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# 1.

ABSTRACT

Mass transfer occurs due to the difference in concentrations between two points which
cause a certain component in a mixture to move or transfer in the same phase or from a
phase to another. Mass transfer by diffusion occurs when there is a driving force from a
medium to another medium. The aim for this experiment is to determine the diffusivity
of the vapour of ethanol. To start the experiment, the water bath was filled with clean
water and a microscope was used to measure the height of the ethanol. The heater is
switched on and the capillary tube filled with 40mm ethanol was observed for any
changed in height. The tube was connected to the capillary tube and the reading was
taken every 10 minutes for 1 hour. The result showed that the diffusivity of ethanol is D
= 2.3247 x 10-4 m2/s. The result shows that the longer the time, the higher the level of
the ethanol. It also can be concluded that flowing air is significantly increase the
diffusion coefficient thus increasing the mass transfer.

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INTRODUCTION

Mass transfer is an important thing for science and engineering field. Mass transfer
occurs due to the difference in concentrations between two points which cause a certain
component in a mixture to move or transfer in the same phase or from a phase to
another. Mass transfer by diffusion occurs when there is a driving force from a medium
to another medium. This driving force is known as concentration gradient. A
concentration gradient occurs when there is a difference in concentrations between two
points where at one point as higher concentration that the other. The point which has the
higher concentration has more molecules of a certain components in a mixture that the
one in the lower concentration (anonymous 2015).
Mass transport in gas or liquid involved the flow of fluid. However, in solid
state do not accept flow except by diffusion. There is other type of diffusion apart from
uniform concentration gradient which is diffusion in a non-uniform concentration. The
uniform concentration diffusion does obey Ficks first law where the constant of
proportionality is called the diffusion coefficient. However, for non-uniform
concentration gradients assuming that the diffusivity is independent of the concentration
as stated in Ficks second law of division (Wan 2014).
This experiment are to direct measurement of mass transfer rates in the absence
convective effects, the Ficks law are used to calculate the concentration differences in
terms of partial pressures. However, Winklemanns method can be used to determine
the diffusivity of the vapor of a volatile liquid contain in narrow diameter vertical tube
in air. Nevertheless, a static and dynamic condition of the laboratory process must be
pursued to associate with the molecular diffusivity, D (Tiqa 2014).

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OBJECTIVES

## 1. To determine the diffusivity of the vapour of ethanol.

2. To determine gas diffusion coefficient of ethanol.
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4.0

THEORY

Gas is an air-like fluid substance that fills up any available space and expands freely. In
a closed space, gas takes on the shape of its container in which it is held in. The atoms
or molecules of a matter in the gaseous state move freely among each other and are, in
most instances, packed more loosely than the molecules of the same substance in
the solid or liquid state (Looking For Gas, n.d.). When a sample of matter in the
gaseous state is heated, the atoms or molecules gain kinetic energy and move more
rapidly. When a sample of gaseous matter is cooled, the atoms or molecules lose kinetic
energy and move more slowly. If a sample of gaseous matter confined to a container of
fixed size, is heated, the pressure increases. If the sample is cooled, the pressure drops.
If a sample of gaseous matter is placed in a sealed container and then the volume of the
container is reduced, the compression heats the gas. If the volume of the sealed
container increases, the decompression cools the gas (Rouse, 2005).

## Diffusion is a net move of a substance, for example, an atom, an ion or

molecule. The movement of diffusion is random, it could go in any way from a region
of high concentration to a low concentration region (Element, Compounds and, n.d.).
Molecules are constantly in motion, due to the presence of heat; even at extremely low
temperatures, some heat energy is present, giving particles thermal motion. If two
different gases at the same temperature are brought into contact with one another then,
over time, the random motion of their molecules will cause them to mix until they are
evenly distributed (What Is Diffusion?, n.d.). When two non-identical gases or liquids
are brought into proximity, the kinetic energy of the molecules causes them to
intermingle at the edges. Over time, this intermingling results in a relatively even blend
of the two.

## Mass transfer explains this phenomenon by explaining that the difference in

concentration between two points will cause a certain component in a mixture to move
or transfer in the same phase or from a phase to another. The difference between the
concentrations cause that particular components to move in and out of each point until it
reached the equilibrium point where there is no net flow between the components which
means there are same number or concentrations of that component in each region. The
concentration gradient moves from high concentration to low concentration. Mass
transfer occurs when there is a concentration gradient. The difference in the
concentrations in each region acts as the driving force for mass transfer which is caused
by the difference in molecules of certain component in each region. The particular
component will flow in and out of each region to reduce the concentration gradient until
it reached the equilibrium point. Mass transfer by diffusion is important because many
purification processes involve mass transfer. For example, in order to keep our air
healthy and free from pollution, each factory needs to control or prevent the emission of
the dangerous gas into the environment. Removal of SO 2 from flue gas is done by
absorption in a basic liquid solution by using mass transfer method.

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## MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

Apparatus
1. Gasses Diffusion Coefficients Apparatus (CER-A (armfield))
2. Capillary tube
3. Microscope
4. Ruler
5. Stopwatch

Materials
1. Water bath
2. Ethanol

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METHODOLOGY

1. The water bath was filled with clean water to approximately 25mm from the top
of the bath.
2. The microscope was inserted into the holder on the support stand and clamp by
tightening the finger screw. The eyepiece was ensured to be fitted to the
microscope.
3. The main cable was connected to the electrical supply and the supply voltage
was ensured to be correct and suited the equipment.
4. The heater switch was turned on and temperature was set to be 40C.

5. The capillary tube was filled by 40mm of ethanol and inserted into the gland
located at the top of the water bath.
6. The pump switch was operated by turned on the pump switch. The pressure was
controlled by adjusting the clip on the tube.
7. The tube was connected to the capillary tube and the first reading of ethanol was
taken by putting the upper meniscus of ethanol lies on the straight line provided
in the microscope.
8. The reading of ethanol was taken every 10 minutes for 1 hour.
9. The result was tabulated and the graph was plotted.

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Ethanol
T= 40oC
Lo= 40mm
Time, t (s)

t/dL (s/mm)

0
600
1200
1800
2400
3000
3600

(mm)
40
42
45
48
52
54
57

0
300
240
225
200
214
212

0
2
5
8
12
14
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## Graph t/L-Lo against L-Lo

350
300
250
f(x) = 15.14x + 138.14
R = 0.12

200
150
100
50
0
0

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## Figure 7.1 Graph of t/dL against dL

Calculations
Molecular Weight, M = 46.0634kg/kmol
kmol volume = 22.41 m3
Density of Ethanol,

= 789 kg/m3

## Vapour pressure, Pv = 5.95 kPa

Pressure, Pa = 101.3 kPa
Temperature, Ta = 40oC

From the graph, of t/(L-Lo) versus L-Lo, slope of graph, m = 15.143 s/mm @ m =
1.5143 x 107 s/m2

CT =

CT =

T ||
Ta

kmol volume

1
K
=0.039 kmol/m
( 22.41m
)( 273.15
313.15 K )

## Saturation concentration at interface, C A (kmol /m ) :

CA=

PV
C
Pa T

( )

5.95 kPa
0.039 kmol
(
101.3 kPa )
C =
=2.29 10

kmol / m

3
Logarithmic mean molecular concentration of vapor, C BM (kmol /m ) :

CT =C A +C BM
C BM =CT C A

C BM =0.039

kmol
2.29 103 kmol /m3 =0.03671 kmol/m3
3
m

Diffusivity of ethanol,

D(m 2 /s) :

D=

( 2Ms )( CC .C )
L

BM

789 kg/m3
0.03671 kmol /m3
D=
3
46.0634 kg
s
2(
)(1.5143 107 2 ) ( 2.29 103 kmol )( 0.039 kmol
)
kmol
m
m
m3

)(

D=2.3247 104 m2 /s

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DISCUSSION

## Separation processes have 3 basic principles fundamental transfer (transport process)

that is momentum transfer, heat transfer and mass transfer. The method use in this
experiment is to evaporate a pure liquid in a narrow tube with a gas passed over the top
to analyze the diffusion coefficient of ethanol by evaporation from a liquid surface .The
surface of the narrow tube is thermally equilibrium with 40 oC of water .The pure liquid
of ethanol is used as the manipulated variables and the ethanol liquid level is measured
with time and the diffusivity is calculated. Diffusivity coefficient is important in mass
transfer process. This is because the diffusivity coefficient acts as a driving force to
transfer the mass of ethanol in the narrow tube to the air supply. The ethanol is diffuse
through the air in the tube. The boundary at the liquid surface is impermeable to air,
since air is insoluble in ethanol liquid. Hence, air cannot diffuse into or away from the
surface of ethanol.
Before calculated diffusivity coefficient can be solved, the graph of t/L-L versus L-L
for T=40C is plotted. From the graph, it states that the height different of ethanol is
larger when the time taken is longer or more precisely the level of ethanol is decreasing
with time (t/dL). It means that the mass transfer is occurring in the narrow tube which is
from the ethanol through the air supply at 40C. The decreasing level of ethanol is
occurring when there is a driving force form the surface to the air. Intentional force is

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## to the above graph and the value is 2.3247 x 10 m /s .

As shown in the table, when the time is 600s, the level of ethanol is 300s and the height
difference is 2mm. When the time taken is longer, the level of ethanol keep decreasing
with time for example, at 3600s the level of ethanol with time achieved at 212s/mm
which is lower than 300s/mm meanwhile the height different of ethanol increase.
The theory proved that the point which has the higher concentration has more
molecules of a certain components in a mixture that the one in the lower concentration.
The difference between the concentrations cause that particular components to move in
and out of each point until it reached the equilibrium point where there is no net flow
between the components which means there are same number or concentrations of that
component in each region. In this experiment, the level of ethanol with time decreasing
as each molecules transfer to air.
The theory also stated that there have the different in diffusivity coefficient and
stated that when the temperature is increase, the driving force of mass transfer also
increases. However, the temperature effect on the diffusivity coefficient also based on
the boiling point of the pure substance. Ethanol has the boiling point of 78.37 0C and it
can be assumed that, higher diffusivity coefficient results when the temperature
contacted nearest to the boiling point. this is because, the supply heat to the ethanol
make the molecules in that particular substance move faster and increase the kinetic
energy between each molecules and easily transfer to the air. But in this experiment, the
temperature is constant at 40C.
Lastly, all the precautions need to take wisely. Use glove during the experiment
because handling with ethanol. Check and clean the apparatus before running the
experiment to avoid larger error. The equipment that is not clean up before handling the
experiment can affect the performance of ethanol used.

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CONCLUSION

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## As a conclusion, the experiment was conducted to determine gas diffusion coefficient of

ethanol. The result shows that the longer the time, the higher the level of the ethanol.
The temperature also affected the result as the higher the temperature the higher the
diffusivity. Therefore, an increase in temperature (faster molecular movement) will
increase the diffusion rate. Next, the graph shows a trend that linearly increasing. So, it
can be concluded that flowing air is significantly increase the diffusion coefficient thus
increasing the mass transfer.

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10.0

RECOMMENDATION

## It is recommended to use higher concentration of ethanol so that the diffusion

process will be easier, the observation can be seen more clearly and the results
can be more accurate.

It is recommended to fill up the water bath until the level of ethanol is located
below the water level.

It is recommended to provide the cap of the capillary tube to close the end of the
capillary tube to prevent the ethanol to escape which can affect the results.

## Another increase in accuracy could be achieved by regulating the temperature

with more consistency.

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REFERENCE

Retrieved

from

Wan

Ikrimah

2014

Full

Report

## Anonymous. (2015). Diffusion. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/diffusion

Tiqa. (2014). Diffusion Coefficient Full Report. Retrieved March 28, 2015, from
http://www.scribd.com/doc/39085101/Diffusion-Coefficient-Full-ReportTiqa#scribd

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## Anonymous. (n.d.). Chapter 5. Diffusion. Retrieved March 25, 2015, from

http://www.virginia.edu/bohr/mse209/chapter5.htm

Coca, J., Bueno, J.L. and Alvarez, R. (1980). Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients by the
Stefan-Winkelmann Method Using a Polymer-Solvent Mixture as Evaporation
Source. Ind.Eng.Chem.Fundamen., 1980, 19(2), pp 219-221.

Whatsls.com.

(n.d.).

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26,

2015,

from

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/gas.

Looking

for

Gas.

(n.d.).

retrieved

March

27,

2015,

from

http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_gas
GCSE

SCIENCE.

(n.d.).

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26,

2015,

from

http://www.gcsescience.com/e16-bromine-diffusion-air.htm

Adam, B. Harris, and Hill. (n.d.). What is Diffusion? Retrieved 26 March, 2015, from
http://www.wisegeek.comwhat-is-diffusion.htm.

## Anonymous. (n.d.). Home Distillation of Alcohol. Retrieved 26 March, 2015, from

http://homedistiller.org/calcs/cacc.

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APPENDIX

## Gaseous Diffusion Apparatus

CER-A (ARMFIELD)
Vital Series Sdn. Bhd.

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