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Author: ARVIND
Processing date: Mon, 15.12.2014 16:18:20 CET
A total of 331 fragments were analysed. As a result 68 fragments (20.5%) were found
in other documents. In the document preview below the fragments are marked light blue
and clickable.

Cross reference documents


Following list of found documents is grouped by document titles and ordered by found
fragements. With a mouseclick on "x fragments" the relevant fragments in the document
are colored blue and the window scrolls to the first location. Click on "x fragments" again
resets the special marks.
20 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Banking in India", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
9 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Bank /Bank", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
8 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Commercial bank", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank
3 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Corporate bond", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_bond
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Secured loan", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secured_loan
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Economic development in India",
located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_development_in_India
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Scheduled banks", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scheduled_banks
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Empirical Study of post-takeover
performance in banking industry: comparison between U.S. and European bank
acquisitions.", located on:
http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:141860/FULLTEXT01
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Regional Rural Bank", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_Rural_Bank

2 fragments were found in a text with the title: ""'I SPEAK OF FIERCELY CONTESTED
THINGS:'" WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, DEMOCRACY, AND THE AESTHETICS
OF A "USABLE PAST"", located on:
http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/2013/1/umi-umd-1968.pdf
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Rayleigh Distribution Definition",
located on:
http://www.cetesb.sp.gov.br/rede/documentos/Work_the_Net_ingles.pdf
http://www.au-kbc.org/comm/Docs/thesis/ms/Thesis_Report_Vijayalashmi.doc
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Finance in India", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finance_in_India
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Monetary policy in Asia: approaches
and implementation", located on:
http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap31.pdf
http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap31g.pdf
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Category:Banks /Category:Banks",
located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Banks
2 fragments were found in a text with the title: "Recent Developments.", located on:
http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/speeches/pdfs/81026.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "BANKING REFORM IN RUSSIA: A
WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY?", located on:
http://wdi.umich.edu/files/publications/workingpapers/wp601.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Primer on reserve requirements", located
on:
http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/review/1974/econrev_74-1_18-31.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Financial reforms in China and India: A
comparative analysis", located on:
http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/userfiles/iib/File/IIB09.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The Origins of Bank-Based and MarketBased Financial Systems. Germany, Japan, and the United States", located on:
http://skylla.wzb.eu/pdf/2001/i01-302.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The origins and evolution of Japanese
direct investment in East Asia", located on:
http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/16572/JP-WP-96-02-34335570.pdf?
sequence=1
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The future of responsible lending in
India:perceptions of the environment and sustainability", located on:
https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/7991/1/Sophie Hadfield-Hill PhD_Final[1].pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
pertumbuhan proporsi aset perbankan syariah di indonesia", located on:
http://eprints.lib.ui.ac.id/3993/3/124876-T 297.633 2008 (9)-faktor-faktor-abstrak.pdf

1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Managing multiple dimensions of


performance: a field study of balanced scorecard translation in the Thai
financial services organisation", located on:
http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/2434/1/WRAP_THESIS_Wongkaew_2007.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Product development in the wood
industry", located on:
http://diss-epsilon.slu.se:8080/archive/00001921/01/Kappan_Matti_Stendahl.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "An Algebraic Framework For Classifier
Development And Its Application in Face Recognition", located on:
http://crypto.au-kbc.org/patterns/thesis/sujith-thesis.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Search algorithms for FCSR architectures
and properties of the FCSR combiner generator", located on:
http://crypto.au-kbc.org/patterns/thesis/anand-thesis.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Bankers' bank", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bankers'_bank
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Banking license", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_license
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Glimpses of Indian Economy and its
Financial Sector", located on:
http://www.eSocialSciences.com/data/articles/Document1572007160.6433069.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Competitiveness and price setting in
dealer markets", located on:
http://www.frbatlanta.org/frbatlanta/filelegacydocs/Ackert.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "CONTENTS /ar eng 2004-05.pdf", located
on:
http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_eco_affairs/budget/annual_report/ar eng 200405.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Table of Contents", located on:
http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_eco_affairs/budget/annual_report/ar eng 200405.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Non-banking financial company", located
on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-banking_financial_company
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Performance Effectiveness of
Nationalised Banks", located on:
http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/bitstream/handle/purl/1624/Performance
%20effectiveness%20of%20Nationalised%20banks%20a%20case%20study%20of
%20syndicate%20bank-Chap-1.PDF?sequence=1
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Monetary Policy Strategies in the Asia
and Pacific Region: What Way Forward?", located on:
http://www.eaber.org/intranet/documents/23/2163/ADBI_Filardo_2010.pdf

1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Managing in the twenty-first century : the
need for global orientation", located on:
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35919/1/b1411962.0001.001.txt
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Financial reform in developing countries",
located on:
http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/14687/1/108341.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The Eurobond market--its use and
misuse", located on:
http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/1988/el88-24.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Taxation in Colombia", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxation_in_Colombia
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The Rise of the Current Banking System
in Japan, 1868-1936", located on:
http://www.econ.tsukuba.ac.jp/RePEc/2009-011.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The Eurodollar revolution in financial
technology. Deregulation, innovation and structural change in Western banking
in the 1960s-70s", located on:
http://e-archivo.uc3m.es/bitstream/10016/5804/5/wp_09-10.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Real-Time Advanced Warning and Traffic
Control Systems for Work Zones: Examination of Requirements and Issues",
located on:
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd2719151159731611/unrestricted/F_SYSEVL.PDF
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "A knowledge management
implementation framework for the Libyan banking sector", located on:
http://usir.salford.ac.uk/2258/1/492387.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Anonymous Pricing in Public Goods
Economies", located on:
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/academic/wooders/public3/anonpric
ing.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Doing Business in Brazil", located on:
http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=lawfirms
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Retail banking", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retail_banking
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "What lessons from the 1930s?", located
on:
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16726/1/MPRA_paper_16726.pdf
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16726/1/Lessons_from_the_1930_0809.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "The effects of a monetary policy shock:
Evidence from India", located on:
http://www.accessecon.com/Pubs/EB/2009/Volume29/EB-09-V29-I3-P1.pdf

1 fragment found in a text with the title: "RBI Annual Report for 2006-07", located
on:
http://www.eSocialSciences.com/data/articles/RBI_Annual51020073.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Life Insurance Corporation of India",
located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_Insurance_Corporation_of_India
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "National Mineral Development
Corporation", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Mineral_Development_Corporation
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Life cycle assessment of a SAW filter",
located on:
http://eprints.usq.edu.au/2527/1/MOHAN_Deepu-2006.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Reserve Bank of India", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserve_Bank_of_India
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Factors affecting the concentration of
financial services in the non metropolitan United States, 2000-2003", located on:
http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/870/1/RyanButton2008.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "GenNext Banking: Issues and
Perspectives", located on:
http://www.eSocialSciences.com/data/articles/Document130112009100.7817957.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Services Trade in Developing Asia: A Case
Study of the Banking and Insurance Sector in Bangladesh", located on:
http://www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/pub/wp3807.pdf
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "Cooperative banking", located on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_banking
1 fragment found in a text with the title: "CONTENTS MODULE I GLOBALIZATION,
DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE", located on:
http://www.unescap.org/tid/publication/tipub2184.pdf

Subsequent the examined text extract:


3 matches:

Life cycle assessment of a SAW filter quality and the accuracy of the LCI meet the requirements
specified in goal and scope definition stage. As stated earlier, there are two types of data collection
methods that are recommended in Deepu Mohan
Quelle: USQ ePrints, http://eprints.usq.edu.au/2527/1/MOHAN_Deepu-2006.pdf

Real-Time Advanced Warning and Traffic Control Systems for Work Zones: Examination of
Requirements and Issues speed reduction due to system implementation. The issues involved in
the measurement of speeds within work zones include the following: Type of Data Collection
Method: There are two types of data Jose Thommana
Quelle: VT Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Archive, http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd2719151159731611/unrestricted/F_SYSEVL.PDF

A knowledge management implementation framework for the Libyan banking sector .3.3.1 Data
Collection Techniques There are two types of data collection methods commonly used; these are
qualitative and quantitative methods, and are the subject of many authors' particularly in terms of
the AB Kridan
Quelle: University of Salford Institutional Repository, http://usir.salford.ac.uk/2258/1/492387.pdf
1 match:

Anonymous Pricing in Public Goods Economies , denoted SL; SH;NL; and NH, appear in equal
proportion in the population. The utility functions are the following: UH(fS; Sg) = 0; UL(fS; Sg) =
10; UH(fS;Ng) = 5; UL(fS;Ng) = 5; UH(fN;Ng) = 10; UL(fN;Ng) = 0 Conley John P., Wooders
Myrna
Quelle: RePEc, http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/staff/academic/wooders/public3/anonpricing.pdf
5 matches:

Doing Business in Brazil ) collecting drafts and other credit instruments. Commercial banks may
also obtain authorization to deal in foreign exchange transactions, provided that they observe
certain legal requirements. Investment Banks Baker & McKenzie
Quelle: DigitalCommons@ILR, http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=lawfirms

The Eurodollar revolution in financial technology. Deregulation, innovation and structural change in
Western banking in the 1960s-70s calculations, thus enhancing their ability to deal in foreign
exchange transactions. Currency risk remained modest, and so was liquidity risk, due to the
prevalence of interbank business and short-time self Stefano Battilossi
Quelle: RePEc, http://e-archivo.uc3m.es/bitstream/10016/5804/5/wp_09-10.pdf

The Rise of the Current Banking System in Japan, 1868-1936 monopoly on foreign exchange
transactions. During the war, a few large city banks started to deal in foreign exchange
transactions and bond issues. Brokers in call loan markets and bills of exchange prospered
Hassouna Moussa, Jiro Obata
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.econ.tsukuba.ac.jp/RePEc/2009-011.pdf

Managing in the twenty-first century : the need for global orientation example, in the Bank of
Tokyo, the only Japanese bank authorized to deal in foreign exchange transactions until the
liberalization of the Japanese financial market, a full one-third of their career staff are Edwin
Leroy Miller
Quelle: Deep Blue at the University of Michigan,
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/35919/1/b1411962.0001.001.txt

Financial reform in developing countries . However, commercial banks in these two countries
require a special permit to deal in foreign exchange transactions, which are issued only to wellmanaged banks of strong financial standing. In addition, both IDRC
Quelle: IDL-BNC @ IDRC, http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/14687/1/108341.pdf
1 match:

Corporate bond CategoryId=&PMDbProgramId=12881&level=4 | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-13063085-3}}The term is usually applied to longer-term debt instruments, generally with a maturity
date falling at least a year after their issue date
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_bond
1 match:

Corporate bond 7628689 5340642 Corporate bond {{nofootnotes|date=July 2008}} {{Financial


markets}} A corporate bond is a bond issued by a corporation. It is a bond that a corporation
issues to raise money in order to expand its business
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_bond
2 matches:

Corporate bond 7628689 5340642 Corporate bond {{nofootnotes|date=July 2008}} {{Financial


markets}} A corporate bond is a bond issued by a corporation. It is a bond that a corporation
issues to raise money in order to expand its business
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_bond

The Eurobond market--its use and misuse ? A Eurobond is a bond issued by a corporation or
public agency outside the national jurisdiction of any country, and generally not registered in or
subject to regulation by any government Steven Plaut
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/1988/el88-24.pdf
1 match:

Commercial bank . As their name implies, such financial institutions secured their earning
primarily from commercial and consumer loans and left the major task of home financing to
others
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank
1 match:

Secured loan . If the sale of the collateral does not raise enough money to pay off the debt, the
creditor can often obtain a deficiency judgment against the borrower for the remaining amount
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secured_loan
1 match:

Secured loan 10878329 8590232 Secured loan {{multiple issues |expand=May 2010 |
unreferenced=May 2010 }} A secured loan is a loan in which the borrower pledges some asset
(e.g. a car or property) as collateral for the loan, which then becomes a secured debt owed to the
creditor who gives the loan
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secured_loan
1 match:

Commercial bank is involved in the mentioned activities. ==Types of loans granted by


commercial banks== ===Secured loan=== A secured loan is a loan in which the borrower

pledges some asset (e.g., a car or property) as

Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank


1 match:

Commercial bank * traditionally, large commercial banks also underwrite bonds, and make
markets in currency, interest rates, and credit-related securities, but today large commercial banks
usually have an investment bank arm that
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank
1 match:

Commercial bank * safekeeping of documents and other items in safe deposit boxes * sale,
distribution or brokerage, with or without advice, of insurance, unit trusts and similar financial
products as a financial supermarket *cash management and treasury services *merchant
banking and private equity financing
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank
2 matches:

Commercial bank * issuing bank drafts and bank cheques * accepting money on term deposit *
lending money by overdraft, installment loan, or other means * providing documentary and
standby letter of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and
other forms of off balance sheet exposures
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank

Taxation in Colombia drafts and bank cheques, money on term deposit, overdrafts, installment
loans, documentary and standby letters of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, securities
underwriting commitments and other
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxation_in_Colombia
2 matches:

Commercial bank * issuing bank drafts and bank cheques * accepting money on term deposit *
lending money by overdraft, installment loan, or other means * providing documentary and
standby letter of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and
other forms of off balance sheet exposures
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank

Empirical Study of post-takeover performance in banking industry: comparison between U.S. and
European bank acquisitions. other means, issuing bank drafts and bank cheques, providing
documentary and standby letters of credit, guarantees, performance bonds, currency exchange,
sale, distribution or brokerage. A bank could be Lionel Miron, Fabien Patel
Quelle: DiVA - Academic Archive On-line, http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:141860/FULLTEXT01
1 match:

Empirical Study of post-takeover performance in banking industry: comparison between U.S. and
European bank acquisitions. , commercial banks deal with such activities like issuing banknotes
(promissory notes issued by a banker and payable to bearer on demand), processing payments by
way of telegraphic transfer, internet banking or Lionel Miron, Fabien Patel
Quelle: DiVA - Academic Archive On-line, http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:141860/FULLTEXT01
1 match:

Commercial bank ://www.amazon.com/Ancient-Rome-Five-Denarii-Day/dp/050005147X | isbn =


050005147X }} ==The role of commercial banks== Commercial banks engage in the following
activities: * processing of payments by way of telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet banking, or
other means
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank
5 matches:

Commercial bank ), whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets activities. This
separation is no longer mandatory. It raises funds by collecting deposits from businesses and
consumers via checkable deposits, savings deposits, and time
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank

Retail banking . (After the great depression, the U.S. Congress required that banks only engage
in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets activities. This
separation is no longer mandatory
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retail_banking

What lessons from the 1930s? . The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 required that commercial banks
engage only in banking activities whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets
activities. Since 1999 this separation is no longer mandatory Cinzia Alcidi, Daniel Gros
Quelle: RePEc, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16726/1/MPRA_paper_16726.pdf

What lessons from the 1930s? . The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 required that commercial banks
engage only in banking activities whereas investment banks were limited to capital markets
activities. Since 1999 this separation is no longer mandatory Cinzia Alcidi, Daniel Gros
Quelle: RePEc, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16726/1/Lessons_from_the_1930_0809.pdf

Factors affecting the concentration of financial services in the non metropolitan United States,
2000-2003 banks engage only in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to
capital markets activities Ryan Button
Quelle: K-State Research Exchange, http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/870/1/RyanButton2008.pdf
1 match:

Banking in India investment services are expected to be strong. One may also expect M&As,
takeovers, and asset sales. In March 2006, the Reserve Bank of India allowed Warburg Pincus to
increase its stake in Kotak Mahindra Bank
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

GenNext Banking: Issues and Perspectives sector banks also have the need to fundamentally
strengthen skill levels. However, even more imperative is their need to examine their participation
in the Indian banking sector and their ability to remain K. C. Chakrabarty
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.eSocialSciences.com/data/articles/Document130112009100.7817957.pdf
1 match:

Rayleigh Distribution Definition most important areas of action and the programmes the network
is going to launch in the next three to five years. Assign clear responsibilities and deadlines to
each activity planned. Becoming operational
Quelle: NSDL OAI Repository, http://www.cetesb.sp.gov.br/rede/documentos/Work_the_Net_ingles.pdf
2 matches:

Monetary policy in Asia: approaches and implementation and efficiency of the Indian capital
market (Misra (1997), Endo (1998)). Second, the agreement between the RBI and the government
of India to curb monetisation was signed during this period. It was Bank for International
Settlements
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap31.pdf

Monetary policy in Asia: approaches and implementation and efficiency of the Indian capital
market (Misra (1997), Endo (1998)). Second, the agreement between the RBI and the government
of India to curb monetisation was signed during this period. It was Bank for International
Settlements
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap31g.pdf
1 match:

Services Trade in Developing Asia: A Case Study of the Banking and Insurance Sector in
Bangladesh bankswhich provide all services entirely over the Internethave entered the
market, and some formerly Internet-only banks are opting to open branches. Non-banking
financial institutions include insurance Salahuddin Ahmad, Dilli Raj Khanal
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/pub/wp3807.pdf
1 match:

Cooperative banking . In some countries they are restricted to providing only unsecured personal
loans, whereas in others, they can provide business loans to farmers, and mortgages.
===Cooperative banks=== Larger institutions are often called cooperative banks
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_banking
1 match:

Regional Rural Bank . Initially, five RRBs were set up on October 2, 1975 which were sponsored
by Syndicate Bank, State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, United Commercial Bank and
United Bank of India. The total authorised capital was fixed at Rs. 1 crore which has since been
raised to Rs. 5 Crore
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_Rural_Bank
1 match:

Regional Rural Bank . Initially, five RRBs were set up on October 2, 1975 which were sponsored
by Syndicate Bank, State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, United Commercial Bank and
United Bank of India. The total authorised capital was fixed at Rs. 1 crore which has since been
raised to Rs. 5 Crore
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regional_Rural_Bank
1 match:

Scheduled banks (2 of 1934), but does not include a co-operative bank". The following are the
Scheduled Banks in India (Public Sector): * State Bank of India * State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur
* State Bank of Hyderabad
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scheduled_banks
1 match:

Scheduled banks .finance.indiamart.com/investment RBI in turn includes only those banks in this
schedule which satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42 (6) (a) of the Act
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scheduled_banks
6 matches: (insges. etwa 9)

Reserve Bank of India monitors the monetary policy as well as it has to ensure an adequate flow
of credit to productive sectors. Objectives are maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate
flow of credit to productive sectors
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reserve_Bank_of_India

Recent Developments. ". Thus, there is no explicit mandate for price-stability or formal inflation
targeting. The twin objectives of monetary policy in India have evolved over the years as those of
maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to facilitate the growth process
Respected Professor Vyas, Distinguished Participants
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine",
http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/speeches/pdfs/81026.pdf

Monetary Policy Strategies in the Asia and Pacific Region: What Way Forward? Price stability and
adequate credit supply maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to
productive sectors. Indonesia Bank Indonesia Price stability and exchange rate stability Hans
Genberg
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.eaber.org/intranet/documents/23/2163/ADBI_Filardo_2010.pdf

The effects of a monetary policy shock: Evidence from India . Indeed, on its Web site the RBI
states that its primary roles as a monetary authority are maintaining price stability and ensuring
adequate flow of credit to productive sectors Akihiro Kubo
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.accessecon.com/Pubs/EB/2009/Volume29/EB-09-V29-I3-P1.pdf

Monetary policy in Asia: approaches and implementation stability as a whole (including price
stability) becomes the mandated task. The RBI website interprets the objective of the RBI as
monetary authority as: maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow Bank for
International Settlements
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap31.pdf

RBI Annual Report for 2006-07 of monetary policy in India has been guided by the objectives of
maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to the productive sectors of the
economy for sustaining overall economic Reserve Bank of India
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.eSocialSciences.com/data/articles/RBI_Annual51020073.pdf
5 matches:

Life Insurance Corporation of India India (LIC) ({{lang-hi| }}) is the largest
state-owned life insurance company in India, and also the country's largest investor. It is fully
owned by the Government of India. It also
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_Insurance_Corporation_of_India

National Mineral Development Corporation India. It is fully owned by the Government of India
and is under administrative control of the Ministry of Steel
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Mineral_Development_Corporation

CONTENTS MODULE I GLOBALIZATION, DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE . Export-Import Bank of India


The Export-Import Bank of India was set up in 1981 with the purpose of financing, facilitating and
promoting foreign trade in India. It is fully owned by the Government of India
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine",
http://www.unescap.org/tid/publication/tipub2184.pdf

Recent Developments. : De jure versus De facto The RBI was established under the Reserve
Bank of India Act, 1934 on April 1, 1935 as a private shareholders' bank, but since its
nationalisation in 1949, is fully owned by the Government of India Respected Professor Vyas,
Distinguished Participants
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine",
http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/speeches/pdfs/81026.pdf

Glimpses of Indian Economy and its Financial Sector s financial sector, in particular, the banking
sector, and financial markets. Introduction to the RBI The RBI was established under the Reserve
Bank of India Act, 1934 on April 1, 1935 as a private shareholders' bank but since its
nationalisation in 1949, is fully owned by the Government of India Y V Reddy
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.eSocialSciences.com/data/articles/Document1572007160.6433069.pdf
1 match:

Bank unions, may be partly or wholly exempt from bank licence requirements, and therefore
regulated under separate rules. The requirements for the issue of a bank licence vary between
jurisdictions but typically
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank banknotes. However, in some countries this is not the case. In the UK, for example, the
Financial Services Authority licences banks, and some commercial banks (such as the Bank of
Scotland) issue their own
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank regulation is extended to include acceptance of deposits, even if they are not repayable to
the customer's order—although money lending, by itself, is generally not included in the
definition. Unlike most
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank duty to disclose, the bank's interests require it, or the law demands it. # The bank must not
close a customer's account without reasonable notice, since cheques are outstanding in the
ordinary course of
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank 's account, to the extent that the customer is indebted to the bank. # The bank must not
disclose details of transactions through the customer's account—unless the customer
consents, there is a public
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank from the customer, e.g. a cheque drawn by the customer. # The bank agrees to promptly
collect the cheques deposited to the customer's account as the customer's agent, and to credit the
proceeds to the
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank position between the bank and the customer: when the account is in credit, the bank owes
the balance to the customer; when the account is overdrawn, the customer owes the balance to
the bank. # The bank
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank customer—defined as any entity for which the bank agrees to conduct an account.
The law implies rights and obligations into this relationship as follows: # The bank account balance
is the financial
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

Bank customer—defined as any entity for which the bank agrees to conduct an account.
The law implies rights and obligations into this relationship as follows: # The bank account balance
is the financial
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bank
1 match:

"'I SPEAK OF FIERCELY CONTESTED THINGS:'" WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, DEMOCRACY, AND
THE AESTHETICS OF A "USABLE PAST" remained relatively stationary (97). The result was that
credit remains in the hands of a few individuals and institutions (97). Major C.H. Douglas
located the economic flaws of modern industrial society Kevin L Jessar
Quelle: Digital Repository at the University of Maryland, http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/2013/1/umi-umd-1968.pdf
1 match:

Primer on reserve requirements . The basic function of reserve requirements is to permit the
Federal Reserve to control the supply of money and credit in pursuit of its basic economic policy
goals William Burke
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/review/1974/econrev_74-1_18-31.pdf
1 match:

Banking in India private sector banks would need to be vetted by them. In recent years critics
have charged that the non-government owned banks are too aggressive in their loan recovery
efforts in connection with housing
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India (a private sector bank) to 10%. This is the first time an investor has been
allowed to hold more than 5% in a private sector bank since the RBI announced norms in 2005
that any stake exceeding 5% in the
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India investment services are expected to be strong. One may also expect M&As,
takeovers, and asset sales. In March 2006, the Reserve Bank of India allowed Warburg Pincus to
increase its stake in Kotak Mahindra Bank
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the
government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without
any fixed exchange rate-and this has
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
3 matches:

Banking in India Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the
government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without
any fixed exchange rate-and this has
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India

Economic development in India balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies
of Asia. The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the
government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_development_in_India

Finance in India . The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from
the government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but
without any fixed exchange rate
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finance_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy, Indian banks are considered to
have clean, strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable
economies in its region. The Reserve
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
3 matches:

Banking in India . Currently (2007), banking in India is generally fairly mature in terms of supply,
product range and reach-even though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private
sector and foreign banks. In
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India

Economic development in India India is generally mature in terms of supply, product range and
reach-even, though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private sector and foreign
banks.Nishtha Khurana [http
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_development_in_India

Finance in India -10-02 }} As of 2007, banking in India is generally mature in terms of supply,
product range and reach-even, though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private
sector and foreign banks
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finance_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India .All this led to the retail boom in India. People not just demanded more from
their banks but also received more
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India shook the Banking sector in India completely. Bankers, till this time, were used
to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%;Lend at 6%;Go home at 4) of functioning. The new wave
ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India shook the Banking sector in India completely. Bankers, till this time, were used
to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%;Lend at 6%;Go home at 4) of functioning. The new wave
ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India Foreign Direct Investment, where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given
voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 10%,at present it has gone up to 74% with
some restrictions. The new policy
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India contribution from all the three sectors of banks, namely, government banks,
private banks and foreign banks. The next stage for the Indian banking has been set up with the
proposed relaxation in the norms for
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
5 matches:

Banking in India . After this, until the 1990s, the nationalised banks grew at a pace of around
4%, closer to the average growth rate of the Indian economy. ==Liberalisation== In the early
1990s, the then Narsimha Rao government embarked on a policy of liberalization, licensing a small
number of private banks
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India

Financial reforms in China and India: A comparative analysis comparison, RBIs road map for
foreign entry26 laid out in its 2005 Annual Report is cautious. Foreign investors are restricted to 24
percent of the equity in a small number of private banks that the RBI wishes Wendy Dobson
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/userfiles/iib/File/IIB09.pdf

The Origins of Bank-Based and Market-Based Financial Systems. Germany, Japan, and the United
States traditional constraints had been removed. In Germany, the crucial regulatory divide took
place around 1870. Until then, the German financial system was dominated by a small number of
private banks largely Vitols Sigurt
Quelle: RePEc, http://skylla.wzb.eu/pdf/2001/i01-302.pdf

The origins and evolution of Japanese direct investment in East Asia -export operations in a
number of leading East Asian markets beginning in the 1950s. A small number of private banks
likewise were permitted to set up facilities largely to provide trade financing in support of these ,
http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/16572/JP-WP-96-02-34335570.pdf?sequence=1

BANKING REFORM IN RUSSIA: A WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY? Latin America (Troika Dialog,


2002). The little banking that is done in Russia is carried out by the 23 state-owned banks, such
as, Sberbank and Vnesheconombank (VEB), and a small number of private banks Abdur R.
Chowdhury
Quelle: Deep Blue at the University of Michigan, http://wdi.umich.edu/files/publications/workingpapers/wp601.pdf
1 match:

Banking in India . With the second dose of nationalization, the GOI controlled around 91% of the
banking business of India. Later on, in the year 1993, the government merged New Bank of India
with Punjab National Bank
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Performance Effectiveness of Nationalised Banks researcher. 1.4 Significance of the Study The
performance effectiveness of the nationalised banking industry that controls more than 90 percent

of the banking business in India is an issue of serious concern to Thomas Zacharias, P


Sudarsanan Pillai
Quelle: Dyuthi @ CUSAT, http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/bitstream/handle/purl/1624/Performance%2520effectiveness
%2520of%2520Nationalised%2520banks%2520a%2520case%2520study%2520of%2520syndicate%2520bank-Chap-1.PDF?
sequence=1
1 match:

Banking in India . A second dose of nationalization of 6 more commercial banks followed in 1980.
The stated reason for the nationalization was to give the government more control of credit
delivery
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India . Jayaprakash Narayan, a national leader of India, described the step as a
"masterstroke of political sagacity." Within two weeks of the issue of the ordinance, the Parliament
passed the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Bill, and it received the
presidential approval on 9 August 1969
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India . Thereafter, her move was swift and sudden, and the GOI issued an ordinance
and nationalised the 14 largest commercial banks with effect from the midnight of July 19, 1969
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India . Indira Gandhi, the-then Prime Minister of India expressed the intention of the
GOI in the annual conference of the All India Congress Meeting in a paper entitled "Stray thoughts
on Bank Nationalisation." The paper was received with positive enthusiasm
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

Banking in India . At the same time, it had emerged as a large employer, and a debate had
ensued about the possibility to nationalise the banking industry
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
1 match:

"'I SPEAK OF FIERCELY CONTESTED THINGS:'" WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, DEMOCRACY, AND
THE AESTHETICS OF A "USABLE PAST" remained relatively stationary (97). The result was that
credit remains in the hands of a few individuals and institutions (97). Major C.H. Douglas
located the economic flaws of modern industrial society Kevin L Jessar
Quelle: Digital Repository at the University of Maryland, http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/2013/1/umi-umd-1968.pdf
1 match:

Competitiveness and price setting in dealer markets than observed in a purely competitive
setting. Through the bid-ask spread market makers are compensated for providing immediacy and
liquidity to in-vestors. These dealers also provide other services to Lucy F. Ackert, Bryan K.
Church
Quelle: RePEc, http://www.frbatlanta.org/frbatlanta/filelegacydocs/Ackert.pdf
1 match:

The future of responsible lending in India:perceptions of the environment and sustainability


regulate the Indian banking sector Year Action taken 1949 Enactment of Banking Regulation Act
1955 Nationalisation of Reserve Bank of India 1959 Nationalisation of State Bank of India
subsidiaries 1961 Sophie Alice Hadfield-Hill
Quelle: Leicester Research Archive, https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/7991/1/Sophie%20Hadfield-Hill%20PhD_Final
%5B1%5D.pdf
2 matches:

CONTENTS initiated informal discussion with various groups and State Governments/ agencies on
e-governance projects. 2.20.5 PERFORMANCE OF SIDBI DURING FY2005 Small Industries
Development Bank of India was established I. Chapter
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine",
http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_eco_affairs/budget/annual_report/ar eng 2004-05.pdf

Table of Contents initiated informal discussion with various groups and State Governments/
agencies on e-governance projects. 2.20.5 PERFORMANCE OF SIDBI DURING FY2005 Small
Industries Development Bank of India was established Jean-pierre Demailly
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine",
http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_eco_affairs/budget/annual_report/ar%20eng%202004-05.pdf
3 matches:

Non-banking financial company 5891741 3542924 Non-banking financial company {{Prose|


date=January 2009}} Non-bank financial companies (NBFCs) are financial institutions that provide
banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank, i
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-banking_financial_company

Banking license . A non-banking financial company is an institution that provides banking services
without meeting the legal definition of a bank, such as holding a banking license. ==See also==
*Finance {{DEFAULTSORT
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_license

Category:Banks . There are also financial institutions that provide certain banking services
without meeting the legal definition of a bank, a so called non-banking financial company. Banks

are a subset of the financial

Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category%3ABanks


4 matches:

Category:Banks 6750170 4447032 Category:Banks {{Commons category|Banks}} {{Portal|


Companies}} A bank is a financial institution that provides banking and other financial services
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category%3ABanks

Bankers' bank 9592498 7304424 Bankers' bank A '''bankers' bank''' is a financial institution that
provides financial services to community banks in the United States of America
Quelle: Wikipedia (EN), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bankers%27_bank

Managing multiple dimensions of performance: a field study of balanced scorecard translation in


the Thai financial services organisation . As noted in one of the bank's reports, 22 Years of
[AgroBank] and Agricultural Development Work (p. 83), "the [AgroBank] is a financial institution
that provides loans to farmers at the lowest interest Wila-sini Wongkaew
Quelle: Warwick Research Archives Project Repository,
http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/2434/1/WRAP_THESIS_Wongkaew_2007.pdf

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan proporsi aset perbankan syariah di indonesia


ABSTRACT Sharia bank is a financial institution that provides banking services that complies to
the rules of Islamic sharia Yuria Pratiwhi
Quelle: uiana, http://eprints.lib.ui.ac.id/3993/3/124876-T%20297.633%202008%20(9)-faktor-faktor-abstrak.pdf
1 match:

Product development in the wood industry conceptualizations may be shared among managers of
different firms in the same industry. Managers share a common language and similar
understandings of what the industry is and how it works (Alkbring, 2003; Pehrsson Matti
Stendahl
Quelle: Epsilon Dissertations and Graduate Theses Archive, http://dissepsilon.slu.se:8080/archive/00001921/01/Kappan_Matti_Stendahl.pdf
3 matches:

An Algebraic Framework For Classifier Development And Its Application in Face Recognition that
to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other thesis or
dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this
or any other candidate. Dr. Gurumurthi V K.R.Sujith, Dr. Gurumurthi V. Ramanan
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine", http://crypto.au-kbc.org/patterns/thesis/sujiththesis.pdf

Rayleigh Distribution Definition under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my
knowledge, the work reported herein does not form part of any other thesis or dissertation on the
basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other
candidate. Date : 4/07/2005 Place : Chennai. Dr
Quelle: NSDL OAI Repository, http://www.au-kbc.org/comm/Docs/thesis/ms/Thesis_Report_Vijayalashmi.doc

Search algorithms for FCSR architectures and properties of the FCSR combiner generator the best
of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other thesis or dissertation
on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other
candidate. Dr. Gurumurthi V S. Anand
Quelle: "CiteSeerX Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine", http://crypto.au-kbc.org/patterns/thesis/anandthesis.pdf

A
COMPRIHENSIVEPROJECTREPORT
ON

ASSETSANDLIABILITYPORTFOLIOOFINDIAN
COMMERCIALBANKS
SUBMITTEDTO

PARULINSTITUEOFMANAGEMENT&RESEARCH
INPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHE

REQUIREMENTOFTHEAWARDFORTHEDEGREEOF
MASTEROFBUSINESSADMINISTRATION
IN
GUJRATTECHNOLOGICALUNIVERSITY
UNDERTHEGUIDANCEOF
FACULTYGUIDE
PROF.KHYATISHAH
SUBMITTEDBY

[VIVEKVYAS,ENROLLMENTNO:137110592237,MBAIII]
[ARVINDKUMARYADAV,ENROLLMENTNO:137110592238,MBAIII]

PARULINSTITUTEOFMANAGEMENT&RESEARCH
AFFILIATEDTO
GUJARATTECHNOLOGICALUNIVERSITY
(BATCH:201315)
1

StudentsDeclaration
WeherebydeclarethatthecomprehensiveProjectreportentitled"AssetsAndLiability
portfolioof
IndianCommercialBanks"submittedto"ParulInstituteOfManagementAnd
Research"isaresultof
ourownworkandourindebtednesstootherworkpublications,references,ifany,have
beenduly
acknowledged.
Place:Vadodara

Date:
Name
EnrollmentNo.
Signature
VivekVyas
137110592237
ArvindkumarYadav
137110592238
2

PARULINSTITUTEOFMANAGEMENT&RESEARCH
P.O.LIMDA,TAL.WAGHODIA391760
DIST.VADODARA,GUJARAT
ThisiscertifiedthatThisComprehensiveProjectReportTitledAssetsAndLiability
Portfolioof
IndianCommercialBanksisthebonafideworkofthestudents,whocarriedoutthe
researchunder
mysupervision.Ialsocertifyfurther,thattothebestofmyknowledgetheworkreported
hereindoesnot
formpartofanyotherprojectreportordissertationonthebasisofwhichadegreeor
awardwas
conferredonanearlieroccasiononthisoranyothercandidate.
NameOfTheStudents
EnrollmentNo.
VivekVyas
137110592237
ArvindkumarYadav

137110592238
DIRECTORFACULTYGUIDE
DR.P.G.K.MURTHYPROF.KHYATISHAH

PREFACE
3

Amanwithoutknowledgeisjustlikearoughdiamond.Toshinelikearealdiamondone
musthave
practicalexposureofwhathe/shehaslearnt.Forthemanagementstudents,theoretical
knowledgeis
justlikelockwithoutkey,sopracticalknowledgeisofutmostimportance.
AspertheprescribedsyllabusofMBAIII,itiscompulsorytopreparecomprehensive
projectreport.
Ateachandeveryaspectoflifewerequiredsomekindoftheoreticalaswellaspractical
knowledge.
Itmeansonlyclassroomlecturemaynotbeenoughtogetaproperknowledgetouseither
inbusiness
fieldorsociallife.
Comprehensiveprojecthelpstogainrealknowledgeabouttheindustrialenvironmentand
business
practices.TheMBAprogrammeprovidesstudentwithafundamentalknowledgeof
businessand
organizationalfunctionsandactivities,aswellasanexposuretostrategicthinkingof
management.
Ineveryprofessionalcourse,projectreportisanimportantfactor.Professorsgiveus
theoretical
Knowledgeonvarioussubjectsinthecollegebutstudentsispracticallyexposedtosuch
subjectswhen
theypreparetheprojectreport.Itisonlytheprojectthroughwhichwecometoknowthat
whatan

industryisandhowitworks.
Intoday'sglobalizationworld,wherecutthroatcompetitionisprevailinginthemarket,
Theoretical
knowledgeisnotsufficient.Besidethisoneneedtohavepracticalknowledge,which
wouldhelpan
individualinhis/hercareeractivitiesanditistruethat"ExperienceIsTheBest
Teacher".

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
4

Wepleasedtoexpressthankfulgratitudetopeoplewhohavesupportedusforpreparation
ofthis
comprehensiveprojectreport.
Itwasindeedagreatexperiencetopreparethisprojectreport.Thelevelinpreparationof
suchkindof
reportcallsforagreatchallengefromallareasforthemanagementstudents.
FirstofAll,WewouldliketothankourdirectorDr.PGKMURTHYSir,forgivingus
anexcellent
opportunitytopreparethiscomprehensiveprojectreportonAssetsAndLiability
Portfolio
ManagementOfIndianCommercialBanks.
wewouldalsoliketothankourFacultyGuideProf.KhyatiShah.Shehelpsustoclimb
ontheladder
calledfrombeginninguntilsubmissionofthisProjectReport.
WewouldalsoliketothankGujaratTechnologicalUniversity,forgivingusan
excellentopportunity
toproveourcalibreandcapacitytopreparethiscomprehensiveprojectreport.
ItwasgreatopportunityforustopreparethiscomprehensiveprojectreportonAssets
AndLiability
ManagementOfIndianCommercialBanks.

WealsoverythankfultoourparentsandOurfriendswhohelpusinpreparationofthe
project.
5

TableofContents
SRNO
Particular
Pgno
1
PART1.GENRALINFORMATION
7
1.1
Introductiontobankingsystem
8
1.2
AboutbankingIndustry
914
1.3
DifferentlawsregulatedbyRBI
1516
1.4
Differenttypesofbanks
1725
1.5
ImportanceInIndianMarket

2628
1.6
SWOTanalysis
2932
2
IntroductionofIndiancommercialbank
33
2.1
RoleofIndiancommercialbank
3435
2.2
Functionofcommercialbank
3637
3
PerformaBalancesheet
38
3.1
Assets&LiabilitiesOfBanks
39
4
LastTenYearsBalanceSheetData&Interpretation
4047
PartII

48
5
ResearchMethodology
4950
5.1
Objectivesofthestudy
51
5.2
LiteratureReview
5253
Bibliography
54
6

PART1
GENERAL
INFORMATION
BANKINGSYSTEMININDIA
Introduction
Abankisafinancialinstitutionthatprovidesbankingandotherfinancialservicestotheir
customers.A

bankisgenerallyunderstoodasaninstitutionwhichprovidesfundamentalbanking
servicessuchas
acceptingdepositsandprovidingloans.Therearealsononbankinginstitutionsthat
providecertain
7

bankingserviceswithoutmeetingthelegaldefinitionofabank.Banksareasubsetofthe
financial
servicesindustry.
Abankingsystemalsoreferredasasystemprovidedbythebankwhichofferscash
management
servicesforcustomers,reportingthetransactionsoftheiraccountsandportfolios,
throughouttheday.
ThebankingsysteminIndia,shouldnotonlybehasslefreebutitshouldbeabletomeet
thenew
challengesposedbythetechnologyandanyotherexternalandinternalfactors.
Forthepastthreedecades,Indiasbankingsystemhasseveraloutstandingachievements
toitscredit.
TheBanksarethemainparticipantsofthefinancialsysteminIndia.TheBankingsector
offersseveral
facilitiesandopportunitiestotheircustomers.Allthebankssafeguardsthemoneyand
valuablesand
provideloans,credit,andpaymentservices,suchascheckingaccounts,moneyorders,
andcashiers
cheques.Thebanksalsoofferinvestmentandinsuranceproducts.
Asavarietyofmodelsforcooperationandintegrationamongfinanceindustrieshave
emerged,someof
thetraditionaldistinctionsbetweenbanks,insurancecompanies,andsecuritiesfirmshave
diminished.In
spiteofthesechanges,bankscontinuetomaintainandperformtheirprimaryrole
acceptingdepositsand

lendingfundsfromthesedeposits.

HistoryofIndianBankingSystem
ThefirstbankinIndia,calledTheGeneralBankofIndiawasestablishedintheyear
1786.TheEast
IndiaCompanyestablishedTheBankofBengal/Calcutta(1809),BankofBombay(1840)
andBankof
Madras(1843).ThenextbankwasBankofHindustanwhichwasestablishedin1870.
Thesethree
individualunits(BankofCalcutta,BankofBombay,andBankofMadras)werecalledas
Presidency
Banks.AllahabadBankwhichwasestablishedin1865,wasforthefirsttimecompletely
runbyIndians.
8

PunjabNationalBankLtd.wassetupin1894withheadquartersatLahore.Between
1906and1913,
BankofIndia,CentralBankofIndia,BankofBaroda,CanaraBank,IndianBank,and
BankofMysore
weresetup.In1921,allpresidencybankswereamalgamatedtoformtheImperialBank
ofIndiawhich
wasrunbyEuropeanShareholders.AfterthattheReserveBankofIndiawasestablished
inApril1935.
Atthetimeoffirstphasethegrowthofbankingsectorwasveryslow.Between1913and
1948there
wereapproximately1100smallbanksinIndia.Tostreamlinethefunctioningand
activitiesof
commercialbanks,theGovernmentofIndiacameupwiththeBankingCompaniesAct,
1949whichwas
laterchangedtoBankingRegulationAct1949asperamendingActof1965(ActNo.23
of1965).
ReserveBankofIndiawasvestedwithextensivepowersforthesupervisionofbanking
inIndiaasa

CentralBankingAuthority.Afterindependence,Governmenthastakenmostimportant
stepsinregardof
IndianBankingSectorreforms.
In1955,theImperialBankofIndiawasnationalizedandwasgiventhename"StateBank
ofIndia",to
actastheprincipalagentofRBIandtohandlebankingtransactionsalloverthecountry.
Itwas
establishedunderStateBankofIndiaAct,1955.SevenbanksformingsubsidiaryofState
BankofIndia
wasnationalizedin1960.On19
th

July,1969,majorprocessofnationalizationwascarriedout.Atthe
sametime14majorIndiancommercialbanksofthecountrywerenationalized.
In1980,anothersixbankswerenationalized,andthusraisingthenumberofnationalized
banksto20.
Sevenmorebankswerenationalizedwithdepositsover200Crores.Tilltheyear1980
approximately
80%ofthebankingsegmentinIndiawasundergovernmentsownership.Onthe
suggestionsof
NarsimhanCommittee,theBankingRegulationActwasamendedin1993andthusthe
gatesforthenew
privatesectorbankswereopened.Thefollowingarethemajorstepstakenbythe
GovernmentofIndia
toRegulateBankinginstitutionsinthecountry:
1949
:EnactmentofBankingRegulationAct.
9

1955
:NationalisationofStateBankofIndia.

1959
:NationalizationofSBIsubsidiaries.
1961
:Insurancecoverextendedtodeposits.
1969
:Nationalisationof14majorBanks.
1971
:Creationofcreditguaranteecorporation.
1975
:Creationofregionalruralbanks.
1980
:Nationalisationofsevenbankswithdepositsover200Crores.

NeedoftheBanks
Beforetheestablishmentofbanks,thefinancialactivitieswerehandledbymoneylenders
and
individuals.Atthattimetheinterestrateswereveryhigh.Againtherewerenosecurityof
publicsavings
andnouniformityregardingloans.Soastoovercomesuchproblemstheorganized
bankingsectorwas
established,whichwasfullyregulatedbythegovernment.
Theorganizedbankingsectorworkswithinthefinancialsystemtoprovideloans,accept
depositsand
provideotherservicestotheircustomers.Thefollowingfunctionsofthebankexplainthe
needofthe
10

bankanditsimportance:


Toprovidethesecuritytothesavingsofcustomers.

Tocontrolthesupplyofmoneyandcredit

Toencouragepublicconfidenceintheworkingofthefinancialsystem,increasesavings
speedily
andefficiently.

Toavoidfocusoffinancialpowersinthehandsofafewindividualsandinstitutions.
Tosetequalnormsandconditions(i.e.rateofinterest,periodoflendingetc)toalltypes
ofcustomers.
11

NationalisationofBankingIndustry:
Bythe1960s,theIndianbankingindustryhasbecomeanimportanttooltofacilitatethe
developmentof
theIndianeconomy.Atthesametime,ithasemergedasalargeemployer,andadebate
hasensured
aboutthepossibilitytonationalisethebankingindustry.
IndiraGandhi,thethenPrimeMinisterofIndiaexpressedtheintentionofthe
GovernmentofIndia
(GOI)intheannualconferenceoftheAllIndiaCongressMeetinginapaperentitled
"Straythoughts
onBankNationalisation".Thepaperwasreceivedwithpositiveenthusiasm.Thereafter,
hermovewas
swiftandsudden,andtheGOIissuedanordinanceandnationalisedthe14largest
commercialbanks

witheffectfromthemidnightofJuly19,1969.JayaprakashNarayan,anationalleaderof
India,
describedthestepasa"Masterstrokeofpoliticalsagacity"Withintwoweeksofthe
issueofthe
ordinance,theParliamentpassedtheBankingCompanies(AcquisitionandTransferof
Undertaking)
Bill,anditreceivedthepresidentialapprovalon9August,1969.
Asecondstepofnationalisationof6morecommercialbanksfollowedin1980.The
statedreasonforthe
nationalisationwastogivethegovernmentmorecontrolofcreditdelivery.Withthe
secondstepof
nationalisation,theGOIcontrolledaround91%ofthebankingbusinessinIndia.Later
on,intheyear
1993,thegovernmentmergedNewBankofIndiawithPunjabNationalBank.Itwasthe
onlymerger
betweennationalisedbanksandresultedinthereductionofthenumberofnationalised
banksfrom20to
19.
Afterthis,untilthe1990s,thenationalisedbanksgrewatapaceofaround4%,closerto
theaverage
growthrateoftheIndianeconomy.Thenationalisedbankswerecreditedbysome;
includingHome
ministerP.Chidambaram,tohavehelpedtheIndianeconomywithstandtheglobal
financialcrisisof
20072009.
12

PhaseofLiberalisationinbankingsector:
Intheearly1990s,thethenNarsimhaRaogovernmentembarkedonapolicyof
liberalisation,licensing

asmallnumberofprivatebanks.ThesecametobeknownasNewGenerationtechsavvy
banks,and
includedGlobalTrustBank(thefirstofsuchnewgenerationbankstobesetup),which
later
amalgamatedwithOrientalBankofCommerce,AxisBank(earlierasUTIBank),ICICI
Bankand
HDFCBank.ThismovealongwiththerapidgrowthintheeconomyofIndia
revolutionizedthebanking
sectorinIndiawhichhasseenrapidgrowthwithstrongcontributionfromallthethree
sectorsofbanks,
namely,governmentbanks,privatebanksandforeignbanks.
ThenextstagefortheIndianbankinghasbeensetupwiththeproposedrelaxationinthe
normsfor
ForeignDirectInvestment,whereallForeignInvestorsinbanksmaybegivenvoting
rightswhichcould
exceedthepresentcapof10%,atpresentithasgoneupto49%withsomerestrictions.
ThenewpolicyshookthebankingsectorinIndiacompletely.Bankers,tillthistime,were
usedtothe4
64method(Borrowat4%;Lendat6%;Gohomeat4)offunctioning.Thenewwave
usheredina
modernoutlookandtechsavvymethodsofworkingforthetraditionalbanks.Allthisled
totheretail
boominIndia.Peoplenotjustdemandedmorefromtheirbanksbutalsoreceivedmore.
Currently
(2007),bankinginIndiaisgenerallyfairlymatureintermsofsupply,productrangeand
reacheven
thoughreachinruralIndiastillremainsachallengefortheprivatesectorandforeign
banks.
Intermsofqualityofassetsandcapitaladequacy,Indianbanksareconsideredtohave
clean,strongand

transparentbalancesheetsascomparedtootherbanksincomparableeconomiesinits
region.
TheReserveBankofIndiaisanautonomousbody,withminimalpressurefromthe
government.The
statedpolicyoftheBankontheIndianRupeeistomanagevolatilitybutwithoutany
fixedexchange
rateandthishasmostlybeentrue.WiththegrowthintheIndianeconomyexpectedtobe
strongfor
quitesometimeespeciallyinitsservicessectorthedemandforbankingservices,
especiallyretail
banking,mortgagesandinvestmentservicesareexpectedtobestrong.
InMarch2006,theReserveBankofIndiaallowedWarburgPincustoincreaseitsstake
inKotak
MahindraBank(aprivatesectorbank)to10%.Thisisthefirsttimeaninvestorhasbeen
allowedtohold
13

morethan5%inaprivatesectorbanksincetheRBIannouncednormsin2005thatany
stakeexceeding
5%intheprivatesectorbankswouldneedtobevotedbythem.Inrecentyearscritics
havechargedthat
thenongovernmentownedbanksaretooaggressiveintheirloanrecoveryeffortsin
connectionwith
housing,vehicleand
personalloans.Therearepressreportsthatthebanks'loanrecoveryeffortshavedriven
defaulting
borrowerstosuicide.

Governmentpolicyonbankingindustry
Banksoperatinginmostofthecountriesmustcontendwithheavyregulations,rules
enforcedbyFederal

andStateagenciestogoverntheiroperations,serviceofferings,andthemannerinwhich
theygrowand
expandtheirfacilitiestobetterservethepublic.Abankerworkswithinthefinancial
systemtoprovide
loans,acceptdeposits,andprovideotherservicestotheircustomers.Theymustdoso
withinaclimate
ofextensiveregulation,designedprimarilytoprotectthepublicinterests.
Themainreasonswhythebanksareheavilyregulatedareasfollows:

Toprotectthesafetyofthepublicssavings.

Tocontrolthesupplyofmoneyandcreditinordertoachieveanationsbroadeconomic
goal.

Toensureequalopportunityandfairnessinthepublicsaccesstocreditandothervital
financial
services.

Topromotepublicconfidenceinthefinancialsystem,sothatsavingsaremadespeedily
and
efficiently.

Toavoidconcentrationsoffinancialpowerinthehandsofafewindividualsand
institutions.

ProvidetheGovernmentwithcredit,taxrevenuesandotherservices.

Tohelpsectorsoftheeconomythattheyhavespecialcreditneedsforeg.Housing,small
businessandagriculturalloansetc.
14

Lawofbanking
Bankinglawisbasedonacontractualanalysisoftherelationshipbetweenthebankand
customer
definedasanyentityforwhichthebankagreestoconductanaccount.
Thelawimpliesrightsandobligationsintothisrelationshipasfollows:

Thebankaccountbalanceisthefinancialpositionbetweenthebankandthecustomer:
whenthe
accountisincredit,thebankowesthebalancetothecustomer;whentheaccountis
overdrawn,
thecustomerowesthebalancetothebank.

Thebankagreestopaythecustomer'schequesuptotheamountstandingtothecreditof
the
customer'saccount,plusanyagreedoverdraftlimit.

Thebankmaynotpayfromthecustomer'saccountwithoutamandatefromthecustomer,
e.g.
chequesdrawnbythecustomer.

Thebankagreestopromptlycollectthechequesdepositedtothecustomer'saccountas
the
customer'sagent,andtocredittheproceedstothecustomer'saccount.

Thebankhasarighttocombinethecustomer'saccounts,sinceeachaccountisjustan
aspectof
thesamecreditrelationship.

Thebankhasalienonchequesdepositedtothecustomer'saccount,totheextentthatthe
customerisindebtedtothebank.

Thebankmustnotdisclosedetailsoftransactionsthroughthecustomer'saccountunless
the
customerconsents,thereisapublicdutytodisclose,thebank'sinterestsrequireit,orthe
law
demandsit.

Thebankmustnotcloseacustomer'saccountwithoutreasonablenotice,sincecheques
are
outstandingintheordinarycourseofbusinessforseveraldays.
15

RegulationsforIndianbanks
Currentlyinmostjurisdictionscommercialbanksareregulatedbygovernmententities
andrequirea
specialbanklicensetooperate.Usuallythedefinitionofthebusinessofbankingforthe
purposesof
regulationisextendedtoincludeacceptanceofdeposits,eveniftheyarenotrepayableto
thecustomer's
orderalthoughmoneylending,byitself,isgenerallynotincludedinthedefinition.
Unlikemostotherregulatedindustries,theregulatoristypicallyalsoaparticipantinthe
market,i.e.a

governmentowned(central)bank.Centralbanksalsotypicallyhaveamonopolyonthe
businessof
issuingbanknotes.However,insomecountriesthisisnotthecase.InUK,forexample,
theFinancial
ServicesAuthoritylicensesbanks,andsomecommercialbanks(suchastheBankof
Scotland)issue
theirownbanknotesinadditiontothoseissuedbytheBankofEngland,theUK
government'scentral
bank.
Sometypesoffinancialinstitutions,suchasbuildingsocietiesandcreditunions,maybe
partlyor
whollyexemptedfrombanklicenserequirements,andthereforeregulatedunderseparate
rules.The
requirementsfortheissueofabanklicensevarybetweenjurisdictionsbuttypically
include:

Minimumcapital

Minimumcapitalratio

'FitandProper'requirementsforthebank'scontrollers,owners,directors,and/orsenior
officers

ClassificationofBankingIndustryinIndia
16

Indianbankingindustryhasbeendividedintotwoparts,organizedandunorganized
sectors.The
organizedsectorconsistsofReserveBankofIndia,CommercialBanksandCooperative
Banks,and
SpecializedFinancialInstitutions(IDBI,ICICI,IFCetc).The

unorganizedsector,whichisnothomogeneous,islargelymadeupofmoneylendersand
indigenous
bankers.
AnoutlineoftheIndianBankingstructuremaybepresentedasfollows:
1.ReservebanksofIndia.
2.IndianScheduledCommercialBanks.
a)StateBankofIndiaanditsassociatebanks.
b)Twentynationalizedbanks.
c)Regionalruralbanks.
d)Otherscheduledcommercialbanks.
3.ForeignBanks
4.Nonscheduledbanks.
5.Cooperativebanks.

ReservebankofIndia
17

ThereservebankofIndiaisacentralbankandwasestablishedinApril1,1935in
accordancewiththe
provisionsofreservebankofIndiaact1934.ThecentralofficeofRBIislocatedat
Mumbaisince
inception.ThoughoriginallythereservebankofIndiawasprivatelyowned,since
nationalizationin
1949,RBIisfullyownedbytheGovernmentofIndia.Itwasinauguratedwithshare
capitalofRs.5
CroresdividedintosharesofRs.100eachfullypaidup.
RBIisgovernedbyacentralboard(headedbyagovernor)appointedbythecentral
governmentof

India.RBIhas22regionalofficesacrossIndia.ThereservebankofIndiawas
nationalizedintheyear
1949.Thegeneralsuperintendenceanddirectionofthebankisentrustedtocentralboard
ofdirectorsof
20members,theGovernorandfourdeputyGovernors,oneGovernmentalofficialfrom
theministryof
Finance,tennominateddirectorsbythegovernmenttogiverepresentationtoimportant
elementsinthe
economiclifeofthecountry,andthefournominateddirectorbytheCentralGovernment
torepresent
thefourlocalboardswiththeheadquartersatMumbai,Kolkata,Chennaiand
NewDelhi.LocalBoardconsistsoffivememberseachcentralgovernmentappointedfor
atermoffour
yearstorepresentterritorialandeconomicinterestsandtheinterestsofcooperativeand
indigenous
banks.
TheRBIAct1934wascommencedonApril1,1935.TheAct,1934providesthe
statutorybasisofthe
functioningofthebank.Thebankwasconstitutedfortheneedoffollowing:

Toregulatetheissuesofbanknotes.

Tomaintainreserveswithaviewtosecuringmonetarystability

Tooperatethecreditandcurrencysystemofthecountrytoitsadvantage.
FunctionsofRBIasacentralbankofIndiaareexplainedbrieflyasfollows:
BankofIssue:TheRBIformulates,implements,andmonitorsthemonitorypolicy.
Itsmainobjectiveis

18

maintainingpricestabilityandensuringadequateflowofcredittoproductivesector.
RegulatorSupervisorofthefinancialsystem:RBIprescribesbroadparameters
ofbankingoperations
withinwhichthecountrysbankingandfinancialsystemfunctions.Theirmainobjective
istomaintain
publicconfidenceinthesystem,protectdepositorsinterestandprovidecosteffective
bankingservices
tothepublic.
Managerofexchangecontrol:Themanagerofexchangecontroldepartmentmanages
theforeign
exchange,accordingtotheforeignexchangemanagementact,1999.Themanagersmain
objectiveisto
facilitateexternaltradeandpaymentandpromoteorderlydevelopmentandmaintenance
offoreign
exchangemarketinIndia.
Issuerofcurrency:Apersonwhoworksasanissuer,issuesandexchangesordestroys
thecurrencyand
coinsthatarenotfitforcirculation.Hismainobjectiveistogivethepublicadequate
quantityof
suppliesofcurrencynotesandcoinsandingoodquality.
Developmentalrole:TheRBIperformsthewiderangeofpromotionalfunctionsto
supportnational
objectivessuchascontests,couponsmaintaininggoodpublicrelationsandmanymore.
Relatedfunctions:Therearealsosomeoftherelatedfunctionstotheabovementioned
mainfunctions.
Theyaresuchas,bankertothegovernment,bankertobanksetc.

Bankertogovernmentperformsmerchantbankingfunctionforthecentralandthestate

governments;alsoactsastheirbanker.

Bankertobanksmaintainsbankingaccountstoallscheduledbanks.
ControllerofCredit
:
RBIperformsthefollowingtasks:

Itholdsthecashreservesofallthescheduledbanks.
19

Itcontrolsthecreditoperationsofbanksthroughquantitativeandqualitativecontrols.

Itcontrolsthebankingsystemthroughthesystemoflicensing,inspectionandcallingfor
information.

Itactsasthelenderofthelastresortbyprovidingrediscountfacilitiestoscheduledbanks.
SupervisoryFunctions:Inadditiontoitstraditionalcentralbankingfunctions,the
ReserveBank
performscertainnonmonetaryfunctionsofthenatureofsupervisionofbanksand
promotionofsound
bankinginIndia.TheReserveBankAct1934andthebankingregulationact1949have
giventheRBI
widepowersofsupervisionandcontrolovercommercialandcooperativebanks,relating
tolicensing
andestablishments,branchexpansion,liquidityoftheirassets,managementandmethods
ofworking,

amalgamation,reconstructionandliquidation.
TheRBIisauthorizedtocarryoutperiodicalinspectionsofthebanksandtocallfor
returnsand
necessaryinformationfromthem.Thenationalisationof14majorIndianscheduledbanks
inJuly1969
hasimposednewresponsibilitiesontheRBIfordirectingthegrowthofbankingand
creditpolicies
towardsmorerapiddevelopmentoftheeconomyandrealisationofcertaindesiredsocial
objectives.
ThesupervisoryfunctionsoftheRBIhavehelpedagreatdealinimprovingthestandard
ofbankingin
Indiatodeveloponsoundlinesandtoimprovethemethodsoftheiroperation.

IndianScheduledCommercialBanks
ThecommercialbankingstructureinIndiaconsistsofscheduledcommercialbanks,and
unscheduled
banks.
20

ScheduledBanks
:
ScheduledBanksinIndiaconstitutethosebankswhichhavebeenincludedinthe
secondscheduleofRBIact1934.RBIinturnincludesonlythosebanksinthisschedule
whichsatisfy
thecriterialaiddownvidesection42(6a)oftheAct.ScheduledbanksinIndiameans
theStateBank
ofIndiaconstitutedundertheStateBankofIndiaAct,1955(23of1955),asubsidiary
bankasdefined
inthesStateBankofIndia(subsidiarybanks)Act,1959(38of1959),acorresponding
newbank

constitutedundersection3oftheBankingcompanies(AcquisitionandTransferof
Undertakings)Act,
1980(40of1980),oranyotherbankbeingabankincludedintheSecondScheduletothe
Reservebank
ofIndiaAct,1934(2of1934),butdoesnotincludeacooperativebank.Forthepurpose
ofassessment
ofperformanceofbanks,theReserveBankofIndiacategoriesthosebanksaspublic
sectorbanks,old
privatesectorbanks,newprivatesectorbanksandforeignbanks,i.e.privatesector,
publicsector,and
foreignbankscomeundertheumbrellaofscheduledcommercialbanks.

RegionalRuralBank
:ThegovernmentofIndiasetupRegionalRuralBanks(RRBs)onOctober2,
1975.Thebanksprovidecredittotheweakersectionsoftheruralareas,particularlythe
smalland
marginalfarmers,agriculturallabourers,andsmallentrepreneurs.Initially,fiveRRBs
weresetupon
October2,1975whichwassponsoredbySyndicateBank,StateBankofIndia,Punjab
NationalBank,
UnitedCommercialBankandUnitedBankofIndia.Thetotalauthorizedcapitalwas
fixedatRs.1
CrorewhichhassincebeenraisedtoRs.5Crores.Thereareseveralconcessionsenjoyed
bytheRRBs
byReserveBankofIndiasuchaslowerinterestratesandrefinancingfacilitiesfrom
NABARDlike
lowercashratio,lowerstatutoryliquidityratio,lowerrateofinterestonloanstakenfrom
sponsoring
banks,managerialandstaffassistancefromthesponsoringbankandreimbursementof
theexpenseson
stafftraining.

UnscheduledBanks
:UnscheduledBankinIndiameansabankingcompanyasdefinedinclause
(c)ofsection5oftheBankingRegulationAct,1949(10of1949),whichisnota
scheduledbank.

NABARD
NABARDisanapexdevelopmentbankwithanauthorizationforfacilitatingcreditflow
forpromotion
anddevelopmentofagriculture,smallscaleindustries,cottageandvillageindustries,
handicraftsand
21

otherruralcrafts.Italsohasthemandatetosupportallotheralliedeconomicactivitiesin
ruralareas,
promoteintegratedandsustainableruraldevelopmentandsecureprosperityofrural
areas.In
dischargingitsroleasafacilitatorforruralprosperity,NABARDisentrustedwith:
1.Providingrefinancetolendinginstitutionsinruralareas
2.Bringingaboutorpromotinginstitutionsdevelopmentand
3.Evaluating,monitoringandinspectingtheclientbanks
4.Besidesthisfundamentalrole,NABARDalso:

Actasacoordinatorintheoperationsofruralcreditinstitutions

Tohelpsectorsoftheeconomythattheyhavespecialcreditneedsforeg.Housing,small
businessandagriculturalloansetc.

CooperativeBanks

Largerinstitutionsareoftencalledcooperativebanks.Somearetightlyintegrated
federationsofcredit
unions,thoughthosemembercreditunionsmaynotsubscribetoallnineofthestrict
principlesofthe
WorldCouncilofCreditUnions
(WOCCU).
Likecreditunions,cooperativebanksareownedbytheircustomersandfollowthe
cooperativeprinciple
ofoneperson,onevote.Unlikecreditunions,however,cooperativebanksareoften
regulatedunderboth
bankingandcooperativelegislation.

Servicesprovidedbybankingorganizations
BankingRegulationActinIndia,1949definesbankingasAcceptingforthepurposeof
lendingor
investmentofdepositsofmoneyfromthepublic,repayableondemandandwithdrawal
bycheques,
drafts,ordersetc.aspertheabovedefinitionabankessentiallyperformsthefollowing
functions:

AcceptingDepositsorsavingsfunctionsfromcustomersorpublicbyprovidingbank
account,
22

currentaccount,fixeddepositaccount,recurringaccountsetc.

Thepaymenttransactionslikelendingmoneytothepublic.Bankprovidesaneffective
credit
deliverysystemforloanabletransactions.

Providethefacilityoftransferringofmoneyfromoneplacetoanotherplace.For
performingthis
operation,bankissuesdemanddrafts,bankerscheques,moneyordersetc.for
transferringthe
money.BankalsoprovidesthefacilityofTelegraphictransferortelecashordersfor
quick
transferofmoney.

Abankperformsatrustworthybusinessforvariouspurposes.

Abankalsoprovidesthesafecustodyfacilitytothemoneyandvaluablesofthegeneral
public.
Bankoffersvarioustypesofdepositschemesforsecurityofmoney.Forkeeping
valuablesbank
provideslockerfacility.Thelockersaresmallcompartmentswithduallockingsystem
builtinto
strongcupboards.Thesearestoredinthebanksstrongroomandarefullysecured.

BanksactonbehalfoftheGovt.toacceptitstaxandnontaxreceipt.Mostofthe
government
disbursementslikepensionpaymentsandtaxrefundsalsotakeplacethroughbanks.
Thereareseveraltypesofbanks,whichdifferinthenumberofservicestheyprovideand
theclientele
(Customers)theyserve.Althoughsomeofthedifferencesbetweenthesetypesofbanks
havelessenedas
theyhavebeguntoexpandtherangeofproductsandservicestheyoffer,therearestill
key
distinguishingtraits.Thesebanksareasfollows:

Commercialbanks:

whichdominatethisindustry,offerafullrangeofservicesforindividuals,
businesses,andgovernments.Thesebankscomeinawiderangeofsizes,fromlarge
globalbanksto
regionalandcommunitybanks.

Globalbanks:
areinvolvedininternationallendingandforeigncurrencytrading,inadditiontothe
23

moretypicalbankingservices.

Regionalbanks:
havenumerousbranchesandautomatedtellermachine(ATM)locationsthrough
outamultistateareathatprovidebankingservicestoindividuals.Bankshavebecome
moreoriented
towardmarketingandsales.Asaresult,employeesneedtoknowaboutalltypesof
productsand
servicesofferedbybanks.

Communitybanks:
arebasedlocallyandoffermorepersonalattention,whichmanyindividuals
andsmallbusinessesprefer.Inrecentyears,onlinebankswhichprovideallservices
entirelyoverthe
Internethaveenteredthemarket,withsomesuccess.However,manytraditionalbanks
havealso
expandedtoofferonlinebanking,andsomeformerlyInternetonlybanksareoptingto
openbranches.

Savingsbanks
and
savingsandloanassociations:

sometimescalledthriftinstitutions,arethe
secondlargestgroupofdepositoryinstitutions.Theywerefirstestablishedascommunity
based
institutionstofinancemortgagesforpeopletobuyhomesandstillcatermostlytothe
savingsand
lendingneedsofindividuals.

Creditunions
are:anotherkindofdepositoryinstitution.Mostcreditunionsareformedbypeople
withacommonbond,suchasthosewhoworkforthesamecompanyorbelongtothe
samelabourunion
orchurch.Memberspooltheirsavingsand,whentheyneedmoney,theymayborrow
fromthecredit
union,oftenatalowerinterestratethanthatdemandedbyotherfinancialinstitutions.

FederalReservebanks:
areGovernmentagenciesthatperformmanyfinancialservicesforthe
Government.Theirchiefresponsibilitiesaretoregulatethebankingindustryandtohelp
implementour
Nationsmonetarypolicysooureconomycanrunmoreefficientlybycontrollingthe
Nationsmoney
supplythetotalquantityofmoneyinthecountry,includingcashandbankdeposits.
Forexample,duringslowerperiodsofeconomicactivity,theFederalReservemay
purchase
governmentsecuritiesfromcommercialbanks,givingthemmoremoneytolend,thus
expandingthe
economy.FederalReservebanksalsoperformavarietyofservicesforotherbanks.For
example,they
maymakeemergencyloanstobanksthatareshortofcash,andclearchecksthatare
drawnandpaidout

bydifferentbanks.
24

Themoneybanks:
lend,comesprimarilyfromdepositsincheckingandsavingsaccounts,
certificatesofdeposit,moneymarketaccounts,andotherdepositaccountsthatconsumers
and
businessessetupwiththebank.Thesedepositsoftenearninterestfor
theirowners,andaccountsthatofferchecking,provideownerswithaneasymethodfor
making
paymentssafelywithoutusingcash.
25

IMPORTANCEININDIANMARKET
Introduction
Indiaisconsideredamongthetopeconomiesintheworld,withtremendouspotentialfor
itsbanking
sectortoflourish.Thelastdecadewitnessedasignificantupsurgeintransactionsthrough
ATMs,as
wellasinternetandmobilebanking.
Thecountry'sbankingindustrylookssetforgreatertransformation.WiththeIndian
Parliament
passingtheBankingLaws(Amendment)Billin2012,thelandscapeofthesectorhas
dulychanged.
ThebillallowstheReserveBankofIndia(RBI)tomakefinalguidelinesonissuingnew
licenses,
whichcouldleadtoagreaternumberofbanksinthecountry.Thestyleofoperationis
alsoslowly
evolvingwiththeintegrationofmoderntechnologyintothebankingindustry.

Inthenext510years,thesectorisexpectedtocreateuptotwomillionnewjobsdriven
bythe
effortsoftheRBIandtheGovernmentofIndiatoexpandfinancialservicesintorural
areas.Two
newbankshavealreadyreceivedlicencesfromthegovernment,andtheRBI'snewnorms
willoffer
incentivestobankstospotbadloansandtakenecessaryrecoursetocurbthepracticesof
rogue
borrowers.

Marketsize

ThesizeofbankingassetsinIndiatotalledUS$1.8trillioninFY13andisexpectedto
touch
US$28.5trillioninFY25.Bankdepositshavegrownatacompoundannualgrowthrate
(CAGR)
of21.2percentoverFY0613.InFY13,totaldepositswereUS$1,274.3billion.

TherevenueofIndianbanksincreasedfromUS$11.8billiontoUS$46.9billionoverthe
period
20012010.ProfitaftertaxalsoreachedUS$12billionfromUS$1.4billioninthe
period.

CredittohousingsectorgrewataCAGRof11.1percentduringtheperiodFY0813.
Total
bankingsectorcreditisanticipatedtogrowataCAGRof18.1percent(intermsofINR)
to
reachUS$2.4trillionby2017.

InFY14,privatesectorlendersexperiencedsignificantgrowthincreditcardsand
personalloan
businesses.ICICIBanksaw141.6percentgrowthinpersonalloandisbursementinFY
14,asper
areportbyEmkayGlobalFinancialServices.Thebankalsoexperiencedhealthygrowth
of20.8
percentincreditcarddues,accordingtothereport.AxisBank'spersonalloanbusiness
alsogrew
49.8percent,withits
creditcardbusiness
expandingby31.1percent.

Investments
26

HDFCBankandstateownedUnitedBankofIndiaplantotaptheequitymarketstoraise
fundsto
enhancecapitalbaseandlending.HDFCBankplanstoraiseRs10,000crore(US$1.66
billion)
whiletheboardofKolkatabasedUnitedBankwillseekapprovalforraisingaboutRs
1,300crore
(US$216.47million)bysellingsharestoincreaseitscapitalbase.
ExportImportBankofIndia(EximBank)willincreaseitsfocusonsupportingproject
exportsfrom
IndiatoSouthAsia,AfricaandLatinAmerica,asperMrYaduvendraMathur,Chairman
andMD,
EximBank.Thebankhasmovedupthevaluechainbysupportingprojectexportssothat
Indiaearns
foreignexchange.In201213,EximBankhadlentsupportto85projectexportcontracts
valuedat
Rs24,255crore(US$4.03billion)securedby47companiesin23countries.

IndusIndBankwillsoonbeginitsassetreconstructionbusiness.Theprivatesectorlender
plansto
partnerassetreconstructioncompanies(ARCs)forthisventure."Ithinkournew
initiative,whichis
goingtolaunchinthenexttwomonths,isaboutassetreconstruction.Wewilldoasset
reconstruction
withinthebankbutintieupswithARCs.Thebusinessplanisready.Webelieveahuge
stockof
assetsiscomingintotheARCsasabusinessareathatweneedtolookatandwewill
exploit,"asper
MrRomeshSobti,CEOandMD,IndusIndBank.
JammuandKashmir(J&K)BankplanstoincreaseitspresenceoutsideIndia.Thebankis
lookingto
establishbranchesinLondonandDubaitoenhanceitsrelationshipwithcurrent
customerswhohave
businessinterestsinWestAsiaandEurope."Wehaveanumberofbusinessrelationships
inthese
countriesanditmakessenseforustohaveapresencethere,"asperMrMushtaqAhmad,
Chairman
andCEO,J&KBank.

GovernmentInitiatives

TheRBIhasannouncedafewmeasuresinitsbimonthlymonetarypolicyonJune3,
2014which
includesanincreaseintheforeignexchangeremittancelimittoUS$125,000fromthe
previous
limitofUS$75,000.

StateBankofIndia(SBI)hasannouncedaoneyearruralfellowshipprogramme'SBI
Youthfor

India(SBIYFI)'for2014todraftthecountry'syouthtobecomechangeagentsinthe
country's
ruralregions.Theprogrammeisforyoungprofessionalswhoarekeentoleadthechange
fora
betterIndia.

TheRBIhassimplifiedtherulesforcredittoexporters.Exporterscannowreceivelong
term
advancecreditfrombanksforupto10yearstoservicetheircontracts.Exportershaveto
havea
satisfactoryrecordofthreeyearstoreceivepaymentsfrombanks,whocanadjustthe
payments
againstfutureexports.
27

TheRBIhasenabledoverseasinvestors,includingforeignportfolioinvestors(FPIs)and
non
residentIndians(NRIs),toinvestupto26percentininsuranceandrelatedactivities
throughthe
automaticroute.

RoadAhead
India'sbankingindustrycouldbecomethefifthlargestbankingsectorgloballyby2020
andthethird
largestby2025.Thesedays,banksinIndiaareturningtheirfocustoservicingclientsand
improving
theirtechnologyinfrastructure,whichcanhelpbettercustomerexperienceandgivethem
a
competitiveedge.Thepopularityofinternetandmobilebankingisatanalltimehigh,
withcustomer

relationshipmanagement(CRM)anddatawarehousinganticipatedtodrivethenextwave
ofbanking
technologyinthecountry.
ExchangeRateUsed:INR1=US$0.0166asonJuly25,2014
References:MediaReports,Pressreleases,RBIDocuments
SomeMajorareasofBankingare:

RETAILBANKING

CORPORATEBANKING

CORPORATECREDIT

TREASURY

CAPITALMARKETS

LENDINGTOMICRO,SMALLANDMEDIUMENTERPRISES,AGRICULTURE
ANDMICROFINANCE

INTERNATIONALBANKING
SWOTANALYSISOFBANKINGSECTOR
28

STRENGTH


Indianbankshavecomparedfavourablyongrowth,assetqualityandprofitabilitywith
other
emergingeconomiesbanksoverthelastfewyears.

Policymakershavemadesomenotablechangesinpolicyandregulationtohelp
strengthen
thesector.Thesechangesincludestrengtheningprudentialnorms,enhancingthe
payments
systemandintegratingregulationsbetweencommercialandcooperativebanks.

BanklendinghasbeenasignificantdriverofGDPgrowthandemployment.

Extensivereach:thevastnetworking&growingnumberofbranches&ATMs.Indian
bankingsystemhasreachedeventotheremotecornersofthecountry.

Intermsofqualityofassetsandcapitaladequacy,Indianbanksareconsideredtohave
clean,
strongandtransparentbalancesheetsrelativetootherbanksincomparableeconomiesin
its
region.

Foreignbankswillhavetheopportunitytoownupto74percentofIndianprivatesector
banksand20percentofgovernmentownedbanks.

WEAKNESS

PSUsneedtofundamentallystrengtheninstitutionalskilllevelsespeciallyinsalesand
29

marketing,serviceoperations,riskmanagementandtheoverallorganisational
performance
ethic&strengthenhumancapital.

Oldprivatesectorbanksalsohavetheneedtofundamentallystrengthenskilllevels.

Thecostofintermediationremainshighandbankpenetrationislimitedtoonlyafew
customersegmentsandgeographies.

Structuralweaknessessuchasafragmentedindustrystructure,restrictionsoncapital
availabilityanddeployment,lackofinstitutionalsupportinfrastructure,restrictivelabour
laws,weakcorporategovernanceandineffectiveregulationsbeyondScheduled
Commercial
Banks(SCBs),unlessindustryutilitiesandservicebureaus.

OPPORTUNITY

Themarketisseeingdiscontinuousgrowthdrivenbynewproductsandservicesthat
include
opportunitiesincreditcards,consumerfinanceandwealthmanagementontheretailside,
andin
30

feebasedincomeandinvestmentbankingonthewholesalebankingside.Theserequire
new
skillsinsales&marketing,creditandoperations.


WithincreasedinterestinIndia,competitionfromforeignbankswillonlyintensify.

Giventhedemographicshiftsresultingfromchangesinageprofileandhousehold
income,
consumerswillincreasinglydemandenhancedinstitutionalcapabilitiesandservicelevels
from
banks.

NewprivatebankscouldreachthenextleveloftheirgrowthintheIndianbankingsector
by
continuingtoinnovateanddevelopdifferentiatedbusinessmodelstoprofitablyserve
segments
liketherural/lowincomeandaffluent/HNIsegments;activelyadoptingacquisitionsasa
means
togrowandreachingthenextlevelofperformanceintheirserviceplatforms.Attracting,
developingandretainingmoreleadershipcapacity.

ForeignbankscommittedtomakingaplayinIndiawillneedtoadoptalternative
approachesto
wintheraceforthecustomerandbuildavaluecreatingcustomerfranchiseinadvance
of
regulationspotentiallyopeninguppost2009.Atthesametime,theyshouldstayinthe
gamefor
potentialacquisitionopportunitiesasandwhentheyappearinthenearterm.Maintaining
a
fundamentallylongtermvaluecreationmindset.

ReachinruralIndiafortheprivatesectorandforeignbanks.

WiththegrowthintheIndianeconomyexpectedtobestrongforquitesometime
especiallyin
itsservicessectorthedemandforbankingservices,especiallyretailbanking,mortgages
and
investmentservicesareexpectedtobestrong.

ReserveBankofIndia(RBI)hasapprovedaproposalfromthegovernmenttoamendthe
BankingRegulationActtopermitbankstotradeincommoditiesandcommodity
derivatives.

Hybridcapital:Inanattempttorelievebanksoftheircapitalcrunch,theRBIhasallowed
them
toraiseperpetualbondsandotherhybridcapitalsecuritiestoshoreuptheircapital.Ifthe
new
31

instrumentsfindtakers,itwouldhelpPSUbanks,leftwithlittleheadroomforraising
equity.

THREATS

Threatofstabilityofthesystem:failureofsomeweakbankshasoftenthreatenedthe
stabilityof
thesystem.

Riseininflationfigureswhichwouldleadtoincreaseininterestrates.

IncreaseinthenumberofforeignplayerswouldposeathreattothePSBaswellasthe
private
players.

COMMERCIALBANK
INTRODUCTION
32

Acommercialbankisatypeofbankthatprovidesservicessuchasacceptingdeposits,
making
businessloans,andofferingbasicinvestmentproducts.
Commercialbankcanalsorefertoabankoradivisionofabankthatmostlydealswith
depositsand
loansfromcorporationsorlargebusinesses,asopposedtoindividualmembersofthe
public(retail
banking).
IntheUSthetermcommercialbankwasoftenusedtodistinguishitfromaninvestment
bankdueto
differencesinbankregulation.Afterthegreatdepression,throughtheGlassSteagallAct,
theU.S.
Congressrequiredthatcommercialbanksonlyengageinbankingactivities,whereas
investment
bankswerelimitedtocapitalmarketsactivities.Thisseparationwasmostlyrepealedin
the1990s.
Theroleofcommercialbanks;
Commercialbanksengageinthefollowingactivities:

Processingofpaymentsbywayoftelegraphictransfer,internetbanking,orothermeans.

Issuingbankdraftsandbankcheques.


Acceptingmoneyontermdeposit
.

Lendingmoneybyoverdraft,instalmentloan,orothermeans.

Providingdocumentaryandsteady,guarantees,performancebonds,securities
underwritingcommitmentsandotherformsofoffbalancesheetexposure.

Cashmanagementandtreasury.

Merchantbankingandprivateequityfinancing.
33

Traditionally,largecommercialbanksalsounderwritebonds,andmakemarketsin
currency,interestrates,andcreditrelatedsecurities,buttodaylargecommercialbanks
usuallyhaveaninvestmentbankarmthatisinvolvedintheaforementionedactivities.

Typesofloansgrantedbycommercialbanks:

Securedloans:
Asecuredloanisaloaninwhichtheborrowerpledgessomeasset(e.g.acarorproperty)
ascollateralfortheloan,whichthenbecomesasecureddebtowedtothecreditorwho
givestheloan.

Thedebtisthussecuredagainstthecollateralintheeventthattheborrowerdefaults,the
creditor
takespossessionoftheassetusedascollateralandmaysellittoregainsomeorallofthe
amount
originallylenttotheborrower,forexample,foreclosedaportionofthebundleofrightsto
specified
property.
Ifthesaleofthecollateraldoesnotraiseenoughmoneytopayoffthedebt,thecreditor
canoften
obtainadeficiencyjudgmentagainsttheborrowerfortheremainingamount.The
oppositeofsecured
debt/loanisunsecureddebt,whichisnotconnectedtoanyspecificpieceofpropertyand
insteadthe
creditormayonlysatisfythedebtagainsttheborrowerratherthantheborrower's
collateralandthe
borrower.
Inthepast,commercialbankshavenotbeengreatlyinterestedinrealestateloansand
haveplaced
onlyarelativelysmallpercentageofassetsinmortgages.Astheirnameimplies,such
financial
institutionssecuredtheirearningprimarilyfromcommercialandconsumerloansandleft
themajor
taskofhomefinancingtoothers.

Unsecuredloan
34

Unsecuredloansaremonetaryloansthatarenotsecuredagainsttheborrower'sassets
(nocollateralisinvolved).Therearesmallbusinessunsecuredloanssuchascreditcards
andcredit

linestolargecorporatecreditlines.Thesemaybeavailablefromfinancialinstitutions
undermany
differentguisesormarketingpackages:

bankoverdrafts

corporatebonds

creditcarddebt

creditfacilitiesorlinesofcredit

personalloans
Acorporatebondisabondissuedbyacorporation.Itisabondthatacorporationissues
toraise
moneyinordertoexpanditsbusiness.Thetermisusuallyappliedtolongertermdebt
instruments,
generallywithamaturitydatefallingatleastayearaftertheirissuedate.
Somecorporatebondshaveanembeddedcalloptionthatallowstheissuertoredeemthe
debtbefore
itsmaturitydate.Otherbonds,knownasconvertiblebonds,allowinvestorstoconvertthe
bondinto
equity.
35

FUNCTIONOFCOMMERCIALBANKS:
Commercialbanksperformmanyfunctions.Theysatisfythefinancialneedsofthe
sectorssuchas

agriculture,industry,trade,communication,sotheyplayverysignificantroleinaprocess
of
economicsocialneeds.Thefunctionsperformedbybanks,sincerecently,arebecoming
customer
centredandarewideningtheirfunctions.Generally,thefunctionsofcommercialbanks
aredivided
intotwocategories:primaryfunctionsandthesecondaryfunctions.
Commercialbanksperformvariousprimaryfunctions,someofthemaregivenbelow:

Commercialbanksacceptvarioustypesofdepositsfrompublicespeciallyfromits
clients,
includingsavingaccountdeposits,recurringaccountdeposits,andfixeddeposits.These
deposits
arepayableafteracertaintimeperiod

Commercialbanksprovideloansandadvancesofvariousforms,including
an
overdraft
facility,cashcredit,billdiscounting,moneyatcalletc.Theyalsogivedemandand
demandandtermloanstoalltypesofclientsagainstpropersecurity.

Creditcreationismostsignificantfunctionofcommercialbanks.Whilesanctioninga
loanto
acustomer,theydonotprovidecashtotheborrower.Instead,theyopenadeposit
accountfrom
whichtheborrowercanwithdraw.Inotherwords,whilesanctioningaloan,they
automatically
createdeposits,knownasacreditcreationfromcommercialbanks.

Alongwithprimaryfunctions,commercialbanksperformseveralsecondaryfunctions,including
many
agencyfunctionsorgeneralutilityfunctions.Thesecondaryfunctionsofcommercialbankscanbe
divided
intoagencyfunctionsandutilityfunctions.

Theagencyfunctionsarethefollowing:

Tocollectandclearcheque,dividendsandinterestwarrant.

Tomakepaymentsofrent,insurancepremium,etc.

Todealinforeignexchangetransactions.

Topurchaseandsellsecurities.
36

Toactastrustee,attorney,correspondentandexecutor.

Toaccepttaxproceedsandtaxreturns.
Theutilityfunctionsarethefollowing:

Toprovidesafetylockerfacilitytocustomers.

Toprovidemoneytransferfacility.

Toissuetravellerscheque.

Toacceptvariousbillsforpayment:phonebills,gasbills,waterbills,etc.

Toprovidemerchantbankingfacility.

Toprovidevariouscards:creditcards,debitcards,smartcards,etc
37

PerformaBalanceSheetOfBanks
Particulars
Year
AmountRs.
Year
AmountRs.
Capitalandliabilities:
TotalShareCapital
........................................
EquityShareCapital
........................................
ShareApplicationMoney
........................................
PreferenceShareCapital
........................................
Reserves

........................................
RevaluationReserves
........................................
NetWorth
........................................
Deposits
........................................
Borrowings
........................................
TotalDebt
........................................
OtherLiabilities&Provisions
........................................
TotalLiabilities
........................................
Assets
Cash&BalanceswithRBI
........................................
BalancewithBanks,MoneyatCall
........................................
Advances
........................................
Investments
........................................

GrossBlock
........................................
AccumulatedDepreciation
........................................
NetBlock
........................................
CapitalWorkInProgress
........................................
OtherAssets
........................................
TotalAssets
........................................
ContingentLiabilities
........................................
Billsforcollection
........................................
BookValue(Rs)
........................................

AssetsAndLiabilitiesOfBanks
38

Bank'sLiabilities:
Bank'sliabilitiesconstitutefivemajoritems;


Thesharecapital,thecontributionwhichshareholdershavecontributedforstartingthe
bank.

Reservefundsarethemoney,whichthebankhasaccumulatedovertheyearsfromits
undistributedprofits.

Depositsarethemoneyownedbycustomersandthereforeitisaliabilityofabank.There
canbevariouskindsofdepositsandrecurringdeposits.

Apartfromtheseitemsabankcanborrowfromcentralandothercommercialbanks.
These
borrowingsarealsotreatedasbank'sliabilities

Bank'sAssets
Bank'sassetscomprises;

Cash,moneyatshortnotice,billsandsecuritiesdiscounted,bank'sinvestments,loans
sanctionedbythebank,etc.

Bank'scashinhand,cashwithotherbanksandcashwithcentralbank(RBI)areits
assets.

Whenabankmakesmoneyavailableatshortnoticetootherbanksandfinancial
institutions
foraveryshortperiodof114daysitisalsotreatedasbank'sasset.

Apartfromtheseitemsbankalwaysmakemoneyavailabletopeopleontheformofloans
andadvances.Theyarealsobecomebank'sassets.

LIABILITYANDASSETSPORTFOLIOOFINDIAN
COMMERCIALBANKS
39

SBI&IT'SASSOCIATES
(AmountincroreRs.)
PARTICULARS
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Liabilities
1.Capital

11.66
11.53
10.97
11.04
10.8
15.66
10.36
10.36
10.36
10.36
2.Reservesand
Surplus
1241.53
1060.96
832.97
826.22
713.42
601.4
419.05
366.23
317.28
267.14
3.Deposits
16184.45
14050.24
12458.6211080.86

10070.437738.74
6334.755424.1
5056.5
4328.91
4.Borrowings
2019.15
1587.82
1420.03
1215.67
622.4
645.91
483.23
370.85
234.75
168.15
5.Otherliabilitiesand
provisions
1200.4
1002.25
1254.25
988.75
1385.08
1107.87
810.55
746.93
651.85

718.01
TotalLiabilities
20657.19
17712.8
15976.8414122.53
12802.1210109.598057.946918.476270.745492.57
6.Cashandbalances
withRBI
893.18
790.88
1192.34
820.57
741.07
747.14
448.28
310.29
252.2
261.62
7.Balanceswith
banksinIndiaandmoney
atcallandshort
notice
519.74
482.3
339.79
308.06

535.22
190.69
291.11
282.27
280.68
273.34
8.Investments
4729.98
4173.22
3856.97
3874.73
3576.24
2638.23
2116.63
2247.622607.052477.75
9.Advances
13792.24
11519.91
9941.54
8579.37
7396.06
5937.22
4824.263716.792847.272205.16
10.FixedAssets
91.61
74.16

65.65
62.13
55.12
45.91
39.62
39.51
34.63
33.49
11.OtherAssets
630.44
672.32
580.56
477.67
498.4
550.39
338.04
322
248.91
241.22
TotalAssets
20657.19
17712.8
15976.8414122.53
12802.1210109.598057.946918.486270.745492.58

(source:

www.rbi.org.in
)
Interpretation:

ThecapitalofSBIanditsassociatesareshowninincreasingtrendinalltheyears
between
20042013andtheamountare,in2004capitalisRs.10.36croreanditincreasetoRs.
11.66
croreinyear2013.
40

ThereservesandsurplusoftheSBIanditsassociatesarealsoincreaseinalltheyears
from
20042013,andtheamountisRs.264.14,317.28,366.23,419.05,601.4,713.42,826.22,
832.97,
1060.96,1241.53respectively.

ThesizeofthedepositsofthebanksalsoincreasefromRs.4328.91croretoRs.16184.45
crore
inyear2004to2013.

Theborrowingincreasecomparetothepreviousyearsfrom2004to2013andtheamount
isRs.
168.15croretoRs.2019.15crore.Theborrowingsareincreaseveryspeedily.

ThetotalliabilitiesofthebanksareincreasefromRs.5492.57toRs.20657.19fromyear
2004to
2013respectively.

BankscashandbalancewithRBIareincreaseinalltheyears2004,2005,2006,2007,
2008,
2009,2010,2011,2012,2013andtheamountisRs.261.62,525.2,310.29,448.28,
747.14,
741.07,820.57,1192.34,790.88,893.18crorerespectively.

ThebanksBalancewithotherbanksandmoneyatcallandshortnoticeareincreasefrom
Rs.
273.34croretoRs.519.74croreinyear2004to2013respectively.

TheinvestmentsofthebanksareincreasefromRs.2477.75croretoRs.4729.98crorein
year
2004to2013respectively.Itshowsincreasingtrendinbankingsector.

ItisshownfromthebalancesheetthattheadvancesareincreasefromRs.2205.16to
Rs.13792.24inyear2004to2013respectively.

Thetotalassetsofthebanksarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013are
Rs.5492.58,
6270.74,6918.48,8057.94,10109.59,12802.1214122.53,15976.84,17712.8,20657.19
crore
respectively.Itshowsthegoodsignforbankingindustry.

PRIVATEBANKS

(AmountincroreRs.)
PARTICULARS
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Liabilities

41
1.Capital
49.99
47.83
48.05
45.49
45.90
46.13
41.44
3937
33.42
30.02

2.Reservesand
Surplus
1879.47
1545.12
1337.84
1154.35
954.30
867.57
463.29
398.87
271.75
194.96
3.Deposits
13958.36
11745.87
10027.59
8228.01
7363.79
6750.33
5519.87
4284.57
3126.46
2685.50
4.Borrowings
2999.98
2584.20

1859.84
1493.5
947.53
879.57701.31
494.87
444.44
403.66
5.Otherliabilities
andprovisions
1010.24
1007.89
708.44
586.01
963.10
857.83
728.13
498.67
381.97
358.63
TotalLiabilities
19898.04
16930.9113981.76
11507.36
10274.65
9401.44
7454.04

5716.35
4258.04
3672.77
6.Cashand
balanceswithRBI
743.50
705.56
316.16
386.7
574.77
712.82
410.17
235.97
211.90
217.25
7.Balanceswith
banksinIndiaand
money
atcallandshort
notice
577.30
365.54
4220.2
3541.17
340.26
255.88

372.88
232.74
195.48
148.54
8.Investments
6261.06
5259.82
7975.34
6324.41
3064.55
2785.78
2146.54
1805.68
1389.68
1354.91
9.Advances
11432.49
9664.03
129.8
102.39
5753.36
5184.02
4147.55
3129.61
2203.37
1703.85

10.FixedAssets
144.77
133.72
479.15
394.04
98.80
96.28
81.68
80.00
76.96
76.96
11.OtherAssets
738.92
802.25
288.43
758.65
442.90
366.66
295.22
232.28
180.64
180.64
TotalAssets
19898.04
16930.9113981.76
11507.36

10274.65
9401.44
7454.04
5716.28
4258.03
4258.03

(source:
www.rbi.org.in
)
Interpretation:

ThecapitalofPrivatebanksareshowninincreasingtrendinalltheyearsbetween2004
2013
andtheamountare,in2004capitalisRs.30.02croreanditincreasetoRs.49.99crorein
year
2013.

Thereservesandsurplusarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013,andthe
amountisRs.
194.96,271.57,398.87463.29,867.57,954.30,1154.35,1337.84,1545.12,1879.47
respectively.

ThesizeofthedepositsofthebanksalsoincreasefromRs.2685.50croretoRs.13958.36
crore
inyear2004to2013.
42


Theborrowingincreasecomparetothepreviousyearsfrom2004to2013andtheamount
isRs.
403.66croretoRs.2999.98crore.Theborrowingsareincreaseveryspeedily.

ThetotalliabilitiesofthebanksareincreasefromRs.3672.77croretoRs.19898.04crore
from
year2004to2013respectively.

BankscashandbalancewithRBIareinfluctuatingtrendtheyears2004,2005,2006,
2007,
2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013andtheamountisRs217.25,211.90,235.97,410.17,
712.82,574.77,386.7,316.16,705.56,743.50crorerespectively.

ThebanksBalancewithotherbanksandmoneyatcallandshortnoticearealsoin
fluctuating
trendfromRs.148.54croretoRs.577.30croreinyear2004to2013respectively.Butit
highly
increaseinyear2010and2010Rs3541.17croreandRs.4220.2crorerespectively.

TheinvestmentsofthebanksareincreasefromRs.1354.91croretoRs.6261.06crorein
year
2004to2013respectively.Itshowsincreasingtrendinbankingsector.

ItisshownfromthebalancesheetthattheadvancesareincreasefromRs.1703.85crore
to
Rs.11432.49croreinyear2004to2013respectively.


Thetotalassetsofthebanksarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013are
Rs.4258.03
croreto19898.04crorerespectively.Itshowsthegoodsignforbanks.

NATIONALIZEBANKS
43

(AmountincroreRs.)
(source:www.rbi.org.in)
44
PARTICULARS
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Liabilities
1.Capital
178.77
170.96
179.58

124.4
124.56
114.99
113.81
112.94
144.92
136.4
2.Reserves
andSurplus
2654.06
2312.29
1879
1448.36
1234.21
1015.81
813.03
660.9
526.2
378.35
3.Deposits
41272.5
2
35969.8
9
31271.2
2

25839.3
4
21057.0
5
16799.9
3
13607.2
4
10800.7
2
9302.047939.47
4.Borrowings
3552.15
3061.51
2531.41
1922.47
960.64
917.66
734.49
781.66
694.05
139.21
5.Other
liabilitiesand
provisions
1304.98

1168.74
1100.13
951.17
1488.58
1261.26
1073.31
874.06
801.47
628.27
TotalLiabilities
48962.4
9
42683.4
36961.3
3
30285.7
4
24865.0
5
20109.6
5
16341.8
8
13230.2
8
11468.68

9221.7
6.Cashand
balanceswithRBI
1900.54
2009.33
2331.45
1888.02
1500.33
1549.65
973.84
817.41
647.72
580.8
7.Balances
withbanksin
Indiaandmoney
atcalland
shortnotice
1909.23
1277.62
982.47
835.94
777.81
445.17
653.39
461.89

372.02
301.15
8.Investments
12861.0
8
10899.4
8
9428.37
8281.25
6550.42
5360.18
4529.81
4087.95
4250.263779.03
9.Advances
30935.5
27253.1
6
23114.78
18430.8
2
15205.4
9
12036.7
8
9576.97

7346.09
5699.444122.24
10.Fixed
Assets
334.39
308.84
295.91
282.56
282.31
242.06
162.32
107.19
99.79
81.76
11.Other
Assets
1021.74
934.96
808.36
567.15
548.67
475.8
445.55
409.75
399.43
356.71

TotalAssets
48962.4
9
42683.4
36961.3
3
30285.7
4
24865.0
5
20109.6
5
16341.8
8
13230.2
8
11468.669221.69

Interpretation:

ThecapitalofNationalizebanksareshowninincreasingtrendinalltheyearsbetween
2004
2013andtheamountare,in2004capitalisRs.136.4croreanditincreasetoRs.178.77
crorein
year2013.

Thereservesandsurplusofthebanksarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013,
andthe
amountisRs.378.35,526.2,660.9,813.03,1015.81,1234.21,1448.36,1879,2312.29,
2654.06
crorerespectively.

ThesizeofthedepositsofthebanksalsoincreasefromRs.7939.47croretoRs.41272.52
crore
inyear2004to2013.

Theborrowingincreasecomparetothepreviousyearsfrom2004to2013andtheamount
isRs.
139.21croretoRs.3552.15crore.Theborrowingsareincreaseveryspeedily.

ThetotalliabilitiesofthebanksareincreasefromRs.9221.7toRs.48962.49crorefrom
year
2004to2013respectively.

BankscashandbalancewithRBIareincreaseinalltheyears2004,2005,2006,2007,
2008,
2009,2010,2011,2012,2013andtheamountisRs.580.8,647.72,817.41,973.84,
1549.65,
1500.33,1888.02,2331.45,2009.33,1900.54crorerespectively.

ThebanksBalancewithotherbanksandmoneyatcallandshortnoticeareincreasefrom
Rs.
1909.23croretoRs.301.15croreinyear2004to2013respectively.

TheinvestmentsofthebanksareincreasefromRs.3779.03croretoRs.12861.08crorein
year
2004to2013respectively.Itshowsincreasingtrendinbankingsector.

ItisshownfromthebalancesheetthattheadvancesareincreasefromRs.4122.24to
Rs.30935.5
inyear2004to2013respectively.

Thetotalassetsofthebanksarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013areRs.
9221.69,
11468.66,13230.28,16341.88,`20109.65,24865.05,30285.74,36961.33,42683.4,
48962.49
crorerespectively.Itshowsthegoodsignforbankingindustry.

FOREIGNBANKS
(AmountincroreRs.)
45

(source:www.rbi.org.in)
Interpretation:

ThecapitalofForeignbanksareshowninincreasingtrendinalltheyearsbetween2004
2013
andtheamountare,in2004capitalisRs.46.45croreanditincreasetoRs.462.68crore
inyear
46
PARTICULARS
2013

2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Liabilities
1.Capital
462.68
406.31
353.83
305.27
259.11
222.86
129.99
89.4
70.13
46.45
2.Reservesand
Surplus
611.14
530.6
456.68

386.49
340.26
270.46
200.76
153.74
119.69
102.01
3.Deposits
2880
2769.48
2406.89
2320.99
2140.77
1911.61
1507.92
1137.46
865.05
801.44
4.Borrowings
1534.04
1204.22
927.97
682.47
701.27
583.15
509.66

384.12
309.93
250.02
5.Other
liabilitiesand
provisions
727.77
971.66
769.92
658.39
1030.09
652.91
431.8
228.88
176.49
163.24
TotalLiabilities
6215.63
5882.28
4915.28
4353.62
4471.49
3640.99
2780.13
1993.6
1541.29

1363.16
6.Cashand
balanceswithRBI
214.52
231.69
202.93
190.97
156.46
220.11
128.45
81.08
67.71
72.77
7.Balances
withbanksinIndia
andmoney
atcalland
shortnotice
344.6
311.3
273.65
205.59
332.51
199.35
266.73
187.51

112.6
96.6
8.Investments
2280.63
2006.51
1654.99
159.291
1303.54
989.1
714.69
523.83
425.18
415.87
9.Advances
2636.8
2298.49
1955.39
1632.6
1654.15
1611.33
1263.39
975.62
753.18
605.07
10.FixedAssets
60.41

50.18
49.59
48.6
47.38
39.69
30.01
24.11
18.82
19.51
11.OtherAssets
678.67
983.62
778.74
682.95
977.46
581.41
383.89
201.4
163.78
153.35
TotalAssets
6215.63
5881.79
4915.28
4353.62
4471.49

3640.99
2780.16
1993.55
1541.27
1363.17

2013.

Thereservesandsurplusarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013,andthe
amountisRs.
102.01,119.69,153.74,200.76,270.46,340.26,386.49,456.68,530.6,611.14crore
respectively.

ThesizeofthedepositsofthebanksalsoincreasefromRs.801.44croretoRs.2880crore
inyear
2004to2013.

Theborrowingincreasecomparetothepreviousyearsfrom2004to2013andtheamount
is
Rs.250.02croretoRs.1534.04crore.Theborrowingsareincreaseveryspeedily.

ThetotalliabilitiesofthebanksareincreasefromRs.1363.16toRs.6215.63crorefrom
year
2004to2013respectively.

ThebanksBalancewithotherbanksandmoneyatcallandshortnoticeareincreaseinall
the
years2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013andtheamountis
Rs.96.6,

112.6,187.51,266.73,199.35,335.51,205.59,273.65,311.3,344.6crorerespectively.

BankscashandbalancewithRBIareincreaseinalltheyearsfromRs.72.77croreto
Rs.214.52
croreinyear2004to2013respectively.

TheinvestmentsofthebanksareincreasefromRs.415.87croretoRs.2280.63crorein
year
2004to2013respectively.Itshowsincreasingtrendinbankingsector.

ItisshownfromthebalancesheetthattheadvancesareincreasefromRs.605.07croreto
Rs.2636.8croreinyear2004to2013respectively.

Thetotalassetsofthebanksarealsoincreaseinalltheyearsfrom20042013are
Rs.1363.17
croretoRs.6215.63crorerespectively.Itshowsthegoodsignforbanks.

PARTII
47

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
METHODOLOGYOFDATACOLLECTION

Beforethecollectionofdata,itisoftenadvisabletoallotheraspectsofthestudy.We
needto
recognizethescope,needandimportanceaswellastheobjectivesofthestudy.Afterthe
purposehas
beendefined,thenextstepistodecideaboutthesourcesofdata.Thesourcesof
informationmaybe
primaryaswellassecondarysources.Thissectionentailsareviewofallthedata
obtainedandit
relevancetothestudybeingundertaken.
DATACOLLECTIONMETHOD:Therearetwotypesofdatacollectionmethods.
1.Primarydatacollectionmethod
48

2.Secondarydatacollectionmethod
PRIMARYSOURCES:
Theprimarydataarecollectedbythethoroughanddetaileddiscussionwasconducted
with
collegefacultyguide.
SECONDARYSOURCES:
ThesecondarydataincludesbalancesheetofIndiancommercialbankslike(1.)SBI&it's
Associates(2.)PrivateBanks(3.)NationalizeBanks(4.)ForeignBanksandalso
theoretical
informationfromthetextbooks.
SAMPLINGDESIGN:
1Samplingunit
:Balancesheetofcommercialbanks
2SamplingSize
:LasttenyearsbalancesheetofCommercialbanks

3Samplingprocedure
:Direct
Fordoingtheanalysis,wehavetofollowthefollowingmethod
1.Collectthedatefromtheinternet,newspapers,onlineRBIsite,andliterature.
2.FromtheRBIsite,theannualbalancesheetisbeentaken,ofdifferentbanks.
3.Thecomparisonofthedifferentbankbalancesheet,givetheclearpictureofthe
changes
madeintheasset&liabilityportfolioallocationindifferentindustries.
49

4.Thechangeintheasset&liabilityallocationofdifferentbank,showsthatwhichbank
face
problemandwhichbankareatthetop.
5.Forenhancingourresearchwecollectedlast10yearsdataofSbi&it'sassociates,
foreign
bank,nationalisedbank,privatebank&publicbank.
6.Nowweneedtodoresearchontheeachsectorofbank&derivedtheportfolioof
banks.

OBJECTIVEOFSTUDY
Followingsarethemainobjectivesofstudyof"AssetsAndLiabilityPortfolio
Managementof
IndianCommercialBanks

TostudydifferentportfolioofAssets&Liabilitiesindicatingitsimportance.

Tostudygrowthpatternofdifferentportfolios.

Tostudydiversificationinportfolio&reasonsthereof.
50

ImplicationofRBIregulationonbankingbalancesheet.

LITERATUREREVIEW
1.)Prof.P.Sheela,Ms.TejaswiniBastrayGITAMInstituteofManagementGITAM
University,InternationalJournalofBusinessandAdministrationResearchReview,
Vol.1,
Issue.6,JulySep,2014
AssetLiabilityPortfolioManagementistodayconcernedasastrategicmanagementof
assets(usesoffunds)andliabilities(sourcesoffunds)ofbanks,againsttheriskexposed
duetothechangingliquiditypositioninthebank,interestratesandexchangerates,and
againstcreditriskandcontingencyrisk.FinancialservicesinIndiahasbeenwitnessinga
significantchangesspeciallyafterthepostliberalizationperiod,therehasbeenavast
shift
intheborrowersprofile,theindustryprofileaccompaniedbytheincreasemarket
volatility,
diversificationofthebanksproductprofileandintensifiedcompetitionbetweenthe
public
51

andprivatebanksinIndia,allisaddingtotheincreasedriskexposedbyofthebanksin
India.Thus,bankstodayneedtomatchtheirmaturitiesbetweentheirassetsandliabilities
andatthesametimebalancingtheirobjectivesofprofitability,Liquidityandrisk.
2.)VaidyaandShahi:WorldAcademyofScience,EngineeringandTechnology
InternationalJournalofSocial,Management,EconomicsandBusinessEngineeringVol:8
No:1,2014.

Concludedthatinterestrateriskandliquidityriskaretwokeyinputsinbusinessplanning
processofcommercialbanks.Liquiditymanagementandassetliabilityportfolio
managementarethepracticesmostoftencarriedoutineveryorganizationwhichis
concernedaboutperformanceandprofits.AssetLiabilityPortfolioManagementhasnow
becomeessentialforallfinancialinstitutionsinIndia.
3.)DR.ANURAGBSINGH,MS.PRIYANKATANDON:AsiaPacificJournalof
Marketing&ManagementReview:Vol.1No.3,November2012,ISSN23192836.
AssetLiabilityportfolioManagementhasevolvedasavitalactivityofallfinancial
institutionsandtosomeextentotherindustriestoo.Ithasbecometheprimefocusinthe
bankingindustry,witheverybanktryingtomaximizeyieldandreducetheirrisk
exposure.
TheReserveBankofIndiahasissuedguidelinestobanksoperatingintheIndian
environmenttoregulatetheirassetliabilitypositionsinordertomaintainstabilityofthe
financialsystem.
4.)PrathapB.N.:AsiaPecificJournalofResearch,Apeerreviewedinternational
journal,
PrintISSN23205504,June2013,Volume2,Issue4.
Basedontheempiricalfindings,itcanbeconcludedthatownershipandstructureofthe
banksdohaveamajorbearingintheAssetsLiabilityPortfoliomanagementprocedure.It
is
furtherobservedthatSBIanditsAssociateshavethebestcorrelation,therebyindicating
the
bestassetliabilitymaturitypattern.MostoftheIndianbanks,unlikeforeignbanks,are
liabilitymanagedbanksbecausetheyallborrowfrommoneymarkettomeettheir
maturing
liabilities.Theprivatebanksarehighlyaggressiveforprofitgenerationandusetheshort

termfundsforlongterminvestments.Theinterestrateandliquidityrisksarethe
significant
risksthataffectthebanksbalancesheetandtherefore,theyshouldberegularlyevaluated
and
managed.Fortheprivatebanks,theyuseariskystrategyincaseofproblemsarisingfrom
the
52

significantrisksashasbeenmentionedabove.ThenationalizedbanksalongwithSBIand
its
Associatesareexcessivelyconcernedaboutliquidityandintheprocess,theyuselong
term
fundsforlongaswellasmediumandshorttermloans.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Websites:

www.rbi.org.in

www.wikipedia.com

www.scribd.com

www.google.com
53

Newspapers:

EconomicTimes

BusinessStandard
54