u, wh w  h  m v   w h h up m pw
.
XXI. Nw yu, O Tquu, mu h  blm ll h  c ,  l yu mu
b h  f c f pl u . A wh  cu  h,  wh    
h m u  wh cm  fw  h vc f pl u , wh  ubl
 cll y  llu u m  v  c  h  fvu    w    h 
chc ? F  w hv w   h m  fm h  c f u l 
w   , wh whl l f h b  cum   gl u lbu; m  wh c
 b   h  h v y m f pl u :   yu   f h gum  h 
y  umb. I hv  v  h  f Lycugu,  Sl, M l  ,  Th m cl ,
 Epm  b g m     h chl f Ep cuu; m  wh m   c
ly  h muh f ll h h  ph lph . Bu w,  c w hv b g
u   l w h h  p f h qu  , u f  A cu, u f h   u
 , w ll upply u w h h m  f  my g  m   my b uff c  f
u  b g fw  w   . I   b    y  l l f h  m 
, h  my vlum  bu Th m ?36 L  h  h g b cf    h G
: lhugh w hv   v  ph lphy  ll h l b l c c  fm h m,
 ll h   h g wh ch my b llwbl f h m  , bu  f u. T
h S c   v c w h h P  p  c. O  c    h yh g
 g wh ch   l hubl : h h    h  llw g  w g
h,  , by f h m w gh,  wh  hubl , bu  ll ff m h
 h    h by l,  u h by, c   p  v g. I 
 hubl c    pl   [pg 156]  cu . F h whl qu  
  bu h  g y f v u .
Bu wh    gu g w h ph lph  f yu chl,   fc   h 
 g   l bu v  h bcu pl u  wh ch Ep cuu h m lf c ully
m  . Yu c h , Tquu, b l v m , yu c uphl h p c
pl , f yu m   yu lf,  yu w hugh  u . Yu w ll
, I y, b hm  f h p cu wh ch Cl h  w  h hb  f w g
w h uch ccucy  h   c p . H u      h wh cm  h m 
 h  pup l,  h  f Pl u p     p cu , cl  b u ful b 
, w h yl m ,    g   h . H  p    ll h V u 
u h ,  h  hm  ,  g h g l ,  h  g h g l h
 uy, bu  m     Pl u ,  ly ju  wh p   h   ( f,
 , h cul b m  ll g bl   p cu )  w g  b  h  gu
   h g mpu , h g  ff  h m  f m , h g fm wh
ch y p  cul u . W ,  , h y wul y, w V u   ly b 
c  yu lv ; w hv  h  bu  .
XXII. Bu Ep cuu (f h   yu g  p )    h y m wh   
 l v hubly c l v g bly;  f I c  wh h     wh h 
ff m. Wh I qu  , wh   c   f h m  y wh plc 
h ch f g  pl u . Wh    yu ll g why Th u, why Ch u, wh

y Pum u, why h m  f ll h  m , O,    l v m g bly
? H h m lf,  I hv l y  ,   h h l f f m   v   lu
uy     v g f blm , ul  h y  blu fl, h   y,
ul  h y b h m lv   b cm lv   h        h  f 
. A wh  h pm   h m   m y f bh h  h g, h ,    g, 
ff  h m  l c c f luuy. F f yu  wy h  h g, h  h y
h h c f  yh g  h l f f  buch  m  wh ch   v  blm .
Yu h , wh  gul
v yh g by h  f pl u , c h  
f   m   v u . F h      v  b ccu   v uu  
ju m wh b  fm ju c     v  uff  g v l. Yu w
h l  , I upp
[pg 157]
H '   p u m whm f  c 
T c f p y ...  m
A h g c b m u . F  m   ju wh l h     f l
m. A c  ly wh  h c    b  f , h w ll  b ju. Bu h w l
l  b f  f h  bl  cc l h  c ,  f h  bl , by m 
f h  g   ch   pw ,  upp wh h h  . A h w ll c  
ly p f  b g  g    g m, hugh h    ,  b g  g m
   b g hugh  . A , b y ll qu  ,   f g u  
c v ju c , yu g v u ly  ff gy f ju c ,  yu  ch u,  
w  ,    g u w uvy g cc c ,   g hu g f  h fl
 g vgb p   f h .
A h m my b   f h h  v u  l; h fu  f ll wh ch
yu plc  pl u , wh ch  l bu l g  w . F wh  w  y?
C w cll h m Tquu  bv m? F I m  l gh , hugh I c
,  yu y, b b yu; I m  l gh  w h yu fm ly  w h yu m . A
,  uh, I hv b f my y  Aulu Tquu,37  m c ll  m,  
 g ly ch   m ;  bh f yu mu c  ly b w hw g  
hw m   h  z l  my b hlf w  h  m  wh ch  w ll w  v
y  . A h cuc f h  wul  hv b   l ghful  m , wh w h
bh  b ,   b c   , g ful, f I    
cl ly h h w
f ly  m f my w  ,  f h  w; ul ,  , yu y,  w
 f h  w  , b cu   f h    f v y   c  ghly.
If yu y h, w hv g   u p . F wh w   m g , wh w 
c  g f, , h uy  lf  h  w f uy. Bu h m  f
yu w ll  m  h ,   qu   pl u   ul fm v y c  
  f wg .
Hw v , I  u  h m. If  w f h  f pl u h Tquu, wh
 chll g , fugh w h h Gul  h A ,  u f h  p l  h  c
h     h  um ,  f  w f y h    bu h h hug
h uch pl  why f  m, h  I   [pg 158] ccu h m bv . A,
 , f m y,   c cy,  ch y, ,   w,  mp c , 
ly uph l by h f  f pu hm   fmy,   u f  g  h 
w c y, h  wh l gh w ll ul y   buch y  lu h  f
m pc  g , f h    hp h  f cp g   c ,  f b 
g mpu y  l c c ?
Wh hll I y m ? Wh  yu  , O Tquu, f h ?h yu,  m f
yu m , f yu b l  , f yu h gh  pu , hul    ll g
  publ c  mbly wh yu , wh yu h  , wh yu c  f, h 
  wh ch yu  f  v yh g, h bj c f h  f wh ch yu w h
 ccmpl h wh yu  mp,  wh yu h  b   l f . F wh c y
u cl m    v , wh  yu hv    up yu mg cy,  cm fw
 h  mbly, (f h  yu w ll hv  uc wh p c pl  yu  
 b v  m    g h lw,  p hp, , f yu h  f , yu w
ll,   h c  cum, y m h g bu yu c   yu lf,)wh

, I y, c yu cl m  yu ju   , f yu y h  h mg cy
yu w ll  v yh g f h  f pl u ?  h yu hv  v   
yh g ll yu l f
c p w h  v w  pl u ? D yu h  , y yu, h
 I m  m   p   h wy b f g p pl ? W ll, y  h 
 h cu f ju c ,  f yu  f  f h uu g u c , y
  h   : yu w ll  v   . Why , c p h uch lgug   
gc ful? D yu h  h  T  u  m f  p pl f yu  p  b f
   gc ful m ?
XXIII. Hw v , b  . Th m f pl u c  ly h   g y  , 
 p hp w   cly u  wh  m  by ; f yu  c
ly y g h w   u  wh yu m  by h w pl u :  ub
    v y  ff cul  bcu m . Wh  yu p  f m,  pc 
b w  wl, h g wh ch    ,  wh ch c p bly  , h
 w u  yu;  c w u  wh pl u ,  h g wh ch 
w  v y pw? Wh w ll yu y f I cmp l yu  cf  h I 
ly  w wh pl u  (f    pl  m  ff c g h  
), bu l wh yu m  by h w? F    m yu [pg 159] m  by h
w h v y m h g wh ch I hv ju  ,  yu g v  h  c p 
 f c  g  m ,  f cu g m v y:  h   m yu p 
f m h  h gh  pl u , wh ch  uc p bl f     wh v ,
bu h   p   wh  v y  f p   b ,  yu cll  h  
 ,   m : l  h, h , b pl u . Sy,  y  mbly yu pl 
 , h yu  v yh g w h  v w  v  uff  g p : f yu   h
 h v  h  lgug  uff c ly  g f ,  uff c ly hubl
, y h yu w ll  v yh g u g yu y  f ff c ,  u g yu w
hl l f , f h  f yu w vg ; h yu w ll  h g c p w
h  pf bl  yu lf, h g wh ch   pmp  by  v w  yu 
w   . Wh  up  yu  upp uch   cl  wul c 
 h  mbly,  wh hp  yu h  yu wul hv f h culh p wh c
h   y f yu? A c yu fllw h  p c pl , wh ch, wh  by yu lf
,   cv   w h yu    f , yu     pf   
vw p ly? Bu yu hv h m m cly  yu muh wh ch h P  p
 c  S c pf . I h cu f ju c   h   yu p  
f uy, qu y,  g y, g f h, up gh , hubl c , cuc w
hy f pw , why f h Rm p pl ; yu l f cu  g v y mg 
bl g   h cu f h  publ cf y g f  ' cuy. Wh  yu p 
 h  m  w  ll mz , l  pc f blc h ,  yu  lugh
g  yu l v : f, mg ll h h gh-u g  m bl p  
, pl u h  plc ,  ly h pl u wh ch yu y c   m 
,  wh ch ll m , wh h  l v g  c     h cuy, ll m ,  h
, wh p  L , cll pl u , bu v  h  y pl u , wh ch 
 bu yu  c cll pl u  ll.
XXIV. T c l  yu f  yu lv  bl g   u u lgug , hugh h
 g  yu w p  . Bu f yu w   pu   f g  cu c  g
 , w h h bj c f pp  g m  g f , yu wul  h  b l yu
 lf;  y   yu  u f c  u lgug ,   y h g wh ch yu 
  h  , ,  yu hv     w   hm ,  h   wh ch yu
pp   cu, [pg 160]  yu   gu  yu p      m l m 
,    m  p w h yu cu c , wh l yu  p g h uh
h   w h ? C  , I   yu, wh h  h   pp . My p    h
 h  g u    m  wh ch  hubl , wh ch  p  why, wh
ch  c  bl ; wh ch  m   hm   vw  h   , b f h
p pl ,  v y cmpy  v y  mbly,  h h w ll b hm   h 
wh h  hm   y.
Bu wh m c h  b f f h p,  wh c b  f   y  wh
m h    lv f h  w  ? A wh  lv g, fm wh ch v b (m) 
h v y m f f h p (m c  )    v , bu w h g  c   p  

 jy h g   p bl g fu , v  f  f  ccu     l


f? S ll, yu y,    g h g f m  b f uch   p  . P hp
  my b ; bu yu c b  f     lly yu  p  ;  h
w c yu b  ul  lv  lf h  z  hl f yu? wh ch   uully
g    by y ccu cmpu  f vg , bu   lf-puc ,  b
 p uly fm  lf. Bu, yu w ll y, I m gu   by pp c f 
vg . F h p, h , w ll  m  ju  lg  y vg u  fm
;  f  b  p c pl f vg wh ch  h fu  f f h p
, h m w ll b   uc . Bu wh w ll yu , f,   f  h c
 , vg   h pp     f h p? W ll yu b ? wh 
 f f h p  h? W ll yu p  v ? hw w ll h b p   f
yu? F yu 
wh h ul   wh ch yu ly w  p c g f h p wh
ch    bl ly f h  f  ' w vg :I mu  c h I
  cu  um f I c   uphl my f . Nw,  h f  plc , why
hul uch cuc cu  um, c p b cu    gc ful? Bu, f yu w
ll     yu f  l  yu hul cu y  vg fm   g,
 ll yu w ll w h h h w  ,   l  yu fm b g bu   m
fm whm yu g   vg . Bu upp h  ly b g yu  vg ,
bu yu v  cu l f pp y f h   ,  hv  u  lbu
,   cu  g  f yu l f ; w ll yu , v  h , hw m  g
 f yu lf,   cll c h v y   b f h m lf  f h  w
pl u ? W ll yu g b l   [pg 161] y f yu f    c wh c
h my ff c yu l f ,  h Pyhg 38   wh  h b cm u y  h T
y f S c ly? , wh  yu  Pyl , w ll yu ff m h yu  O  ,
h yu my  f yu f ? , f yu w  O  , wul yu c c
Pyl ,  g v yu lf up? , f yu cul  ucc  h , wul yu 
  h yu m gh b bh pu   h g h ?
XXV. Yu,  , O Tquu, wul  ll h  h g. F I   h  h
 h   yh g   v g f g  p  , wh ch yu wul b l ly  h
 fm u f f  f  h  p :    h qu   wh  c  
w h yu u , bu w h h c   f yu chlh ph lphy wh ch yu
 f , h p c p wh ch yu hv l ,  wh ch yu pf   ppv 
f, u ly v hw f h p v  hugh Ep cuu hul,    h  , 
l   h  . Oh, yu w ll y, bu h h m lf cul v  f h p. A
f y     h h w  g,  cu u,  -h   m; h q
u    h   cu  u  h  g  u,    h  ml. G 
h h   uch p v  y  h l v y f h G , wh c h m  w
h v l p  g w h whm h y  g
  h uh f  pp  . Bu,
lhugh h my hv b  cu u  m   g f h p,  ll, f ll 
h   u , (f I   ff m yh g my lf), h w   v y cu gu
. Oh, bu h cv c  my p pl . A p hp  w qu   gh h h h
ul;  ll, h   my f h mul u   f h g   p bl w gh
; f  v y ,  uy,  c c ,   v u  lf, wh v   m
c ll   l m  . A  m ,  , h v y fc f h h m lf hv
g b   g m,  f my Ep cu  hv g l b  uch,  b g 
h  y f hful  h  f h p,  c   hughu h  whl l
v ,  m  f  g f  cuc,  gul g h  l v ,  by pl u , bu
by h  uy, pp   hw h h pw  f wh  hubl  g  ,
 h f pl u mll . F m m  l v  uch  m  h h  lg
ug   fu  by h  l v ;   h   c    [pg 162]  p  b
  h h y c,  h  m   m  m  c b   h h y p  .
XXVI. Hw v , ll h   h g  h pup . L  u ju c   h h
g wh ch hv b    by yu bu f h p,  mg h m I fc  h
I  cg z   h g  hv g b    by Ep cuu h m lf, m ly, h f
h p c b  p  fm pl u ,  h  ugh  h ccu 
b cul v , b cu w hu  m  cul  l v  f y,  w hu f 
,  v  w h y  f pl  . Aw  ugh h b  g v   h 
gum . Yu l bugh fw h  m hum  , v   by h  m

m  ph lph ,   v ,  f  I w, vc  by h m  h m


lf, h  f ,  ,  f   ugh u w h  v w   ' w v
g , bu h wh   mcy h pug up, h  h m  lv  f h m lf,
ll hp    f pl u b g pu u f h qu  . Nw, lhugh h  
gum   p   c  my ccu,  ll I w ll cc p wh h y g;
f   ugh f m , hugh  ugh f h m: f h y m  h  
p bl f m   c  ghly   m , w hu y p c  f,    
 cqu  pl u .

Yu l ff m  h m p pl y h w  m  m   f  y mg
h m lv , h h y hll hv h m f l g w h  f  h 
h y    f h m lv ,  h h  p bl ,   f  h c ,
 h  h p c l  f  c  h jym  f pl u . If h y cul
m h   y, h y  h m  m m h h   lv
qu y, m 
,  ll h v u  f h  w  , w hu y c    f v
g . Bu f w cul v f h p f h  f h  pf , mlum , 
 vg  wh ch my b   v  fm h m, f h    b  ff c  wh
ch my m h f h p   bl f  w  ,   w ccu, by 
 w flu c , by  lf  f  lf,  h  y ub  ll h  u
ch  c w mu p f  u fm     u f ? A h  yu my
g  qu h p gy c wh ch hv b  u    m lqu  lgug b
y Ep cuu h m lf,  h ubj c f f h p. I m   g wh h y,
bu wh h c p bly y wh ch hll b c   w h h  w y m  
 m .
[pg 163]
F h p h b  ugh f h  f vg ;  yu, h , h  h m
y f  T  u, h  , w ll b m u ful  yu h yu g   Pu 
l? Th  f ll h c cumc  wh ch yu   h hb  f  cll c g; h
p c  wh ch f     m. Yu hv uff c  p c   yu
lf, uff c   h lw, uff c  l  m  f h p. A  ,
yu c b l  up w h c mp; bu yu w ll  ly v   um  up
pul y, f p c p  h ubj c  g v  by Ep cuu. A y  yu, by
mply g uch lg  v u   pup  f l b l y, v  w hu y Pyl 
 f h p, w ll m bly  f   p c yu lf by h gw ll f umb
. Bu w h whm, h ,   m  h h  j , h    u hugh, 
p pl y,  ll h   c   h   w h ? W h yu, bv ll m ; bu
f h c b , why w h m l bly  m f . Hw v , g h
ll h  c cumc    u bl ; wh cmp  c h  b b w
 h m  h u l y f uch lg um f m y? Yu  , h , f yu m u
 f h p by h ff c  wh ch  g  , h h g  m
c ll 
; f by h vg h    v  fm , h  yu 
h h cl  
 mc   up  by h vlu f  puc v fm. Yu mu h  f lv
m , my lf,   my c cumc , f w   b  l f .
XXVII. Bu w  g  g  pl   h m  lf- v   m ; f, 
 h b  cclu   bl h  h h    m ywh  f h  v
u   f h p f v yh g   f    pl u , h   h g m
 wh ch   f y g  mpc hul b  . A y , h I my  
pp   hv p  v  y p c w hu   ply, I w ll, v  w, y  f w
w  h  m   f yu gum .
S c , h , h whl um f ph lphy    c   u l v g hpp ly, 
  c m , fm     f h   h g, hv  v  h m lv   h  
uy; bu  ff   p pl m hpp   f l f  c    ff   c cum
c ; yu, f c , plc   pl u ; ,  h m m  yu, 
 h h  h, m ll uhpp    c   p : l  u c  ,  
h f  plc , wh  f h g h  hppy l f f yu . Bu yu w ll g
 h , I h  , h f h    lly y uch h g  hpp  , [pg 164]
 ugh  b whlly  h pw  f  w  m   cu ; f, f  hppy l

f c b l,  c b hppy. F wh c f l cf   h  h g w l


l lwy  m  f m  u g  h  c , wh ch    l y fl  g 
p  hbl ? Bu h m wh  u h p m c f h  g h g, mu 
c  ly f  h m y  h , wh  h h l h m, h w ll b cm m 
bl ;   m c b hppy wh   f  bu m mp m . N
 , h , c b hppy; f  hppy l f  uully cll  ,   m p
ly, bu  p p u y f  m ; ,  fc, l f      b hppy 
ll  ll   cmpl    f  h . N   p bl f y m  b m
 m  hppy  m  m  m  bl ; f h wh h    p bl h h my b
cm m  bl ,  c  ly  hppy. F, wh   hppy l f  c   
,   m   lg  h m  f h hppy l f h  lf, m ly, w m; 
   w   ll h l p   f  m'   c ,  H u y h
Cu w w  by Sl.
Bu,  yu yu lf w  y g, Ep cuu    h l gh f  m h y 
flu c  m g l f hppy,  h  l  pl u c b f l   h 
m h wul b h c f h pl u w 
v l g. Nw h   m 
  m c  . F, wh  h plc  h ch f g  pl u , h  
 h pl u c b g    f    m , h  c   f    m
  p  . Th m wh plc  ll g  v u , h   h  pw   y
h  hppy l f  m  by h p f c  f v u ; f h c  ly 
  h  m c b g y c   h  ch f g. Bu h wh h   h
l f  m hppy by pl u , mu u ly b c   w h h m lf f h
   h pl u  c   by l gh f  m : f , h  p    
h . Shll w , h , y h ll p   m m  bl  pp    
m l g,  y  h u     m pl u m   bl ? Why,
h ,   h Ep cuu lwy p   f G  hppy   l? F, f yu
ly  wy h    y, Jup       p c m hppy h Ep cuu;
f ch f h m   h jym  f h ch f g, m ly, pl u . Oh, b
u Ep cuu  l l bl  p . Th    ff c h m  ll; f h y
h f h w  b g bu, h wul y, Hw pl   . I wh  p c, 
h ,  h up  [pg 165] by h G, f h   up  by h m b cu
f h    y? F wh g h h G, c p h h gh   g
f pl u
,  h, , v l g! Wh, h ,  h g f p  g  pmpuly,
f     p  c  ly? Hpp   f l f  plc   pl u f
by, (I w ll  f m  l, f yu pl  ,  lg  h pl u f h m
    v  fm h pl u f h by.) Wh? wh c  cu h  pl u
  w  m  p p u y? F h c cumc  by wh ch pl u   g 
     h pw  f  w  m; f hpp      c   w 
m  lf, bu  h h g wh ch w m pv   f h puc  f pl 
u . A ll h  c cumc  
 l;  wh   l  l bl 
cc  . A hu fu  m h m   f hpp    l f ,Fu , wh
ch, Ep cuu y, h bu l l   w h  w  m.
XXVIII. Bu yu w ll y, Cm , h  h g   fl . Nu by h  lf 
ch  h w  m; ,  , Ep cuu h ugh u h h  ch  f u
 uch  c b cqu  . Th   w ll  ,  I   bj c  ; bu
 ll h  m     c   w h  h . F Ep cuu  
 h   l  pl u   v  fm h p  f, fm h m  p  
 f m     , h fm f  g  h m  l c u  h . Nw f
h w     h  m    ff  c   h hpp   f l f wh
f  m  , I wul g , I wul v  p  h m f y g ; f h
wul b p  g h uh;  I w h Sc , wh   pl u  
h g  ll,   h m h g, m ly, h hug  w h b    g f
 m ,  h  f   . Bu I   cmp h  hw  m wh  f  v y
h g  pl u , l v  l Gll u,  y  l  l h g  m Fug
P ; ,  ,  I b l v h wh h y  h   l p  . H h 
  h ul  ch  c b cqu  , b cu u  c   w h  l 
l . C  ly, ul  yu  m pl u   g  vlu . N l  pl u ,
y h ,    v  fm h m  y h g h fm h m vlubl . N

w  y h ,   ly   hv  h , bu  


F h y wh  p  pl u  lf, my b llw   y
f   ug    h  g. Bu h m wh plc  h  ch
l u , mu jug f v yh g by h    ,  by
puc h h g b  wh ch  m pl .

hv v   pl .
h h y   p
f [pg 166] g  p
h   ,  mu

Hw v , b  . L  h m cqu  h g   p bl pl u ,  ly 


 ch p  , bu,  f  I m cc  , f h g  ll, f h c mg
. L  h  b  l  pl u   g  u um, wh ch X ph  ll
u h P   u   , h  h Sycu bqu  wh ch    v
 ly blm  by Pl. L , I y, h cqu    f pl u b  y  yu
y  . Wh hll w y f p ? h m  f wh ch   g  h,
f  l  p   h g   f v l,  hppy l f c p bly   
cmpy w h . F M u h m lf, wh  lm   c Ep cuu,  c
b   hppy m  h  w. Wh  h  by   g  ,  wh  h  q
u  c   h   w ll b  f h fuu . I  p bl f y  
b c    wh c   h  by w ll b , I   y  y  h c , bu
v  h  v  g? P , h  f , wh ch  h g   f v l, w ll lwy b
   v  f    p  . F  w ll lwy b p bl h  my
b p  . Bu hw c y f  f h g   p bl v l     hppy
l f ?
Oh, y h , Ep cuu h h  w m m cc g  wh ch w my   g
p . Su ly,    bu y  upp h h g   p bl v l c
b   g . Hw v , wh  h m m? Th g   p , y h ,  h
-l v . Nw, f  f ll, wh  yu cll h-l v ? A,  cly, wh 
yu cll h g   p ? F wh  yu m ? C  m p  l f
my y? Ay ,  f my mh? Ul ,  , yu      h y
u m  uch p   ll  m h mm    z   h m. Wh  f  f 
h p ? I wul h  yu wul l   h p  by wh ch I hv   h m
 c ll   -h   m, Cu Ocv u, h  f Mcu Ocv u, my
w  m f , w u,  h  c ,  f  h  m , bu v y
f ,  f  lg p    c . Wh g , O y mml g,   h
m u  b , wh  ll h  l mb  m   f h y w   f  . A y  h
   pp   b m  bl , (b cu  uh p  w  h g   f
v l,) bu ly ffl c . Bu f h h b  mm    [pg 167] c u  pl
u , p g  h m  m  v c u  fmu l f , h  h wul hv
b  m  bl .
XXIX. Bu wh  yu y h g  p  l bu  h  m ,  h f h y
l lg h y  lwy l gh, I   u  h m  g f yu  
. F I  h m p   v y g ,  l v y ubl . A h 
  b   p c pl wh ch my bl   u h m, wh ch hw v  yu c
 p, wh   lv wh  hubl f  w  . Th   m p
c p f,  I my lm y lw f, f u , wh ch fb   m  b hv
ff m  ly  p . Wh  f  hul b ccu   gc ful, I   
y  g v , (f h    m  uv bl ,) bu  m h c  f L m
 m lchly w h uch uc   h f Ph lc  
Wh u  my   ful  lu,
W h c  l  g g, hwl g,  cmpl .
Nw l  Ep cuu, f h c, pu h m lf  h plc f h m
Wh v    l hu  c  w h p 
A h  gy, wh l h  p ' b 
Sp   blc v m hugh h  hu  g fm .
L  Ep cuu b cm Ph lc  . If h  p   hp   h. Bu 
h b  ly g  h  cv f   y . If  l lg   l gh,
g h m  vl f  l . I h f  plc      
  h  c plc wh  f  l    wh  h m my f

fc h
f 
f ;
p 

gy   ll f h,  h f  f fuh  gy cm g  mp  g  c


ly m  g h m. L  h m  , y h . P hp h wul b h b  h g
f h m; bu h  wh b cm  f h gum , h h w  m h lwy m
 pl u h p ? F f h b h c I wul hv yu h  wh h  y
u    cmm  g h m  c m , wh  yu v  h m   . Sy  h m h
, h     gc ful h g f  m  llw h  p    b cuh  
 b  by p , h   hm ful  y l  . F  f yu m m, f
  v l    h, f  l lg   l gh, h  m 
mpy v 
b g . Th ly  l wy  m  g p   by h ppl c  f v u , f m
g m y, f p c , f cug .
XXX. L  , h I my  m  w    g  ,  h w f Ep cuu
wh  y g;    c hw [pg 168] c   h  cuc  w h h  l
gug . Ep cuu  H mchu g  g. I w  h  l  , y h , wh l p
g  hppy y, wh ch  l h l y f my l f . A h p  f my bl
  bw l     h h g c b    h m wh ch c m h
m g  . H    m m  bl , f p   h g   p bl v l. I c
hw h pc . Bu  ll I hv 
 p bly b   . Hw v , l  u 
blc h   jy  my m , wh ch I   v fm h  cll c  f my ph l
ph cl p c pl    cv  . Bu  yu,  b cm  h gw ll wh ch f
m yu yuh upw yu hv cly  cv   f m  f ph lphy,
p c h ch l  f M u. Af    g h , I   c   h 
h f Epm   L   p f bl  h . O f whm  f   h Lc m
   M  ,39  f  g h h h b        bl by  m
l wu, wh  h f  cm  h m lf,   wh h  h  h l w f ? Wh 
h  w p g f  h w   h m h  w, h h    wh h  h 
my w  f  ? A wh  h  c v   h  qu   l h w  wh ch h
w h , h h     h p  wh ch w  c g  h m  b pull  u. A
 , l g qu   f bl, h    h hu f jy  v cy.
Bu L  , h g f h Lc m , pu h m lf  h h
hu  m
, whm h h l  fm Sp,  h wy f h  my f Th mpyl,40 wh  h
l  v w  b fl gh,   gl u  h. Th  h f g  l 
gl u, bu ph lph  uully   h  b . Bu  ll Ep cuu h  m
  wh, wh  y g, h c    g  c    h m lf. I hv , y h , 
jy  cu blc h  p . I  cg   h  w, O Ep cuu, h 
 m  f  ph lph , bu  ll yu fg wh yu ugh  hv  . F
,  h f  plc , f h h g b u ,  h  cll c  f wh ch yu
y yu  j c , h   y, f yu w  g   cv    u , h 
yu c  j c . F yu hv  pl u h  wh ch yu c  f   h b
y. Bu yu hv cly    h  
v  f l jy  p  c p w
h  f  c  h  by. I  j c , y h ,  h p. I wh h  p? If
h yu 
yu m  uch p h g   f   [pg 169] h by, h  I 
cu blc g yu g  w h yu  ,   w h yu  cll c 
f pl u  wh ch yu hv f l  h by. Bu f yu   f  g  yu
m , h  yu   l f h  b g y jy f h m  wh ch c b  f 
  m pl u f h by, mu b fl . Why, h ,  yu  cmm  h
ch l  f M u  H mchu? I h m bl  c  f uy,  h
 c ll   ply f yu g f h, f h  hw I l up , wh 
h  h yu  f   h by?
XXXI. Yu my w  yu lf bu  v y   c   yu pl  , Tquu,
bu yu w ll  f   h  c ll  l   yh g w   by Ep cuu wh c
h   hmy  c   w h h ul  h l  w. A  h  cv c
 by h m lf,  h  w  g  up  by h  w v u  g . F h
  cmm   f h ch l , h  cll c  f h m,  ff c 
f h p f h m, h     h m mp u   h l g
p,  c  h h y w hu y hugh f p l vg w 
 h m; h      qu  h v   f pl u ,  h llu m 
 f m c y  w. F wh g   v  c c w  qu  h h h

g wh ch  hubl   gh    bl f h m lv  f h  w 


, h h  gh f  y g m   u  h  chg f uch mp 
u ? Bu,  I h  h l     v g f ll cmm   f wh ch I hv
ju g v  yu  l  l l , (lhugh  w    p c c  
w h h g  l y m f h ph lph ,)  l I h  h h  w ll 
c    ly w h h  g y f  ph lph , bu v  w h h  w 
 m . F h w f ,   g  l gh,  m  m  w h b v y 
 u bl lgug ,  h b wh ch I hv ju m , h  h h h
g   w h u; f h wh v  w  lv  w v  f   ,  wh
 v  w v  f    h h g wh v    w h u. Ev  h  m gh
hv b  p   b    m
l gly. F wh  h ly w h p  
 h wh h b   lv   v  f   , h  uch  p  
h    v y pl  wh h m  by h w  lv . Hw v , I u 
 wh h  lly   m . Bu  ll I  why, wh  v y     
gu h  [pg 170] by  lu , h   y, by  h,  wh  h   
h g l wh v  h h y c   w h u, h hul  ll  uch m
u   l g  c  j  Amymchu  T mc , h  h ,  fu
h v y y  wh  h p   f H mchu hll b ugh  p h  b 
hy  h mh Gm l , w h ll pp  l m y. A l, hll v y m
h,  h w  h y f h mh, upply m y ugh  fu h  bqu 
f h m  wh hv u  ph lphy w h h m,    h h  m my, 
 h f M u, my b uly hu . Nw I c  y h h  juc
   p g w h h chc  f  hughly ccmpl h   m bl
m; bu  ll I u ly  y h   c   w h h w m f  ph l
ph , p c lly f  ul ph lph , wh ch  h chc  h cl m f
 h m lf,  h  h h   uch  y  h b hy f y  . Wh? C
 y y wh ch h c p   cu v  g  f qu ly. M ub bly 
;  c y y l   cu? Ev  h  mp bl , ul   my hpp 
f    vl f my hu y , h h  my b   u f ll h
  h m mm   h p  fm wh ch h y   u. Th  , h  f
 ,  uch h g  yby' b hy. Bu  ll   c    h h 
. A f I    w h. Bu v  f h  b ,    b  g  f  
m'  h? A   m  g v juc   h  w ll h  hll b ,
f  h h l yu ll,  f w h h v c f  cl , h h   h
g wh ch cc  u  ll f   h? Th  h g  v y c   
 m wh,  h  m , h v ll  v  um bl wl  bul   g
, wh ch w    u f ll l m   bu . D  D mc u v  y
l ,  cll h m ly   w
uch  h g  h ? I w ll p v  v y 
  whm Ep cuu h m lf fllw   h
clu  f h .
Bu f  y     v  b p, wh ch w  m f  g  b v , h 
y  wh ch  m w b,  h  wh ch h b cm w  ? A m, yu w ll y
, cul  hv b cm w  ul  h h b  b. A,  h m p c pl
, h cul  f h  gmh  h  v  b  b. Th whl bu  , Tqu
u,  qu  u f chc  f  l   m  w h  hv h  cll c
 [pg 171] f h  m c l b  w h bqu  f  h   h. I y h g
f h wy  wh ch yu p h  y,   hw my j  fm w y m  y
u p yu lv . Th      f qu ll g. I ly y h  wul h
v b  m b cm g  yu  p Ep cuu' b hy, h  h m  l v
juc   h  w ll h  hul b p.
XXXII. Hw v ,   u  u ubj c, (f wh l w w  l g f p  w
 g    h l   f h ,) w my w f ly cm  h  cclu . Th
m wh   h g   v l, wh l h   ,   hppy. Bu h w 
m  lwy hppy,   l cc lly  p . Th  f , p    h
g   v l. Wh  f c  , h ,  h , h g wh ch  p
  l   w  m, bu h h ugh    m mb  p v l. F 
f ll,    u pw    c  wh w w ll  m mb . Wh  S m  , 
l , ff    Th m cl    ch h m h  f m my, I wul 
m 
h ,   h , h yu wul  ch m h f fg ful ; f I v  w  cl

l c wh I wul h  ; bu I c fg  wh I hul l . Th  w
 v y   bl w . Bu  ll h fc  h   h c f  v y b
y ph lph   fb   m   cll c. I  m  m  cmm v y mu
ch  h p   f yu c , Ml u,  v  w ,  cmm wh  
mp bl f m  . Wh w ll yu y f h  cll c  f p v l 
v  pl ? F m pv b  m u h yu gm. N   Eu p
  p  ll wh  h y, I w ll g v  yu  L , f I c, bu yu ll
w h G l 
Sw   h m my f w p.41
[pg 172]
Hw v , l  u  u  h c    f p g. A f yu w   u
  uch m m  m gh b cpbl f cl g C u M u,  bl g h m
wh  b h ,  g ,  up  h   c   mh,   l v h  gu h b
y h  cll c  f h  p ph , I wul l    yu,  ppv f 
ll yu cul y. N,  , c h hpp   f  ph lph  b cmpl  
c u  h , f ll h m bl  cv   wh ch h h m ,  l
l h  v uu c ,   b l by h  w fg ful . Bu,  yu c
 , yu   h h  cll c  f pl u  wh ch hv b  f l m  l f
hppy,  f uch pl u  ,  ff c h by. F f h   y h
 pl u , h    c c  y h ll h pl u  f h m  
g    c   w h h by.
Bu f pl u  f l by h by, v  wh  h y  p, c g v pl u , 
h  I   u  why A l hul u h c p   h mb f
Splu   much   cul ;  wh ch h g f Ay  b h h
h   w h h m ll h  lc v u pl u . F, y A l , hw cul
h h g wh ch v  wh l h w l v h cul  f l  mm  lg  h
 wh l h w cully jy g h m, p bly  m   h m f  h w  
? Th pl u , h , f h by  l,  fl  wy  h f  mm , 
 f   l v  b h    f  p  g f  h f  cll c g . T
h  f , Af cu  hpp  wh    g h  cuy  h  m 
C  , Rm ,    yu f ....
A  h   f h  m bl b
F yu hv ph  by my lbu   .
H   j c g h   h  lbu wh ch  p. Bu yu wul b  h m ul
 p pl u . H c  bc h  f l g  h g wh ch h  v  h y
 f  c  h  by. Yu cl g  h by  h clu  f v yh g l
.
XXXIII. Bu hw c h pp   p bly b m    wh ch yu ug , m
ly, h ll h pl u   p  f h m   c c   pbly w h
h pl u   p  f h by? I h  , h , h g wh ch v   l gh
yu, (I w whm I m   g,)  h  h g, O Tquu, wh ch v  
l gh yu f  w  ? I y h g bu  g y, hubl  , h b
uy f v u , wh ch I hv m    b f . I w ll pu [pg 173] ll h  h
g    f l  c qu c . Bu  h  yh g wh  yu  w  g, 
   g  p m,    , wh  yu  v  g g h h y f pl
  cu ,  yh g   u ,  p cu ,  pl  plc ;  p
,  hu g,    v ll f Lucullu, (f f I w   y f yu w, y
u wul hv  lphl  cp hugh, y g h h h c   w h
yu by,)  h  y f ll h  h g, I y, wh ch yu c  f   yu
by,   h y  pl  yu, f h y pl  yu  ll, f h  w  ?
Yu mu h  b h m b  f m , f yu p     f  g h 
h g, wh ch I hv ju m   ,  h by,  l yu mu b Ep cu
u' whl h y f pl u , f yu m  h h y hv  c   w h 
.

Bu  f yu gum , h h pl u   p  f h m   g   


h h f h by, b cu h m    p  f h  m ,42 bu h
g bu wh  p    f l by h by; hw c  p bly b llw  h
 m wh  j c  f my   j c  m h I  my lf? Th pl u f
h m   g    h pl u f h by,  h pl u f h m  
g   h h f h by. Th  ul, h , , h h py wh cg
ul  h h   m  j c  h h whm h cgul . Bu wh l yu 
 y g  m u h w  m  b hppy, b cu h    bl f h g
  pl u   h  m , ,  , f pl u  wh ch   ll h  p
wh
 g   h h wh ch h    bl f  h  by, yu   
 lly hpp . F h w ll l f l h p  f h m   b  v y  p
c g   h h f h by. A  h mu cc lly b m  bl , wh
m yu  vu   p    b g lwy hppy. N,  , w ll  b p
 bl f yu v   f ll up h   f p f c  u  up  hpp   wh
l yu  f  v yh g  pl u  p .
O wh ch ccu, O Tquu, w mu f  u m h g l wh ch  h ch
f g f m. L  u g pl u  h b ,  whm yu f  pp l 
w     h ubj c f h ch f g. Wh w ll yu y, f v  h b 
  my h g u  h gu c f h  v u [pg 174] u , ply u
 f ulg c  h  b ,   h c f h  w lbu, , f 
c ,   v y v  bl  b g g fh    g h  yug, h h y
hv m h  bj c  v w b    h  w pl u ?  ply, , wh 
h y  j c  u g bu  v ll g;  m  mbl  h ,  u
ch  m    m   m  g
 hum  . I m p c  f b 
w 
c    c  f ff c , wl g ,  m my;  my w 
wh v  l  l   gul y m f c . Shll h  , h , b  b 
m mg  f hum v u , qu  uc c  w h pl u ,  hll h 
b  v u  m c p f h  f pl u ?  hugh h   up  
  c b  ll h h   ml, hll w  ll ff m h h h  p cul
  bu  g v   h m by u ?
XXXIV. Bu w , f   ll h g  p   pl u ,  g ly up  by
b , f wh ch h
h, f h  w cc, puc  v u  f f,
 v y  f buc , w hu h   g y ubl bu ; wh l h
m  c    cc ly (m  m  I my v  u g  lgug  l
l) uppl   u, wh  w  h m w h g  lbu. N   p bl h
I hul v  h  h h ch f g w h m  h c f  b  
 m. F wh c b h u f hv g  my m   ppl c  f h c
y g u f h m c ll  ,wh c b h u f uch   mblg 
f m hubl puu , f uch  cw f v u , f h y  ll g g
h  f  h   bu pl u ? A f, wh  X  , w h uch v fl , 
uch cul  p f bh cvly  fy, h b g  v  h H ll p
  ug hugh Mu Ah, h wl  c h  ,   l 43 v  h
l, f, wh  h h v  G c w h uch [pg 175]    bl v l c ,
y  h   h m f h cu f cll c g  v  my,  wg g 
fm bl  w,  h h  pl  h h w h   g  m h y fm Hym
u, c  ly h wul hv b  hugh  hv u   uch   p 
f  uff c  cu . A  l m , f w w   y h  w  m
, fu h   pv   w h um u  mp v u   ccmpl hm 
, ,  , v ll g l h m v     f,  v  mu  w h h
 fl , bu mbc g h whl h v , ll h
h,  h u v l   w
h h  m , h h g  v w bu pl u , w m gh y h h , , w 
g  g   l f ubl f  l l h y.
B l v m , Tquu, w w  b
h ,  ly by c   g h
cll c  f  cul  umb  f
j cu    h c qu c  f

f m lfy  bl ;  yu my 


p f h m ,  wh ch h   h 
h g, ( fm h c pc  f   c
h m,  v y f  ff  g fm  v  

; h   l  h m hm , wh ch  h  gul f    ,  h f hfu


l gu h p f ju c ,   c y  hum c y,   f m u g c
 mp f p    h, hw  h u g f lbu  h cu  g
f g .) All h  h g, I y,   h m . Bu I wul hv yu c
   l h l mb  h   , wh ch, l h h  p f h by, w
ll pp   yu  b  ly h cmp  f h v u , bu l h  l
v . Wh w ll yu y, f my h g  h by  lf pp     v 
b p f    pl u ? uch   gh, h lh, c v y, b uy? A f h
  h c , hw my qul   f h m  w ll l w   m ? F  h
m , h l ph lph h m l   m hugh h h  w m h g h
v ly   v  . Bu f h ch f g c    pl u ,  yu y, h
  wul b ul h w hul w h  l v y   gh  h m  f
pl u , w hu y  vl   up , wh l ll u    w  ,  
w  ,  p    flu c  whlly by pl u . Bu wh  h  , wh  w
hy f h m f  m, wh wul l  p  v  h whl f  y 
h  f pl u ? Th Cy  c ph lph ,  , wul  bj c. Yu
 c  m m   h   p c, hugh h '  p hp h m  c 
.
[pg 176]
Hw v , l  u c mpl w h u m , ,  , h  m mp 
, wh ch   vlubl , h h wh w  g f h m w  ccu  u
 l  by u c ; bu I  yu wh h  yu h  h (I w ll  y H
m ,  Ach lchu,  P , bu) Ph  ,  Plycl u,  Z u    c 
h whl f h   ll  cu m pl u . Shll, h ,    pp
 h m lf  h gh   m, w h  f  c  h b uy f f gu , h  v uu
 c  z  w h  f  c  h bl   f c ? Bu wh h  cu c h
 b f uch  blu  b g  w  ly    v ly  ffu , c p h
h wh   m   h pl u  h ch f g,  l b    w h h p
 f h  m   wh ch    w m w ll, bu w h h     , h  
y, w h h m  fl g p  f h  m . F I pu h qu    yu
yu lf, f h   g,  yu h  h h   , hw hv h y h pw
 f b g hppy, wh  h y   bl  f l y pl u  h  b ? 
 f h y  hppy, hugh   u f h  f pl u , why  yu  fu
  cg z h p b l y f   m l    f  ll c  h p f
 w  m?
XXXV. R , O Tquu, h p gy c,  f h m  wh hv b  p  
by Hm ,  h cm um p   Cyu,  Ag  lu,  A   ,  Th m
cl ,  Ph l p,  Al  ; bu   h p   f u w f llw-cu
ym , f h h   f yu w fm ly. Yu w ll  f  y  p    h
gu f hv g b   cu g c v ,  pcu , f pl u . Th ulg
  h  mum   g fy  uch h g; l h   wh ch    f u
 g , I wh fvu my   u muly g h h w h bl  m
 f h  . D w h  h my   jug  f Cl u, h h w
h bl  m f h  , b cu h w h m  lful  h  v  g 
f pl u ? Shll w , h , y h h   g  hp   c ll   p
    h yug m  whm w h  l ly  cul h  w vg , 
  
wh w ll b pf bl  h m lv ? D w  
wh  g  cf
u  f v yh g wul u ? wh g    ? Such  c  pu  
  ll b  f c c ,  ll g u , wh ch  h g  b f g m .
F f yu  g  y  f yu w  , [pg 177] h    b c
     , bu ly uuy;    y g u pp  u  h m
wh h b  f   h  f h  w  .
Bu f pl u  h m  pw ,    v bl h ll h v u  mu
 b mpl  u  f. F h   my  f b cuc, wh ch, ul 
 hubl    ully  hv h m flu c , mu,   l  
  y  pl  why h y hul , v cm  w  m; ,   g h
u g f  my c ,   qu  cl , h v u   v ly p  

, mu cu ff ll h

ppch  f pl u .

D , w, p c y m gum  fm m . L , Tquu, yu lf, 
yu w m ; u h qu   v   ll yu hugh; m  yu lf, wh
h  yu wul p f   p yu l f  h jym  f p p ul pl u ,
fm ll p , w h h 
 h qu ll y wh ch yu hv f  f l, f
   l f h bl  g wh ch yu f  p  f     , bu wh ch
,  fc,  mp bl  , h b c f ll f ; , wh l   v g w l
l f ll  ,  b  g  c  f y  ll wh     f 
,  cu  v  h     f H cul . F  u c , v   h
c f  g, cll  lbu wh ch w  uv bl by h m m lchly 
m ,    .44 I wul  qu  yu,  cmp l yu  w  m , f I w  
 f  h yu m gh y h H cul  h m lf p fm  h
pl , wh c
h h p fm  w h h g   lbu f h f y f  , f h 
f pl u .
A wh  I h   h ,I w,   Tquu, wh   h I hv  h f
 h ;  lhugh I m gh b bl   m h g my lf, y  I m  ll m
gl  f  my f  b   p p  h I m.
I upp yu m  Sy  Ph l mu, c ll  c  z   m l   m .
Yu   gh,   h . Cm , h ,   I. Bu  wul b m f  f T 
u  g v [pg 178] m p    h   cu  f u. I ,   h m
l g,  wul b v y uf ,  l   h  ubj c: f yu mg h qu
  m g ly; bu h  m c  u f  h fh  f h S c. Th 
T  u  , H  f  I w ll p  m blly  ll: f I hll hv ll 
h  gum  wh ch I hv ju h   y  my h;  I w ll  b g  b
f I 
yu qu pp  by h ph lph  whm yu m  .
A wh  h  h b   , w
.
Th  B Of Th T  

m

  bh f u wl  f u  cu

O Th Ch f G A Ev l.

I. I h  , Buu, h Pl u , f h w   p  f h  lf,  h 


uch p  c u vc , wul y l  V u ,  hv g b  vqu h 
 h p c  g b . I uh, h wul b   u f hm f h w   
  V u y lg ,  p    p f  g wh  pl   wh  h
ubl ,  w   c  h   c l g pl u ,   w  , f h by,
 h jy   g u f ,  f m mpc h  g y f m   c
  cy. S h w my  m  Pl u ,     h   cf  h  lf w
h  h  w bu ,  h h  c  f u  cu  my  b h
   by h  llu m   bl hm . F w hv w  qu  wh h
 ch f g  wh ch w   u   cv ;  c pl u  qu  uc
c  w h ,   c  ly h m gum  c b ug  g  h wh
 hv c    f m fm p   h g   f g.
N,  , c yh g b m    b h ch f g wh ch    u f
v u ,  wh ch h g c b up  . Th  f , lhugh  h  cu
wh ch w h l w h Tquu w w    m ,  ll w hv w  much h
p  c  b f u w h h S c. F h  m  wh ch  m bu p
l u   p   w h y g  cu     f  m . F h y wh 
f      lful  gu g,  hv h wh  h pp    
v y  ff cul cu  pp . Ev  [pg 179] Ep cuu h m lf y, h  
ugh  v   gu bu pl u , b cu h  c    p c g   p 
  h   ,  h   uff c  f u  b w   p c g ,
 qu  u c y f u  b uc . A  h  ccu, h p v 
u  cu  f u w   mpl   bh   ; f h  w h g v
lv    c  h  cu f Tquu,  my w lgug ,    m
  m , w v y cl . Bu yu   g wh  ubl ,  I m gh h

 y, hy  f gu g   wh ch  mply  by h S c. A f 


  mg h G , much m    mg u, wh  fc  v   v
 w,   g v  w m    w h g. A h   wh   wh  v
 m  ly l   w ll w  , wh  h c   h  v y  wh ch
   cmm   y u , h    g  v y f  w m ,  pp
ll   fc   b g v   v yh g bu wh ch ch   cv 
. Th  f , bh  l c c   ul ph lph  u h w wh ch
  cmm  h  y cv   f h G ;  g m  c , mu
 c ,  gmm , ll p  f   p cul  fh  f h  w. A
v  h h  c , wh    f  c  ,  whlly   c   h p
pl ,  ll  g v g h  l  u w wh ch  ,   w  , h  p cul
 p v pp y.
II. A, w hu w ll g  h c f h  l b l  g l mly pf  
, v    wul  b cpbl f  c  g h    pp ly f h
y    u  ch cl w, wh ch   u  by u, hugh  cmm
u mg h m. Ag culu , l, wh ch      c b fm ll pl 
 f  m ,  ll m  h m  w h wh ch   cv  by  w m 
. A much m  h  cu llwbl   ph lph ; f ph lphy  h
 f l f ,   m wh   cu g h c bw h  lgug fm 
h fum,lhugh h    chl f ph lph  wh ch h m  my v
   h S c. Z  , h  ch f, w   much   cv   f  w
h g  f  w w. Bu f, v   h lgug wh ch m p pl c 
  ch  h u w, G c h p m   h m l   m   u w 
   y u bu ubj c wh ch 
qully uuul, hw much m ugh
h m l c c  b g   u, [pg 180] wh  w v u g  b h v
y f  f u cuym   uch  uch m ? A hugh w hv f  
 , h, ,  p  f m cmpl   ly f h G , bu f h
 m  l wh wul p f  b g ccu  G   b g hugh u w cu
ym ,h w   f fm b g up  by h G   h  ch  
cp u  f u lgug , h w 
v  up    h m  h p cul
; w mu lbu  bl h h  p ,  ly  u w  l , b
u  h  wh ch w hv   v  fm h m. Alhugh,  c h y hv b cm
bl h  by hb , w my f ly c   h w  u w wh ch, 
ccc w h c  cum, w u  L  w; uch  ph lph   l
f, h  c,  l c c, gmm c, g m  , mu c,lhugh h y cul,  
ub, b l   m g u  L .
Eugh, hw v , f h m  f h g. Bu w h  p c  h h g h m lv
, I m f  f , Buu, h I my b blm  wh  I m w  g  yu, wh
 hv m  much pg ,  ly  ph lphy, bu  h m c ll 
 f ph lphy. A f I w  f I w  g v g yu y uc , I h
ul   v  b blm ; bu uch cc   f fm m . N  I   l  
  yu u  h   f m g yu cqu   w h wh  hughly w 
 yu b f ; bu b cu I m f f upp g my lf by yu m ,  b cu
 l I c   yu h m c  c  c  jug f h u  wh ch b
h yu  I pply u lv    cmm. I w, h  f , h yu w ll py
c ful     wh I w  ,   yu w,  h yu w ll  c  
h  pu wh ch  plc b w  yu ucl  m h v ly-m    m 
bl m my lf.
F wh  I w  my v ll   Tuculum,  w   u  m u f m b
   h l by f h yug Lucullu, I w   y  h  hu ,   
  wy ( I w  h hb  f  g) h b  wh ch I w . A wh
 I h  v  h  , I fu Mcu C, whm I    w  b h  ,  
 g  h l by, uu  by  umb  f h b  f h S c. F h h
,  yu w,  bul     f   g,  wh ch w qu   bl ,
 much ,  , h h w  [pg 181] f  f h cu l   pch  
f h cmm p pl , bu w ccum   c u   g v   h   -h
u  lf, wh l h   w  mbl g, w hu, hw v ,  ll  l g

 h      h ff  f h  publ c. A w, b g  h jym 


f cmpl  l u ,  b g uu  by  g  buc f uch  u
, h pp    b cmpl  ly gg g h m lf w h b , f I my u uch 
p   bu   p cbl  ubj c. A    hpp   h  h  
f u p c   
h h , h  c  up  my c ; , f  h
f  lu  wh ch  uul  uch  m  g, Wh bj c h bugh y
u h  ?   h ; f I p um yu  cm fm yu w v ll,  f I h
w h yu h b  h  , I hul hv cm my lf  
yu. I ly,  
I, l f h c y y  y f  h cmm c m  f h gm ,  g hm 
h v  g. Bu my bj c  cm g h  w   m b  wy w h m ;
  w ll b  p y, C, f u f  Lucullu    m y  h  b
cm cqu   w h ll h   u ; f I wul h  hv h m   l
gh  h  b  h  ll h   f h fu u f h v ll. F h 
 yuh I m v y  u bu; lhugh,  ,   m p cul ly yu b
u     c h h hll b  uc     c    h  fh ,
  u f  Cp ,   yu wh  uch     l  f h .45 Bu I
my lf hv m  gh  f l      h m; f I m flu c  by my  c
ll c  f h  gfh , yu w ll w wh   g I h f Cp , wh,
 my p  , wul w b  f h f  m  f h c y f h w  l v ; 
 I l hv Lucullu h m lf lwy b f my y , m  ly c ll g 
v y v u , bu c c  w h m bh by f h p   g  l   mblc
f cl      m . Yu  w ll,   h ,       cll c  
f h p , bh f whm  cmm   h  ch l   yu c by h  w
ll,  yu   gh   b ch   h  yuh. A  f yu cll 
g  my p cul  [pg 182] bu  , I w ll   cl  h ff c , bu I cl m y
u f my p   h uy. I w ll y h  l, h h by h l y h
w m my  c  bh f m y  f b l y; bu yu 
hw yug h
  y . T b u I ,   I; bu v  w h ugh   c v   cu
f h ccmpl hm  wh ch, f h    f h m w wh l h  yug, w l
l h  f  m h m m  y f m mp bu  . A  w w ll f
 l v  h  m   uly g h ,  w w ll c  cc . Hw v ,
l  u   w, y h , f yu pl  . S w  w.
III. Th  C  : Bu w, wh b   h wl  h y h yu  l
g f h  , wh  yu hv uch  l by  hm ? I w,   I, m f h
A  l  Cmm  , wh ch I w  h  ;  I cm  cy h m ff,
   wh  I hv l u , wh ch  ,  yu w, v y f  h c w h
m . Hw I w h,   h , h yu h  cl   w u S c  c; f
 c  ly   ul f yu, f  v  w  f y  ,  h  h
g  g c p v u . My I , I  pl ,  j  h  wul b ul f
 yu,  yu p     l y  h m  m  ,  fb  g v g  w 
m   h g? f u p c pl   h m ,   ly u lgug h  
v c . I ,   h , u p c pl    h m  ll; f I c 
 yu cll g yh g   bl c p wh  hubl ,   y
v  g
u  c  g uch h g mg h g,, by   g,  gu h g hu
bl  , wh ch ,   w  , h l gh f v u ,  u ly up  g v u
h  lf. Th  ll v y f  w,   I, O C; bu  yu   h
ll h pmpu p    h  by yu  cmm w h Pyh  A 
, wh h  ll h g qul? A I hul l  w wh yu p   f h
m . M  ?   h ;  yu w  w wh I h  f h m? I h  h h
 m  whm w hv h  h  f fm u c ,    u lv ,  b
g, bv , ju,  m   h  publ c,h wh, fllw g u h 
lf, w hu y p cul l  g  y m, hv  my p  why c
, hv b  uc  by u h  lf b   h h y cul hv b  uc
  by ph lphy, f h y h p  y h  ph lphy c p h wh ch 
  h g wh v  mg h g c p wh [pg 183]  hubl ,  
h g mg h v l c p wh   gc ful. A f ll h  y m f ph
lphy, h y  ff    ly  h   m f g  v l; bu  ll I c
     f h m wh ch cl  yh g   u f v u mg h  h
g  h v l,  b g f y u  m ,   u  g y   m  b

y wh ch w my b cm b  ; bu I h  h h y ll   h    pv 


u h  lf. F f h  p  b  cc  , h h l  g wh ch
 hubl ,  fllw h  mu b mp bl  pv h l f  m
hppy by v u . A f h b h c , h  I   
why y    h
ul b b w   ph lphy; f f  w  m c b m  bl , h  f  
uh I   c   h v u , wh ch  ccu   gl u  m mbl
 h g, f y g  vlu .
IV. All h yu hv b  y g, C, I  pl , yu m gh y f yu g 
w h Pyh  A ; f yu   g h h y c   h hub
l    ly h ch f g, bu l ( yu yu lf m  ) h ly g
. A f h   h c , h c qu c wh ch I 
yu  m  fllw  c 
 ly, h ll w  m   lwy hppy. D yu h  p  h  m ,  
yu h  h w ugh  fllw h  p  ? By  m ,   h ; f  
h    p cul   bu f v u  m   l c  f h h g wh c
h   ccc w h u , h wh hv m ll h g qul  uch 
m    c   ll h g  h    p f cly  ff  ,   
l v  m f y  l c , hv u ly pu    v u . Yu y  gh
,   I; bu I  yu wh h  yu, , mu   h m h g, wh  yu
y h h   h g g wh ch    gh  hubl ,   pu 
  ll h  ff  c b w  h  h g? Th wul b h c ,   h ,
f I   pu    ; bu I  y h fcI l v . Hw ,   I? If v 
u l , f h h g l wh ch yu cll hubl ,  gh, p  why, 
c  bl , (f  w ll b m
 ly   wh  h chc  h yu c
 b  , f  b p   u by my w   g  h m p ,) f, I 
y, h  h l g, wh l w ll h  b f yu  fllw? A,  h
h  h, f h g  v l c p wh   gc ful,  hubl , ub
cm g, wg, flg  u,  b , ( m [pg 184] h  l m f  by g v
g  my m ,) wh l w ll h  b wh ch yu c y ugh  b v 
?
I w ll ,   h ,  ply  ch p  f yu qu  ,  yu  ,  I
up c, g f wh I m g g  y, bu  g h   f  m h 
g  cp   my b f w : I w ll h ,  c w hv pl y f  m , 
pl   yu, ul  yu h   f g  h ubj c, h whl p   f Z
  h S c  h m . V y f fm f g  h ubj c,   I;
 , yu pl  w ll b f g   v c  luc  g  m h p 
 bu wh ch I m qu  g. L  u y, h ,   h , lhugh h  y m 
f h S c h   m h g h   ff cul  bcu ; f,  fm ly,
wh  h  m  w   cu   h G lgug , h v y m  f h 
g pp   g wh ch hv w b cm c   by  ly u , wh  yu 
h  w ll b h c wh  w   cu g h m  L ? S ll,   I, w mu
  ; f f Z  m gh  h l b y wh  h h  cv   yh g 
p v uly cmm,  f     m h w l w  up c   , why my
 C  h m ? N w ll  b  c y f yu     wh h h
  w f w,  l   h hb  f  g wh hv  cmm
f lgug f h  w, wh  v  h    w  m  y u wh ch h
 h m m  g. I   my lf m  h hb , f I c mg  y
h  wy, f u g my w  p  wh h G  hv
p     ;
 y  I h  h w ugh  b llw   u  G w  cc  wh
 w c f   L   ,   mply uch  m  p gm   pp
gm , ju  f ly  w y ph pp   cph , hugh  my b uff
c   l h  w p cul w by p f     j c . I m mu
ch bl g   yu,   h , f yu h ;  I w ll  p f  c u h L
   m wh ch yu hv ju m   ;   h  c , , yu hll cm
 my  c f yu 
m   ff cul . I w ll  ,   I, w h g 
 gw ll; bu fu fvu h bl. S m h  mp, I b g f yu; f
wh m  v  ccup  c w hv ?
V. Th

ph lph ,   h , wh y m I ppv

f, c   h  

   ml  b, (f h   wh  w mu b g ,) h   c v ly 


uc   c    [pg 185] p  v h m lf  h    g c  ,  
 f l chm   h h g wh ch hv    cy  p  v h c 
;   f l  bh c f  lu ,  f h c cumc  wh ch 
pp   b p g w h  lu . A h y pv h h   h c , b c
u , b f h  pl u  p  h ff c  , v  wh l   v y l 
l ,    wh  luy,  hu h cy:  h  wul  b h
c f h y w   f f h  c  ,  f  f  lu ; 
 wul  b p bl f h m   y p cul h g f h y h  
m   f h m lv ,  f h    flu c h m  lv h m lv  
 wh b lg  h m. Fm wh ch  ugh  b u  h   fm h
 ml  lf h h p c pl f  lf-lv      v . Bu mg h 
ul p c pl  f  lf-lv m f h S c   m  h pl u 
ugh  b cl ;  I   ly g
w h h m,  v  h my  c  
bl h g wh ch mu u f u hul pp   hv plc  pl u m
g h h g wh ch  h f  bj c f    . Bu  pp   b pf
ugh why w ully lv h h g wh ch  by u plc   h f 
  , h h     , wh, wh  h  l  v  qully  h  p
w , wul  p f   hv ll h p f h  by   u bl   
c  , h  h mp   by u ,   y p cul      p
v .

Bu  f h wl g f h g f yu    much ppv f h  w c


g  ,  f   l   ll g bl , w w ll cll  tat we t nk s naturall t
qu red for ts own sake, because t conta ns somet ng w c as, as t were, em
braced and se zed upon trut. And t s s percept ble even n nfants; wom we s
ee amused f te ave succeeded n f nd ng out ant ng temselves b reason, e
ven toug t ma be of no serv ce watever to tem. And moreover, we cons der a
rts wort attend ng to on te r own account, bot because tere s n tem somet
 ng wort acceptance, and also because te depend upon knowledge, and conta n
n temselves somet ng w c proceeds on sstem and metod. But I t nk tat we
are more averse to assent on false grounds tan to ant ng else w c s contr
ar to nature. Now of te l mbs, tat s to sa, of te parts of te bod, some
appear to ave been g ven to us [pg 186] b nature because of te use w c, te
 are of to us, as, for nstance, te ands, legs, and feet, and also tose nte
rnal organs of te bod, of w c I ma leave t to te ps c ans to expla n t
e exceed ng usefulness; but oters w t no v ew to ut l t, but for ornament as
t were, as te ta l s g ven to te peacock, plumage of man colours to te dov
e, breasts and a beard to man. Peraps ou w ll sa t s s but a dr enumerat o
n; for tese t ngs are, as t were, te f rst elements of nature, w c cannot
well ave an r cness of language emploed upon tem; nor ndeed am I t nk ng
of d spla ng an; but wen one s speak ng of more mportant matters, ten te
subject tself urr es on te language: and ten one's d scourse s at te same
t me more mpress ve and more ornate. It s as ou sa, sa d I; but st ll evert
 ng w c s sa d n a luc d manner about a good subject appears to me to be sa
d well. And to w s to speak of subjects of tat k nd n a flor d stle s c l
d s; but to be able to expla n tem w t clearness and persp cu t, s a token
of a learned and ntell gent man.

I. Let us ten proceed, sa d e, s nce we ave d gressed from tese f rst pr nc
ples of nature, w c evert ng w c follows ougt to be n armon w t. But
t s s te f rst d v s on of te subject. A t ng s sa d to be est mable: for
so we ma, I t nk, call tat w c s e ter tself n accordance w t nature,
or else w c s te eff c ent cause of somet ng of suc a caracter tat t
s wort of be ng selected because t as n t some we gt wort apprec at ng,
w c e calls ; nd, on th oth  hnd, som thing not stimbl , whih is th ont
y of th p  ding. Th fist pinipl s, th  fo , b ing lid down, tht tho
s things whih  oding to ntu  to b hos n fo th i own sk s, n
d thos whih  onty to it  in lik mnn  to b  j t d; th fist du
ty (fo tht is how I tnslt th wod ) is, fr a ma t preserve himself i his a

ural cditi; ext t that, t maitai thse thigs which are i accrdace w
ith ature, ad reject what is ppsite t it; ad whe this priciple f select
i ad rejecti has bee discvered, the fllws selecti i accrdace with
duty; ad the that third id, which is perpetual, ad csistet t the ed,
ad crrespdig t ature, i which there first begis t be a prper udersta
dig [pg 187] f what there is which ca be truly called gd. Fr the first at
tracti f ma is t thse thigs which are accrdig t ature. But as s as
he has received that itelligece, r perhaps I shuld say, ti, which they
call ,  h   h   , f I my  y, h hmy  wh ch h g  
b  , h h   m     h gh  vlu h ll h h g wh ch h l
v   f ;  by h  wl g ,  by   g, h cm   uch  cclu
  h h  c   h h ch f g f m, wh ch   v   b p   
     f  w  ,  plc   wh h S c cll , nd w g m nt, if
ppov of this tnsltion of th t m; s th  fo it is in this tht tht g
ood is pl d to whih ll things [whih  don honoubly]  to b  f  d
, nd honou its lf, whih is  kon d mong th goods, lthough it is only pod
u d subs qu ntly, still this lon d s v s to b sought fo on ount of its
intinsi pow  nd woth; but of thos things whih  th pinipl ntul g
oods th  is not on whih is to b sought fo its own sk .
But s thos things whih I hv ll d duti s po d fom th fist pinipl s
of ntu , th y must n  ssily b  f  d to th m; so tht it my b fily
sid tht ll duti s   f  d to this nd, of iving t th pinipl s of
ntu ; not, how v , tht this is th high st of ll goods, b us th  is no
suh thing s honoubl tion in th fist tttions of ntu ; fo tht is
wht follows, nd is s subs qu ntly, s I hv sid b fo . But still it is 
oding to ntu , nd noug s us to d si its lf muh mo thn ll thos
things whih hv b n p viously m ntion d. But, fist of ll, w must  mov 
mistk , tht no on my think tht it follows tht th   two sup m goods
. Fo s, if it w  th pupos of ny on to di t n ow o  sp  stig
ht t ny obj t, just s w hv sid tht th  is n sp il point to b im
d t in goods,th h  ought to do ll in his pow  to im stight t th t
g t, nd th oth  mn ought lso to do his nd vou to hit th mk, nd gin
th nd whih h hs popos d to hims lf: l t this th n whih w ll th hi f
good in lif b , s it w  , his mk; nd his nd vou to hit it must b futh
 d by  ful s l tion, not by m  d si .

VII. But s ll duti s po d fom th fist pinipl s of ntu , it follows i
n vitbly tht wisdom its lf must po d [pg 188] fom th sm sou . But s
it oft n hpp ns, tht h who hs b n  omm nd d to ny on onsid s him to w
hom h hs b n  omm nd d of mo impotn thn him who  omm nd d him; so
it is not t ll stng tht in th fist instn w   omm nd d to wisdom
by th pinipl s of ntu , but tht subs qu ntly wisdom h s lf b om s d 
 to us thn th stting pl fom whih w iv t it. And s limbs hv b
n giv n to us in suh  wy tht it is plin th y hv b n giv n fo som pup
os of lif ; so tht pp tit of th mind whih in G k is ll d , appeas t have
been
ven t us, nt f any pat cua nd f  fe, but athe f sme espe
c a manne f  v n
: and s t s system and pefect methd. F as an act
empys
estues, and a dance mt ns, nt pact s n
any andm mvement, but
a e
ua systemat c act n; s  fe must be passed accd n
t a ceta n f xed
nd, and nt any pm scuus way, and that ceta n nd we ca a su tabe and
hamn us ne. N d we th n w sdm s m a t the at f nav
at n  med
c ne, but athe t that nd f act n wh ch I have sp en f, and t danc n
;
I mean, nasmuch as the ut mate p nt, that s t say, the pduct n f the a
t,  es n the at tsef, and s nt su
ht f fm fe
n suces. And yet t
hee ae the p nts n wh ch thee s a d ffeence between w sdm and thse a
ts; because n thse ats thse th n
s wh ch ae dne ppey d nevetheess n
t cmp se a the pats f the ats f wh ch they cns st. But the th n
s wh c
h we ca 
ht,  
hty dne, f yu w  aw the expess n, and wh ch th
ey ca , c   h m h whl cmpl    f v u . F w m  h ly

ch  c   whlly   lf;  h    h c

w h h

h  .

A   ly u f gc h h bj c f h  f m  c   v g


   cmp  w h h bj c f w m; f w m mbc  g   f m 
  ju c ,  jug  ll h cc   wh ch b fl m  b  h  lf:
 h     h c  h h  . Bu   w ll b bl  m 
  h v y v u  f wh ch I hv ju m m  , ul  h ly w 
ul h h   h g wh ch  f y mpc , h g wh ch  ff  f
m yh g l , c p wh  hubl   gc ful.
VIII. L  u  w hw m bly h  ul  fllw fm [pg 189] h p c
pl  wh ch I hv l y l  w. F  h   h ul m (  mum) p 
, (f yu hv  c , I  y, h I l wh h G ph lph
 cll , smetimes by the wrd extremum, smetimes by ultimum, ad smetimes by summ
um, ad istead f extremum r ultimum, I may als use the wrd fiis,)as, the,
this is the ultimate pit, t live i a maer suitable t ad harmisig with
ature; it fllws f ecessity that all wise me d always live happily, perfe
ctly, ad frtuately; that they are hidered by thig, embarrassed by thig
; that they are i wat f thig. Ad that which hlds tgether t mre that
schl f which I am spea ig tha ur lives ad frtues, that is t say, the p
riciple f accutig what is hurable t be the sle gd, may ideed easily
be embellished ad elarged up at great legth, with great richess f illust
rati, with great variety f carefully chse expressis, ad with the mst p
mpus setimets i a rhetrical maer; but I prefer the brief, acute, cclusi
ve argumets f the Stics. Nw their cclusis are arrived at i this maer:
Everythig which is gd is praisewrthy; but everythig which is praisewrthy i
s hurable;therefre, everythig which is gd is hurable. Des t this appe
ar prperly deduced? Udubtedly;fr the result which was btaied frm the tw p
remises which were assumed, yu see was ctaied i them. But f the tw premis
es frm which the cclusi was iferred it is ly the majr e which ca be
ctradictedif yu say that it is t the case, that everythig which is gd is
praisewrthy: fr it is grated that whatever is praisewrthy is hurable. But
it is utterly absurd t say, that there is aythig gd which is t t be su
ght fr; r, that there is aythig which ught t be sught fr which is t pl
easig; r, that if it is pleasig it ught t li ewise t be lved. The it u
ght als t be apprved f. The it is praisewrthy. But what is praisewrthy is
hurable. Ad s the result is, that whatever is gd is als hurable. I
the ext place, I as , wh ca bast f a life which is miserable; r avid bas
tig f e which is happy?therefre me bast ly f a life which is happy. Fr
m which the cseuece fllws, that a happy life deserves t be basted f; bu
t this cat prperly be predicated f ay life which is t a hurable [pg
190] e. Frm this it fllws, that a happy life must be a hurable e. Ad
sice the ma t whm it happes t be deservedly praised has sme emiet ual
ities tedig t credit ad glry, s that he may rightly be called happy  acc
ut f such imprtat ualities; the same thig is prperly predicated f the l
ife f such a ma. Ad s, if a happy life is discered by its hurableess, t
he what is hurable ught t be csidered the sle gd. Ad, as this cat
pssibly be deied, what ma d we say ca ever exist f a stable ad firm ad
great mid,whm, i fact, ca we ever call brave,uless the pit is established,
that pai is t a evil? Fr as it is impssible that the ma wh ra s death a
mg evils shuld t fear it, s i every case it is impssible fr a ma t di
sregard what he judges t be a evil, ad t despise it. Ad whe this pit has
bee laid dw, ad ratified by uiversal asset, this is assumed ext, that th
e ma wh is f a brave ad magaimus spirit despises ad utterly disregards e
very accidet which ca befal a ma. Ad as this is the case, the cseuece is
, that there is thig evil which is t disgraceful. Ad that ma f lfty ad
excellet spirit,that magaimus ad truly brave ma, wh csiders all huma a
ccidets beeath his tice,the ma I mea whm we wish t ma e s, whm at all e
vets we are l ig fr,ught t cfide i himself, ad i his w life bth pa
st ad t cme, ad t frm a favurable judgmet f himself, layig dw as a p

riciple, that  evil ca happe t a wise ma. Frm which agai the same resul
t fllws, that the sle gd is that which is hurable; ad that t live happ
ily is t live hurably, that is, virtuusly.
IX. Nt that I am igrat that the piis f philsphers have bee varius,
f thse I mea wh have placed the chief gd, that which I call the ed, i th
e mid. Ad althugh sme peple have fllwed them very icrrectly, still I pr
efer their thery, t ly t that f the three sects wh have separated virtue
frm the chief gd, while ra ig either pleasure, r freedm frm pai, r th
e rigial gifts f ature amg gds, but als t the ther three wh have th
ught that virtue wuld be crippled withut sme reifrcemet, ad  that accu
t have each added t it e f thse ther particulars which I have just eumer
ated. I, [pg 191] hwever, as I said, prefer t all these the me, whever they
may be, wh have described the chief gd as csistig i the mid ad i virtu
e. But evertheless, thse als are extremely absurd wh have said that t live
with wledge is the highest gd, ad wh have asserted that there is  diffe
rece betwee thigs, ad s, that a wise ma will surely be a happy e, ever
at ay mmet f his life preferrig e thig t ather: as sme f the Academ
ics are said t have laid it dw, that the highest gd ad the chief duty f a
wise ma is t resist appearaces, ad firmly t withhld his asset frm them.
Nw peple fte ma e very legthy replies t each f these assertis; yet what
is very clear ught t t be lg. But what is mre evidet tha, if there be
 selecti made, discardig thse thigs which are ctrary t ature, ad sel
ectig thse which are accrdig t ature, all that prudece which is s much s
ught after ad extlled wuld be de away with? If, the, we discard thse se
timets which I have metied, ad all thers which resemble them, it remais t
hat the chief gd must be t live, exercisig a wledge f thse thigs which
happe by ature, selectig what is accrdig t ature, ad rejectig ay whic
h are ctrary t ature; that is t say, t live i a maer suitable ad crre
spdig t ature.

But i ther arts, whe aythig is said t have bee de accrdig t the rule
s f art, there is smethig t be csidered which is subseuet ad fllws up
 such cmpliace; which they call . Bu wh  w y  y m  h  h
w  ly, h m h g  fm h f    l  hv b   m pp
ly; f wh v  pc  fm  w  m mu  c b p f c  ll  p
: f  h m  plc  h qul y wh ch w y   b    . F  
     b y  ' cuy,  ju  ' p ,  plu   mpl , w
h ch  ll   f cmm  ;    l w      b f ,  g v
,  b u  h m   f lu, v  f  v  c fllw h  f l g.
Bu,  h    ,   h  l  p    c qu c , bu  c
fm h f  mm ;  h c  wh ch pc  fm v u   b c
     gh  h f  mm  h h y  u  ,   ly wh  
h y  ccmpl h .

[pg 192]
X. Bu  my b  w ll  g v  pl    f    f h w g,
wh ch, h b   f  mply   h   cu . Bu h  f    f h
 ph lph   ff   g  l fm  h ,  y  hv ll  f  c
 h m fc. I my lf g
w h D g  , wh h  f   g  b h
wh ch   u  p f c. Bu h wh ch fllw, h wh ch  pf bl
(f  w my l h  ), h c     b  m ,    ,   g u
f h u f h p f c. A  h   f h g    h m ,
f yh g h b cm w h  by pc c ,  by cmb  ,  by  m l 
u ,  by h cmp  f  ; h  by h  fuh m , wh ch I hv pl
c  l, h wl g f g   v  . F wh , by  cmp  f h
 , h m  c  fm h h g wh ch  cc g   , h 
  v      f g. A h  g w  p  g f, w bh f l 
b  cll g,  b cu f y    m  ,  fm  gwh,

 fm cmp g  w h h  h g, bu b cu f  w pp  pw . F
  h y, lhugh   v y w ,   ll p c v   b w  by  w
p cul   f  ,   by cmp  w h h  h g;  h  g,
wh ch w  w   g f,     b  m  f g  vlu ; bu h
vlu   p       mg u . F   m , wh ch  cll
 , is not  kon d mong goods, no, on th oth  hnd, mong vils, wht v  you
dd to it will  min in its kind. Th  is, th  fo , noth  kind of stimt
ion pop  to vitu , whih is of w ight fom its ht , nd not b us of
its in sing. No, ind d,  th p tubtions of th mind, whih mk th l
iv s of th unwis bitt  nd mis bl , nd whih th G ks ll , (I migt transl
ate te word itsel by te Latin morbi, but it would not suit all te meanings o
 te Greek word; or wo ever calls ity, or even anger, a diseasemorbus)? but t
e Greeks do call suc a eeling . Let us the traslate it perturbati, which is by
its very ame pited ut t be smethig vicius. Nr are these perturbatis,
I say, excited by ay atural frce; ad they are altgether i id fur, but
as t their divisis they are mre umerus. There is melachly, fear, lust, a
d that feelig which the Stics call by the cmm ame which they apply t bt
h mid ad bdy, , and wh ch I pefe tansat n
[p
193] jy (t t a), athe than a
peasuabe eat n f an exut n
m nd. But petubat ns ae nt exc ted by a
ny fce f natue; and a thse fee n
s ae jud
ments and p n ns pceed n

fm 
ht-m ndedness; and, theefe, the w se man w  aways be fee fm th
em.
XI. But that eveyth n
wh ch s hnuabe s t be su
ht f ts wn sa e, s
an p n n cmmn t us w th many the schs f ph sphes. F, except th
e thee sects wh ch excude v tue fm the ch ef
d, th s p n n must be ma
nta ned by a ph sphes, and abve a by us, wh d nt an anyth n
whate
ve amn

ds except what s hnuabe. But the defence f th s p n n s ve
y easy and s mpe ndeed; f wh s thee,  wh eve was thee, f such v 
ent ava ce,  f such unb ded des es as nt nf n tey t pefe that anyth
n
wh ch he w shes t acqu e, even at the expense f any cnce vabe w c ednes
s, shud cme nt h s pwe w thut c me, (even thu
h he had a pspect f p
efect mpun ty,) than thu
h c me? and what ut  ty,  what pesna advanta

e d we hpe f, when we ae anx us t nw whethe thse bd es ae mv n
w
hse mvements ae cnceaed fm us, and w n
t what causes they evve th
u
h the heavens? And wh s thee that  ves accd n
t such cwn sh max ms,
 wh has s 
usy hadened h msef a
a nst the study f natue, as t be
avese t th n
s wthy f be n
undestd, and t be nd ffeent t and d se

ad such nwed


e, meey because thee s n exact usefuness  peasue  e
y t esut fm t? , wh s thee whwhen he cmes t nw the exp ts, and
say n
s, and w se cunses f u fefathes, f the Af can ,  f that ance
st f m ne whm yu ae aways ta n
f, and f the bave men, and c t zen
s f pe-em nent v tuedes nt fee h s m nd affected w th peasue? and wh tha
t has been bu
ht up n a espectabe fam y, and educated as becmes a feeman
, s nt ffended w th baseness as such, thu
h t may nt be  ey t njue h
m pesnay? Wh can eep h s equan m ty wh e  n
n a man wh, he th n s
,  ves n an mpue and w c ed manne? Wh des nt hate sd d, f c e, unstab
e, wthess men? But what sha we be abe t say, ( f we d nt ay t dwn t
hat baseness s t be av ded f ts wn sa e), s the easn why men d nt se
e da ness and s tude, and then
ve the e n [p
194] t evey pss be nfa
my, except that baseness f tsef detects them by easn f ts wn nt ns c f
uness? Innumeabe a
uments may be bu
ht fwad t suppt th s p n n; b
ut t s needess, f thee s nth n
wh ch can be ess a matte f dubt than
that what s hnuabe u
ht t be su
ht f ts wn sa e; and, n the same m
anne, what s d s
acefu u
ht t be av ded.
But afte that p nt s estab shed, wh ch we have pev usy ment ned, that wh
at s hnuabe s the se
d; t must unav daby be undestd that that w
h ch s hnuabe, s t be vaued me h
hy than thse ntemed ate
ds wh
ch we de ve fm t. But when we say that fy, and ashness, and njust ce,

and ntempeance ae t be av ded n accunt f thse th n


s wh ch esut fm
them, we d nt spea n such a manne that u an
ua
e s at a ncns stent
w th the ps t n wh ch has been a d dwn, that that ane s ev  wh ch s d s
hnuabe. Because thse th n
s ae nt efeed t any ncnven ence f the b
dy, but t d shnuabe act ns, wh ch a se ut f v c us ppens t es (v t a
). F what the Gee s ca I p f  tnslting by vitium th  thn by mliti.
XII. C tinly; Cto, sid I, you 
mploying v y dmibl lngug , nd su
h s xp ss s l ly wht you m n; nd, th  fo , you s m to m to b t h
ing philosophy in Ltin, nd, s it w  , to b p s nting it with th f dom o
f th ity. Fo up to this tim sh hs s m d lik  stng  t Rom , nd hs
not put h s lf in th wy of ou onv stion; nd tht, too, hi fly b us o
f   tin highly polish d thinn ss of things nd wods. Fo I m w tht th
  som m n who  bl to philosophis in ny lngug , but who still mp
loy no divisions nd no d finitions; nd who sy th ms lv s tht th y ppov of
thos things lon to whih ntu sil ntly ss nts. Th  fo , th y disuss, w
ithout ny g t d g
of lbou, mtt s whih  not v y obsu . And, on t
his ount, I m now p p d to list n g ly to you, nd to ommit to m moy
ll th nm s whih you giv to thos mtt s to whih this disussion  f s.
Fo, p hps, I mys lf my som dy hv  son to mploy th m too.
You, th n, pp  to m to b p f tly ight, nd to b ting in stit od
n with ou usul wy of sp king, [pg 195] wh n you ly it down tht th  
vi s th xt opposit s of vitu s; fo tht whih is blm bl (vitup bil
) fo its own sk , I think ought, fom tht v y ft, to b ll d  vi ; n
d p hps this v b, vitup o, is d iv d fom vitium. But if you hd tnslt d
by mliti,46 th n th usg of th Ltin lngug would hv limit d us to on p
tiul vi ; but, s it is, ll vi is oppos d to ll vitu by on g n i op
posit nm .
XIII. Th n h po d d:Aft  th s things, th  fo ,  thus lid down, th 
follows  g t ont st, whih hs b n hndl d by th P ipt tis som wht too
g ntly, (fo th i m thod of guing is not suffii ntly ut , owing to th i
ignon of dil tis;) but you Cn d s hs p ss d th mtt  with g t v
igou nd ff t, displying in  f  n to it  most dmibl skill in dil 
tis, nd th most onsummt loqu n ; b us h hs n v   s d to ont nd
thoughout th whol of this disussion, whih tuns upon wht is good nd wht
is bd, tht th ontov sy b tw n th Stois nd P ipt tis is not on of t
hings, but only of nm s. But, to m , nothing pp s so vid nt s tht th opi
nions of th s two shools diff  fom on noth  f mo s to fts thn to
nm s; I m n to sy, tht th  is muh g t  diff  n b tw n th Stois 
nd P ipt tis in pinipl thn in lngug . Fosmuh s th P ipt tis ss
t tht v ything whih th y th ms lv s ll good, hs   f  n to living h
ppily; but ou shool do s not think tht  hppy lif n  ssily mb s v
ything whih is wothy of ny st m.
But n nything b mo  tin thn tht, oding to th pinipl s of thos
m n who nk pin mong th vils,  wis mn nnot b hppy wh n h is tom n
t d on th k? Whil th pinipl s of thos who do not onsid  pin mong th
vils,  tinly omp ls us to llow tht  hppy lif is p s v d to  wis
mn mong ll tom nts. In tuth, if thos m n ndu pin with g t  fotitud
who suff  it in th us of th i ounty, thn thos who do so fo ny slig
ht  obj t; th n it is plin tht it is opinion, nd not ntu , whih mk s th
fo of pin g t  o l ss. Ev n tht opinion of th P ipt tis is mo t
hn I n [pg 196] g
to, tht, s th   th
kinds of goods, s th y s
y, h individul is th hppi  in popotion s h is ih  in th goods of
th body o xt nl goods, so tht w must b fo d lso to ppov of this do
tin , tht tht mn is hppi  who hs  g t  quntity of thos things whi
h  ount d of g t vlu s ff ting th body. Fo th y think tht  hpp
y lif is md ompl t by bodily dvntg s; but th  is nothing whih ou phi

losoph s n so littl g


to. Fo, s ou opinion is tht lif is not v n m
d in th l st mo hppy by n bundn of thos goods whih w ll goods o
f ntu , no mo d sibl , no d s ving of b ing mo highly vlu d, th n 
tinly  multitud of bodily dvntg s n hv still l ss ff t on mking li
f hppy. In tuth, if to b wis b  d sibl thing, nd to b w ll b so too
, th n both tog th  must b mo d sibl thn wisdom by its lf; but it do s n
ot follow, if h qulity d s v s to b st m d, tht th  fo , th two tk
n tog th  d s v to b st m d mo highly thn wisdom do s by its lf. Fo w
who onsid  good h lth wothy of ny st m, nd y t do not nk it mong th
goods, think, t th sm tim , tht th st m to whih it is ntitl d is by n
o m ns suh s tht it ought to b p f  d to vitu . But this is not th do
tin of th P ipt tis; nd th y ought to t ll us, tht tht whih is n hono
ubl tion nd unompni d by pin, is mo to b d si d thn th sm t
ion would b if it w  tt nd d with pin. W think not: wh th  w  ight o
 wong my b disuss d h  ft ; but n th  possibly b  g t  disg
m nt  sp ting fts nd pinipl s?

XIV. Fo s th light of  ndl is obsu d nd put out by th light of th su


n; nd s  dop of bin is lost in th mgnitud of th gn s ; o n ddition
of  p nny mid th ih s of Csus; o s on st p is of no ount in  mh f
om h  to Indi; so, if tht is th hi f good whih th Stois ffim is so,
th n, ll th goods whih d p nd on th body must in vitbly b obsu d nd ov
wh lm d by, nd om to nothing wh n pl d by th sid of th spl ndou nd im
potn of vitu . And sin oppotunity, (fo tht is how w my tnslt ,) is no
d g t  by xt nding th tim , (fo wht v  is sid to b oppotun hs its
own p uli limit;) so  ight tion, (fo [pg 197] tht is how I tnslt , an
t deed I call ,)  gh c , I y,  u bl  , ,  h, h g
wh ch  p   h fc f  b g  ccc w h u , h  p b
l y f  c v g y     gwh. F  h ppu y   m g
  by h    f  m ,   h   h  h g wh ch I hv m  
. A,  h ccu,  hppy l f     m  h S c m   bl
 m   v g f b g ugh f , f   lg h f   h; 
 h y pv h  by   m l :A h p  f  bu    f  h f cl
y,   my bu    c     f  b   h f w,  lg  
  hugh b   h mll  ; ,  h c f h h whl g
f wh ch  p  up  u bl    f  ; my   p f    f
w,  wh  ubl  wh  h-l v . N  h y h b  uff c  
cu   wh  h y y, f g h lh  m  b  m  wh   l lg
h wh   l ly  h  m , h  h lg  p bl jym  f w
m mu cl ly b f h g   vlu . Th y   u  h h 
m f g h lh  fm  p ly w h  f  c   u ; f v u
w h  f  c   f   f  m ;  h m  wh gu  h  m , 
m  f h y wul p  f  g  h,   g lbu,  cll  wh ch
l  lg, b   h  h  . Th y   p c v h m h g 
 c   f m vlu  pp   h  b v y;  m  pp  
 h  l gh. Th  f ,   qu  c   w h wh h b   , h
cc g  h p c pl  f h wh h  h h  f g wh ch w c
ll h  m  ch f g,  uc p bl f gwh, h y my l h  h
  m c b w   h h ; ,  l m  h ,  m my   m
 ,  c m  ghly h h . Bu uch       llwbl 
u, wh   h  h  f g uc p bl f gwh. F  m  wh hv
b  ubm g  u  h w , c b h y m b cu h y   
g   ph b lw h ufc , (hugh h y my  h  ccu b bl   m
  m g ,) h f h y w   h bm,  c h puppy wh   ly 
l ugh   ,  y  
y m h  wh  bu h  mm  b;  
h m wh h m m pg  w h ppch  v u , [pg 198]  
l     f m  y h h wh h m  uch vc  ll.
XV. I m w h ll h   m v y g . Bu  uqu  bly h p v
u pp    u  ucv  bl ,   h  h    hm

y w h,   h   c c qu c  f h m; w c qu   h  uh


l. Bu lhugh m p pl  y h h  v u   v c   uc p bl
f gwh,  ll h y b l v h ch f h m   m  g  ffu , 
   w 
  . Bu D g   h   h  ch  hv  ly uch pw ,
h h y  ,   w  , gu    pl u   g h lh, bu h h y
v  c  h m: bu h h y hv  h m pw  w h  g  v u ,
  h h    wh ch m y my   b  gu  , bu wh ch  c
c . Th  f , f pl u  f g h lh b mg h g,  ch  l
 mu b cl  mg h g; bu f w m b  g,     fllw 
h w  l  cll  ch   g;  c h wh ch  cl  mg h g
 b c   by yh g wh ch   plc   h m cl f c . A
  h ccu, b cu h wl g  cmp h   f h h g by wh
ch   puc , c      f h m,   ch    mg h g
, h  f   c b c     ch .
Bu f w g h   b u w h  p c  ,  ll     fllw
h h m ul hl g w h  p c  v u ; b cu v u  qu   
g   l f m     pc c ,  h    lwy h c w h 
;  l b cu v u
mbc  h b l y, f m ,  c  cy f 
h h m  h c w h .
h   l f ;  w   
Af  h , w cm  pl  h  ff  c  b w  h g. A f w w  
y h h    , h  ll l f wul b hw  cfu ,   
by A . N cul y ff c  w b fu f w m, f h  w  cu
lly   ff  c b w   h g  h ,  f h  w   pw  f 
l c   ll  qu    b   . Th  f , f   h b  uff c 
ly bl h  h h l w g wh ch w hubl ,  h l
v
l wh ch w  gc ful, h y    h h  w  m p cul  wh ch
h h g wh ch h  flu c  [pg 199] h m  y  hpp   f l f
,  ff   fm  h ,  h m f h m   v   b  m , m
 b  p  ,  h  w   ff  . Bu   h h g wh ch   v
  b  m , m f h m h  h m lv  uff c    f b g p
f    h ,  g h lh, u  f h   , f m fm p , g
ly,  ch ,   m l h g. Bu h  w   f h  . A  l
m ,   h h g wh ch w  why f   m  ll, m h cu
ugh  h m lv  why h y hul b  j c , uch  p ,    , l 
f   , pv y, gm y,  h g l h m,  m h . A hu, f
m h    c , cm wh Z  cll  , ad  the ther had what he called
i s cpius a laguage, he chse t emply ew terms f his w iveti; a l
icese which is t allwed t us i this barre laguage f urs; althugh yu
fte isist that it is richer tha the Gree . But it is t freig t ur pres
et subject, i rder that the meaig f the wrd may be mre easily uderstd
, t explai the priciple  which Ze iveted these terms.

X I. Fr as, says he,  e i a ig's palace says that the ig is, as it wer
e, led frward twards his digity (fr that is the real meaig f the wrd , but
m is applied t thse wh are f sme ra whse rder cmes ext t his, s as
t be secd t the igly digity); s i life t, it is t thse thigs whic
h are i the first ra , but thse which are i the secd which are called ,  l 
. A w my l h G by pucum (h  w ll b   cly l  
l l ),  w my cll    pp  pmum   mum,   w
hv   b f , w my cll , prpsitum r prcipuum, ad its ppsite rejectu
the thig is uderstd, we ught t be very ductile as t the wrds which we e
mply.

But sice we say that everythig which is gd hlds the first ra , it fllws
ievitably that this which we call prcipuum r prpsitum, must be either gd r
bad. Ad therefre we defie it as smethig idifferet, atteded with a mder
ate esteem. Fr that which they call ,  ccu  m  l  ff  . N
, w   ll p bl h h  hul b h g l f  m   , [pg

200] wh ch w h  cc g  u  cy  ; , wh  h w


l f, h h  hul b h g    h  cl wh ch w l bly 
mbl ; , f h  p   w  c bl h , h h  hul  b m
h g wh ch  p f  . Th    c , h , h b  m w h p f c
pp y,  h   m l  mply  by h m  m h uh m
 ly 
. F , y h y, f w w   upp h   b ,   w  , h  
g   f g,  hw    uch  m  h  hul  up gh,
h  h  wh ch  hw  uch  m    fll up gh, w ll hv m
p cul h g p f     ,  v c v . A y  h p f  c 
f h  w ll hv   f  c  h  f wh ch I hv b  p  g. S h
 h g wh ch hv b  p f     f      h , bu hv 
 f  c  ll   fc  u .
N  cm  h  v  , h f g m hv  f  c  h  (f 
I p  h wh ch h y cll , f we must hee, as we have sa d befe, endue t
expess n many wds, what we cannt expess by ne s as t be thu
hy nte

be,) sme ae eff c ent causes, and sme ae bth t
ethe. But f thse w
h ch have efeence t that end, nth n
s
d except hnuabe act ns; f t
hse wh ch ae eff c ent causes, nth n
s
d except a f end. But they asse
t that w sdm s bth a efeent a and an eff c ent
d. F, because w sdm
s su tabe act n, t s f that efeent a chaacte wh ch I have ment ned; b
ut nasmuch as t b n
s and causes hnuabe act ns, t may be s fa caed
eff c ent.

XVII. Nw these th n


s wh ch we have sp en f as pefeed, ae pefeed sme
f the  wn sa e, sme because they effect smeth n
ese, and sme f bth 
easns. Sme ae pefeed f the  wn sa e, such as sme pat cua appeaanc
e  expess n f cuntenance, sme pat cua nd f
a t,  mt n, n wh c
h thee ae sme th n
s wh ch may we be pefeed, and sme wh ch may be ejec
ted. Othes ae sa d t be pefeed because they pduce smeth n
, as mney; a
nd thes f a cmb nat n f bth easns, as sundness f the senses, 
d
heath. But espect n

d eputat n, (f what they ca is mo pop ly ll d,
in this pl , good  puttion thn gloy,) [pg 201] Chysippus nd Diog n s d n
i d its whol utility, nd us d to sy tht on ought not v n to put foth  fi
ng  fo th sk of it, with whom I nti ly nd h tily g . But thos who
m ft  th m, b ing unbl to withstnd th gum nts of Cn d s, sid tht
this good  puttion, s I ll it, ws p f  d fo its own sk , nd ought t
o b hos n fo its own sk , nd tht it ws ntul fo  mn of good fmily,
who hd b n pop ly bought up, to wish to b pis d by his p nts, his  l
tions, nd by good m n in g n l, nd tht too fo th sk of th pis its l
f, nd not of ny dvntg whih might nsu fom it. And th y sy, too, tht 
s w wish to povid fo ou hild n, v n fo suh s my b posthumous hild
n, fo th i own sk , so w ought lso to show   gd fo posthumous fm f
t  ou d th, fo its own sk , without ny thought of gin o dvntg .
But s w ss t tht wht is honoubl is th only good, still it is onsist n
t with this ss tion to dishg on 's duty, though w do not lss duty mong
ith  th goods o th vils. Fo th  is in th s things som lik lihood, n
d tht of suh  ntu tht  sons n b ll g d fo th  b ing suh; nd th
 fo of suh  ntu , tht pobbl  sons my b ddu d fo dopting suh
 lin of ondut. Fom whih it follows tht duty is  sot of n utl thing,
whih is not to b lss d ith  mong th goods o mong th opposit s of good
s. And sin , in thos things whih  n ith  nk d mong th vitu s no mo
ng th vi s, th  is still som thing whih my b of us ; tht is not to b d
stoy d. Fo th  is   tin tion of tht sot, nd tht too of suh  h
t  tht  son  qui s on to do nd p fom it. But tht whih is don in o
b di n to  son w ll duty; duty, th n, is  thing of tht sot, tht it mu
st not b nk d ith  mong th goods o mong th opposit s of goods.
XVIII. And this lso is

vid nt, tht in th s

ntul things th

wis mn is no

t ltog th  intiv . H th  fo , wh n h ts, judg s tht tht is his duty;


nd b us h is n v  d  iv d in foming his judgm nt, duty must b lss d
mong n utl things; nd this is pov d lso by this onlusion of  son. Fo
sin w s tht th  is som thing whih w ponoun to hv b n ightly don
(fo tht is duty wh n omplish d), th  must lso b som thing whih is i
ghtly b gun: s, if to  sto wht hs b n justly [pg 202] d posit d b longs t
o th lss of ight tions, th n it must b lss d mong th duti s to  sto
 d posit; nd th ddition of th wod justly mk s th duty to b ightly p f
om d: but th m  ft of  stoing is lss d s  duty. And sin it is not
doubtful, tht in thos things whih w ll int m dit o n utl, som ought
to b hos n nd oth s  j t d, wht v  is don o sid in this mnn  om s
und  th h d of odiny duty. And fom this it is und stood, sin ll m n
ntully lov th ms lv s, tht  fool is s su s  wis mn to hoos wht i
s in odn with ntu , nd to  j t wht is onty to it; nd so th 
is on duty in ommon both to wis m n nd to fools; fom whih it follows tht
duty is onv snt bout thos things whih w ll n utl. But sin ll duti
s po d fom th s things, it is not without  son tht it is sid tht ll o
u thoughts   f  d to th s things, nd mong th m ou d ptu fom lif
, nd ou  mining in lif .
Fo h in whom th   mny things whih  in odn with ntu , his du
ty it is to  min in lif ; but s to th mn in whom th 
ith  is o pp s
lik ly to b  p pond n of things onty to ntu , tht mn's duty is t
o d pt fom lif . Fom whih onsid tion it is vid nt, tht it is som tim s
th duty of  wis mn to d pt fom lif wh n h is hppy, nd som tim s th
duty of  fool to  min in lif though h is mis bl . Fo tht good nd tht
vil, s hs b n oft n sid, om s ft wds. But thos pinipl ntul good
s, nd thos whih hold th s ond nk, nd thos things whih  opposit to
th m, ll om und  th d ision of, nd  mtt s fo th  fl tion of th
wis mn; nd  , s it w  , th subj t mtt  of wisdom. Th  fo th qu st
ion of  mining in lif , o of migting fom it, is to b m su d by ll tho
s iumstn s whih I hv m ntion d bov ; fo d th is not to b sought fo
by thos m n who   tin d in lif by vitu , no by thos who  d stitut
of vitu . But it is oft n th duty of  wis mn to d pt fom lif , wh n h
is thooughly hppy, if it is in his pow  to do so oppotun ly; nd tht is liv
ing in  mnn  suitbl to ntu , fo th i mxim is, tht living hppily d p
nds upon oppotunity. Th  fo  ul is lid down by wisdom, tht if it b n 
ssy  wis mn is v n to l v h  h s lf.
[pg 203]
Wh  fo , s vi hs not suh pow  s to ffod  justifying us fo volunt
y d th, it is vid nt tht it is th duty v n of fools, nd of thos too who
 mis bl , to  min in lif , if th y  suound d by  p pond n of
thos things whih w ll oding to ntu . And sin suh  mn is qully
mis bl , wh th  d pting fom lif , o biding in it, nd sin th dution
of mis y is not ny th mo  us fo fl ing fom lif , th  fo it is no
t  us l ss ss tion, tht thos m n who hv th pow  of njoying th g t
st numb  of ntul goods, ought to bid in lif .
XIX. But th y think it is v y impotnt with  f  n to this subj t, tht it
should b und stood tht it is th wok of ntu , tht hild n  b lov d b
y th i p nts; nd tht this is th fist pinipl fom whih w my t th
whol pog ss of th ommon soi ty of th humn  . And tht this my b i
nf  d, in th fist pl , fom th figu nd m mb s of th body, whih of t
h ms lv s d l tht  du  gd fo v ything onn t d with g n tion hs
b n xhibit d by ntu ; no n th s two things possibly b onsist nt with
on noth , tht ntu should d si tht offsping should b popgt d, nd
y t tk no  tht wht is popgt d should b lov d. But v n in b sts th
pow  of ntu my b dis n d; fo wh n w s suh lbou b stow d upon th
binging foth nd b ing of th i offsping, w s m to b h ing th voi

of ntu h s lf. Wh  fo , s it is vid nt tht w  by ntu v s to p


in; so lso it is l  tht w  imp ll d by ntu h s lf to lov thos wh
os xist n w hv us d. And fom this it is s tht th  is suh   om
m ndtion by ntu of on mn to noth , tht on mn ought n v  to pp  un
fi ndly to noth , fo th simpl  son tht h is  mn.
Fo s mong th limbs som pp  to b  t d fo th ms lv s s it w  , s t
h y s nd s; oth s ssist th  st of th limbs, s th l gs nd hnds; so
th   som monstous b sts bon fo th ms lv s lon : but tht fish whih
flots in n op n sh ll nd is ll d th pinn, nd tht oth  whih swims out
of th sh ll, nd, b us it is  gud to th oth , is ll d th pinnot  s,
nd wh n it hs withdwn within th sh ll gin, is shut up in it, so tht it
[pg 204] pp s tht it hs giv n it wning to b on its gud; nd lso nts,
nd b s, nd stoks, do som thing fo th sk of oth s. Muh mo is this th
s with  f  n to th union of m n. And th  fo w  by ntu dpt
d fo ompnionship, fo tking ouns l tog th , fo foming stt s. But th y t
hink tht this wold is  gult d by th wisdom of th gods, nd tht it is, s
it w  ,  ommon ity nd stt of m n nd gods, nd tht v y individul of u
s is  pt of th wold. Fom whih tht pp s to follow by ntu , tht w s
hould p f  th g n l dvntg to ou own. Fo s th lws p f  th g n 
l sf ty to tht of individuls, so  good nd wis mn, nd on who ob ys th l
ws nd who is not ignont of his duty s  itiz n, onsults th g n l dvn
tg th  thn tht of ny ptiul individul, o v n thn his own. No is
 b ty  of his ounty mo to b blm d, thn on who d s ts th g n l 
dvntg o th g n l sf ty on ount of his own pivt dvntg o sf ty
. Fom whih it lso follows, tht tht mn d s v s to b pis d who nount 
s d th voluntily fo th sk of th  publi, b us it is ight tht th 
publi should b d   to us thn ous lv s. And sin it is sid to b  wik
d thing, nd onty to humn ntu , fo  mn to sy tht h would not 
if, ft  his own d th,  g n l onflgtion of th whol wold w  to hpp
n, whih is oft n utt  d in  G k47 v s ; so it is  tinly tu tht w o
ught to onsult th int  sts of thos who  to om ft  us, fo th sk of
th lov whih w b  th m.
XX. It is in this disposition of mind tht wills, nd th  omm ndtions of dyi
ng p sons, hv oigint d. And b us no on would lik to pss his lif in s
olitud , not v n if suound d with n infinit bundn of pl su s, it is
sily p  iv d tht w  bon fo ommunion nd f llowship with mn, nd fo
ntul ssoitions. But w  imp ll d by ntu to wish to b n fit s mny p
sons s possibl , sp illy by instuting th m nd d liv ing th m p  pts
of pud n . Th  fo , it is not sy to find  mn who do s not ommunit to
som oth  wht h knows hims lf; so pon  w not only to l n, but lso t
o t h. And s th pinipl is by ntu implnt d in bulls to fight [pg 205]
in b hlf of th i lv s with th g t st vigou nd n stn ss, v n ginst
lions; so thos who  ih o pow ful, nd  bl to do so, 
xit d by
ntu to p s v th  of mnkind, s w hv h d by tdition ws th 
s with H ul s nd Lib . And lso wh n w ll Jupit  ll-pow ful nd ll
-good, nd lik wis wh n w sp k of him s th sluty god, th hospitbl god
, o s Stto, w m n it to b und stood tht th sf ty of m n is und  his
pot tion. But it is v y inonsist nt, wh n w  dis gd d nd d spis d by
on noth , to nt t, tht w my b d  to nd b lov d by th immotl god
s. As, th  fo , w mk us of ou limbs b fo w hv l nt th xt dvn
tg with  vi w to whih w 
ndow d with th m, so lso w  unit d nd s
soit d by ntu in  ommunity of f llow-itiz ns. And if this w  not th 
s , th  would b no oom fo ith  justi o b n vol n .
And s m n think tht th   bonds of ight whih onn t mn with mn, so l
so th  is no lw whih onn ts mn with th b sts. Fo w ll did Chysippus s
y, tht ll oth  nimls hv b n bon fo th sk of m n nd of th gods; b
ut tht m n nd gods hv b n bon only fo th sk of th i own mutul ommun

ion nd soi ty, so tht m n might b bl to us b sts fo th i own dvntg
without ny violtion of lw o ight. And sin th ntu of mn is suh tht
h hs, s it w  ,  sot of ight of itiz nship onn ting him with th whol
humn  ,  mn who mintins tht ight is just, nd h who d pts fom it
is unjust.
But s, lthough  th t is publily op n, still it my b fily sid tht th
pl whih h individul hs oupi d b longs to him; so in  ity, o in t
h wold, whih is lik wis ommon to ll, th  is no pinipl of ight whih
hind s h individul fom hving his own pivt pop ty. But sin w s
t
ht mn hs b n bon fo th pupos of d f nding nd p s ving m n, so it is
onsist nt with this ntu tht  wis mn should wish to mng nd  gult t
h  publi; nd, in od  to liv in omplin with ntu , to my  wif n
d b g t hild n. No do philosoph s think vituous lov inonsist nt with  wi
s mn. But oth s sy tht th pinipl s nd lif of th Cynis  mo suit
d to  wis mn; if, ind d, ny hn should b fl him whih [pg 206] might o
mp l him to t in suh  mnn ; whil oth s wholly d ny it.

XXI. But in od  tht th soi ty, nd union, nd ff tion b tw n mn nd mn
my b ompl t ly p s v d, th y hv lid it down tht ll b n fits nd inju
i s, whih th y ll  ,  l w  cmm; f wh ch h fm   v
  ju u. N hv h y b  c   w h cll g h m cmm, bu h y
hv l    h  qul y. Bu  f  vg   vg , (by
wh ch w I l  ,) h h y    b cmm, bu
 h g wh ch pf   wh ch ju 
h  g  v l;  h y mu 
c  ly b qul. Bu vg    vg   f h  wh ch w
hv l y cll  h g p f     j c ;  h y c b qul. Bu
vg      b cmm; bu h g   ghly,   ,   c
    cmm. Bu h y h  h f h p   b cul v  b cu  
 f h cl f h g wh ch  pf bl . Bu lhugh,  f h p, 
m p pl   h h    f  m' f       h m  h  
w; h ,  h h  h, c  h v y m h  g    g f h
 w. Y  h  l  cf  h   c   w h ju c , f wh ch
w  m  b b,   yh g fm h  f h pup f ppp 
g     lf. Bu ph lph  f h  chl wh ch I m p  g f,  v 
ppv f h  f h p  ju c b g  c    c   f h 
 f  u ful : f h y y h h m p c pl  f u ful  my,
  m , u m   v u h m. I uh,  h  ju c  f h p c
 hv y   c  ll, ul  h y b ugh f h  w  . Th y c
  l h ll  gh, wh ch h y p  c  h m  pp ll , 
 by u ;  h   c   w h h chc  f  w  m, 
ly   y ju c  y  , bu v    h m y mg . N   
gh  m uch  l gu w h  ' f    h  ll h  g  
,   b cm  p   v y c f ju c ;  h y gu , w h h g
   g y  uh, h ju c c  v  b  p  fm u ful : 
 h wh v   ju  qu bl  l hubl ; ,  c pclly, [p
g 207] h wh v   hubl mu b l ju  qu bl .
A  h v u  wh ch w hv  cu , h y l   l c c  u
l ph lphy;  h y cll bh h  c c  by h m f v u :  , b
cu  h  ,    p v  u   g  y fl pp  , 
b g v   c v  by y plu bl pbb l y;   bl u  m  
  f  wh w w  y g bu g  v l. F w hu h  c h y h
 h y  my b l  wy fm h uh   c v ; cc gly, f 
h   gc   v y c v c u, h  pw  wh ch  mv  h m 
pp ly m  v u .
XXII. Th m hu  l  bu   ul ph lphy,   w hu
 , b cu h m wh w h   l v   m  u bl  u , mu
b g  by uy g h u v l wl,  h lw wh ch gv  . N c y

 fm  c c jugm  f g  v l w hu b g cqu   w h h


whl y m f u ,  f h l f f h g l,  w hu w g wh
h    h u f m g  w h u v l u . H mu l hv l
 h c  ul  f h w  m  wh b  m  y l  h  m ,  b
y G,  w   lf,  hu v y  f c . Nw, w hu  wl g
wh g  pw  h  ul  hv ; 
f ul ph lphy,  m c 
   g   c b :  l h   h ly wl g wh ch c  ch  m
 hw g ly u    h cul v  f ju c ,  h m  c
f f h p  h   f h ff c . N c p y w h G, 
 h g u wh ch  u  h m, b pp ly u   pp c   w 
hu  c c u  g f h lw f u .
Bu I f l w h I hv vc  fuh  h I h   ,  h h ub
j c b f m  qu  . Bu h m bl g m  f h S c c  , 
 h c  bl b uy f h y m,  w m . A,  h m f h mm
l g! c yu fb   m  ? F wh  h   ll u hugh 
h g  b    m ccu ly p     h h wh c b fu
  y w m by h h,  w ll g ,  u  ,  pu g h ?
Wh  h  wh ch  p  , wh ch    g
w h wh h p c  
? Wh  h  [pg 208] wh ch fllw,     c p  wh h g
b f ? Wh  h  wh ch   c c  w h m h g l  uch  m
 , h f yu ly mv  l   h whl w ll fll  p c ? N,  
,  h  yh g wh ch c b mv .
Bu wh  g  mg f c   c   chc   h f h w  m
 wh ch  w by h m! F h , f    h ugh h m h h wh ch 
hubl  l g, mu  v bly b lwy hppy,  mu hv  g u
  gh  h m  wh ch  f    cul  by h g. F h w ll
b m pp ly cll  g h Tqu , wh w bl  gv   h  h m l
f  h  fm ly; h w ll   v  b cll  h m  f h p pl m h
 Syll, wh w ly h m  f h
p  f u v c , luuy, v c , 
 cu ly; h w ll b cll   ch m pp ly h Cu, wh wul  v  h
v      c h Euph  w hu y l g  m cu f w, f h h
  b   w f m h g. Ev yh g w ll b pp ly    b lg  
h m, wh l w hw  m u f v yh g. H w ll l  ghly b
cll  b u ful, f h f u  f h m   m b u ful h h f
h by: h w ll   v ly b cll  h ly f
m, wh   h  ubj c
 h m   f y  ,  ub v   h  w p . H w ll f 
ly b cll  v c bl ,  wh m , v  hugh h  by b bu w h ch 
,  f   c v  b mp . N w ll h w   ll h l p   f h 
l f ,    hv   c   wh h  h h b  hppy  , f  h h c
m  h l y f l f  cl  h  y    h,  h p   f h w
 g wh ch  f h w  m  gv  Cu, w hu hw g much w m  
 g. F f h h v  b  hppy, h  h wul hv b h  hppy l f w
h h m, v   f  h fu l p l bu l f h m by Cyu.
Bu f  b u h  
c p  g m  hppy,  h ll g m 
 hppy, h  wh   v   b cul v  m h ph lphy,  wh 
m  v  h v u ?
[pg 209]
Fuh B Of Th T  

O Th

Ch f G A Ev l.

I. A wh  h h m   f y g h  h g, I  pl , Tuly, O C,


yu hv  ply   w ful m my  pl  g  u uch  umb  f h 
g,   ly g uch bcu h g  cl ly b f u. S h w mu h
 g v up hv g y m  g  w h cy  wh yu hv  ,  l w
mu   m   l b  : f    y  l  hughly h p c
pl  f  chl wh ch h  ly h  fu  l , bu wh ch h v 
b  bu l up w h uch  l g c , lhugh p hp w h m     

uh, (wh ch, hw v , I w ll   y    ff m,) bu  ll v  w h
uch c  ccucy. Th ,   h ,  h wh yu y, wh  I hv   y
u,  b  c  h   w lw,  ply  h p cu  h m y  wh
ch h h bugh fw h  chg ,  um up f h
hu;  h   y
u h  h I m g g  llw  jum   h  cu ? wh ch, hw v , w
ll  b cuc  by yu b   h h wh ch    m  u   y
u. Wh  f , I    h yu w ll w pply yu lf  h   , p c lly
  h b  hl  by h ,  l by yu lf  v l  m ;  h y
u c b   l f gum   lgug .
I  pl , I  ,  uh, v u  gu c   ly g  h S
c,  b cu I g
w h h m  y g   g , bu I m h    by hm
; b cu h y y  much h I hly u . I cf ,   h , h 
m f u gum   bcu ;  h w m h m   pup , bu b cu
 h   m bcu y  h ubj c h m lv . Why, h ,   I, wh  
h P  p  c  cu h m ubj c,      gl w ccu wh ch 
 w ll u ? D h y  cu h m ubj c?   h ;  hv I f l
  pv  yu h h S c  ff  fm h P  p  c,   w 
ly, bu  h whl f h ubj c,   v y  f h  p  ? Bu, 
 [pg 210] I, f, O C, yu c bl h h, I w ll llw yu  cy m
v , by  ul,  yu chl. I   h  ,   h , h I h   ug
h  h p ; wh  f w  m  h h  f , f yu pl  ;  f
w yu c vc wh gum  yu pl  . I   h    much, 
 I, f I cl m  w  yu  h p c  I my lf pl  . A yu w ll, 
 h ; f lhugh h h  wy wul hv b  m cmm, y    ly f
  llw v y   p h  w m h.
II. I h  , h ,   I, O C, h h c  pup l f Pl, Sp u ppu
, A l  X c ,  f w h  pup l, Pl m  Th phu
, h  y m l  w w h uff c   ch   lqu c f lgug ; 
h Z  h   , f  hv g b   pup l f Pl m, f    g h m
 h  p  c  wh h bl h  h  chl. A  h  chl I hu
l l yu  b v wh yu h  ugh  b chg ,    w  wh l
I m  ply g  v yh g wh ch h b    by yu. F I h  h I mu
c  w h h whl f h  y m, g  h whl f yu.
A  h  m    h w  b w h h v w f b g g  lly w ll 
p   h v u  wh ch  w ll w  cp cuu, I m  ju c  
mp c ,  h  f h m , ll wh ch   mbl h h  ,  
ff  ly f h b    h  ubj c m   wy f hl g;  h y
w h w     h v y v u    m wh mg f c     p
 ;  h w h l  c   uc , , I hul h  y, 
   f wl g ;  h w w  b f cmp h p w h m ,  f
c y  cmmu  w h h hum c ,  h h  qul    m c
p; 
p cuu  h g   g  u ;h y  v   ll ph lphy  h
 w 
h h  m  v   w     by Z :    f h  p
  h by wh ch h m   hugh  b fm , I pp h c  
  f h p, wh ch ,   w  , h fu  f h  qu  . F w
h  h ch f g I w ll  cu p  ly; bu  h  mm  I ly y h
 h p c wh ch I h  w hll b  gh  cll g h c v l  ,  wh c
h h G  cll , hs b n r   of in  ignifi  n o ious mnn r by h
P ri  is n A miins [ g 211] ho, gr ing in rs, iff r  from on
noh r ony in ors.
III. Ho mny books hv h s m n ri n on h r ubi! ho mny on s! Ho
 mny r  s in r, n, mor hn h, ho mny insn s of goo s king
in orions hv h y b qu h  o us! For, in h firs  , h y si ih
h gr  s  gr of oish n fin ss hos v ry hings hih  r o b r
gu  in  sub mnn r, ying on boh  finiions n ivisions: s your fri
ns hv so on : bu you hv on i in  mor shbby mnn r; hi you s

n

ho briin h ir ngug is. In h s on  , ih h s  ni ngu
g hv h y orn  h r of h subj  hih r quir  orn n im r ssi
v oqu n ! ho goriousy hv h y iusr  i! isussing jusi , n f
oriu , n fri nshi , n h m ho of ssing if , n hioso hy, n h
gov rnm n of h s , n  m rn , no ik m n iking ou horns, ik
h Sois, or ying br h bon s, bu ik m n ho kn  ho o hn gr 
subj s  gny, n  ss r on s  ry. Wh, h r for , r h ir onso
ions? Wh r h ir xhorions? Wh so r h ir rnings n vi ri
 n o h mos min n m n? For h ir ri in s king s, ik h nur
of h hings h ms v s, of  o-fo hr r. For h v r is m  qu s
ion of, onins  onrov rsy ih r s o h g nus is f, ihou r f r n
o rsons or im s; or s , ih h s iions,  is u s o h f, or
h righ, or h nm . An h r for , h y x ris  h ms v s in boh kins;
n h isi in i s hih rou  h gr  o iousn ss of oqu n 
mong h m in boh kins of rgum nion. No Z no, n hos ho imi  him,
 r ih r unb o o muh in his kin of rgum n, or s  r uniing,
or   v ns h y i no o i. Ahough C nh s ro  r is on h
r of rh ori, n so oo i Chrysi us, bu si in suh  mnn r, h if
ny on  r o ish o b si n, h ough o r  nohing s . Th r for you
s ho h y s k. Th y inv n n  orsh y bnon o sbish   rms.
Bu h gr   m s o h y mk ? Th y sy h his univ rs or is our
on; oringy, his xi s hos ho h r suh  s m n. You s , no, h
o gr  [ g 212]  busin ss you r un rking; o mk  mn ho iv s  Cir
 ii b i v h his univ rs or is m r y  on for hims f o iv in.
Wh i b h n of his? Sh h s  fir o i? H i rh r xinguish
i, if h hs r  iv  i on fir . Th n x hing si is h is of i s 
hih you bri fy num r ,king, ior, rih mn, h ony is mn; ors o
ur  ou by you  orousy n rouny: h y   migh b , for you hv  rn
h m from h orors. Bu ho vgu n unsubsni r hos s h s bou
h o r of viru ! hih h y mk ou o b so gr  h i n, by is f,
s ur h h in ss of mn. Th y rik us ih nrro i bis of qu sions
s ih ins; n hos ho ss n o h m r no   hng  in h ir mins
, n go y h sm s h y m : for m rs hih r rh s ru , n hi
h  riny r im orn, r no hn  s h y ough o b , bu in  mor m
inu n y mnn r.
I . Th n x hing is h rini  of rguing, n h kno g of nur . For
 i xmin h hi f goo r s ny, s I si b for , n  y h ho
isussion o h x nion of i. Th r s, h n, in hos o rs nohin
g hih Z no ish  o  r. For h ho hing, in boh is ivisions, is in
n x  n s ; for h hs b n omi  by h ni ns in h kin of r
gum n hih is of infu n in isussion? For h y hv boh giv n mny  fini
ions, n hv b qu h  o us i s for  fining; n h im orn iio
n o  finiion, I m n h iviing of h subj  ino rs, is boh on by
h m, n h y hv so  f us ru s o nb us o o so oo; n I my sy
h sm of onrri s; from hih h y m o g n r, n o h forms of g n
r. No, h y mk hos hings hih h y  vi n, h b ginning of n rg
um n onu  by r son: h n h y foo n or ry rrng m n; n h on
usion  s shos h is ru in h s r ro osiions. Bu h  gr 
vri y of rgum ns, hih   o onusions oring o r son, o h y gi
v us, n ho issimir r h y o  ious qu sions! Wh sh  sy of 
h ir  nouning, s i  r , in mny  s, h  ough n ih r nir y o 
rus our s ns s h n unsu or  by r son, nor r son h n unsu or  by our s
ns s; bu h,  h sm im ,  ough o k h in b  n [ g 213] h
o  ry mrk ? Wh sh I sy mor ? W r no  h r  s hih h
i iins no  iv r n  h, originy isov r  n sbish  by 
h m? An hough h y  r v ry muh bor  by Chrysi us, si h y  r
muh  ss ris  by Z no hn by h ni ns. An h r  r s v r hings
in hih h i no im rov on h ni ns; n som hih h n v r ouh  

. An s h r r o rs by hih r son n orory r brough o om 
 rf ion, on h of isov ring, h oh r h of rguing,boh h Sois
n P ri  is hv hn  us on his  r, bu h P ri  is on h
v giv n us ru s for h form r, hi h Sois hv og h r voi  i. F
or h m n of your shoo n v r v n sus   h  s from hih rgum ns m
igh b rn s ou of mgzin s; bu h P ri  is ugh  r gur sys m
n m ho.
An h ons qu n is, h i is no n  ssry for on no o b ys r 
ing  sor of i   sson on h sm subj , or o b fri o go b yon
on 's no -books: for h ho knos h r v ryhing is  , n ho h n r
riv  i, v n if nyhing b om   y buri , i b b o ig i u , n
 i ys hv his is bou him in v ry isussion. An hough m n ho
r no  ih gr  biii s, in o   rin o iousn ss of oqu n 
ihou ny  fini rini  s of orory, si r is  sur r gui hn nur
. For i is on hing o our ou ors f r h fshion of o s, n noh r
o isinguish on s   rini  s n ru s  h you sy.

. Simir hings my b si bou h x nion of nur hioso hy, hih
boh h P ri  is n Sois  y h ms v s o; n h no on o ou
ns ony, s E iurus hinks, nm y, o g  ri of h f rs of  h n of r
igion; bu b si s his, h kno g of h v ny hings im rs som  gr o
f mo sy o hos ho s h gr  mo rion n h mirb or r h r
is ik is mong h gos: i ins ir s h m so ih mgnnimiy h n h y on
 m  h rs n orks of h gos; n jusi , oo, h n h y om o kno
 ho gr  is h o r n isom, n h h i is so, of h su r m r
u r n ms r of h or, hos r son, in orn ih nur , is  
by hioso h rs h ru n su r m . Th r is in h sm suy of nur ,
n insib kin of [ g 214]  sur  riv  from h kno g of hings; 
h ony  sur in hih, h n  our n  ssry ions r rform , n h
n  r fr from busin ss,  n iv honourby, n s b om s fr m n. Th
r for , in h ho of his rioinion on subj s of h v ry high s im o
rn , h Sois hv for h mos r foo  h P ri  is; so fr  
 v ns s o mi h h r r gos, n o ss r h v ryhing onsis
s of on of four  m ns. Bu h n n x ingy iffiu qu sion s ro os
, nm y, h h r h r i no s m o b  sor of fifh nur from hih r
son n in ig n s rng; (in hih qu sion noh r s invov  r s in
g h min, s o h ss h b ong  o;) Z no si h i s fir ; n
h n h si  f  mor hingsv ry f , in  nov  mnn r; bu on rning h mos
 im orn oin of , h s ok in h sm y, ss ring h h univ rs
or, n  is mos im orn rs,  r r gu  by h ivin in  
n nur of h gos. Bu s for h m r n rihn ss of fs,  sh f
in h Sois v ry oory off, bu h P ri  is v ry rih.
Wh numb rs of fs hv b n inv sig  n umu  by h m ih r s 
 o h g nus, n birh, n imbs, n g of  kins of nims! n in i
k mnn r ih r s  o hos hings hih r rou  ou of h rh! Ho
mny us s hv h y  v o , n in h num rous s s, hy v ryhing is 
on , n h num rous  monsrions hv h y i o n ho v ryhing is on
! An from his o iousn ss of h irs mos bunn n un nib rgum ns r
 riv  for h x nion of h nur of v ryhing. Th r for , s fr s I
un rsn, h r is no n  ssiy   for ny hng of nm . For i o s no
 foo h, hough h my hv iff r  from h P ri  is in som oins,
h i no ris ou of h m. An I, in , onsi r E iurus, s fr s his n
ur hioso hy is on rn , s ony noh r D morius: h  rs v ry f  o
f his orin s; n I shou hink him so v n if h h hng  mor : bu in n
um rous insn s, n  riny on  h mos im orn oins, h oini s
ih him xy. An hough h m n of your shoo o his, h y o no sho su
ffii n griu o h origin isov r rs.

I. Bu nough of his. L  us no, I b g, onsi r h [ g 215] hi f goo, hi


h onins  hioso hy, n s h h r Z no hs brough forr ny r son
for iss ning from h origin isov r rs n r ns of i, s I my  h
m. Whi s king, h n, on his o ihough, Co, his summi of goos, hi
h onins  hioso hy, hs b n r fuy x in  by you, n hough you h
v o us h is onsi r  so by h Sois, n in h s ns i is  
soy  I so i giv my x nion, in or r h  my s  ry, if  
n, h n  orin hs b n inrou  ino h qu sion by Z no. For s r 
ing hioso h rs, n Po mo mos x iiy of , h si h h hi f go
o s o iv oring o nur , h Sois sy h hr hings r signifi
 by h s ors: on , h  mn shou iv x rising  kno g of hos 
hings hih h n by nur ; n h y sy h his is h hi f goo of Z no,
ho  r s, s hs b n si by you, h i onsiss in iving in  mnn r su
ib o nur : h s on m ning is muh h sm s if i  r si h 
mn ough o iv  ning o , or n ry , h nur n in rm i
ui s. Bu his, h n x in  in his mnn r, is iff r n from h form r. F
or h form r is righ, hih you   ,   hpp   h w  m l ; bu
 ly  uy wh ch  b gu   p f c ,  h  my hpp   m wh
  f fm b g w  : h h   h  m hul l v , jy g ll h
g,   l  ll h m mp h g wh ch  cc g  u ; bu
 h     lwy  p   u lv , f   p f c  bh u f h
 f l f wh ch  bu  by v u ,  u f h h g wh ch  cc
 g  u ,  wh ch    u w pw .
Bu h  ch f g, wh ch  u   h h   g f c  f h  f 
 ,  h l f wh ch  p   cfm y w h h g, c hpp  
h w  m l , b cu v u  c c  w h . A h umm  f g
,  w 
 p   by h S c h m lv , w l  w by X c 
 by A l ;   h f  g m  f h p c pl  f u , w 
h wh ch yu l b g,  pl   by h m  lm h  v y w.
VII. All u      b  p  v  f  lf,    h  my b b
h f  lf,  h  my b p  v    . Th y y h f h 
  hv b  v   [pg 216]    u , mg wh ch h  ccu
   f h m mp wh ch  h  f l v g     f  wh h
 b  g v  by u ,   cqu  wh  w g; ,  h m  m ,
h y hv  v   h u f m  m   by. A,  h y   h
ch f h  h g w   bl f  w  ,  l h y   h h v
u  f ch f h m w    bl f h  w  . Bu wh  h y ll 
h m  w h bul  p  ,  p f     h by, h y  h m
 m p f   h v u  f h m   h g f h by.
Bu,  h y    h w m w h gu    gul f h   m
, b g h cmp     f u , h y   h h p c l ff
c f w m w   f  h b g wh c   f m   by,   h
m  upp h m  ch p cul. A , h m  b g f  l  w 
mply, puu g h   f h gum  w h m ubl y, h y hugh h 
h g f h by m   f  y pl , bu h y qu   m cc
u ly  h f h m . A, f  f ll, h y fu u h h y c
   h   f ju c ;  h y w  h f  f ll ph lph    ch
h h p c pl h h wh ch w  h ffp g hul b b lv  by h
 p , w mpl   ll  ml by u ;  h y  , l, h h
 wh ch p c   h b h f ffp g,  p  f  m ,m ly, h m g 
f m   wm ,w  b f u  ugg   by u ,  h h  w h 
 fm wh ch h f h p b w   l  pg. A, b g  g w h h 
f  p c pl , h y pc    v  g h  g   pg  f ll
h v u ; by wh ch cu  g  mg m y w g   , bl g h m
 ly      w h fu , b cu h m mp v  w 
 h pw  f h w  m;   l f cuc  cc g  h p c p f 
h c  ph lph  w  ly up    ll h chg   ju  f f

u .
Bu wh  h  fu  h b  l  by u , c   g  c   f g
 w  puc ,m   g fm h c mpl  f m  c  h g, b c
u h    lv f wl g   h m ,  wh ch l h f 
f pl  g p c pl   f  cu g h m  g  ;  b cu m 
h ly  ml wh ch h [pg 217] y h f hm  m y;  b cu h
l cv  u   c y w h h  m ,    p   v yh g wh
ch h    y, h h my  h g wh ch   hubl  b cm g
;h  fu  b g,  I hv  , mpl   u by u l  my
 ,  mp c ,  m y,  ju c ,  ll v u , w bugh  cmp
l  p f c .
VIII. Yu h  , O C, hv   ch f h ph lph  f whm I m p  g;
, w h I hv g v  yu h , I w h  w wh   h   why Z
  p  fm h  bl h  y m;  wh ch f ll h  c    w
 h h  ppv  f? D  h bj c  h  cll g ll u  p  v 
f  lf?  h  y g h v y  ml w ully f f  lf, 
  w h  b f  u ju    ?,  h  f ll   
 v  wh u
p c lly  qu  ,   h h  h h m p c pl
ugh  b l  w w h  p c  h  f h   l f ?,  c w c
  f m   by,   h h  h h   h  c ll c  ugh  b
ch  f h  w  ? w h  pl   w h h p m  c wh ch  
 bu  by h P  p  c  h v u f h m ?   h bj c  wh 
h y   bu pu c ,  h wl g f h g,  h u  f h hum
c ,   mp c ,  m y,  mg m y,  hubl    g  
l? Th S c mu cf  h ll h  h g w 
c ll ly pl   by
h h ,  h h y gv     Z  f    g h  chl. Th
y mu ll g m h  cu .
I upp h y w ll y h h  f h c  w  v y g ,  h
 h , b g   u f v  g g h uh, cul by  m  u h m.
F wh c b m p v  wh c b m l bl ,  m up , h 
 plc g h lh,  f m fm ll p ,  u  f h y   h
  f h   , mg h g,   f y g h h     ff 
c  ll b w  h m  h  c ? F h ll h h g wh ch 
h P  p  c cll  g, w  ly h g p f bl ,  g. A l h
 h c  h b  v y fl h wh  h y   h h 
c ll c  f 
h by w    bl f h  w  : h y w   b cc p , bu  
b    . A h m m gh b   f ll h [pg 218] h  c cumc  
f l f , wh ch c  f h g bu v u l ,h h l f wh ch   ch 
l  h h  h g wh ch  cc g  u   m  b    
 h ccu, bu ly m  b cc p ; , hugh v u  lf m  l
f  hppy h  m c b hpp ,  ll m h g  w g  w  m
, v  wh  h y  m cmpl  ly hppy;  h h y lbu   p l p ,
   ,   b l y.
IX. Oh, wh  pl   fc  h   uch g  u,  wh  c ll   
  h  f   g up   w chl! G ; f  w ll fllw,,  , y
u hv m l  ly p  h p c pl ,h ll flly,  ll ju c , 
 ll h  v c   l ,  h ll  
qul;  h h wh
hv m g  pg , hugh ul ph lphy  l  g, w v u
, f h y hv   v   blu p f c   ,  cmpl  ly m  b
l ,  h h     ff  c b w  h  l f  h f h m w
hl  f m , Pl, h g   f m , f h w  hughly w  , l v 
 b  ,     p c m hpp ly, h h m whl  f m . Th 
, fh, h S c c c   mpv m  f h l ph lphy; bu
 c  v  f  y c  h c y,  h fum,  h   -hu .
F wh cul u  h   m, wh pf    b   ch  f hw  p
l f w h  g y  w m, p  g  uch  m l  g h m  f h

g;  hugh h w   l y f h m p    v y 


l ,  ll g
v g  w m   h h g  wh ch h  bu  ju h m fc h 
h   , w hu pp g h l  l    h    b    
f h m? Wul h vc f  cu , wh  umm g up f   f ,  y h
  l  h cf c  f h  cl ' pp y w  v l?h h  h 
g w   b  j c , hugh   b fl  fm? wul h y h  jug 
ugh   b m c ful?
Bu f h w  p  g  h publ c  mbly, f H bl h  v   h g
  h  v  h  jv l   h wll, wul h  y h  w  v l 
 b   p  ,  b l,  b l ,  l  ' cuy? O cul h
  , wh   w v g   umph  Af cu, hv p    lf,B cu
by h  v u  g fu ... f h  cul  pp ly b    b 
y v u  y [pg 219] g fu
c p   w  m? Wh  f  ph l
phy, h ,  h wh ch p    h  y m   h fum, bu  
p cul  yl f  w  b ? p c lly wh ,  h y  m h m lv
  ll h y y,  v   m by h m  h fc, f h h g
 h m lv   chg , bu h y  m  cly h m , hugh  h  m
 . F wh  ff  c    m wh h  yu cll  ch ,  pw ,  h
lh g,  ly h g p f  ,  lg  h m wh cll h m g 
 bu   m  h m h yu  wh cll h m h g p f  ? Th  f ,
P u bl   g f  m, why f h  mcy wh ch h jy  w h Sc
p   Ll uwh  h w w  g  Qu u Tub   h ubj c f b  g p 
,  v  c   , wh ugh  hv b  h  m  gum , f  cul h
v b  pv , h p  w   v l; bu h pl   wh  w,  wh
  chc  w,  wh mu f  g bl   h  w  ,  wh
 w h pp  m h f u g ;  (f h , , w  S c) ll h
p p u lgug f h chl pp   m  b c m  by h   
m  f h .
X. Bu, hw v ,  cm , O C, m cl ly  wh yu hv b  y g, l 
u   h  qu   m wly,  cmp wh yu hv ju   w h
h    wh ch I p f   yu. Nw, h gum  wh ch yu mply
 cmm w h h c , w my m u f  m  . Bu l  u, f yu
pl  , cf  u  cu   h wh ch   pu . I  pl  ,   h
: I m v y gl  hv h qu   gu  w h m ubl y, ,  yu cl
l , m cl ly; f wh yu hv h h  vc   m  ppul  
l g. Fm m ?   I. Hw v , I w
, bu fm yu I p c m h g m
ll y; , f I c f  gum  ugh, I w ll  b bv hv g  c
u  h wh ch yu cll ppul.
Bu l  m f  ly w h  p  , h w    cmm    u lv 
by u ,  h w hv h  p c pl    mpl   u by u , h
 u f  w h   p  v u lv . Th   g . I fllw, h w
mu   c wh w  , h  w my p  v u lv   h chc
 f wh ch w ugh  b . W  , h  f , m : w c  f m   by,wh
ch  [pg 220] h g f  p cul  c p , w ugh,  u f  
ul     qu  ,  lv h  p f u lv ,  fm h m  bl
h h  umm  f h ch f  h gh  g, wh ch, f u f  p c pl  
u , mu b bl h   uch  wy   cqu   my  p bl f 
h h g wh ch   ccc w h u ,  p c lly ll h m mp
 f h m. Th , h ,  h ch f g wh ch h y  m  . I hv p 
   m  ffu ly,h y cll  b fly, l v g cc g  u . Th   w
h pp   h m  b h ch f g.
XI. Cm , w l  h m  ch u,  h    yu lf, (f wh  b   b
l ?)  wh wy yu pc  fm h  p c pl ,  pv h  l v hu
bly (f h  h m  g f l v g cc g  v u ,    m  u
bl  u )  h ch f g;   wh m ,   wh plc , yu 
 u  g    f h by,  l v ll h h g wh ch,  h y  cc

 g  u , 
 lf.

u f u w pw ; , lly, hw yu g    f uy

I  , h  f , hw   h ll h   cmm  , hv g pc   f
m u ,  u ly b  by w m? Bu f  w   h ch f g f
m h w w  qu  g , bu ly h f m  ml,  f h w  
h g c p m  (f w my m uch  upp    h,    m

 ly   cv  h uh),  ll h  ch f g f yu wul  b lg 
h m . F  wul w h f g h lh, f f m fm p ;  wul l
    h p  v  f  lf,  h gu h p f h  qul  , 
  wul pp    w   l v cc g  u , wh ch ,  I h
v  ,  hv h h g wh ch  cc g  u , h  ll f h m
,  m f h m,  ll h m mp  . F wh v   f  ml
yu m h m u,    c y, v  hugh h b cp l,  w  upp
 g h m,  ll h h  mu b  h m  m h g l h qul   w
h ch    h by;  h h ch f g c p bly b  f    y
h  m  bu h wh ch I hv m   .
Bu Chy ppu, wh  pl  g h  ff  c  b w  l v g c u , y,
h m c l  h  b , h   h  m , m  bh. A h  h
gu  h [pg 221] h  ugh  b   p ch f g f ch  c p
 f c u . Bu  h h plc  m  uch  cl h h  bu  
h m c ll c f m , h   m   h h  ch f g w  h h pp 
  c l  m , bu h h pp    b h g l bu m .
XII. Bu   c h ch f g m gh  ghly b plc   v u l , f
h  w  y  ml wh ch c   whlly f m ;  h, ,  uch  m
  h h m  h   lf h g h w cc g  u ,  h l
h . Bu  c v  b mg   wh  f h g h ,     b
c   w h  lf. Bu f h y h m h g  bcu ,  
 v  bl b cu h y  v y mll, w l m  h;  Ep cuu y 
f pl u , h h pl u  wh ch  v y mll  f  bcu   v
wh lm . Bu h  h   my vg  f by,  y wh ch l 
 lg,    g . Th  f ,  h  wh ch bcu  fllw b cu
f h  l l  ,  f  hpp  h w cf  h  m    ff 
c  u wh h  h y    ll  ; ju  wh  h u  u,  yu
yu lf  ,   f  c qu c   h l gh f  cl ,    
p y  h  ch  f Cu. Bu  h m   wh ch  g   bcu
     plc ,  my  ll b h c , h h m  wh ch m  
 ff  c  f  g  c qu c . A f, wh   m h l v    y  g
 bly,    l mh' l f f qul pl   w  g v   h m, 
wul b g, b cu y    h m pw   puc wh  g bl ;
bu f h   m  ,     fllw h  hpp   f l f  
c pu   .
Bu h g f h by  m l h  c wh ch I hv ju m  
. F h y m  f    why f hv g p    bu h m;  h
 h  p  h S c pp   m m  m   b j g, wh  h y y h
, f  bl   cmb w  g v         l f wh ch  b g p
 w h v u ,  w  m wul h  ch h l f , b cu h    
w  g v   , bu y  h h wul  b hpp   h ccu. Nw, 
 h   m l  b up  by   cul h  h by   u  cu ? F w
h wul  b   v ly   cul , f h w   u wh h  h h h 
bl  [pg 222] ? Bu f y   l v   p  fm y ff c  f 
h l mb,  fm h p  f y    , h w ll  c v g  g u . A
f h w  m f yu  pu  h c f u by  y, h w ll 
 ply h m cu c  f h h l h  bl ; bu,    g up
    u   ff cul c ,  g h h w ll hv  f gh w h  cp
l  my, m ly, p , h w ll umm up ll h  p c pl  f f u  p
 c , by wh  c h w ll pc   fc h  ff cul  mp

 bl ,  I hv cll  .


W w ll  qu  , h , wh  bcu ,  wh   y , b cu  
m h g v y mll; bu wh  f uch  chc    cmpl  h whl
um f hpp  . O pl u u f my my b bcu   h l f f pl 
u ; bu  ll, hw v  mll    my b ,    p f h l f wh ch
c  whlly f pl u . O c   l f h  ch  f Cu,  ll  
 p f h   ch . Wh  f h h g, , wh ch w y  cc g 
 u , my b bcu    hppy l f ,  ll h y mu b p f h hppy
l f .
XIII. Bu f,  w ugh  g , h    c   ul    wh ch lg
 f h h g wh ch  cc g  u , h , wh    lg h , 
h y mu b c  bl  mu. A f h  p   bl h , h  w m
y b llw   qu  bu h h g  u l u ,   v  g h
g   f h m,  h  c ll c ,   m  wh flu c
ch h
  l v g hpp ly,  l  c   h v y bcu  h m lv , wh c
h,  ccu f h  mll ,  cc ly v ,  I my y  v , v  bl
.
Wh hul I y bu h   wh ch h     pu ? F h    
wh    h h wh ch  h   wh ch v yh g   f    
mbl  v y u ,  h  h ch f h g wh ch   b    . F v
y u  ch    lf. F wh u  h  wh ch v     
lf,  y p  f  lf,  y  f  p  fcul , ,  h
, y  f h h g,  m ,    wh ch   ccc w h 
u ? A wh u h v  b  fg ful f   g l pup  b
l hm ? Th  h  v  b   wh ch    b v h  lw fm f  
l. Hw, [pg 223] h ,    hpp  h h u f m  h ly 
wh ch v  b m, wh ch fg  h by, wh ch plc  h ch f g, 
  h whl m, bu   p f m? A hw,  h y h m lv  m , 
   g  up by ll, w ll  b p  v ,  h h ul m g f
u , wh ch  h ubj c f u qu y, hll   mbl v y u ? F 
wul   mbl h m, f  h  u  l h  w  m ul m p  f
c ll c . F h  h wul  m  b h ch f g f h S c. Why, 
h ,  yu h    l  h p c pl  f u ? F why  yu y h
v y  ml, h mm  h   b,  p  f l lv f  lf, 
 ccup    w p  v ? Why  yu  h  y h v y  ml
 cl    h wh ch  m c ll    lf,   ccup   h g
u h p f h  h g,  h h h  u   h g l bu p
 v h qul y wh ch  h b   ch f h m? Bu hw c  b h b 
, f h   h g  ll g b   ? Bu f h h  h g   b 
  , why, h ,   h wh ch  h ch f f ll   bl h g f 
 fm h    f ll h h g,  f h m um u  mp f
h m?  Ph   c h  b g   u fm h b g  g,  f  h , 
h c   wh ch h b  b gu by h ,  cmpl  h.
Nw w m  l h : f w m   h  lf h p  f m, bu h h
  c v  h m f  h h b  cmm c  by u . A w hu  g  h ,
h ugh  cmpl  h w f h ',     wul cmpl   u .
Wh  f m, h ,   h u h cmm c ?  wh  h ff c
  f w m? Wh   h ugh  b f  h   cmpl   by h ?
If h   h g  b m fuh   m, c p m  f m  f h
m , h   y,  , h   fllw, h h ul m bj c   m
ul h l f cc g  v u . F h p f c  f    v u . If h
  h g bu by, h  h ch f g mu b g h lh, f m fm
p , b uy,   . Th qu    h  mm   bu h ch f g f
m.
XIV. Why  w h   , h ,  qu 

  h  whl u , wh h b 

 ? F    g  by ll, h h whl uy  ff c f w m  
b ccup  bu [pg 224] h cul v  f m, m (h yu my  h 
h I m gu g g   bu h S c) b g fw p    wh ch
h y plc h ch f g mg h g f   wh ch  whlly u f u w
pw , ju  f h y w  p  g f  f h bu b ; h ,  h
cy,  f m h  by  ll,    ly clu
v yh g fm h
 c    c p h m , ( h , , wh l h m   lf,  h
 ph lphy,   m u  ll g bl  f vcuum, bu m h g wh ch 
  m p cul p c  f by,) h v  h   c  w h v 
u l , bu  qu   f m fm p . S h bh h  cl   h m
h g,  f h y  gl c  h l f   f  m,   c ly f h 
gh;   f h y ( H  llu  )    ly  h wl g f h m 
 lf,  p  v  ll c . F   bu  c ppl  y m wh ch ll 
h m    up wh p v  my h g,   l c m   p cul 
h  . Bu h   p f c  full y m wh ch h p wh, wh l 
qu  g bu h ch f g f m, p v   h  qu y  p h  
f h  m   by,    l v  up c . Bu yu chl, O C, b c
u v u hl,  w ll m , h h gh   m c ll  plc  m,
 b cu w h  h wh  w  m , p f c  m bl m ,   
  ly  zzl h y  f u m  w h h pl u f v u . F  v 
y l v g c u h   m  p c pl  m c ll  h g, , f
fm p    g h l
c ,  h   g; bu h mu b f
h. Th  f , yu    m  m  py uff c      wh h g 
l ph  pg  f u . F     puu h m cu  m
 h     c, (wh ch, wh   h vc   fm h bl  h 
,  l v   c   h ubbl  h g,)  l v h m    
h cuc  h m    f  . F   lwy  g m h g  
l, w hu v  b g wh  h p v uly g v . Th  f ,  h 
     h   ;  wh   h p f c  h   ,   ll   
 b h   .
A f h culu f h v  , h bj c f wh ch   cu h v  , w h l
l  p,  b  h b  p bl c  , (hw v  h  wh w u
   b , f [pg 225]  my,  yu f   yu lv , upp yh
g f h pup f llu ,) f, h , h culu f h v  b  
h v   lf,  wul, I p um ,   
v yh g l wh ch cc  h c
ul v  f h v  ,  b   h b  b f . Bu  wul p f   lf
 v y  p p f h v  ,   wul f l u h h g  h v
 w b   h  lf. I l m    , wh   h b     u
 , p c   , bu  l p c  lf. Bu wh     l 
, h    plc    p   f uch p m  pw , h ll h f
 p c pl  f u  pu u   gu h p. Th  f     
b h c f h h g v  wh ch     , h  uy    g
ul h   l f :  h w c uff c ly mv l  h  c 
cy. F h y   h h ul pp   , wh ch h y cll , and as duty, and
even v tue hesef, ae a ptects f thse th n
s wh ch ae accd n
t
natue. But when they w sh t a ve at the ch ef
d, they veeap eveyth n

, and eave us tw tas s nstead f nenamey, t chse sme th n


s and des e 
thes, nstead f ncud n
bth unde ne head.
XV. But nw yu say that v tue cannt ppey be estab shed, f thse th n
s
wh ch ae extena t v tue have any nfuence n  v n
happ y. But the exact
cntay s the case. F v tue cannt pss by be ntduced, uness eveyth
n
wh ch t chses and wh ch t ne
ects s a efeed t ne
enea end. F
 f we ent ey ne
ect useves, we then fa nt the v ces and es f A
stn, and sha f
et the p nc pes wh ch we have att buted t v tue tsef
. But f we d nt ne
ect thse th n
s, and yet d nt efe them t the ch ef

d, we sha nt be vey fa emved fm the t v a t es f He us. F we
sha have t adpt tw d ffeent pans f cnduct n  fe: f he ma es ut th
at thee ae tw ch ef
ds uncnnected w th each the; but f they wee ea


ds, they u
ht t be un ted; but at pesent they ae sepaated, s that they
neve can be un ted. But nth n
can be me pevese than th s. Theefe, the
fact s exacty cntay t yu asset n: f v tue cannt pss by be estab
shed f my, uness t ma nta ns thse th n
s wh ch ae the p nc pes f natu
e as hav n
an nfuence n the bject. F we have been  n
[p
226] f a
v tue wh ch shud peseve natue, nt f ne wh ch shud abandn t. But th
at f yus, as yu epesent t, peseves ny ne pat, and abandns the est
.
And, ndeed, f the custm f man cud spea , th s wud be ts an
ua
e. That
ts f st be
nn n
s wee, as t wee, be
nn n
s f des e that t m
ht pese
ve tsef n that natue n wh ch t had been bn. F t had nt yet been suff
c enty expa ned what natue des ed abve a th n
s. Let t theefe be exp
a ned. What ese then w  be undestd but that n pat f natue s t be ne

ected? And f thee s nth n


n t bes des easn, then the ch ef
d must
be n v tue ane. But f thee s as bdy, then w  that expanat n f nat
ue have caused us t abandn the be ef wh ch we hed befe the expanat n. I
s t, then, be n
n a manne su tabe t natue t abandn natue? As sme ph 
sphes d, when hav n
be
un w th the senses they have seen smeth n
me mp
tant and d v ne, and then abandned the senses; s, t, these men, when they
had behed the beauty f v tue deveped n ts des e f pat cua th n
s, a
bandned eveyth n
wh ch they had seen f the sa e f v tue hesef, f
ett
n
that the whe natue f des abe th n
s was s extens ve that t ema ned f
m be
nn n
t end; and they d nt undestand that they ae ta n
away the v
ey fundat ns f these beaut fu and adm abe th n
s.
XVI. Theefe, a thse men appea t me t have made a bunde wh have pn
unced the ch ef
d t be t  ve hnuaby. But sme have eed me than th
es,Pyh abve a, wh, hav n
f xed n v tue as the ch ef
d, efuses t a
w that thee s anyth n
ese n the wd desev n
f be n
des ed; and, n
ext t h m, A st, wh d d nt, ndeed, ventue t eave nth n
ese t be des
ed, but wh ntduced nfuence, by wh ch a w se man m
ht be exc ted, and de
s e whateve ccued t h s m nd, and whateve even appeaed s t ccu. He w
as me 
ht than Pyh, nasmuch as he eft man sme nd f des e; but ws
e than the est, nasmuch as he depated why fm natue: but the St cs, bec
ause they pace the ch ef
d n v tue ane, esembe these men: but nasmuch
as they see f a p nc pe f duty, they ae supe  t Pyh; and as they
d nt adm t the des e f thse bjects wh ch ffe [p
227] themseves t the
ma
nat n, they ae me cect than A st; but, nasmuch as they d nt add
the th n
s wh ch they adm t t be adpted by natue, and t be wthy f be n

chsen f the  wn sa es, t the ch ef


d, they hee deset natue, and ae
n sme de
ee nt d ffeent fm A st: f he nvented sme stan
e nds f
ccuences; but these men ec
n se, ndeed, the p nc pes f natue, but st 
 they d scnnect them fm the pefect and ch ef
d; and when they put them f
wad, s that thee may be sme seect n f th n
s, they appea t fw nat
ue; but when they deny that they have any nfuence n ma n
 fe happy, they
a
a n abandn natue.
And h thet I have been shw n
hw dest tute Zen was f any
d easn f a
bandn n
the auth ty f pev us ph sphes: nw et us cns de the est 
f h s a
uments; uness, ndeed, O Cat, yu w sh t ma e any epy t what I ha
ve been say n
,  uness we ae
ett n
ted us. Ne the, sa d he; f I w sh t
h s s de f the quest n t be cmpetey a
ued by yu; n des yu d scuse
seem t me t be at a ted us. I am
ad t hea t, I ep ed; f what can
be me des abe f me than t d scuss the subject f v tue w th Cat, wh s
the mst v tuus f men n evey p nt? But, f st f a, ema that that m
ps n
sent ment f yus, wh ch b n
s a whe fam y afte t, namey, that wh
at s hnuabe s the ny
d, and that t  ve hnuaby s the ch ef
d
, w  be shaed n cmmn w th yu by a wh def ne the ch ef
d as cns st
n
n v tue ane; and, as t what yu say, that v tue cannt be fmed f any

th n
except what s hnuabe s ncuded n the accunt, the same statement w
 be made by thse whm I have just named. But t appeaed t me t be fa e,
advanc n
fm ne cmmn be
nn n
, t see whee Zen, wh e d sput n
w th P
em, fm whm he had eant what the p nc pes f natue wee, f st t h s
stand, and what the 
na cause f the cntvesy was; and nt t stand n
the  s de, wh d d nt even aw that the  wn ch ef
d was de ved fm na
tue, and t empy the same a
uments wh ch they d d, and t ma nta n the same
sent ments.
XVII. But I am vey fa fm appv n
th s cnduct f yus, that when yu have
pved, as yu ma
ne, that that [p
228] ane s
d wh ch s hnuabe, t
hen say a
a n that t s necessay that be
nn n
s shud be put fwad wh ch a
e su tabe and adapted t natue; by a seect n fm wh ch v tue m
ht be ca
ed nt ex stence. F v tue u
ht nt t have been stated t cns st n seec
t n, s that that vey th n
wh ch was tsef the ch ef
d, was t acqu e s
meth n
bes des tsef; f a th n
s wh ch ae t be ta en,  chsen,  des
ed, u
ht t ex st n the ch ef
d, s that he wh has atta ned that may want
nth n
me. D yu nt see hw ev dent t s t thse men whse ch ef
d c
ns sts n peasue, what they u
ht t d and what they u
ht nt? s that n n
e f them dubts what a the  dut es u
ht t e
ad, what they u
ht t pusu
e,  av d. Let th s, then, be the ch ef
d wh ch s nw defended by me; t w
 be ev dent n a mment what ae the necessay dut es and act ns. But yu, w
h set befe yuseves anthe end except what s 
ht and hnuabe, w  n
t be abe t f nd ut whee yu p nc pe f duty and act n s t 
nate.
Theefe yu ae a f yu see n
f th s, and s ae thse wh say that the
y pusue whateve cmes nt the  m nd and ccus t them; and yu etun t na
tue. But natue w  fa y epy t yu, that t s nt tue that the ch ef ha
pp ness f  fe s t be su
ht n anthe quate, but the p nc pes f act n
n hesef: f that thee s ne system ny, n wh ch bth the p nc pes f
act n and the ch ef
d t s cnta ned; and that, as the p n n f A st
s expded, when he says that ne th n
des nt d ffe fm anthe, and that t
hee s nth n
except v tue and v ce n wh ch thee was any d ffeence whateve
; s, t, Zen was n the wn
, wh aff med that thee was n nfuence n a
nyth n
, except v tue  v ce, f the vey east pwe t ass st n the atta nm
ent f the ch ef
d: and as that had n nfuence n ma n
 fe happy, but n
y n ceat n
a des e f th n
s, he sa d that thee was sme pwe f attact
n n them: just as f th s des e had n efeence t the acqu s t n f the c
h ef
d. But what can be ess cns stent than what they say, namey, that when
they have bta ned the nwed
e f the ch ef
d they then etun t natue,
n de t see n t the p nc pe f act n, that s t say, f duty? F t
s nt the p nc pe f act n  duty wh ch mpes them t des e thse th n
s
wh ch ae [p
229] accd n
t natue; but des e and act n ae bth set n m
t n by thse th n
s.
XVIII. Nw I cme t thse b ef statements f yus wh ch yu ca cncus ns;
and f st f a t thatthan wh ch, ceta ny, nth n
can be me b efthat "eve
yth n

d s pa sewthy; but eveyth n
pa sewthy s hnuabe; theef
e eveyth n

d s hnuabe." Oh, what a eaden da

e!f wh w 
ant y
u yu f st pem ses? And f t shud be
anted t yu, then yu have n need
f the secnd: f f eveyth n

d s pa sewthy, s s eveyth n
hnua
be; wh, then, w 
ant yu th s, except Pyh, A st, and men  e them?wh
m yu d nt appve f. A stte, Xencates, and a that sch, w  nt

ant t; nasmuch as they ca heath, sten
th,  ches,
y, and many the th
n
s
d, but nt pa sewthy; and they theefe d nt th n that the ch ef

d s cnta ned n v tue ane, thu


h st  they d pefe v tue t eveyth
n
ese. What d yu th n that thse men w  d wh have uttey sepaated v
tue fm the ch ef
d, Ep cuus, H enymus, and thse t, f ndeed thee a
e any such, wh w sh t defend the def n t n f the ch ef
d
ven by Canea
des? And hw w  Ca ph and D dus be abe t
ant yu what yu as , men w

h j n t hnuabeness smeth n
ese wh ch s nt f the same
enus?D yu, t
hen, th n t ppe, Cat, afte yu have assumed pem ses wh ch n ne w 

ant t yu, t de ve whateve cncus n yu pease fm them? Ta e th s s te
s, than wh ch yu th n nth n
can be me fauty: That wh ch s
d s des ab
e; that wh ch s des abe u
ht t be su
ht f; that wh ch u
ht t be su
h
t f s pa sewthy, and s n thu
h a the steps. But I w  stp hee, f
n the same manne n ne w 
ant t yu that whateve u
ht t be su
ht s
theefe pa sewthy; and that the a
ument f the s s fa fm a e
t m
ate cncus n, but a mst stup d asset n, that a happy  fe s ne wthy f b
e n
basted f. F t can neve happen that a pesn may easnaby bast, w th
ut smeth n
hnuabe n the c cumstances. Pem w 
ant th s t Zen; a
nd s w  h s maste, and the whe f that sch, and a the est wh, pefe
 n
v tue by fa t eveyth n
ese, st  add smeth n
bes des t t n the
 def n t n f the ch ef
d. F, [p
230] f v tue be a th n
wthy f be
n
basted f, as t s, and f t s s fa supe  t a the th n
s that
t can scacey be expessed hw much bette t s; then a man may, pss by, be
happy f endwed w th v tue ane, and dest tute f eveyth n
ese; and yet h
e w  neve
ant t yu that nth n
whateve s t be cassed amn

ds, ex
cept v tue.
But thse men whse ch ef
d has n v tue n t, w  pehaps nt
ant t y
u that a happy  fe has anyth n
n t f wh ch a man can 
hty bast, athu

h they as, at t mes, epesent v tues as subjects f bast n


. Yu see, the
efe, that yu ae e the assum n
pps t ns wh ch ae nt adm tted,  ese
such as, even f they ae
anted, w  d yu n
d.
XIX. In tuth, n a these cncus ns, I shud th n th s wthy bth f ph 
sphy and f useves,and that, t, mst espec ay s when we wee nqu  n

nt the ch ef
d,that u  ves, and des
ns, and w shes shud be cected,
and nt u expess ns. F wh, when he has head thse b ef and acute a
ume
nts f yus wh ch, as yu say,
ve yu s much peasue, can eve have h s p
n n chan
ed by them? F when men f x the  attent n n them, and w sh t hea
why pa n s nt an ev , they te h m that t be n pa n s a b tte, anny n

, d us, unnatua cnd t n, and ne d ff cut t be bne; but, because thee
s n pa n n faud,  d shnesty,  ma ce,  faut,  baseness, theefe
t s nt an ev . Nw, the man wh heas th s sa d, even f he des nt cae t
 au
h, w  st  depat w thut be n
a b t me cua
eus as t bea n
pa
n than he was when he came. But yu aff m that n ne can be cua
eus wh th
n s pa n an ev . Why shud he be me cua
eus f he th n s twhat yu yuse
f adm t t t beb tte and scacey enduabe? F t m d ty s
eneated by th n

s, and nt by wds. And yu say, that f ne ette s mved, the whe system
f the sch w  be undem ned. D I seem, then, t yu t be mv n
a ette
,  athe whe pa
es? F athu
h the de f th n
s, wh ch s what yu s
espec ay ext, may be peseved amn
them, and athu
h eveyth n
may be we
 j ned and cnnected t
ethe, (f that s what yu sa d,) st  we u
ht n
t t fw them t fa, f a
uments, hav n
set ut fm fase p nc pes, a
e cns stent w th themseves, and d nt wande fm the end they ppse t the
mseves.
[p
231]
Accd n
y, n h s f st estab shment f h s system, yu maste, Zen, depat
ed fm natue; and as he had paced the ch ef
d n that supe  ty f d sp
s t n wh ch we ca v tue, and had aff med that thee was nth n
whateve

d wh ch was nt hnuabe, and that v tue cud have n ea ex stence f n
the th n
s thee wee th n
s f wh ch ne was bette  wse than anthe; ha
v n
a d dwn these pem ses, he natuay ma nta ned the cncus ns. Yu say
tuy; f I cannt deny t. But the cncus ns wh ch fw fm h s pem ses
ae s fase that the pem ses fm wh ch they ae deduced cannt be tue. F t
he d aect c ans, yu nw, teach us that f the cncus ns wh ch fw fm a
ny pem ses ae fase, the pem ses fm wh ch they fw cannt be tue. And s

 that cncus n s nt ny tue, but s ev dent that even the d aect c ans d
 nt th n t necessay that any easns shud be
ven f tIf that s the cas
e, th s s; but th s s nt; theefe that s nt. And s, by deny n
yu cnse
quence, yu pem se s cntad cted. What fws, then?A wh ae nt w se ae
equay m seabe; a w se men ae pefecty happy: a act ns dne 
hty a
e equa t ne anthe; a ffences ae equa. But, thu
h a these pps t n
s at f st appea t be adm aby a d dwn, afte a  tte cns deat n they a
e nt s much appved f. F evey man's wn senses, and the natue f th n
s
, and tuth tsef, c ed ut, afte a fash n, that they cud neve be nduced
t be eve that thee was n d ffeence between thse th n
s wh ch Zen assete
d t be equa.
XX. Aftewads that  tte Phn c an f yus (f yu nw that the pepe f C t
um, yu c ents, came fm Phn c a), a shewd man, as he was nt succeed n
n
h s case, s nce natue hesef cntad cted h m, be
an t w thdaw h s wds; an
d f st f a he
anted n favu f thse th n
s wh ch we cns de
d, that
they m
ht be cns deed f t, and usefu, and adapted t natue; and he be
an t
 cnfess that t was me advanta
eus f a w sethat s t say f a pefecty
happyman, t have thse th n
s wh ch he des nt ventue ndeed t ca
ds, bu
t yet aws t be we adapted t natue. And he den es that Pat, f he wee
nt a w se man, wud be n the same c cumstances as the tyant D nys us; f
that t d e was bette f the ne, [p
232] because he despa ed f atta n n
w
sdm, but t  ve was bette f the the, because f h s hpe f d n
s. An
d he assets that f ffences sme ae teabe, and sme by n means s, becau
se many men passed by sme ffences, and thee ae thes wh ch vey few pepe
pass by, n accunt f the numbe f dut es v ated. A
a n, he sa d that sme m
en ae s f sh as t be uttey unabe eve t a ve at w sdm; but that the
e ae thes wh, f they had ta en pa ns, m
ht have atta ned t t. Nw, n t
h s he expessed h msef d ffeenty fm any ne ese, but he thu
ht just the
same as a the est. N d d he th n thse th n
s desev n
f be n
vaued e
ss wh ch he h msef den ed t be
ds, than they d d wh cns deed them as

ds. What, then, d d he w sh t effect by hav n
ateed these names? At east he
wud have ta en smeth n
fm the  we
ht, and wud have vaued them at at
he ess than the Pe patet cs, n de t appea t th n n sme espects d f
feenty fm them, and nt meey t spea s.
What me need I say? What d yu say abut the happy  fe t wh ch eveyth n

s efeed? Yu aff m that t s nt that  fe wh ch s f ed w th eveyth n

wh ch natue equ es; and yu pace t ent ey n v tue ane. And as evey c
ntvesy s usuay e the abut a fact  a name, bth nds f d spute a se
f e the the fact s nt undestd  f a m sta e s made as t the name; an
d f ne the f these s the case, we must ta e cae t use the mst d nay a
n
ua
e pss be, and wds as su tabe as can be,that s, such as ma e the subjec
t pa n. Is t, then, dubtfu that f the fme ph sphes have nt eed at
a as t the fact tsef, they ceta ny expess themseves me cnven enty?
Let us, then, exam ne the  p n ns, and then etun t the quest n f names.
XXI. They say that the des e f the m nd s exc ted when anyth n
appeas t t
t be accd n
t natue; and that a th n
s wh ch ae accd n
t natue a
e wthy f sme esteem; and that they deseve t be esteemed n ppt n t t
he we
ht that thee s n each f them: and that f thse th n
s wh ch ae acc
d n
t natue, sme have n themseves nth n
f that appet te f wh ch we ha
ve aeady fequenty sp en, be n
ne the caed hnuabe n pa sewthy;
and sme, a
a n, ae accmpan ed by peasue n the [p
233] case f evey an ma
, and n the case f man as w th easn. And thse f them wh ch ae su tabe
ae hnuabe, beaut fu, and pa sewthy; but the thes, ment ned befe,
ae natua, and, when cmb ned w th thse wh ch ae hnuabe, ma e up and cm
pete a pefecty happy  fe. But they say, t, that f a these advanta
est w
h ch thse pepe d nt att bute me mptance wh say that they ae
ds,
than Zen des, wh den es tby fa the mst exceent s that wh ch s hnuab

e and pa sewthy; but that f tw hnuabe th n


s ae bth set befe ne, 
ne accmpan ed w th
d heath and the the w th s c ness, t s nt dubtfu
t wh ch f them natue hesef w  cnduct us: but, nevetheess, that the pw
e f hnuabeness s s
eat, and that t s s fa bette than, and supe 
 t, eveyth n
ese, that t can neve be mved by any pun shments  by any b
 bes fm that wh ch t has dec ded t be 
ht; and that eveyth n
wh ch appe
as had, d ff cut,  unftunate, can be d ss pated by thse v tues w th wh
ch we have been adned by natue; nt because they ae t v a  cntempt be
ese whee wud be the me t f the v tues?but that we m
ht nfe fm such a
n event, that t was nt n them that the ma n quest n f  v n
happ y  unh
app y depended.
In sht, the th n
s wh ch Zen has caed est mabe, and wth chs n
, and su
tabe t natue, they ca
ds; but they ca that a happy  fe wh ch cns st
s f thse th n
s wh ch I have ment ned, , f nt f a, at east f the
e
atest numbe f them, and f the mst mptant. But Zen cas that the ny

d wh ch has sme pecu a beauty f ts wn t ma e t des abe; and he cas
that  fe ane happy wh ch s passed w th v tue.
XXII. If we ae t d scuss the ea ty f the case, then thee cannt pss by,
Cat, be any d sa
eement between yu and me: f thee s nth n
n wh ch yu
and I have d ffeent p n ns; et us ny cmpae the ea c cumstances, afte
chan
n
the names. N, ndeed, d d he fa  t see th s; but he was de
hted
w th the ma
n f cence and spendu f the an
ua
e: and f he eay fet what
he sa d, and what h s wds nt mate, then what wud be the d ffeence between
h m and Pyh  A st? But f he d d nt appve f them, then what was h s 
bject n d ffe n
n an
ua
e w th thse men w th whm he a
eed n ea ty?
[p
234]
What wud yu d f these Patn c ph sphes, and thse, t, wh wee the 
pup s, wee t cme t  fe a
a n, and addess yu thus:As, O Macus Cat, we he
ad that yu wee a man exceed n
y devted t ph sphy, a mst just c t zen,
an exceent jud
e, and a mst cnsc ent us w tness, we maveed what the eas
n was why yu pefeed the St cs t us; f they, n the subject f
d and
ev  th n
s, enteta n thse p n ns wh ch Zen eant fm Pem; and use th
se names wh ch, when they ae f st head, exc te wnde, but when they ae exp
a ned, mve ny  d cue. But f yu appved thse dct nes s much, why d d
yu nt ma nta n them n the  wn ppe an
ua
e? If auth ty had nfuence w
th yu, hw was t that yu pefeed sme stan
e t a f us and t Pat h
msef? espec ay wh e yu wee des us t be a ch ef man n the epub c, an
d m
ht have been accmp shed and equ pped by us n a way t enabe yu t defe
nd t t yu wn
eat ncease f d
n ty. F the means t such an end have b
een nvest
ated, desc bed, ma ed dwn, and enj ned by us; and we have w tte
n deta ed accunts f the
venment f a epub cs, and the  desc pt ns,
and cnst tut ns, and chan
es,and even f the aws, and custms, and mannes f
a states. Meve, hw much equence, wh ch s the
eatest nament t ead
n
men, n wh ch, ndeed, we have head that yu ae vey em nent,m
ht yu have 
eant, n add t n t that wh ch s natua t yu, fm u ecds! When they h
ad sa d th s, what answe cud yu have made t such men? I wud have enteate
d yu, sa d he, wh had d ctated the  speech t them, t spea  ew se f me,
 ese athe t
ve me a  tte m t answe them mysef, ny that nw I
pefe  sten n
t yu; and yet at anthe t me I shud be  ey t epy t
them at the same t me that I answe yu.
XXIII. But f yu wee t answe tuy, Cat, yu wud be fced t say th sThat
yu d nt appve f thse men, men f
eat
en us and
eat auth ty as the
y ae. But that yu have nt ced that the th n
s wh ch, by easn f the  ant q
u ty they have fa ed t see, have been thu
hy cmpehended by the St cs, a
nd that these atte have d scussed the same mattes w th me acuteness, and ha
ve as enteta ned me d
n f ed and cua
eus sent ments, [p
235] nasmuch

as, n the f st pace, they deny that


d heath s t be des ed, thu
h they
adm t that t may be chsen; nt because t be we s a
d, but because t
s nt t be uttey d se
aded, and yet that t des nt appea t them f me
vaue that t des t thse wh d nt hes tate t ca t a
d. And that yu
cud nt endue that thse anc ents, thse beaded men (as we ae n the hab t
f ca n
u wn ancests), shud be eve that the  fe f that man wh  v
ed hnuaby, f he had as
d heath and a
d eputat n, and was  ch, w
as me des abe, bette, and me t be su
ht f, than that f h m wh was e
quay a
d man n many espects,  e the Acmn f Enn us
Suunded by d sease, and ex e sad,
And cue want.
Thse anc ents, then, must have been fa fm ceve, t th n that  fe me de
s abe, bette, and happ e. But the St cs th n t ny t be pefeed f n
e has a ch ce; nt because th s  fe s happ e, but because t s bette adapt
ed t natue; and they th n that a wh ae nt w se ae equay m seabe. Th
e St cs, fsth, thu
ht th s; but t had ent ey escaped the pecept n f
thse ph sphes wh peceded them, f they thu
ht that men sta ned w th a
sts f pa c de and w c edness wee nt at a me m seabe than thse wh
, thu
h they  ved puey and up
hty, had nt yet atta ned cmpete w sdm.
And wh e n th s tp c, yu bu
ht fth thse s m es wh ch they ae n the h
ab t f empy n
, wh ch ae, n tuth, n s m es at a. F wh s
nant t
hat, f many men shud chse t eme
e fm the deep, thse wud be neae b
eath n
wh came cse t the suface, but st  wud nt be actuay abe t b
eathe any me than thse wh ae at the bttm? Theefe, n yu p nc pes,
t s f n ava  t ma e p
ess and advancement n v tue, n de t be e
ss uttey m seabe befe yu have actuay a ved at t, s nce t s f n u
se n the case f men n the wate. And s nce pupp es wh ae n the p nt f p
en n
the  eyes, ae just as b nd as thse that ae but th s mment bn; t
s pa n as that Pat, as he had nt yet seen w sdm, was as b nd n h s nte
ect as Phaa s.
XXIV. These cases ae nt a e, Cat. F n these [p
236] nstances, thu
h y
u may have made a
d dea f p
ess, st  yu ae n exacty the same ev 
fm wh ch yu w sh t be fee, t  yu have ent ey escaped. F a man des
nt beathe t  he has ent ey eme
ed, and pupp es ae just as b nd t  the
y have pened the  eyes, as f they wee neve
 n
t pen them. I w 
ve
yu sme nstances that eay ae  e. One man's eyes ae bad, anthe s wea
n h s bdy; these men ae bth
aduay e eved by the da y app cat n f
emed es. The ne
ets bette evey day, and the the sees bette. Nw these me
n esembe a thse wh study v tue. They ae e eved f the  v ces; they a
e e eved f the  es. Uness, pechance, yu th n that T be us Gacchus,
the fathe, was nt happ e than h s sn, when the ne abued t estab sh th
e epub c, and the the t subvet t. And yet he was nt a w se man. F wh
tau
ht h m w sdm?  when?  whee?  whence d d he ean t? St , because
he cnsuted h s tw n
y and d
n ty, he had made
eat p
ess n v tue.
But I w  cmpae yu
andfathe, Dusus, w th Ca us Gacchus, wh was neay
h s cntempay. He heaed the wunds wh ch the the nf cted n the epub
c. But thee s nth n
wh ch ma es men s m seabe as mp ety and w c edness.
Gant that a thse wh ae unw se ae m seabe, as, n fact, they ae; st 
he s nt equay m seabe wh cnsuts the nteest f h s cunty w th h m wh
 w shes f ts destuct n. Theefe, thse men ae aeady a
eat dea e
eved fm the  v ces wh have made any cns deabe advance twads v tue. But
the men f yu sch adm t that advance twads v tue can be made, but yet a
sset that n e ef fm v ces ta es pace n cnsequence.
But t s wth wh e t cns de n what a
uments acute men ey f pv n
t
h s p nt. Thse ats, say they, f wh ch the pefect n can be nceased, shw

that the cmpeteness f the  cnta es can  ew se be nceased. But n add


t n can be made t the pefect n f v tue. Theefe, as, v ces w  nt be
suscept be f any ncease, f they ae the cnta es f v tues. Sha we s
ay, then, that th n
s wh ch ae dubtfu ae made pa n by th n
s wh ch ae ev d
ent,  that th n
s wh ch ae ev dent ae bscued by th n
s that ae dubtfu?
But th s s ev dent, that d ffeent v ces ae
eate n d ffeent pepe. Th s
s dubtfu, whethe [p
237] any add t n can be made t that wh ch yu ca th
e ch ef
d. But yu, wh e what yu u
ht t d s t ty and ustate what
s dubtfu by what s ev dent, endeavu t
et  d f what s ev dent by what
s dubtfu. And, theefe, yu w  f nd yusef hampeed by the same easn
n
wh ch I used just nw. F f t fws that sme v ces ae nt
eate than
thes, because n add t n can be made t that ch ef
d wh ch yu desc be,
s nce t s qu te ev dent that the v ces f a men ae nt equa, yu must chan

e yu def n t n f the ch ef


d. F we must nev taby ma nta n th s ue,
that when a cnsequence s fase, the pem ses fm wh ch the cnsequence pce
eds cannt be tue.
XXV. What, then, s the cause f these d ff cut es? A va n-
 us paade n d
ef n n
the ch ef
d. F when t s ps t vey asseted that what s hnuab
e s the se
d, a cae f ne's heath, a attent n t ne's estate, a
 e
ad f the
venment f the epub c, a e
ua ty n tansact n
bus
ness, a the dut es f  fe, n sht, ae put an end t. Even that vey hnu
abeness, n wh ch ane yu asset that eveyth n
s cmp sed, must be aband
ned. A wh ch a
uments ae caefuy u
ed a
a nst A stn by Chys ppus. And
fm that embaassment t s that a thse faac usy spea n
w es, as Att
us cas them, have a sen. F because w sdm had n
und n wh ch t est h
e ft, when a the dut es wee ta en away, (and dut es wee ta en away when a
 pwe f seect n and d sc m nat n was den ed; f what ch ce,  what d
sc m nat n cud thee be when a th n
s wee s cmpetey equa that thee
was n d ffeence whateve between them?) fm these d ff cut es thee ase w
se es than even thse f A st. F h s a
uments wee at a events s mp
e; thse f yu sch ae fu f caft.
F suppse yu wee t as A st whethe these th n
s, feedm fm pa n,  ch
es, and
d heath, appea t h m t be
ds? He wud deny t. What next? Sup
pse yu as h m whethe the cnta es f these th n
s ae bad? He wud deny t
hat equay. Suppse yu wee t as Zen the same quest n? He wud
ve yu t
he same answe, wd f wd. Suppse futhe, that we, be n
fu f astn shm
ent, wee t as them bth hw t w  be pss be f us t  ve, f we th n t
hat t ma es nt the east d ffeence t [p
238] us whethe we ae we  s c
; whethe we ae fee fm pa n  tmented by t; whethe we ae abe  unab
e t endue cd and hun
e? Yu w   ve, says A st, ma
n f centy and exce
enty, d n
whateve seems
d t yu. Yu w  neve be vexed, yu w  neve
 des e anyth n
, yu w  neve fea anyth n
. What w  Zen say? He says tha
t a these deas ae mnstus, and that t s ttay mpss be f any ne t
  ve n these p nc pes; but that thee s sme extava
ant, sme mmense d f
feence between what s hnuabe and what s base; that between the th n
s,
ndeed, thee s n d ffeence at a. He w  as say( sten t what fws, a
nd d nt au
h, f yu can hep t)a thse ntemed ate th n
s, between wh ch
thee s n d ffeence, ae nevetheess such that sme f them ae t be chsen
, thes ejected, and thes uttey d se
aded; that s t say, that yu may
w sh f sme, w sh t av d thes, and be ttay nd ffeent abut thes. Bu
t yu sa d just nw, O Zen, that thee was n d ffeence whateve between these
th n
s. And nw I say the same, he ep es; and that thee s n d ffeence wha
teve as espects v tues and v ces. We, I shud  e t nw wh d d nt n
w that?
XXVI. Hweve, et us hea a  tte me. Thse th n
s, says he, wh ch yu have
ment ned, t be we, t be  ch, t be fee fm pa n, I d nt ca
ds; bu
t I w  ca them n Gee (  y my e y e L  d, 


fe      , f ey e me e y m eeded d me   e
em). Ad 
 , e  e, ,   e, d  , I d   ev 
, 
 I ve  je   y 
em ( f y  )  
  e ejee
d. Ad, eefe, I d  y  I ee f em f ,   I e 
em;   I   f em,   I e  em. Ad , , I d  y
 I fee fm e  e;   I,   ee, ee f fm em. W
 y A e d e e f e d  e f P? Wy,  ey  e
vey 

d    d 
 e; d  eve  y  
e ey  ev .
D y  ee, e,  y me Ze 
ee   A   d,  d f
fe fm  m   f;   e 
ee   A e d e e 
 e   f,  d ffe fm em y  d? Wy, e, e e [

239] e 
eed   f, d e  efe  e 
 e d y me
? Le  m e me e e  I  e me e ed  de e mey, f I 
e   y m
 
 efeed,  f I   m

d; d  I
 ve me f de  ede   f I    e, d d ff  
e, d y  e,  f I e   ev . M P , my 
 me,    vey  y m, d ed   d e e S  f e  


e     : f   e ed  y? Y dey   e e 
d
,   em me 
 e efeed. W
d d y d y ? d y d
m   v e? B f e m d d, e,  e f  e, y ex e 
,  e efeed,  
e 
d. T   
 d   e me. I d
e y   ,       me d ff  ex e . F I d  
  e d
d  de ved fm;  e d efeed I  e me 
   efeed  e  
. T  e  me  e m . Teefe,
e  ed   ,  me eee   ed   e y Ze, 
 ed em m
 
 efeed,  y A e,  dm ed  ey
ee 
d. S  e d d  y  ey ee 
e
d,  e  
 e    e de ed d ed  m   f   
 d 
e, d eve e  e
ey 
 fe. Ad 
ee, e 
ed  
  y,   e ex e    d ee eed y Ze,   
 e de ed  e
d, d   e  
    e efeed e me
f ev ; y 
 e f  ee ved fm  m  me jyf  e  ey
d d fm ; d e e  me
my e.
XXVII. P , e m exee m, d,  y e , 
e f ed f y
ed  
e    me. Ad  e  m e  ed f  , fe e 
ve j  d  fe dd   d. F  d  e  
 me  e y  
 y e .

F fm e me      d, 


e  e 
dm, d mmd,
d  e, d  ve dm     y y e
 e  e m. Y 
y e de,  e e  dme, e e  fee, e e     ze; 
d  evey 
   e y f  ee  
 e
  e f
 m,    e,  y e [
240] ey  ee e  ; w m
cll h m mv llu. A y  wh mv l  h   h m wh  yu cm   
 h m? I w ll ju m  h m  w h yu,  
wh m  g yu ff 
 ch w; h  hll b   pu b w  u. Yu y h ll ff c  
qul. I w ll  p   yu w,  I p  h m ubj c wh  I w

 f  g Luc u Mu , whm yu p cu ; h  I w   g  uph l
ph cl u c ; m h g  w  b   c   h by   cu; 
 p  , w mu pc  m p c  ly. I wh wy c ll ff c  b cll
 qul? B cu h g  m hubl h wh  hubl ; h g m
b h wh  b . G   l l fuh , f h    g   pu 
  h  p ; l  u m  h gum , wh ch  p c lly yu w,
why ll ff c  
qul. A, y h ,  my ly , f   f h m  
w ll  u   b bl  p  v h hmy, ll 
qully u f u
;  b cu ff c   ff  fm wh   gh, h y w ll  ff  qully; h 
f h y 
qul: w h  w  b g mc  w h  mb guu p  .

F  qully hpp   ll h ly   b u f u , bu   h m ll 
 b qully u f u . Th  f , h cmp     h lp yu  ll. F
  wul  fllw f w w   y h v y v c  qully v c ,
h h  f
v y c f v c w qul. H   h   m l wh ch 
  m l ; f , y h ,  p l blu  qully f h w c   h p l 
w h w,  f h w c   l  w h gl; , , h   qully wh b
 h  p , w h h m wh b   lv ujuly. Th     g h 
h  c   w h h  f h p l wh cg h h p c :  h
 f h  m    ff  c w h  p c  h    g w ll  ll, wh
h  h  f gh  w  gl. Bu  c  ugh  b u  wh h
 ff  c  b w   p    lv ; h  f  m    ff  c w
h  p c  v g , bu  g   l w h  p c  uy, wh h  c
p  f h g my b wh ch  ff c  by h blu . A f,  v g ,
 h p h b  w c  hugh c l  , h ff c h  b cm  m  
u f gl  l, h f   ly w. F  ll  w   up h
 c  f wh  cll  cmm pu c ; wh ch ll m  wh hv h mg m
 f y [pg 241] bu   u   h m  bu  p . A  v 
 h  c ff c    qul.
XXVIII. Hw v , h y p  ,   l h g. S c , y h y, v y ff c
  f mb c l y  c  cy,   c h  v c  
qully g 
qul:  f  w  
  ll fl,  fllw  c  ly h ff c  
m   h v c  
qully g   ll fl,  h Luc u Tubulu w 
m f h m mb c l y  c  cy  Publ u Scvl,  wh m  h
w c m ;   f h  w    ff  c  ll b w  h h g h
m lv  wh ch  h ubj c f h ff c ;  h,  pp   h y 
 m  l  mp, h ff c  cmm     p c f h m   .
Th  f , f I my w b g h   cu   , yu S c  m  m
 b m p c lly p   h  chg , h h y fcy h y c upp w
pp  pp  . F wh   c    f h m p   y
h wh  hubl  h ly g,  l h h    f h g 
p  f hum l f pc  fm u ? Bu wh  h y w h  m   h 
gum  wh ch  u bl f h fm  pp  , h y g
w h A ;
wh  h y v  h, h y   l y  uphl g h m c    h P
 p  c; h y cl g  w w h g   c y;   h y c b  
hv h m   fm h m  f  h , h y b cm m f c ,  ugh,
 hh  bh  h  lgug  m . Bu P u, w h g  v  h
 m    p  y, wul  ppv f h  h b    f h 
  m ,  h  cp u wy f gu g:      p c h w m
g l ,   h h  m  ll g bl . A h w lwy qu g Pl, 
 A l ,  X c ,  Th phu,  D cchu,  h  w w  g
hw. A  , I f l v y u h  wul  yu  g   l f g f
yu  w   uy h uh w h c   l g c .
Bu  c   g  g w v  g,  I mu  u  my v ll, w w ll
p h   cu   h  p , bu w w ll f   u    h  cc
 . I  w w ll,   h , f wh c w  b  ? A   I hll 
qu  f yu  g v m  h  g wh l I  fu wh yu hv  ; bu  cll
c h yu ppv f ll u p  , [pg 242] chg g u ly w h u g w
 c cly; bu h w   ppv f   gl  f yu  . Yu
 hw g    m  I  p,   I; hw v , w hll  . A wh 
w h hu p  w  p .
F fh B Of Th T  

O Th

Ch f G A Ev l.

I. O y wh  I h b  h  g A chu l cu ,  I w  h hb  f 


 g, O Buu,  cmpy w h Mcu P ,  h gym um wh ch  cll  P
l my', my bh  Qu u b g w h m ,  T u Pmp u,  Luc u C c
, u cu   h fh '      l h p, bu u w bh   

 ff c , w   m     u f ' wl  h Ac my, p c p


lly b cu  h  m f y h plc w f
fm y cw. Acc gly,
 h pp    m w ll m   P ' hu ,  fm h c w wl  hl
f--z  fulg fm h D pylu  h Ac my, b gu l g h  w h  c
u  v u ubj c;  wh  w h  v   h   v ly c l b 
pc f h Ac my, w h  fu h l u wh ch w    . Th    P
Shll I y h h   mpl   u by u ,  by m m  , h wh
 w 
h plc  wh ch w hv h  h m  wh   v  b h   c
ll c  hv much f qu  , w  m mv  h wh  w h  v  f h
 cul  ,  h wh  w   m  f h  w  g?ju  I m ff
c  w. F h  m mbc f Pl cm   my m , whm w u  
hv b  h f  p  wh w ccum    pu  h  plc ;  wh
  ghbu g g   ly  cl h m v v ly  my  cll c , bu  m
v   plc h m h m lf b f my y . H  Sp u ppu, h  X c ,
h  h  pup l Pl m u   wl ;  h l  u      h v y p
wh ch  w b f u. Th   u   -hu (I m  h Cu  [pg 243] H
 l ,48  h   w  , wh ch lwy  m  m mll , hugh  fc 
 lg ): wh  v  I hv l  up h I hv lwy hugh f Sc p , 
C,  Ll u,  m
p c lly f my w gfh . S g   pw  f
 m  g  f c cumc     h plc  h m lv , h    w
hu   h m p pl hv bu l up  y m f m my  h m. Th  Qu
u  I  ju  yu y, P : f  I w cm g h  ju w, h 
 c f Cl  w my      lf, wh hb , Sphcl , w
bugh  c b f my y : f yu w hw I m  ,  hw I  l gh 
h m:  cc gly   f pp c mv  m ,  uub l   ,
bu  ll    mv m   m v v   cll c  f  pu cm g h h , 
  g  m m l u v  wh ll h  plc  w  . Th  Pmp u  I
whm yu ll  lwy c g   v   Ep cuu, m f  w h Phu,
wh   p cul f  f m  ,  yu w,  h g  f Ep cuu, wh
ch w p  by ju h  mm ; bu, cc g  h w g f h l pv
b, I  m mb  h l v g;  ll I my  fg  Ep cuu, v  f w   w h
  , wh l   u f  hv  ly  p cu , bu v   h
 gbl    g.
II. O h  I ch m  :Ou f  Pmp u,   I, pp   b j g,  p
hp h h   gh   ; f h h bl h  h m lf  Ah   uch
 wy h h h lm b cm  Ah  ,        m l ly 
w h yu h w  g    hb  f
 uch  um . Bu I, P , g
h  g  g  l m
 ly   ply  llu u m   c qu c
f h w g f plc . F yu w h c I w  w h yu  M pum
,     u  h hu f my     u l I h   h v y pl
c wh  Pyhg p  h  l f ,  h  hu ;   h  p    m , 
lhugh ll v  Ah  h   my c  f m   m   h plc  h m
lv ,  ll I m g ly ff c  by h    wh ch  b f m . F h  Ch
m l ly , m [pg 244] whm I  m   , f h  l    w ll 
w  m ,  I c fcy h h  v c   g   by h v y    lf, 
p v     w f uch  b ll  g  u. Th  P   S c , w, w hv
ll   m h g, wh   u f  Luc u h  ?  h gl  v   h
 p wh  D mh    ch   u   c  g h ? f v y   c
h fly c  by h  w p cul uy. A h bluh ,  w  D 
 m , wh w  w v   h hbu f Phl um, wh  h y y h D m
h   u    cl m  h wv ,     ccum h m lf  uv c h
 g f h  . I u    l u f h ,  l l  h  gh
,  ppch h mb f P  cl ; lhugh,  , uch  c  cul 
 h  c y, f wh  v  w  p w plc u f  m h y.
Th  P  c u :Bu, C c ,   h , h cl    h cl  
f cl v  m , f h y l   h m   f g  m ; bu f h y ly  
  b g g up g  h c  f c   cll c , h  m  cu 
y. Bu w ll h yu,hugh yu f yu w cc,  I hp ,  u g 

h wy, m  h m  whm yu w h h yu h w. Alhugh, I  pl
, u f  P  h   ,  yu  , wh yu  cmm  ,  ll yu h
   pl  g  m . Th    h ,   m f ly m ,  w h  w
,L  ll f u, h , c bu
v y  c  h  yuh, p c lly ug
g h m   v m f h  u   ph lphy, h  f h  f m 
 g yu whm h lv ,  l f b g bl   wh h    u   w
h m
l gc . Bu  yu, O Luc u,   h ,  qu   b
h  by u, 
  yu cl   h wy f yu w cc? Yu pp ,  ,  m  b
v y  uu  yu  c  A chu, wh pup l yu  . Th   pl
 h ,  m ly,, I ugh h   y, m ly,I m  ; bu   yu  ju
 w h  Chm' m m   ? I m c   h   c , bu A
chu g m bc g ;   h  y 
l wh l cu   wul b
p bl   .
III. P   pl Alhugh, wh l u f  h  (m  g m )  p  , h  m
  w ll p hp  b qu   y; y  I w ll  vu  cll yu bc f
m h  N w [pg 245] Ac my  h c   ,  wh ch ( yu u   h 
A chu y) h m    l  c   wh  cll  Ac m c,Sp u pp
u, X c , Pl m, C,  h  ; bu h l P  p  c l, h
ch f f whm w A l , whm,    Pl, I h  I my f ly cll h
p c f ph lph . Tu yu lf, h  f , I   yu,  h m ;
f fm h  w  g  y m ll l b l l  g, ll h y, ll l g
c f lgug , my b   v ;  l,  g   h v y f  f w
h ch h y w  m , h   c cm pp ly m  f y bu   f
mpc  c   w hu b g l bly v    h  w  g. I  w
g  h m h m  hv u  u , g  l,   m ; ,  
c   l  mp m ,   fm h  Ac my,  fm   gul mg
z  f ll h , h mh m c , p , mu c , y ,  phy c 
 , hv pc  .
I  pl Yu w w ll, O P , h my p    h m : bu  ll h m  
 f  by yu w v y  bl ; f my  l  C c    u  h  wh
 w h c  f h Ol Ac my wh ch yu hv b  p  g f,  f
h P  p  c, bu h ch f g;  w h  h yu c v y  ly 
pl    u, b cu yu     S  h N pl   yu hu f
my y ,  b cu , , w  w h yu hv b  my mh  A
h , v  g g h  v y h g,   pup l f A chu. A h  , w 
h  lugh, Cm , cm ,f yu hv v y cl v ly w m   b g  h  cu
,l  u pl    h yug m f w c; f h  l u g v  u h
ppu y: bu, v  f  g h l m , I wul  v  hv b l v  h
I hul b  pu g  h Ac my, l  ph lph . Hw v , I hp I h
ll  y h   f yu wh l cmply g w h h   qu . Ay m ,   I,
wh   yu? Qu u  Pmp u l   h h y     h m w
h;  h b g. A I b g f yu, Buu,  c   wh h  wh h   pp
  yu  uff c ly mbc h c   f A chu, wh ch I w yu
, wh w   c    h l cu  f h  bh  A u, ppv
f h ghly. Thu h p :
IV. Wh g  l gc h    h P  p  c y m I hv
pl    l
l  m g,  b fly  I cul. Bu [pg 246] h fm f h y m,  
h c w h m f h h  chl,  h fl:   v   b g h
f u ; h  c, h f gu g; h h , h f l v g. Nu h b
 v  g  by h m  hughly h h    p f h v ,  h,
   ( p  l  p ), wh ch h y hv p  v . M v , f  hv
g    f h  g  f h g,  f h u v l wl,    pv
my p   ly by pbbl gum , bu v  by h cubl  m
  f mh m c , h y bugh fm h ubj c wh ch h y h v  g
  bu m  l       g  h wl g f  c  h g
. A l v  g  h b h,  wy f l v g,  f gu f v y  m
l; Th phu m   h cu ,  p c pl ,  u  f pl, 

f lm v yh g wh ch  puc  u f h h; by wh ch wl g h


v  g  f h m  c  h g       . Al, h y hv g v
 ul  f gu g,  ly lg clly, bu  clly;   y m f p 
g  bh h  m ,  v y ubj c, h b  l  w by A l , h
 ch f;  h h    lwy gu g  v yh g,  Ac  l  ;
 y  h fu h    v y ubj c w h gum   b u   bh  
 f .
Bu,  h h   v   w ccup  bu h ul  f l v g w ll,  w 
l bugh bc by h m p pl ,  ly  h y m f p v l f , b
u l  h   c  f ff  f  . F fm A l w hv cqu 
  wl g f h m ,  cum,   u  f lm v y 
,  f G c ly, bu l f h Bb ;  fm Th phu w hv
l  v  h  lw:  ch f h m ugh wh  f m  l    
 ugh  b ,  l w  g  l gh  pl  wh w h b  c
 u  f   . Bu Th phu l   l  v y cp uly wh w 
h ul cl   f ff ,  wh h flu c  f ppu   w
h ch  qu    gul g  cc  m gh  m. A  f l v g,  qu  m
h f l f pp    h m  b h b , p   h c mpl   
wl g f h g; wh ch, much   h h g     mblc  h l f
f h g, pp    h m  b m why f  w  m;   h  u
bj c h y h l v y lfy   g f  lgug .

[pg 247]
V. Bu  p c g h ch f g, b cu h   w  f b ,  
   h p pl , wh ch h y u   cll , e e  e   me  ed 
  ey ef e d  mme e,ey  e  y  y e me  

; d ye  e   me   ee   v ey  e 

e f 
e me m I ve med,   ee y d 
eeme eee em. B,  
 y  fe  e je f e, d    e y  
   
y 
  e d e
d, ee eve  e  e e e d ffeee 
d  e    
,   ee  e  y  e e f e
 e m,  ee   e dem ed   e fm  m y dve y. Ad 
    e e e  je f e  f Te ,   H y L fe;
   
e de   ed  fe: d f  ey  e, 
e  dm  m e  fe  y. N,   eem  me e  ede ( f I
my y ) d de e  d e, me   e e d m e f v
e   . Weefe e  e d   A e, d    N 
m,e dm y  e    M e  d, deed,  e A e'
;  I d  ee y e  my  ve ee  e   fe; ,  m
e, e   y  Te ,  
 e  e   e me f m
e d e
  v e  e d d.
Le , e, e e   ee
 de; f e  e e  e me,
deed,  my   ,  e   e f e :    ey de

eee  fm ee


e me,  ey eem  me e  ve  e f
m emeve  fm em. I e f  e, S, e   f Te 
, ed  mef     e: d 
,  , e   em e
m    e,   m f  e  d  ve; d e  d vey  e
 m. H    Ly     eee,  vey me
e  me.
Te     A    e d ee
  e,    e d   d

 y   e  f  
e   e: e e 
e de, e 
y, d    ed ye; , me  e,     
 d  y y
e
. I  ve eve, d m
em  eed m d e  e
, H eym; d I d   y I d   m  Pe e , f e def
ed e  ef
d  e feedm fm  : d [
248] e  d 
ee  
me  e  ef
d, d 
ee   me  e e   e f  
y. C   ed   y e  e; d, deed, e me ee  em
 d
 y, d   eee  eem e:   e dee  e  e d
 e. D d,    , dd  ee feedm fm  : e, ,

 
   ey f   ; d,  e d 
ee fm em  e  ef

d, e  dy e ed  e ed  Pe e . B my f ed A  e
em  me  e e    f e  e   e
ee e; d e
  ey   ded   e d e f A e d Pem.
VI. My y
f ed L , eefe,  dey e e  e  efy 
e ed  e  ef
d; f e      e eed   
 y, evey 
 eed. F  e me, f y 
 ed ve,
 f e e
 f y 
, e ve ee  ded  
ee
 e m e e me  f    e m     e e; 
f e 
 f   e  ef
d, e m ee y e

f e e   e f  fe; d fm  
e 
e e ee
 ey  e     e e emeve. B e e   
ed  ed
e f e  ef ed,e e    e  ef
d d e 
ef ev ,e   e  f  fe, d   e e
  f  e d e f
 fe,  fd .
Tee , eefe,  je    evey 
my e efeed; fm   
yem f  v 
 y,     evey e de e, my e d veed 
d d ed. B  e ee  
e d v   f         
 , e d ee em y e d v   f Cede,    f ed A 
 efe, d y d . He eefe   y  my d ffee  
 f   e  e je f e  ef
d ee ee,   my 
ee d e. Ad 
y, e eed  ee      eeded f
m ef; f,  ,     m eeded y    y exe 
  e . Tee   eed f 

  
me y dd 
e
; f   ev de     ve  ef,   e  
ef  e  
, d e je     ed  e  ed y e  
e. S e, eefe, dee  e  f  v 
, j  med  e  f e
,  [
249] ee 
f v
 ,  f v dy   
m ve ee e ed y, d m eed fm, me 
ee. B  

eed m
m  e e,   je     dee  ve
, d     e   ve , 
  e f ed d  ed  e, 
d  e f   e  y ef  v e d   de e f 
e m d   e Gee   . But as t what t s wh ch causes th s exc tement, a
nd wh ch s s
eaty des ed by natue fm ts f st ex stence, t s nt a

eed; and, ndeed, thee s a
eat d ssens n n the subject amn
ph sphes
wheneve the ch ef
d s the subject f nvest
at n: f the suce f th s
whe quest n wh ch s a
tated as t the ch ef
d and ev , when men nqu e
what s the exteme and h
hest p nt f e the, must be taced bac , and n th
at w  be fund the p m t ve nducements f natue; and when t s fund, then
the whe d scuss n abut the ch ef
d and ev  pceeds fm t as fm a s
p n
.
VII. Sme pepe cns de the f st des e t be a des e f peasue, and the f
st th n
wh ch men see t wad ff t be pa n: thes th n that the f st th
n
w shed f s feedm fm pa n, and the f st th n
shunned, pa n; and fm
these men thes pceed, wh ca the f st
ds natua nes; amn
wh ch th
ey ec n the safety and nte
 ty f a ne's pats,
d heath, the senses u
n mpa ed, feedm fm pa n, sten
th, beauty, and the th n
s f the same s
t, the ma
es f wh ch ae the f st th n
s n the m nd,  e the spa s and see
ds f the v tues. And f these thee, as thee s sme ne th n
by wh ch natu
e s 
nay mved t fee des e,  t epe smeth n
, and as t s mpss
be that thee shud be anyth n
except these thee th n
s, t fws unav d
aby that evey duty, whethe f av d n
 f pusu n
anyth n
, s efeed t
 sme ne f these th n
s; s that that pudence, wh ch we have caed the at
f  fe, s aways cnvesant abut sme ne f these thee th n
s fm wh ch t
de ves the be
nn n
f the whe  fe: and fm that wh ch t has pnunced
t be the 
na cause by wh ch natue s exc ted, the p nc pe f what s 

ht and hnuabe a ses; wh ch can a


ee w th sme ne f these thee d v s n

s; s that t s hnuabe t d eveyth n


f the sa e f peasue, even f y
u d nt bta n t;  ese f the [p
250] sa e f av d n
pa n, thu
h yu
may nt be abe t cmpass that;  ese f
ett n
sme ne f thse th n
s wh
ch ae accd n
t natue. And thus t cmes abut that thee s as much d ffe
ence between the ch ef
d and the ch ef ev  as thee s n the  natua p n
c pes. Othes a
a n, stat n
fm the same be
nn n
, efe eveyth n
e the
t peasue  t feedm fm pa n,  ese t the atta nment f thse p may

ds wh ch ae accd n


t natue.
Nw then that we have deta ed s x p n ns abut the ch ef
d, these ae the
ch ef advcates f the thee ast-ment ned p n ns,A st ppus, the advcate f
peasue; H enymus, f feedm fm pa n; and Caneades, f the enjyment f t
hse th n
s wh ch we have caed the p nc pa th n
s n accdance w th natue
(thu
h he, ndeed, was nt the auth f th s they, but ny ts advcate, f
 the sa e f ma nta n n
a debate). Nw, the thee fme wee such as m
ht p
ss by be tue, thu
h ny ne f them was defended, and that was vehementy ma
nta ned. F n ne says, that t d eveyth n
f the sa e f peasue,  th
at, even thu
h we bta n nth n
, st  the vey des
n f act n
s s f tse
f des abe, and hnuabe, and the ny
d; n ne eve even paced the av
dance f pa n (nt even f t cud be av ded) amn
th n
s nt ns cay des
abe; but t d eveyth n
w th a v ew t bta n the th n
s wh ch ae accd n

t natue, even thu


h we d nt succeed n bta n n
them, the St cs d aff 
m t be hnuabe, and the ny th n
t be des ed f ts wn sa e, and the 
ny
d.
VIII. These, then, ae s x pa n p n ns abut the ch ef
d and the ch ef ev
,tw hav n
n advcate, but fu be n
defended. But f un ted and twfd exp
anat ns f the ch ef
d thee wee n a thee; n cud thee be me f y
u exam ne the natue f th n
s thu
hy. F e the peasue can be added t
hnuabeness, as Ca ph and D nmachus thu
ht;  feedm fm pa n, as D 
dus asseted;  the f st
fts f natue, as the anc ents sa d, whm we ca
at the same t me Academ cs and Pe patet cs. But, s nce eveyth n
cannt be sa
d at nce, at pesent these th n
s u
ht t be nwn, that peasue u
ht t be
excuded; s nce, as t w  pesenty appea, we have been bn f h
he pup
ses; and neay the same may be sa d f feedm fm [p
251] pa n as f peasu
e. S nce then we have d scussed peasue w th Tquatus, and hnuabeness ( n
wh ch ane evey
d was t cns st) w th Cat; n the f st pace, the a
um
ents wh ch wee u
ed a
a nst peasue ae neay equay app cabe t feedm
fm pa n. N, ndeed, need we see f any thes t epy t that p n n f
Caneades; f n whateve manne the ch ef
d s expa ned, s as t be uncn
nected w th hnuabeness, n that system duty, and v tue, and f endsh p, can
have n pace. But the un n f e the peasue  feedm fm pa n w th hnu
abeness, ma es that vey hnuabeness wh ch t w shes t embace d shnuab
e; f t efe what yu d t thse th n
s, ne f wh ch assets the man wh
s fee fm ev  t be n the enjyment f the ch ef
d, wh e the the s c
nvesant w th the mst t f n
pat f u natue, s athe the cnduct f a m
an wh wud bscue the whe b  ancy f hnuabenessI m
ht amst say, wh
 wud pute t.

The St cs ema n, wh afte they had bwed eveyth n


fm the Pe patet cs
and Academ cs, pusued the same bjects unde d ffeent names. It s bette t 
epy t them a sepaatey. But et us st c t u pesent subject; we can dea
 w th thse men at a me cnven ent seasn. But the secu ty f Demc tus, wh c
h s as t wee a st f tanqu  ty f the m nd wh ch they a , d s v d to b s p
t d fom this disussion, b us tht tnquillity of th mind is of its lf 
hppy lif . Wht w  inquiing, how v , is not wht it is, but wh n it is
d iv d. Th opinions of Pyho, Aisto, nd H illus, hv long go b n xplo
d d nd disd d, s wht n n v  b pplibl to this il of disussion
to whih w limit ous lv s, nd whih hd no n d to hv b n v  m ntion d;
fo s th whol of this inquiy is bout th hi f, nd wht I my ll th hig

h st good nd vil, it ought to stt fom tht point whih w ll suitbl nd
dpt d to ntu , nd whih is sought of its lf fo its lf. Now this is wholly
put out of th qu stion by thos who d ny tht in thos things in whih th  i
s nothing ith  honoubl o dishonoubl , th  is ny  son why on thing
should b p f  d to noth , nd who think tht th  is tully no diff  n
 wht v  b tw n thos things. And H illus, if h thought tht nothing ws g
ood x pt knowl dg , put n nd to ll  son fo tking ouns l, nd to [pg 25
2] ll inquiy bout duty. Thus, ft  w hv got id of th opinions of th 
st, s th  n b no oth , this dotin of th ni nts must in vitbly p v
il.
IX. Th  fo , ft  th fshion of th ni nts, whih th Stois lso dopt, l
t us mk this b ginning:Ev y niml lov s its lf, nd s soon s it is bon l
bous to p s v its lf, b us this is th fist d si giv n to it by ntu
, to  gult its whol lif , to p s v its lf, nd to b so dispos d s it b
st my in odn with ntu . At th b ginning it hs suh  onfus d nd un
 tin kind of ogniztion tht it n only just tk  of its lf, wht v 
it is; but it do s not und stnd ith  wht it is, o wht its pow s  , o
wht its ntu is. But wh n it hs dvn d  littl , nd b gins to p  iv h
ow f nything touh s it, o hs  f  n to it, th n it b gins gdully to
impov , nd to omp h nd its lf, nd to und stnd fo wht us it hs tht
pp tit of th mind whih I hv spok n of; nd b gins lso to d si thos thi
ngs whih it f ls to b suit d to its ntu , nd to k p off th onty. Th
 fo , in th s of v y niml, wht it wish s is pl d in tht thing whi
h is dpt d to its ntu . And so th hi f good is to liv oding to ntu
, with th b st disposition nd th most suitbl to ntu tht n b ng nd 
d.
But sin
v y niml hs his own p uli ntu , it is plin tht th obj t
of h must b to hv his ntu stisfi d. Fo th  is no hindn to th 
b ing som things in ommon to ll oth  nimls, nd som ommon both to m n 
nd b sts, sin th ntu of ll is ommon. But tht high st nd hi f good n
d vil whih w  in s h of, is distibut d nd divid d mong th diff  nt
kinds of nimls, h hving its own p uli good nd vil, dpt d to tht
nd whih th ntu of h lss of niml  qui s. Wh  fo , wh n w sy th
t th hi f good to ll nimls is to liv oding to ntu , this must b und
stood s if w sid tht th y hd ll th sm hi f good. But s it my tuly
b sid to b ommon to ll ts to b onv snt bout som si n , nd tht
th  is  s pt si n b longing to h t, so w my sy tht it is omm
on to ll nimls to liv oding to ntu , but tht th   diff  nt ntu
 s; so tht th hos hs by ntu on hi f good, th ox noth , mn noth 
; nd y t in ll th  is on ommon nd; nd [pg 253] tht is th s too, not
only in nimls, but lso in ll thos things whih ntu nouish s, us s to
gow, nd pot ts; in whih w s tht thos things whih  podu d out of
th th, som how o oth  by th i own n gy  t mny things fo th ms lv
s whih hv influ n on th i lif nd gowth, nd so h in th i own kind
th y iv t th hi f good. So tht w my now mb ll suh in on omp
h nsiv stt m nt; nd I n d not h sitt to sy, tht v y ntu is its own
p s v ; nd hs fo its obj t, s its nd nd hi f good, to pot t its lf
in th b st possibl ondition tht its kind dmits of; so tht it follows in vi
tbly tht ll things whih flouish by ntu hv  simil but still not th
sm nd. And fom this it should b und stood, tht th hi f nd high st good
to mn is to liv oding to ntu whih w my int p t thus,to liv od
ing to tht ntu of  mn whih is md p f t on ll sid s, nd is in n d o
f nothing. Th s things th n w must xplin; nd if ou xplntion is th  m
inut , you will xus it; fo w  bound to onsid  th youth of ou h  ,
nd th ft tht h is now p hps list ning to suh  disous fo th fist
tim . C tinly, sid I; lthough wht you hv sid hith to might b v y po
p ly dd ss d to h  s of ny g .

X. Sin th n, sid h , w hv xplin d th limit of thos things whih  to


b d si d, w must n xt show why th fts  s I hv stt d th m. Wh  fo
, l t us s t out fom th position whih I fist lid down, whih is lso in 
lity th fist, so tht w my und stnd tht v y niml lov s its lf. And t
hough th  is no doubt of this, (fo it is  pinipl fix d d p in ntu its
lf, nd is omp h nd d by th s ns of v y on , in suh  d g
tht if ny
on wish d to gu ginst it, h would not b list n d to,) y t, tht I my n
ot pss ov  nything, I think it s w ll to ddu som  sons why this is th
s . Although, how n ny on ith  und stnd o fny tht th  is ny n
iml whih ht s its lf? It would b  ontdition of fts; fo wh n tht pp
tit of th mind hs b gun d sign dly to ttt nything to its lf whih is n
hindn to it, b us it is n n my to its lf,wh n it do s tht fo its own
sk , it will both ht its lf nd lov its lf, whih is impossibl . It is unvo
idbl tht, if ny on is n n my to hims lf, h must [pg 254] think thos thi
ngs bd whih  good, nd, on th oth  hnd, thos things good whih  bd;
tht h must void thos things whih h ought to s k, nd s k wht h ought
to void; ll whih hbits  indubitbly th ov tuning of lif . Fo v n if
som p opl  found who s k fo hlt s o oth  mod s of d stution, o, li
k th mn in T  n , who d t min d fo suh  l ngth of tim to do l ss injuy
to his son, (s h sys hims lf,) until h b om s mis bl , it do s not follow t
ht th y  to b thought n mi s to th ms lv s. But som  influ n d by pi
n, oth s by d si ; mny gin  i d wy by pssion, nd whil th y know
ingly un into vils, still fny tht th y  onsulting th i own int  sts m
ost x ll ntly; nd, th  fo , th y unh sittingly sy
Tht is my wy; do you wht '  you must
lik m n who hv d l d w ginst th ms lv s, who lik to b totu d ll d
y nd tom nt d ll night, nd who y t do not us th ms lv s of hving omitt
d to onsult th i own int  sts; fo this is  omplint md by thos m n who
 d  to nd who lov th ms lv s.
Wh  fo , wh n v   mn is sid to b but littl oblig d to hims lf, to b  f
o nd n my to hims lf, nd in shot to fl fom lif , it should b und stood
tht th  is som us of tht kind lying b n th th suf ; so tht it my
b und stood fom tht v y instn tht v y on is d  to hims lf. No is
it suffii nt tht th  hs n v  b n ny on who ht d hims lf; but w must
und stnd lso tht th  is no on who thinks tht it is  mtt  of indiff 
n to him in wht ondition h is; fo ll d si of th mind will b put n n
d to if, s in thos things b tw n whih th  is no diff  n w  not mo
inlin d to ith  sid , so lso, in th s of ou own s lv s, w think it m
k s no diff  n to us in wht wy w  ff t d.
XI. And this lso would b  v y bsud thing if ny on w  to sy it, nm ly
, tht  mn is lov d by hims lf in suh  mnn  tht tht v h m nt lov is  f
 d to som oth  thing, nd not to tht v y mn who lov s hims lf. Now wh n
this is sid in th s of fi ndship, of duty, o of vitu , how v  it is si
d, it is still int lligibl wht is m nt by it; but in  gd to ou own s lv s
, it nnot v n b und stood tht w should lov ous lv s fo th sk of [pg
255] som thing ls , o in  wod, fo th sk of pl su . Fo it is fo ou
sk s tht w lov pl su , nd not fo th sk of pl su tht w lov ous
lv s; lthough wht n b mo
vid nt thn tht v y on is not only d , bu
t x ssiv ly d  to hims lf? Fo who is th  , o t ll v nts how f w  th
 , who wh n d th ppoh s, do s not find
His h t's blood hill'd with sudd n f ,
His h k gow pl ?
nd if it is  vi to d d th dissolution of ntu so x ssiv ly, (nd th
sm thing on th sm pinipl my b ss t d of ou v sion to pin,) still
th ft tht n ly v y on is ff t d in this mnn , is  suffii nt poo
f tht ntu bhos d stution. And though som m n show this d d o v sio

n to suh  d g
tht th y  d s v dly blm d fo it, still this my show u
s tht suh f lings would not b so x ssiv in som p opl , if  mod t d g
of th m w  not implnt d in mnkind by ntu .

No, ind d, do I m n tht f  of d th whih is shown by thos m n who, b u
s th y think tht th y  b ing d piv d of th goods of lif , o b us th y
f  som t ibl v nts ft  d th, o who, b us th y  fid of dying
in pin, th  fo shun d th; fo in th s of hild n, who n hv no su
h id s o pp h nsions, th y oft n show f  if, wh n plying with th m, w th
 t n to thow th m down fom ny pl ; nd v n b sts, s Puvius sys,
Who hv no unning, o poph ti ft
To wd off dng   it om ,
shudd  wh n th f  of d th om s b fo th m. And, ind d, who nt tins 
diff  nt opinion of th wis mn hims lf? who, v n wh n h hs d id d tht h
must di , still is ff t d by th d ptu fom his fmily, nd by th ft t
ht h must l v th light of dy. And bov ll is th pow  of ntu visibl
in th humn  , sin mny ndu b ggy to p s v lif , nd m n won out
with old g  totu d with th id  of th ppoh of d th, nd ndu su
h things s w s Philot t s in th ply suff , who, whil h ws k pt in to
tu by intol bl pins, n v th l ss p s v d his lif by th gm whih h
ould kill with his ows.
H , though slow, o' took th swift,
H stood nd sl w th flying
[pg 256]
s Attius sys, nd md hims lf ov ings fo his body by pliting th f th s
tog th . I m sp king of mnkind, nd, ind d, g n lly of ll nimls, thou
gh plnts nd t s hv n ly th sm ntu , wh th , s is th opinion of s
om most l n d m n, b us som p dominnt nd divin us hs implnt d th
is pow  in th m, o wh th  it is id ntl. W s
thos things whih th 
th podu s p s v d in vigou by th i bk nd oots, whih hpp ns to niml
s by th ng m nt of th i s ns s, nd   tin ompt onfomtion of limb
. And with  f  n to this subj t, lthough I g
with thos m n who think
tht ll th s things   gult d by ntu , nd tht if ntu n gl t d to 
gult th m, th nimls th ms lv s ould not xist, still I gnt tht thos w
ho diff  on this subj t my think wht th y pl s , nd my ith  und stnd
tht wh n I sy th ntu of mn I m n mn (fo it mk s no diff  n ); fo 
mn will b bl to d pt fom hims lf soon  thn h n los th d si of t
hos things whih  dvntg ous to him. Rightly, th  fo , hv th most l 
n d philosoph s sought th pinipl of th hi f good in ntu , nd thought
tht tht pp tit fo things dpt d to ntu is implnt d in ll m n, fo th
y  k pt tog th  by tht  omm ndtion of ntu in ob di n to whih th y
lov th ms lv s.
XII. Th n xt thing whih w must xmin is, wht is th ntu of mn, sin i
t is suffii ntly vid nt tht v y on is d  to hims lf by ntu ; fo tht
is th thing whih w   lly inquiing bout. But it is vid nt tht mn on
sists of mind nd body, nd tht th fist nk b longs to th mind, nd th s 
ond to th body. In th n xt pl w s , lso, tht his body is so fom d s t
o x l tht of oth  nimls, nd tht his mind is so onstitut d s to b fun
ish d with s ns s, nd to hv x ll n of int ll t whih th whol ntu of
mn ob ys, in whih th  is   tin dmibl fo of  son, nd knowl dg
, nd si n , nd ll kinds of vitu s; fo th things whih  pts of th b
ody hv no uthoity to b omp d with tht poss ss d by th pts of th min
d; nd th y  mo
sily known. Th  fo , l t us b gin with th m.
It is vid nt, now, how suitbl to ntu  th pts of ou body, nd th wh
ol g n l figu , fom, nd sttu of [pg 257] it; no is th  ny doubt wh
t kind of f , y s, s nd oth  f tu s  p uli to mn. But  tinly

it is n  ssy fo th m to b in good h lth nd vigoous, nd to hv ll th


i ntul mov m nts nd us s; so tht no pt of th m shll b bs nt, o diso
d  d, o nf bl d; fo ntu  qui s soundn ss. Fo th  is   tin tio
n of th body whih hs ll its motions nd its g n l ondition in  stt of
hmony with ntu , in whih if nything go s wong though ny distotion o d
pvity, ith  by ny i gul motion o disod  d ondition,s if, fo inst
n ,  p son w  to wlk on his hnds, o to wlk not fowds but bkwds,th
n h would vid ntly pp  to b flying fom hims lf, nd to b putting off hi
s mnhood, nd to ht his own ntu . On whih ount, lso, som wys of sitt
ing down, nd som ontot d nd bupt mov m nts, suh s wnton o ff mint
m n t tim s indulg in,  onty to ntu . So tht v n if tht should hp
p n though ny fult of th mind, still th ntu of th mn would s m to b
hng d in his body. Th  fo , on th onty, mod t nd qul onditions,
nd ff tions, nd hbits of th body, s m to b suitbl to ntu . But now t
h mind must not only xist, but must xist in  p uli mnn , so s to hv
ll its pts sound, nd to hv no vitu wnting: but h s ns hs its own p
uli vitu , so tht nothing my hind  h s ns fom p foming its offi
in th quik nd  dy p  ption of thos things whih om und  th s ns s.
XIII. But th   mny vitu s of th mind, nd of tht pt of th mind whih
is th hi f, nd whih is ll d th int ll t; but th s vitu s  divid d
into two pinipl lss s: on , onsisting of thos whih  implnt d by ntu
 , nd  ll d involunty; th oth , of thos whih d p nd on th will, n
d  mo oft n spok n of by th i pop  nm of vitu s; whos g t x ll n
 is ttibut d to th mind s  subj t of pis . Now in th fom  lss 
doility, m moy, nd oth s, n ly ll of whih  ll d by th on nm of
ing nium, nd thos who poss ss th m  ll d ing niosi. Th oth  lss ons
ists of thos whih  g t nd  l vitu s; whih w ll volunty, suh s
pud n , t mp n , fotitud , justi , nd oth s of th sm kind. And this
ws wht might b sid bi fly of both mind nd body; nd this stt m nt suppli
s  sot of sk th of wht th [pg 258] ntu of mn  qui s:nd fom this it
is vid nt, sin w  b lov d by ous lv s, nd sin w wish v ything both
in ou minds nd bodi s to b p f t, tht thos quliti s  d  to us fo
th i own sk s, nd tht th y  of th g t st influ n towds ou living
w ll. Fo h to whom s lf-p s vtion is popos d s n obj t, must n  ssil
y f l n ff tion fo ll th s pt pts of hims lf; nd  g t  ff ti
on in popotion s th y  mo p f t nd mo pis wothy in th i s pt
kinds. Fo tht kind of lif is d si d whih is full of th vitu s of th mi
nd nd body; nd in tht th hi f good must unvoidbly b pl d, sin it oug
ht to b of suh  ht  s to b th high st of ll d sibl things. And w
h n w hv s tin d tht, th  ought to b no doubt nt tin d, tht s m
n  d  to th ms lv s fo th i own sk , nd of th i own od, so, lso,
th pts of th body nd mind, nd of thos things whih  in th motion nd
ondition of h,  ultivt d with  d s v d  gd, nd  sought fo th
i own sk s. And wh n this pinipl hs b n lid down, it is sy to onj tu
 tht thos pts of us  most d sibl whih hv th most dignity; so th
t th vitu of h most x ll nt pt whih is sought fo its own sk , is l
so d s ving of b ing piniplly sought ft . And th ons qu n will b , th
t th vitu of th mind is p f  d to th vitu of th body, nd tht th vo
lunty vitu s of th mind  sup io to th involunty; fo it is th volun
ty on s whih  pop ly ll d vitu s, nd whih  muh sup io to th
oth s, s b ing th offsping of  son; thn whih th  is nothing mo divin
in mn. In tuth, th hi f good of ll thos quliti s whih ntu  t s 
nd mintins, nd whih 
ith  unonn t d o n ly so with th body, is pl
 d in th mind; so tht it pp s to hv b n  tol bly ut obs vtion
whih ws md  sp ting th sow, tht tht niml hd  soul giv n it inst d
of slt to k p it fom g tting ott n.
XIV. But th   som b sts in whih th  is som thing  s mbling vitu , su
h s lions, dogs, nd hos s; in whih w s mov m nts not of th body only, 

s w do in pigs, but to   tin xt nt w my dis n som mov m nts of mind.


But in mn th whol dominnt pow  li s in th mind; nd th dominnt pow  of
th mind is  son: [pg 259] nd fom this po ds vitu , whih is d fin d s
th p f tion of  son: whih th y think is to b gdully d v lop d dy by d
y. Thos things, too, whih th
th podu s hv  sot of gdul gowth to
wds p f tion, not v y unlik wht w s in nimls. Th  fo w sy tht
 vin liv s, nd di s; w sp k of  t
s young, o old; b ing in its pim ,
o gowing old. And it is th  fo not inonsist nt to sp k, s in th s o
f nimls, of som things in plnts, too, b ing onfombl to ntu , nd som
not: nd to sy tht th  is   tin ultivtion of th m, nouishing, nd u
sing th m to gow, whih is th si n nd t of th fm , whih pun s th m
, uts th m in, is s th m, tins th m, pops th m, so tht th y my b bl t
o xt nd th ms lv s in th di tion whih ntu points out; in suh  mnn  t
ht th vin s th ms lv s, if th y ould sp k, would onf ss tht th y ought to
b mng d nd pot t d in th wy th y  . And now ind d tht whih pot ts
it (tht I my ontinu to sp k hi fly of th vin ) is xt nl to th vin :
fo it hs but v y littl pow  in its lf to k p its lf in th b st possibl 
ondition, unl ss ultivtion is ppli d to it. But if s ns w  dd d to th vi
n , so tht it ould f l d si nd b mov d by its lf, wht do you think it wo
uld do? Would it do thos things whih w  fom ly don to it by th vin -d s
s , nd of its lf tt nd to its lf? Do you not s tht it would lso hv th
dditionl  of p s ving its s ns s, nd its d si fo ll thos things, 
nd its limbs, if ny w  dd d to it? And so too, to ll tht it hd b fo , it
will unit thos things whih hv b n dd d to it sin : no will it hv th
sm obj t tht its d ss  hd, but it will d si to liv oding to tht
ntu whih hs b n subs qu ntly dd d to it: nd so its hi f good will  s m
bl tht whih it hd b fo , but will not b id ntil with it; fo it will b
no long  s king th good of  plnt, but tht of n niml. And suppos tht n
ot only th s ns s  giv n it, but lso th mind of  mn, do s it not follow
in vitbly tht thos fom  things will  min nd  qui to b pot t d, nd
tht mong th m th s dditions will b f mo d  to it thn its oiginl q
uliti s? nd tht h potion of th mind whih is b st is lso th d  st? 
nd tht its hi f good must now onsist in stisfying its ntu , sin int ll 
t nd  son  by f th most x ll nt pts [pg 260] of it? And so th hi
f of ll th things whih it hs to d si , nd tht whih is d iv d fom th o
iginl  omm ndtion of ntu , s nds by s v l st ps, so s t lst to  
h th summit; b us it is md up of th int gity of th body, nd th p f
t  son of th int ll t.
XV. As, th  fo , th fom of ntu is suh s I hv d sib d it, if, s I s
id t th b ginning, h individul s soon s h is bon ould know hims lf,
nd fom  o t stimt of wht is th pow  both of his nti ntu nd o
f its s pt pts, h would s imm dit ly wht this ws whih w  in s 
h of, nm ly, th high st nd b st of ll th things whih w d si : no woul
d it b possibl fo him to mk  mistk in nything. But now ntu is fom t
h v y b ginning on l d in  wond ful mnn , no n it b p  iv d no 
omp h nd d. But s ou g dvn s, w gdully, o I should th  sy slowl
y, om to  kind of knowl dg of ous lv s. Th  fo , tht oiginl  omm nd
tion whih is giv n to us by ou ntu , is obsu nd un tin; nd tht fis
t pp tit of th mind only go s th l ngth of wishing to s u ou own sf ty
nd soundn ss. But wh n w b gin to look ound us, nd to f l wht w  , nd
in wht w diff  fom ll th oth  nimls, th n w b gin to pusu th obj 
ts fo whih w w  bon. And w s  simil thing tk pl in b sts, who
t fist do not mov fom th pl in whih th y w  bon; but ft wds ll
mov , influ n d by som d si of th i own. And so w s snk s wl, duks
swim, blkbids fly, ox n us th i hons, sopions th i stings; nd w s n
tu  guid to h niml in its pth of lif .
And th s is simil with th humn  . Fo infnts t th i fist bith li
s if th y w  utt ly d void of mind; but wh n  littl st ngth hs b n d

d d to th m, th y us both th i mind nd th i s ns s, nd nd vou to is t


h ms lv s up nd to us th i hnds; nd th y  ognis thos by whom th y  b
ing bought up; nd ft wds th y  mus d with thos of th i own g , nd
gldly ssoit with th m, nd giv th ms lv s up to ply, nd  ttt d b
y h ing stoi s, nd  fond of pl sing oth s with th i own sup fluiti s;
nd tk uious noti of wht is don t hom , nd b gin to mk  mks, nd
to l n; nd do not lik to b ignont of th nm s of thos whom [pg 261] th
y s ; nd in th i spots nd ont sts with th i f llows, th y  d light d
if th y win, nd if th y  b t n th y  d j t d nd los th i spiits. An
d w must not think tht ny of th s things hpp n without  son; fo th pow
 of mn is podu d in suh  wy by ntu , tht it s ms md fo  p  ptio
n of ll x ll n : nd on tht ount hild n, v n without b ing tught, 
influ n d by lik n ss of thos vitu s of whih th y hv th s ds in th ms
lv s; fo th y  th oiginl l m nts of ntu : nd wh n th y hv qui d
gowth, th n th whol wok of ntu is omplish d. Fo s w hv b n bon
nd  t d so s to ontin in ous lv s th pinipl s of doing som thing, nd
of loving som body, nd of lib lity, nd of gtitud ; nd so s to hv mind
s dpt d fo knowl dg , pud n , nd fotitud , nd v s to th i opposit s;
it is not without us tht w s in hild n thos spks, s it w  , of vi
tu whih I hv m ntion d, by whih th  son of  philosoph  ought to b ki
ndl d to follow tht guid s if it w   god, nd so to iv t th knowl dg
of th obj t of ntu .
Fo, s I hv oft n sid l dy, th pow  of ntu is dis n d though  l
oud whil w  of  w k g nd f bl int ll t; but wh n ou mind hs md
pog ss nd qui d st ngth, th n it  ognis s th pow  of ntu , but stil
l in suh  wy tht it n mk mo pog ss still, nd tht it must d iv th
b ginning of tht pog ss fom its lf.
XVI. W must th  fo
nt  into th ntu of things, nd s thooughly wht
it d mnds; fo oth wis w nnot iv t th knowl dg of ous lv s. And b
us this p  pt ws too impotnt n on to b dis n d by  mn, it hs on
tht ount b n ttibut d to God. Th Pythin Apollo, th n, njoins us to kno
w ous lv s: but this knowl dg is to know th pow  of ou mind nd body, nd t
o follow tht ous of lif whih njoys th iumstn s in whih it is pl
d. And sin tht d si of th mind to hv ll th things whih I hv m ntion
d in th most p f t mnn  in whih ntu ould povid th m, xist d fom t
h b ginning, w must dmit, wh n w hv obtin d wht w d si d, tht ntu
onsists in tht s its xt m point, nd tht tht is th hi f good: whih 
tinly must in v y s b sought fo spontn ously fo its own sk , sin i
t hs l dy b n pov d, tht v n ll its s pt pts [pg 262]  to b d
si d fo th i own sk . But if, in num ting th dvntg s of th body, n
y on should think tht w hv pss d ov  pl su , tht qu stion my b postp
on d till noth  oppotunity; fo it mk s no diff  n with  gd to th p
s nt subj t of ou disussion, wh th  pl su onsists in thos things whih
w hv ll d th hi f things in odn with ntu , o wh th  it do s no
t. Fo if, s I ind d think, pl su is not th owning good of ntu , it h
s b n pop ly pss d ov : but if tht owning good do s xist in pl su , 
s som ss t, th n th ft do s not t ll hind  this id  of ous of th hi
f good fom b ing th ight on . Fo, if to thos things whih  th pinip
l goods of ntu , pl su is dd d, th n th  will hv b n dd d just on 
dvntg of th body; but no hng will hv b n md in th oiginl d finiti
on of th hi f good whih ws lid down t fist.
XVII. And hith to, ind d,  son hs dvn d with us in suh  wy s to b w
holly d iv d fom th oiginl  omm ndtion of ntu . But now w must pusu
noth  kind of gum nt, nm ly, tht w  mov d in th s mtt s of ou own
x ding goodwill, not only b us w lov ous lv s, but b us th  is bo
th in th body nd in th mind  p uli pow  b longing to h pt of ntu
. And, (to b gin with th body,) do you not s tht if th  is nything in th

i limbs d fom d, o w k, o d fii nt, m n on l it? nd tk pins, nd l
bou n stly, if th y n possibly ontiv it, to p v nt tht d f t of th
body fom b ing visibl , o ls to  nd  it s littl visibl s possibl ? nd
tht th y submit to g t pin fo th sk of uing ny suh d f t? in od 
tht, v n though th tul us of th limb, ft  th pplition of th  m
dy, b lik ly to b not g t , but v n l ss, still th pp n of th limb
my b  sto d to th odiny ous of ntu . In tuth, s ll m n fny th
t th y  ltog th  d sibl by ntu , nd tht too, not on ny oth  ou
nt, but fo th i own sk s, it follows in vitbly tht h pt of th m should
b d si d fo its own sk , b us th whol body is sought fo its own sk .
Wht mo n d I sy? Is th  nothing in th motion nd ondition of th body
whih ntu h s lf d id s ought to b noti d? fo instn , how  p son wl
ks o sits, wht th xp ssion of his ount nn is, wht [pg 263] his f tu
s  ; is th  nothing in ll th s things whih w think wothy o unwothy of
mn, s th s my b ? Do w not think mny m n d s ving of ht d, w
 f
ho pp  by som motion o ondition to hv d spis d th lws nd mod tion o
f ntu ? And sin th s things  d iv d fom th body, wht is th  son w
hy b uty lso my not fily b sid to b  thing to b d si d fo its own s
k ?
Fo if w onsid  distotion o disfigu m nt of th body  thing to b void d
fo its own sk , why should w not lso, nd p hps still mo , ultivt dig
nity of fom fo its own sk ? And if w void wht is uns mly, both in th on
dition nd motion of th body, why my w not on th oth  hnd pusu b uty? A
nd w lso d si h lth, st ngth, nd f dom fom pin, not m  ly b us of
th i utility, but lso fo th i own sk s. Fo sin ntu wish s to b md
ompl t in ll h  pts, sh d si s this ondition of th body, whih is mos
t oding to ntu , fo its own sk : but ntu is put into ompl t onfusi
on if th body is ith  sik, o in pin, o d stitut of st ngth.
XVIII. L t us onsid  th pts of th mind, th pp n of whih is mo no
bl ; fo in popotion s th y  mo sublim , th y giv  mo l  inditi
on of th i ntu . So v h m nt  lov , th n, of knowl dg nd si n is innt
in us, tht no on n doubt tht th ntu of mn is dwn to th m without b
ing ttt d by ny xt nl gin. Do w not s how boys nnot b d t  d v
n by stip s fom th onsid tion nd inv stigtion of suh nd suh things?
how, though th y my b b t n, th y still pusu th i inquii s, nd  joi i
n hving qui d som knowl dg ? how th y d light in t lling oth s wht th y h
v l nt? how th y  ttt d by po ssions, nd gm s, nd sp tl s of
tht kind, nd will ndu
v n hung  nd thist fo suh n obj t? Cn I sy
no mo ? Do w not s thos who  fond of lib l studi s nd ts  gd n i
th  th i h lth no th i stt ? nd ndu
v ything b us th y  hm
d with th intinsi b uty of knowl dg nd si n ? nd tht th y put th pl
su s whih th y d iv fom l ning in th sl ginst th g t st  n
d lbou? And Hom  hims lf pp s to m to hv hd som suh f ling s this,
whih h hs d v lop d in wht h hs sid bout th songs of th Si ns: fo t
h y do [pg 264] not s m to hv b n ustom d to ttt thos who w  sili
ng by with th sw tn ss of th i voi s, o with ny nov lty o vi ty in th i
 song, but th pof ssion whih th y md of poss ssing g t knowl dg ; so th
t m n lung to th i oks fom  d si of l ning. Fo thus th y invit Ulyss
s, (fo I hv tnslt d s v l pssg s of Hom , nd this mong th m)
Oh sty, O pid of G  ! Ulyss s, sty!
Oh,  s thy ous , nd list n to ou ly!
Bl st is th mn odin'd ou voi to h :
Ou song instuts th soul nd hms th .
Appoh, thy soul shll into ptu s is ;
Appoh, nd l n n w wisdom fom th wis .
W know wht '  th kings of mighty nm
Ahi v d t Ilium in th fi ld of fm ;

Wht '  b n th th sun's bight joun y li s


Oh sty, nd l n n w wisdom fom th wis .49
Hom  sw tht th stoy would not b pobbl if h  p s nt d so g t  mn
s ught by m  songs; so th y pomis him knowl dg , whih it ws not stng
tht  mn d sious of wisdom should onsid  d   thn his ounty. And, ind
d, to wish to know v ything of v y kind, is ntul to th uious; but, t
o b ttt d by th ont mpltion of g t  obj ts, to nt tin  g n l d
si fo knowl dg , ought to b onsid  d  poof of  g t mn.
XIX. Wht dou fo study do you not suppos th  must hv b n in Ahim d s
, who ws so oupi d in dwing som mth mtil figu s in th snd, tht h
ws not w tht his ity ws tk n? And wht  mighty g nius ws tht of Ais
tox nus whih, w s , ws d vot d to musi? Wht fondn ss, too, fo study, must
hv inspi d Aistophn s, to d dit his whol lif to lit tu ! Wht shl
l w sy of Pythgos? Why should I sp k of Plto nd of D moitus, by whom,
w s , tht th most distnt ounti s w  tv ll d ov , on ount of th i
d si fo l ning? And thos who  blind to this hv n v  lov d nything
v y wothy of b ing known. And h  I my sy, tht thos who sy tht thos st
udi s whih I hv m ntion d  ultivt d fo th sk of th pl su s of th
mind, do not und stnd tht th y  d sibl fo th i own sk s, b us th
mind is d light d by th m, without th int uption of ny id s of utility, 
nd  joi s in th m  ft of [pg 265] knowl dg , v n though it my possibly
podu inonv ni n . But why n d w s k fo mo instn s to pov wht is
so vid nt? Fo l t us xmin ou own s lv s, nd inqui how th motions of th
sts, nd th ont mpltion of th h v nly bodi s, nd th knowl dg of ll
thos things whih  hidd n fom us by th obsuity of ntu , ff t us; nd
why histoy, whih w  ustom d to t bk s f s possibl , d lights
us; in th inv stigtion of whih w go ov  gin ll tht hs b n omitt d, 
nd follow up ll tht w hv b gun. No, ind d, m I ignont tht th  is 
us , nd not m  ly pl su , in histoy. Wht, how v , will b sid, with  f
 n to ou  ding with pl su imginy fbl s, fom whih no utility n p
ossibly b d iv d? O to ou wishing tht th nm s of thos who hv p fom d
ny g t xploits, nd th i fmily, nd th i ounty, nd mny iumstn s
b sid s, whih  not t ll n  ssy, should b known to us? How shll w x
plin th ft, tht m n of th low st nk, who hv no hop of v  p foming
g t d ds th ms lv s, tisns in shot,  fond of histoy; nd tht w my
s tht thos p sons lso 
sp illy fond of h ing nd  ding of g t
hi v m nts, who   mov d fom ll hop of v  p foming ny, b ing won
out with old g ?
It must, th  fo , b und stood, tht th llu m nts  in th things th ms
lv s whih  l nt nd known, nd tht it is th y th ms lv s whih xit us
to l ning nd to th quisition of infomtion. And, ind d, th old philosop
h s, in th i fititious d siptions of th islnds of th bl ss d, intimt t
h kind of lif whih th wis pss, whom th y imgin to b f
fom ll  ,
 quiing no ultivtion o ppointm nts of lif s n  ssy, nd doing, nd 
bout to do nothing ls but d vot th i whol tim to inquiing nd l ning n
d iving t  knowl dg of ntu . But w s tht tht is not only th d ligh
t of  hppy lif , but lso   li f fom mis y. Th  fo , mny m n whil in t
h pow  of n mi s o tynts, mny whil in pison o in xil , hv  li v d
th i soow by th study of lit tu . A g t mn of this ity, D m tius Ph
l  us, wh n h hd b n unjustly bnish d fom his ounty, fl d to Al xndi,
to king Ptol my; nd, s h ws v y min nt fo his knowl dg of this philosop
hy to whih w 
xhoting you, nd hd b n [pg 266]  pupil of Th ophstus,
h wot mny dmibl t tis s duing th tim of tht unfotunt l isu o
f his, not, ind d, fo ny utility to hims lf, fo tht ws out of his  h, b
ut th ultivtion of his mind ws to him  sot of sust nn fo his humn nt
u .
I, ind d, hv

oft n h d Cnus Aufidius,  mn of ptoin nk, of g t l ni

ng, but blind, sy tht h ws ff t d mo by   g t fo th loss of light,
thn of ny tul b n fit whih h d iv d fom his y s. Lstly, if sl p did
not bing us  st to ou bodi s, nd  sot of m diin ft  lbou, w should
think it onty to ntu , fo it d piv s us of ou s ns s, nd tk s wy ou
 pow  of tion. Th  fo , if ith  ntu w  in no n d of  st, o if it
v n now w  in
ould obtin it by ny oth  m ns, w should b gld, sin
th hbit of doing without sl p, in  mnn  lmost onty to ntu , wh n w
wnt to do o to l n som thing.
XX. But th   tok ns suppli d by ntu , still l  , o, I my sy, nti
ly vid nt nd indubitbl ,mo
sp illy, ind d, in mn, but lso in v y n
iml,tht th mind is lwys d sious to b doing som thing, nd n in no ondit
ion ndu p p tul  st. It is sy to s this in th
li st g of hild
n; fo lthough I f  tht I my pp  polix on this subj t, still ll th 
ni nt philosoph s, nd sp illy thos of ou own ounty, hv  ous to t
h dl fo illusttions, b us th y think tht in hildhood th y n most
sily d t t th will of ntu . W s , th n, tht v n infnts nnot  st; b
ut, wh n th y hv dvn d  littl , th n th y  d light d with v n lboiou
s spots, so tht th y nnot b d t  d fom th m v n by b ting: nd tht d
si fo tion gows with th i gowth. Th  fo , w should not lik to hv t
h slumb  of Endymion giv n to us, not v n if w xp t d to njoy th most d
liious d ms; nd if it w  , w should think it lik d th. Mo ov , w s
tht v n th most indol nt m n, m n of  singul wothl ssn ss,  still lw
ys in motion both in mind nd body; nd wh n th y  not hind  d by som unvo
idbl iumstn , tht th y d mnd  di -box o som gm of som kind, o 
onv stion; nd, s th y hv non of th lib l d lights of l ning, s k i
l s nd ss mbli s. Ev n b sts, whih w shut up fo ou own [pg 267] mus m
nt, though th y  b tt  f d thn if th y w  f , still do not willingly n
du b ing impison d, but pin fo th f
nd un stin d mov m nts giv n to
th m by ntu . Th  fo , in popotion s v y on is bon nd p p d fo
th b st obj ts, h would b unwilling to liv t ll if, b ing xlud d fom 
tion, h w  bl only to njoy th most bundnt pl su s.
Fo m n wish ith  to do som thing s individuls, o thos who hv lofti  so
uls und tk th ffis of th stt , nd d vot th ms lv s to th ttinm nt
of honous nd ommnds, o ls wholly ddit th ms lv s to th study of l ni
ng; in whih pth of lif th y  so f fom g tting pl su s, tht th y v n
ndu  , nxi ty nd sl pl ssn ss, njoying only tht most x ll nt poti
on of mn whih my b ount d divin in us, I m n th ut n ss of th g niu
s nd int ll t, nd th y n ith  s k fo pl su no shun lbou. No do th y
int mit ith  th i dmition of th disov i s of th ni nts, o th i s
h ft  n w on s; nd, s th y  instibl in th i pusuit of suh, th y
fog t v ything ls , nd dmit no low o gov lling thoughts; nd suh g t
pow  is th  in thos studi s, tht w s
v n thos who hv popos d to th
ms lv s oth  hi f goods, whih th y m su by dvntg o pl su , still d
vot th i liv s to th inv stigtion of things, nd to th xplntion of th
myst i s of ntu .
XXI. This, th n, is vid nt, tht w w  bon fo tion. But th   s v l
kinds of tion, so tht th l ss   thown into th shd by thos mo imp
otnt. But thos of most ons qu n  , fist of ll, s it pp s to m , n
d to thos philosoph s whos syst m w  t p s nt disussing, th onsid 
tion nd knowl dg of th h v ns, nd of thos things whih  hidd n nd on
l d by ntu , but into whih  son n still p n tt . And, n xt to th m, t
h mng m nt of stt ffis, o  pud nt, t mp t , oug ous pinipl of
gov nm nt nd knowl dg , nd th oth  vitu s, nd suh tions s  in h
mony with thos vitu s, whih w , mbing th m ll in on wod, ll honoub
l ; to th knowl dg nd pti of whih w  l d by ntu h s lf, who go
s b fo us s ou guid , w hving b n l dy noug d to pusu it. Fo th
b ginnings of ll things  smll, but, s th y po d, th y [pg 268] in 

s in mgnitud , nd tht ntully: fo, t th i fist bith, th  is in th m


  tin t nd n ss nd softn ss, so tht th y nnot s o do wht is b st.
Fo th light of vitu nd of  hppy lif , whih  th two pinipl things
to b d si d, pp s th  lt ; nd muh lt  still in suh  wy tht it
n b plinly p  iv d of wht ht  th y  .
Fo, dmibly do s Plto sy, Tht mn is hppy to whom, v n in his old g , it
is llow d to iv t wisdom nd o tn ss of judgm nt. Wh  fo , sin w
hv sid nough of th fist dvntg s of ntu , w will now xmin thos wh
ih  mo impotnt, nd whih  lt  in point of tim .
Ntu , th n, hs md nd fshion d th body of mn in suh  mnn , tht it m
k s som pts of him p f t t his fist bith, nd foms oth s s h dvn
s in g ; nd, t th sm tim , do s not mploy mny xt nl o dv ntitious
ids. But sh hs fill d up th p f tion of th mind in th sm wy s tht o
f th body; fo sh hs don d it with s ns s suitbl fo th ff ting of its
pupos s, so tht it is not in th l st, o not muh, in wnt of ny ssistn
fo st ngth ning its lf. But tht whih is most x ll nt nd impotnt in m
n it hs bndon d: lthough it hs giv n him n int ll t bl to   iv v y
kind of vitu , nd hs implnt d in him, v n without instution,  slight kn
owl dg of th most impotnt things, nd hs b gun, s it w  , to t h him, 
nd hs l d him on to thos l m nts s I my ll th m, of vitu whih xist d
in him. But it hs only b gun vitu its lf, nothing mo . Th  fo it b longs
to us,wh n I sy to us, I m n to ou t,to t bk th ons qu n s to thos
pinipl s whih w hv   iv d, until w hv omplish d ou obj t, whih
is ind d of  good d l mo ons qu n , nd  good d l mo to b d si d fo
 its own sk , thn ith  th s ns s, o thos pts of th body whih w hv
m ntion d; whih th x ll nt p f tion of th mind is so f sup io to, th
t it n s ly b imgin d how g t th diff  n is. Th  fo , ll honou
, ll dmition, ll study is  f  d to vitu , nd to thos tions whih 
ith  in ou minds in
 onsist nt with vitu ; nd ll thos things whih 
tht stt , o  don in tht mnn ,  ll d by on ommon nm honoubl .
And w shll p s ntly s wht knowl dg w [pg 269] hv of ll th s things,
nd wht is m nt by th diff  nt nm s, nd wht th pow  nd ntu of h
is.
XXII. But t p s nt w n d only xplin tht th s things whih I ll honou
bl , (b sid s th ft of ou living ous lv s on th i ount,)  lso by th
i own ntu d s ving of b ing sought fo th i own sk . Child n show this,
in whom ntu is p  iv d s in  mio. Wht g n ss is th  in th m wh
n ont nding tog th ! how vigoous  th i ont sts! how lt d  thos who
win! how shm d thos who  b t n! how unwilling  th y to b blm d! how
g  to b pis d! wht lbous will th y not ndu to supss th i f llows
! wht   oll tion hv th y of thos who  kind to th m! how nxious  t
h y to pov th i gtitud ! nd th s quliti s  most visibl in th b st d
ispositions; in whih ll th s honoubl quliti s whih w pp it  fil
l d up s it w  by ntu . But in hild n th y  only sk th d.
Agin, in mo mtu g , who is so unlik  mn s not to b mov d to  dislik
of bs n ss nd ppovl of wht is honoubl ? Who is th  who do s not lot
h  libidinous nd li ntious youth? who, on th onty, do s not lov mod st
y nd onstny in tht g , v n though his own int  st is not t ll on n
d? Who do s not d t st Pullus Numitoius, of F g ll, th tito, lthough h w
s of us to ou own  publi? who do s not pis Codus, th sviou of his it
y, nd th dught s of E th us? Who do s not d t st th nm of Tubulus? nd
lov th d d Aistid s? Do w fog t how muh w  ff t d t h ing o  
ding wh n w  bought to th knowl dg of nything whih hs b n don in  p
ious, o fi ndly, o mgnnimous spiit? Why should I sp k of m n lik ous lv
s, who hv b n bon nd bought up nd tin d to pis nd gloy? Wht shou
ts of th ommon p opl nd of th unl tt  d owd 
xit d in th th t s

wh n this s nt n

is utt  d

I m O st s:
nd wh n, on th oth  hnd, th oth  to sys
No; it is I, 'tis I who m O st s.
But wh n on of th m is llow d to d pt by th p pl x d nd b wild  d king,
nd th y d mnd to di tog th , is this [pg 270] s n v  t d without b ing
ompni d by th most viol nt xp ssions of dmition? Th  is no on , th
n, who do s not ppov of nd pis this disposition of mind; by whih not onl
y no dvntg is sought, but good fith is p s v d v n t th xp ns of on
's dvntg . And not only  imginy fbl s, but tu histoi s lso, nd s
p illy thos of ou ounty, full of suh instn s: fo w s l t d ou most
vituous itiz n to   iv th Idn s d v ss ls; w hv s nt gudins to ki
ngs; ou g n ls hv d vot d th i liv s fo th sf ty of th  publi; ou 
onsuls hv wn d  king who ws ou g t st n my, wh n h ws tully ppo
hing ou wlls, to b w of poison. In ou  publi,  womn hs b n found t
o xpit , by  volunty d th,  violtion whih ws inflit d on h  by fo
; nd  mn to kill his dught  to sv h  fom b ing vish d. All whih inst
n s, nd  ountl ss host of oth s, pov to th omp h nsion of v y on t
ht thos who p fom d thos d ds w  indu d to do so by th billiny of v
itu , fog tful of th i own dvntg , nd tht w , wh n w pis thos tio
ns,  influ n d by nothing but th i honoubl ht .
XXIII. And hving bi fly xplin d th s mtt s, (fo I hv not sought to dd
u th numb  of xmpl s whih I might hv don , b us th  ws no doubt o
n th subj t,) it is shown suffii ntly by th s fts tht ll th vitu s, n
d tht honoubl n ss whih is s fom th s vitu s, nd lings to th m,  w
othy to b sought fo th i own sk . But in th whol of this honoubl n ss o
f whih w  sp king, th  is nothing so min nt, no so xt nsiv in its op
tion, s th union of mn with mn, nd   tin ptn ship in nd ommuni
tion of dvntg s, nd th ff tion its lf of th humn  ; whih oiginti
ng in tht fist f ling oding to whih th offsping is lov d by th p nt
, nd th whol hous unit d by th bonds of w dlok nd d s nt,  ps gdul
ly out of doos, fist of ll to on 's  ltions, th n to on 's onn xions, th n
to on 's fi nds nd n ighbous, th n to on 's f llow-ountym n, nd to th pu
bli fi nds nd lli s of on 's ounty; th n it mb s th whol humn  :
nd this disposition of mind, giving v y on his du , nd pot ting with lib
lity nd quity this union of humn soi ty whih I hv spok n of, is ll d
[pg 271] justi , kin to whih  pi ty, kindn ss, lib lity, b n vol n , 
out sy, nd ll oth  quliti s of th sm kind. But th s , though p ulily
b longing to justi ,  lso ommon to th oth  vitu s.
Fo s th ntu of mn hs b n  t d suh tht it hs  sot of innt pin
ipl of soi ty nd itiz nship, whih th G ks ll , eve e v e de
 e  e      e f mm  , d  m ffe 
 d  ey   I ve   e f; d j e,  e fd eef  
 e  e e v e,    e e em, f j e  e m 
ed exe  y  
e d  e m. Hee ef, e,    

f e me e      y d 


eeme f e v e  
I ve ee  e 
f;  e   e e v e ef,     v 
y efmed. Ad   fe  
 my d  ey     yem, 
d   v e, my f y e 
  
 d e, d  e, d
. Ad     d m   f v e  eveee d v ded y
  e  me   e f e  . F 
 ey e  j ed d 
eed   e  e   e e, d  e e  e e ed
fm e e, ye e   e   ee f dy; , f e, f
 de  d eed   d d
e; em ee,  e d e
d f e
e; dee,  e  e f
d d ev ; j e, 
v 
evey e 
 de. S e, e, ee   evey v e  e  e     eye

d,   ee, d    x   d eme e, e 
 ,  f ed, d e, d e , d ex , d fe-
yme, d   eveydy,  e e   e  ey f  m d  e
e, e  e 
 fe f e    e. B  , f  ee  

d e e ee   
f   d    e ed e  ef

d. Ad fm    f,  ee e fd  e  d f
d 
 e  e 
 f e    e. Oe d   ex   e  
 
    ef
d  
  efe : d ey e   e f e e
 e m d  dy. B ee  
   e exe,    y,   
e  e e m d  dy,   f ed, e,  de, e ,  
e' y, e deed de  me f e  [
272]   e,    e 
 f e me   e e d. N, deed, d y e eve  ve 
 e  ef
d, f  e  
   e exe, 
 de e, e
e  ed  e  ef
d.
XXIV. H e, y   y,   e e  evey 
 efeed  e
 ef
d, f f ed , d e  , d  e exe  
 e 
  ed  e  ef
d? Wy,      e,ee e e e 
 
   e exe   e d e    e fm e  e e ve 
d f v e. F e  v  f e e
d f  f ed   e,  
 e d 
e f  dy,  dv
e  e  f f  e 
,
m   d 
e  dy  
d  ; d
d     
fm
v e; d  e me ed  em,  
e   d f
 de.
B me  e  efe, 
 eded   dm e e d d    
, e fe ex ed y
y,    e fm d  ee f ee
. B f ey ee  e 
y  ed   e e f  
ee    y m ee d efe,  e  
   e m d
m e f   
, d e m  ey,    jy d ey e f
ed, e ey e 
ey de
ed    e d e de! F  
 
ve   ee, d fmed   e f
  f de e  
e ejyme f e  
   e  m e
ey  ed f,  e m
e
 e f f  jy  e ede Af  fe e d eed H ,
 e y
e e fe e d deyed C
e? W m  ee   
 m eed   e y     e e e f ed  e T e  
dy f fe v y  L  P, e e  ed 
  m  
Pee 
    e,   veyed d  e me  ve?
Cme , my f ed L ,  d   y m d e fy exeee f v e
, d y    d  e me  e eed f , d   ve  
 m
 m d  
   , e y  y; me  e e  
e mveme f fe,  e 
e f ff  d  me, m e

 f  d ee f eve ey me   e   v e. F 
e  
   e  deed y  
d f e dy, d deed [
273] m
e    y  fe,       ev 
  e f   fe  e 
y   em. F  
 d  dee e e dd   f
d,
    e   f e  e  ee,  e e e e  
e,  ey e   e   y f v e. Ad     d   
 e fee f e dv
e f e dy ve   e e
  m

 fe  y,   e e d    
 e   y  
ey ve  e
  : f e  
e   e  me  f
e e 
 e f e   ey emeve ve eded f.
We m, eefe,  ee  
 me fee: v ded y  e d
ed  m e 
   em. I , eve, e  f    
e,  ee    m f    e   f   e, e e e
y  d e
d e  
   e vey f me ed  dm   e
 de   e; d  e me  me  ee  e e f v e,
d e  y, f I my y , f ee,  
e   
e e  
  e  e, I    y  
,    v    e 

e ee   


. T   e 

e    m ,  e e
d, de  de e evey 
exe  v e, d ,  e me  me, 
 v e   e  e    deeve. T ,  ,   f d e
fe ex   f e  ef
d; d  e e ve em ed  de d
ffee   fm e m  dy f , e d v d m
em   e
d   e  ve e ed    ey  e v   e.
XXV. Te ed
e f  
  ee fe exed   def me y A
e d Te  f    e. Ad He , e 
ed y   

e f, m  ed  ed
e  e  ef
d, d  ee  
e  
eve  deeved  e 
 f    e. My  
 
ve ee  d y e  e  e je f de  
d em 
 m
 ff . T   e e   e f A ; e deed  ee  

  
  e v ded  de ed exe  v e d v e. Ad  
 ed feedm fm   m
e  
   e  de   
e. H eym   d     e  ef
d:  C , [
274] d
D d fe  m, e f m  deved  ee, d e e  feed
m fm  , d e e f em  ee  e ef ,   
 ee e e y  ed y  yme. Meve, eve e dve f 
ee ee f ef
e, d e  
f v e e dy 
ee; d
y  ee   f  y  ed f;  fed , 
 
m, eme  ed e, y   me e ex ed  d my  
   
  ee 
ee.
Te S  em   e me ed. Tey, deed, ve ed  e de  
e fm ,  ve    ed  e yem f   y. Ad  
e  eve e e m   e  
   ey ve e,  ey,  d
e  e e  e      e  , ve 
ed e me   e
 e e  ve m    
. Ad     e em  y f 
e me  dy e  e , y f e eed, y f em e me
, y f  e, y f 
.
Ad e e d  d  , d e  ed   e e f   e; W 
e me?  d e; d I  eem  ve  d e
  y eee f my 
 defee? I e  ed,Ideed, O P ,   fe ee e e efe, y ve
eemed -dy  ve  
   e    ee  
, ,
f e d y ve e dv
e f y m y, I d     
e d m e  ve ee  e Gee . W , deed, I ve ee e
me eed  , ee I ee  Se, e Ne  , y ee
,  vey   Pe e ,    me med  d  ee
  d ffeey, 
ee 
  e me   ed 
e de f e

  e y d dve y, d  e
d  ev    e f e dy. I
  y y, e e  ed:  ee   e 
ed   m me y 
d m e vee y my f ed A   ey ed  e y Se. A

 I d    I ve ved  y  f ,   I ve ved
 e  f  f   f ed f m e, e y
C e,    m I  
  ede fm y.
XXVI. Te L   d,Ideed, I  e 
ee    y ve  d, d I  
my e de . Te  d P   me: I  ? D y d e y? 
 d [
275] y e  e d e ee  
  , e e 
e 
y, e     
 ? I
ve  m eve,  d I. B d
  y ee  I m ed  ex e my  v  d  v f 
  ee  d y y? F   v d  v 
f   e   m 
e e? C y, e  d,  ve f y 
f   e    

 ee  , m ee , d ed


e? Tee ,  d I, 
e d  e 
eee , P ; f ee   e e y   e  me   

 e ee ved exe   e fy f ee v 


 def ed    m
e y e S   ey ff m   
 e ee ved exe    
 e     y e fe. Teefe ee   d  e eee 

d e S ,  e eee  d e Pe e . Heve, e my 
ve  , f  d  e e d   
d ff  ey  e d  e.
I eemed  me     y  e  f y    e me e
e y  y. I      eee e ed y;  e   
ved, I fe  e e    Te  mde   e e  fe,
d  , d d y e e e,     e d d   de   
y  fe d  y e j ed, m e e. F   exeed 
y  e
  e me e d e  y, d ff ed   my m fe; 
d  ee  
  e e ed, I d    ded. W  e 
 e,  d e,    y je ? D y dey  e e f v e
 
e  e  y eef e ff  e f  e? , f y dm
 , d y    m  e  e e  e eed f v 
e my e  y, eve f ey e ff ed   me ev ? I, deed, I e  ed
,     e  m e   e  v e; eve, e my d 
 e  me 
e e e ;  ee e y e  , ee
 e   m e   , f y 
exe  v e  e ed m

e
d. B,  d e, f y
  e S   v e e, f  
e ee, m e  fe  y, y
    e Pe e ; f e 

   ey d  vee   ev ,    ey dm   e  e
 d ve e, d  e ejeed, d d   e [
276] e 
ev ,  
, d, deed, exeed 
y  f 
e. Weefe, f  m
  e  y   m
d 
eee  
   
  e ejeed, e 
 my e    m

 ev . Ad I y, O P , f ee  y e
  e  ed  ve  e 
   e e e  , y
 e e m: eefe I e
f y   e  e; f,  e,  
e
  my f, y d  ee ve     I m ee 
. I m ed 

,  d e; d I m   
 ee  e y   m e  e e  
 I  .
XXVII. I   e,  d I,  I m    
 ee  v e 
effe,     d  ey  e je, d y e e  
e  v e   e e. H ?  d e. Bee,  d I, e   m
 e   eed y Ze,  f e ee  e,V e e e  

eyd eef  ee  m   ve  yy?  d eBee ee   e

d exe    e. I d    ee   e; I y y
  e y  dm y  e. E    y e me  
 
e  e m  y  y;  , deed, e   e   f   
 
me me. Ad e y     e m, e e  e 
  ee   
e m ex  e  ,   y, H e  !  I d e
d ! I   
 
e   e m   y ee   m e  e; I   y 

e  e de  ded  e 


  y, fe e   d   
 e
ee ev .
N I   dde e me 

e  y. Y y   e
d d ev 
 e e me  e me e em  e  ve eve eve ee  
 e   e,  e y 
mey, e, e
, e, ey
, e de f   m'  , y 
ddefm y, d ee, e e y
  ev . Tee e  exe; d 
  y me;    eve
y   e  ee  
 m
e
d,  e
d f e dy   e
  m e em, mey, f ed,  de, e ,  e, , e.
T e  e  I y  

   . If e e ev      
e m  f, e  f   e   e m   ff  e  e
e   y  fe. Ideed,  d e,   vey [
277]  e d e 

efey  y e,  e
 f e 
 ey  y e.
I ve  ed,  d e,  y mde   d      e  e 
, d
I    f ed A  ed   e    me. B   e 
e  ved f  e de f  e e 
 y, d ye   y e
?
F e y 
 e
, e eve  dded    exe: d  

e    y: d  e   e    y m. Teefe,  d e, 


 Q  Mee,   ee f    , e f m   
e d eeed   m , d  f ; d  ef em   fe
y e d  m, d     ee d
e m ed, v 
ee  mef 
, e d 
, d v 
eeed   m ;  e , I y,  y
   , (  
 m  ve ee   e m,)  e  Re
,  e

 e e f e eemy,    de y ee ee d 
e, 

 e my ve ee ey  e?
XXVIII. Wy d y  me ?  d I;  e S . W e, e,  d
e, d y  e ey   m e? Tey   y  Mee    e e
me  y  Re
. Le , e,  d e, e  ey ve
  y.
B,  d I, e e de 
fm  je; f I m   
  
e,   e e 
  y. I  , deed,  ey d y  
e m   e  e: y d ee e   I d m e f em. F
,  e  ef
d    v e e, d  ee; d  e
e v e,  ey y,  ee   e f
, d   
e 
d   m e  m  ejy  ee y  y,      
e  e  ed  e eed,     e  e e
 e  e  e? D y  ee   ee  
 
ee 
ee
? Ad,  , (f I m v  I fee,) e m de edee f  e
e  
  e e  mve: e   e d  e f ,
e m dde  e exem y, d e exem y  e e. Tey ee  
f fm,    e   em. I
emey, f y
 e em
e e   f. G  ee   

d exe    
e, d y m
   e  ed  v e e. Ty  e
e [
278] y. If y
    , y m
 e em e; 
     e e   e 
me f y . Tee e ee d
f
d. Te e 
  
y : e me  e  : e  
 f: e    d ff y; f e  e  y,   
 e  

   e m  m ee    e vey e e me, e y 
f Se,  eve f P. We, I d vee  e , y e. I 
m  e, e y emde y em e: f vey   ev ,  e

 
 e  y e e eve   e. B Ze veed     m  y 
y,    .
T e      ev ; e m   feed     e  y. C
de e 
d;  dee   ev . Oe' y  
d; ex e  
 ev . He  
d; d ee   ev . V
 f dy  
d; feeee
   ev . Ce 
  
d;  de   ev . B, 
  m m
y e e  ev e y  
e e f ee ev  y  ,    e
e e  ede em ? F,  e e e ee  d, feee, ff 
ed  
 ev   e,  ed,  de,  d
ee, d   e 
e;    y   m, Ze? H y, y e. W  y   m m efe
y  y? T e e I  , y e, e I ve 
  m   e d
e  dm  f de
ee y me  v e, e mee e  f   m e
 m  y. T  eem  y ed e  e    m efey  y. W
  y  d e?   ed e? F f y  e  e e e, y
  eve v e em   m    d     y. If y  e
 de me, e  ey   d   e  , mey, ee ee
  m fe  v e  me eded     e  y, eve  P
 ' ;  ey    d    e S  

e   e
  ef d  y  .
D y e, y e,  ve f e  f Te     y  fe? We 
e de 
fm  je; d  I my  e  ed  f,  d I, P ,
e  
 e ev , I y  ve f . D  ey e,  d e, eem
 y  e ev ? D y  ?  d I; eve e I
ve y, y  
 f d yef  emme. H ?  d e. Bee, f ey e ev , 
m [
279]   ffeed   em  e  y. If ey e  ev ,

ee   ed  e e yem f e Pe e . Ad e 
 
e  ed
, I ee  y e ; y e f d I  y ff y  . Y my 
y  m ff,  d I, f e  e  f y; f e     e   me f
e    y.
XXIX. L e e,  d e, O L ; f,  Te  y, I m d e m
y d e  y,e e  y f   y    m 
 fe 
y; f e e  fmed    de e f  v 
 y. T ,  y 
e d I 
ee  . Weefe e m ee ee e yem f e   e
 
ve   . I m e  d  e y: f, e  mde  
m e, y d d P ve ve E
y ,  e me d ed
e f e e
vey mye e fm    e? Wy fed d d e
  Tem 
Ay; d  e e Py
e f L , Eee, T m, d A ;
 de, fe e d d ed Se  e de
,  dd e d e f 
e Py
e   , d  e  dd   e  
   Se eje
ed? Wy d d Py
  mef ve ve E
y , d v   e Pe  M
;
y d d e
  f ve  my  e f e  , d m e  my
vy
e? Wy d d Dem  d e me? , (ee   e  fe, e
      e,)   d  ve      eye; e y,  
de    m d m
 e ed fm em     e   e;
e e
eed    my, d ef   d  ved, d  e j
e d e ve d exe    y  fe? Ad f e ed   e ed

e f  
,   fm  ve
  f    y e 
  
 e e m y; f e ed e mmm m , nd v y oft n , tht is to
fom lm. But, lthough this ws w ll sid, it ws not v y l gntly xp s
s d; fo h sid v y littl bout vitu , nd v n wht h did sy, h did not
xp ss v y l ly. Fo it ws not till ft  his d th tht th s subj ts w
 disuss d in this ity, fist by Sot s, nd fom Sot s th y got ntn
into th Ad my. No ws th  ny doubt tht ll hop of living w ll nd ls
o hppily ws pl d in vitu : nd wh n Z no hd l nt this fom ou shool, h
b gn to xp ss hims lf on th sm [pg 280] subj t in noth  mnn , s l
wy s do on tils. And now you ppov of this ondut in him. Will you th n s
y tht h by hnging th nm s of things sp d th hg of inonsist ny, 
nd y t not llow us to do so too?
H ss ts tht th lif of M t llus ws not hppi  thn tht of R gulus, but 
dmits tht it ws p f bl to it; h sys it ws not mo to b sought ft ,
but still to b tk n in p f  n ; nd tht if on hd  hoi , on would ho
os th lif of M t llus, nd  j t tht of R gulus. Wht th n h lls p f 
bl , nd wothy to b hos n in p f  n , I ll hppi ; nd y t I do not tt
ibut mo impotn to tht sot of lif thn th Stois do. Fo wht diff 
n is th  b tw n us, x pt tht I ll w ll-known things by w ll-known nm
s, nd tht th y s k fo n w t ms to xp ss th sm id s? And so, s th 
is lwys som on in th s nt who wnts n int p t , w , too, must list n
to th m with n int p t . I ll tht good whih is in odn with ntu
; nd wht v  is onty to ntu I ll vil. No do I lon us th d finit
ion; you do lso, O Chysippus, in th foum nd t hom ; but in th shool you
disd it. Wht th n? Do you think tht m n in g n l ought to sp k in on w
y, nd philosoph s in noth , s to th impotn of whih v ything is? th
t l n d m n should hold on lngug , nd unl n d on s noth ? But s l n
d m n  g d of how muh impotn
v ything is, (if th y w  m n, th y
would sp k in th usul fshion,) why, s long s th y l v th fts lon , t
h y  w lom to mould th nm s oding to th i fny.
XXX. But I om now to th hg of inonsist ny, tht you my not  p t tht
I m mking dig ssions; whih you think xist only in lngug , but whih I us
d to onsid  d p nd d on th subj t of whih on ws sp king. If it is suffi
i ntly p  iv d (nd h  w hv most x ll nt ssistn fom th Stois),
tht th pow  of vitu is so g t, tht if v ything ls w  put on th op
posit sid , it would not b v n visibl , wh n ll things whih th y dmit t l

st to b dvntg s, nd to d s v to b tk n, nd hos n, nd p f  d, n


d whih th y d fin s wothy of b ing highly stimt d; wh n, I sy, I ll th
s things goods whih hv so mny nm s giv n th m by th Stois, [pg 281] som
of whih  n w, nd inv nt d xp ssly fo th m, suh s podut nd  dut
, nd som of whih  m  ly synonymous; (fo wht diff  n n it mk wh t
h  you wish fo  thing o hoos it? tht whih is hos n, nd on whih d lib
t hoi is x is d, pp s to m to b th b tt ) still, wh n I hv l
l d ll th s things goods, th qu stion is m  ly how g t goods I ll th m;
wh n I sy th y d s v d to b wish d fo, th qu stion is,how g ly?
But, if I do not ttibut mo impotn to th m wh n I sy tht th y d s v
to b wish d fo, thn you do who sy th y only d s v to b hos n, nd if I d
o not vlu th m mo highly wh n I ll th m bon, thn you, wh n you sp k of
th m s podut; th n ll th s things must in vitbly b involv d in obsuity
, nd put out of sight, nd lost mid th ys of vitu lik sts in th sunb
ms. But tht lif in whih th  is ny vil nnot b hppy. Th n  on-fi ld
full of thik nd h vy s of on is not  on-fi ld if you s
ny t s 
nywh  ; no is tffi ginful if, mid th g t st gins, you inu th most
tifling loss. Do w v  t on diff  nt pinipl s in ny iumstn s of li
f ; nd will you not judg of th whol fom its g t st pt? o is th  ny
doubt tht vitu is so muh th most impotnt thing in ll humn ffis, tht
it thows ll th  st into th shd ?
I will v ntu , th n, to ll th  st of th things whih  in odn wit
h ntu , goods, nd not to h t th m of th i ni nt titl , th  thn go n
d hunt fo som n w nm fo th m; nd th dignity of vitu I will put, s it w
 , in th oth  sl of th bln . B li v m , tht sl will outw igh bot
h th nd s ; fo th whol lwys hs its nm fom tht whih mb s its
lg st pt, nd is th most wid ly diffus d. W sy tht on mn liv s m ily
. Is th  , th n, n nd of this m y lif of his if h is fo  mom nt  littl
poo?

But, in th s of tht Mus Cssus, who, Luilius sys, lugh d on in his
lif , th ft of his hving don so did not d liv  him fom b ing ll d . Tey c
olycrates o Samos a y. Noting ad ever a ened to im wic e did not like
, ece t tat e ad trown into te sea a ring wic e valued greatly; tereo
re e was una y as to tat one annoyance; but subseuently e was [ g 282] a
y again wen tat same ring was ound in te belly o a is. But e, i e was
unwise (wic e certainly was, since e was a tyrant), was never a y; i e
was wise e was not miserable, even at te time wen e was cruciied by Ortes, t
e lieutenant o Darius. But e ad great evils inlicted on im. Wo denies ta
t?but tose evils were overcome by te greatness o is virtue.
XXXI. Do you not grant even tis to te Peri atetics, tat tey may say tat te
lie o all good, tat is, o all wise men, and o men adorned wit every virtu
e, as in all its arts more good tan evil? Wo says tis? Te Stoics may say s
o. By no means. But do not tose very men wo measure everyting by leasure and
ain, say loudly tat te wise man as always more tings wic e likes tan d
islikes? Wen, ten, tese men attribute so muc to virtue, wo coness tat te
y would not even lit a inger or te sake o virtue, i it did not bring leas
ure wit it, wat ougt we to do, wo say tat ever so inconsiderable an ecelle
nce o mind is so su erior to all te goods o te body, tat tey are ut woll
y out o sigt by it? For wo is tere wo can venture to say, tat it can a e
n to a wise man (even i suc a ting were ossible) to discard virtue or ever,
wit a view o being released rom all ain? Wo o our scool, wo are not as
amed to call tose tings evils wic te Stoics call only bitter, would say ta
t it was better to do anyting disonourably wit leasure tan onourably wit
ain? To us, indeed, Dionysius o Heraclea a ears to ave deserted te Stoics i
n a sameul manner, on account o te ain o is eyes; as i e ad learnt ro
m Zeno not to be in ain wen e was in ain. He ad eard, but e ad not learn

t, tat it was not an evil, because it was not disonourable, and because it mig
t be borne by a man. I e ad been a Peri atetic e would, I su ose, ave ad
ered to is o inion, since tey say tat ain is an evil. And wit res ect to be
aring its bitterness, tey give te same rece ts as te Stoics; and, indeed, yo
ur riend Arcesilas, altoug e was a rater ertinacious arguer, was still on
our side; or e was a u il o Polemo; and wen e was suering under te ain
o te gout, and Carneades, a most intimate riend o E icurus, ad come to see
im, and was going away very melancoly, said, Stay awile, I entreat you, rien
d [ g 283] Carneades; or te ain does not reac ere, sowing is eet and is
breast. Still e would ave reerred being out o ain.
XXXII. Tis, ten, is our doctrine, wic a ears to you to be inconsistent, sin
ce, by reason o a certain eavenly, divine, and ine ressible ecellence o vir
tue, so great, tat werever virtue and great, desirable, and raiseworty e lo
its done by virtue are, tere misery and grie cannot be, but neverteless labou
r and annoyance can be, I do not esitate to airm tat all wise men are always
a y, but still, tat it is ossible tat one man may be more a y tan anot
er.
But tis is eactly te assertion, Piso, said I, wic you are bound to rove ov
er and over again; and i you establis it, ten you may take wit you not only
my young Cicero ere, but me too. Ten, said Quintus, it a ears to me tat tis
as been suiciently roved. I am glad, indeed, tat iloso y, te treasures
o wic I ave been used to value above te ossession o everyting else (so
ric did it a ear to me, tat I could ask o it watever I desired to know in o
ur studies),I rejoice, tereore, tat it as been ound more acute tan all ote
r arts, or it was in acuteness tat some eo le asserted tat it was deicient.
Not a mite more so tan ours, surely, said Pom onius, jestingly. But, seriously
, I ave been very muc leased wit wat you ave said; or wat I did not tin
k could be e ressed in Latin as been e ressed by you, and tat no less clearl
y tan by te Greeks, and in not less well ada ted language. But it is time to d
e art, i you lease; and let us go to my ouse.
And wen e ad said tis, as it a eared tat we ad discussed te subject su
iciently, we all went into te town to te ouse o Pom onius.