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# Mooterey, Clitonji.

by

## Albert Bernard Lemanski

Lieutenant, Unitecr States Navy
University of Illinois, 1958
B.S.
,

## Submitted in partial fulfillment

for the degree of

from the

May, 1966

c.|

ABSTRACT

A method

is

Design

control systems.

is

of

## an algebraic set of simultaneous equations derived from the

design specifications.

## system damping ratio, undamped natural frequency, bandwidth,

steady state error coefficients and root sensitivity.

The method

is

shownWcfT5e

fa's|,

In

ry

SeEool

Page

Section
Introduction

2.

3.

## Application of the Algebraic Method

19

4.

Sensitivity as a Specification

P.S

5.

Conclusions

HOI

LIST

OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Page

Figure
2. 1

18

2.2

18

2.3

18

4.

Example 4

39

for

## SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CE

Characteristic equation

E ss

G(s)

kQ

## Acceleration error constant

Accelerometer gain

Ka

Gain

or k

or k

ICy

## Position error constant

Velocity error constant

Kt

Tachometer gain

M pw

Reasonance peak

Superscript or
subscript "o"

## Specified or numerical value

Angular frequency

(omega)

wn

Undamped

natural frequency

wb

Bandwidth

wr

tf{f

-3 db)

Polynomial in

Complex variable

Sensitivity

SP

of the form cr +

## Sensitivity of P with respect to

jw

gw n
S

jr

**

component

of root sensitivity

wn

component

of root sensitivity

(zeta)

Damping

ratio

Introduction

manner.

"

the definition.

in a prescribed

is

## the time domain by applying modern state space concepts or by

direct solution of the system differential equations.

Alternatively,

and

## Bode plots, root locus, Mitrovic's Method, etc.

Notwithstanding the achievements which have resulted
from direct application of the above procedures,

it

must be

With the

## demands the assistance

of a digital computer.

## to all people at all times nor is

employ a computer

In a sense,

for all

it

available

economically practical to

computation.

consuming, i.e.
based on

trial

variables.

and

error,

## and normally limited to one or two

In

need

view

of the

above discussion,

new procedure

design tool.

it

However,

it

is

in order for a

must be

## extend the range of problems which can be solved without

resorting to graphical techniques or the exclusive use of a

computer.

It

is

## The Algebraic Method: Concept and Development

Concept
The proposed design procedure

is

## system design specifications can be transformed into algebraic

functions of the system parameters.

independent,

If

equations which

of solving a

is not

are:

## undamped natural frequency (w n )

state error

(E

specified.

In

darning

reasonance peak (M

## many cases, both \$ and

wn

ss ), bandwidth (w b)

and
are

## This is equivalent to specifying the location of a

complex pole pair and generally implies that these poles should
dominate the system response.

If

wn

W]-,

and E ss because

and

wr

can be at least

## approximately expressed in terms of jr and

of this section is therefore

The remainder

specifications

f or

wn

w, and E gs

wn

of a

method

is

in

two ways

The

first

Assume

obtained

## by setting the denominator of the closed loop transfer function

equal to zero, is the polynomial.

<2<

S<

(2-1)

where

s is

## a complex variable and defined as

c*(2-2)

and the a^'s represent the real coefficients which are functions
of the

system parameters.

is of

(2-3)

C~,

where

polynomial.

By expanding

10

s in

If Jr*

pole pair,

anc*
it

is

## define the location of the specified complex

permissible to set

Rz -

F *^> -

(2-4)

ft

ft*'
(2-5)

## Substituting these values of R, and R2 into the n root -coefficient

relations obtained previously gives n equations in terms of the

## remaining n-2 roots and the coefficients of equation (2-1).

algebraic manipulation,

it

is

By

Since the

## coefficients are explicit functions of the system parameters

any combination

of the parameters

Example

2.

S3

-h

qz s2 + G*S +
-

ae>

## Find the relations which must exist between the coefficients in

order to locate a pole pair withj^ = 1/2 and

of the

11

CE as

R]_,

w Q =10.
R2 and R3.

Then

and

cr,

a& =

f%,

Ra.

*>

= S~

*-

R*.

*-

Rz )

-hRs
/

- j to

/> (q z -/ q ) -

Then

/?* /? 3

az = R,
Setting

+ R^ (&

/?,>?*

/
/

3/y.

(1)

=Qo
/OORs * ^7o

/0(Q,-/0)

(2)

Equations
equation

(1)

(3)

and

(2)

## While the root-coefficient method works well with low

ordered systems (and even provides information about the

it

of higher order

because

the expense

(at

## of losing information about the remaining n-2 roots) by using

Mitrovic's Method.

With

developed

in (3)

and

(5).

system can

The method

is

is fully

given here.

previously.

in a^,

wR

and

;^rcan

be

## obtained by substituting equation (2-2) into equation (2-1) and

setting the real and imaginary portions of the resulting

12

## expressions equal to zero.

the introduction of a

new

*r-o

oj\$

ci K

cj>

(?)

(2-6)

(f)-O

=P

(2-7)

AC-O

where

with

(?)

(f) -

= - * F

Appendix

(f)

-f

4 tfJ - "I

in

a*"*

4>.

(2-8)

(y)

<W - 4<

Cf)

are tabulated

## Equations (2-6) and (2-7) are known as the generalized

Mitrovic equations and can be used to obtain the coefficient
relations required to locate a pole pair as specified by JT

and

wQ

Example

Work example

Method.

are

+ ** u>i

4>t

(?)

+ *9 *>i

Substituting

wn

Appendix

I,

Pi =

tO

wQ

cf)

<j>

z cr)~

7o

13

=.

/oo q z - iOOO

## The results are equivalent to those obtained previously.

Although only a single pair of complex poles
considered here,

it

is

being

is

## capable of handling any number of real or complex poles

(providing, of course, that the total

number considered

is less

of a sixth order

values.

If

## dependent oh the complex poles can be obtained by repeated

use of equations (2-6) and (2-7).

## which are dependent on the real roots are produced by repeated

use of

C-')*^*<7 *

<-=o

(2-8)

obtained by letting

-gr* in

equation (2-1)

(E

ss )

may be

specified.

They are

= k = lim G(s)
p

= k

(2-9)

s-*-o

= lim sG(s)

(2-10)

s-o

## acceleration error constant = k a = lim s^G(s)

s**o

14

(2-11)

The above definitions are only valid for systems which have

all

for

## complex variables) and unity feedback around the forward

To satisfy the last requirement,

it

may be necessary

is

## value of E ss with the algebraic expression resulting from

application of equation (2-9), (2-10) or (2-11).
is

demonstrated

in the following

The procedure

examples.

Example 2.3
For the system shown in figure 2-1, obtain an expression

between K, Z and P f or k

6.

<U*

(S)

**<***>
52

(*+s)(s+C)(*+R)

## Applying equation (2-11)

Ji =

which, for k a =

.^
6,

=
** Q^cs) .

reduces

to:

<z

18 OP = KZ

Example 2.4
For the system shown in figure 2-2, derive an equation in

terms of K,

K 2 and K

15

## Since the system does not have unity feedback, insert

fictitious positive

G e q(s) can

system.

## then be found by including the positive

feedback branch

S x (H-K K3 )-t-sfa+K,K2.)
t

-K,

Bandwidth (wij

at

## of the closed loop transfer function has

- 3 db bandwidth.

The transformation

can be

= jw.

A.

B.

## Find the magnitude of the resulting expression and

equate

C.

it

to 0.707.

Substitute

w^ and

simplify.

Example 2.5
For the system shown in figure 2-3, derive a relation in

16

## Following the prescribed procedure:

Ccs)

iK-co*)* T io*(-+KKt)Z

RCju>)

For

wb

= 10

O (juS)

__

<2

= /0*-ZOOK +/00(S-+KKt) Z

'

for a

II

/z

\Rtju>)l

## second order system

in the

is typical of the

preceeding example

expressions which

Since the

## expressions increase in complexity for higher ordered systems

or for systems having closed loop zeroes,

(An excellent

If

specifications.

requirement.

If

if

## the specification is not satisfied, the magnitude

of the deficiency

may suggest

next attempt.

17

4CS)
6>g

-~&*-

<3c CS)

^ St

S* (*+L)(S+S)

FIGURE 2.1

gj (s)

^c

K.

\
)
.

s (s + s)

Tach FB

Ka S
FB
K3 s2

AcceL

FIGURE 2.2

Q-s)

FIGURE 2.3

18

## As stated previously, the basis of the proposed design

method
of

is the transformation of

## simultaneous constraint equations that are explicit functions

of the

system parameters.

## parameters, usually compensating elements, is an integral part

of the design procedure.
It

## converse of this statement

is

also true.

An unsatisfactory

solution does not imply that a solution does not exist; one

may

## These statements suggest that there

associated with the procedure.

amount

of trial

is

some

trial

This is correct.

and error

However, the

In

## The algebraic method has the inherent capability to handle

any number

of specifications or parameters.

Therefore a

19

specifications.

If

## design of a system subject to

specifications, for

M>N,

## results will be parametric and expres sable in terms of any

the

parameters.

Example
Given G(s) = K/s(s +

4)

3.

with Kv = 4
It

Jp

= 1/2 and

wQ

= 4

specifications.

## This seemingly trivial example has major significance.

Specifically, one parameter successfully satisfies three

discussion.
of

It

parameters for

This

in

## Examples 3.2 and 3.3 will be used as illustrations

of this

observation.

Example

3. 2

G c (s)

= (s+Z)/(s+P), into

*Note:
input

## employ unity feedback between output and

addition to any other specified feedback)

(in

20

b !i e

eet

r,

ene

s p c 1

cnt

on

_K*JLS

^69 fs) *

## Applying equation (2-10):

(1)

-4*
^P

K* System CE:
S 3 +&(++/>)
Mitrovic equations:

A simultaneous solution

= V -r K
~ t&(*+P)-m

^/Vv-Pj
/CfL

K=

## & (4P+K )-*.<*

-/-

/=

of equations

(1)

(2)

and

(2)

(3)

(3)

gives:

P = Z

16

Since the pdle and zero of the filter are coincident, the

filter

## performs no function and can therefore be eliminated.

Example
For G(s) = 50/s(s + 5),
-5

(JT

- 0.707 and

tachometer feedback
P = 10)

In

(Kj.

it

wQ

is

5 (2)

0. 1) or a

each case, K =
v

l/^ 2
)

by using either

(Z

= 5,

## tachometer feedback and a series compensator to satisfy the

same specifications.
For combined tachometer feedback and cascade compensation:

^(s, - S 3
Applying equation (2-10):

-**<S+*}
*-

## P+S + SOKr) +s(5P+SOKt2)

5*

<v

= Soz/(TP + <>OKtI)

21

(1)

System CE:

Mitrovic equations:

F>

i-

So 2 = SO (P+"+ SOKr)"Soo

&OKrlk

+SO /6
Z =

Simplifying:

First of all,

it

"

&C

(3)

(4)

P = 10(1 -

## The result obtained

(2)

example

in this

(5)

5KJ.)

is

doubly significant.

filter

was redundant

equation
Kj.

= 0.1.

(5)

filter is

may

not exist.

In this case,

## which satisfy equation

solution is best?

(5)

In this example,

however,

At this point,

it

P = 10.

unique solution

## any positive values of P and

Kj.

Which

is a matter of conjecture.

## However, this example will be rediscussed

means

In

in Section 4 after a

## design has been developed.

Example 3.4
Given the forward loop transfer function, G(s)
design series compensation to give roots with

wQ

6.

22

=
s (j^'/i;(s + 7;
/^

~ 1/2 and

is 4. 15

r-z

Geo

Cs)

S*+

7>Sf>3 3 -*-

## Applying equation (2-10):

(s-hlt)

S*(7.&P+3.) +

Kv -

>-f.l

**
0~ S f~

3-S~P>s

(1)

System CE:

Mitrovic equations:

<it m &+

p-

i+o-

K = HhP
Solving equations

(l)

(2)

and

(3)

gives:

K=

(2)

/9-T

(3)

1475

P = 37.9

Z = 0.373

Example :3
The bandwidth

for the

system

in

example 3.4

is

is

## The introduction of another specification requires the

insertion of another parameter.

Ge

(s)

Then

gjifrgj

## Applying equation (2-10):

/<v

**/./"

3*&P -t-K.IC.TT.

(l)

System CE:

S 4 + s 3 (y. S -,.P)
Mitrovic equations:

t-

Sx

(3 .

## S + ?.Sp-t- KK-r) +S (s-SP+KKYt+K) +-Ki~0

Km . A*jb.f*><^l*J-^rt

{2)

## System bandwidth equation

^^-

1/2 =

Solving equations

(1)

w^

for

4:

11^2

through

(4):

K=

252

Kt = 0.16

24

P = 5.93

Z = 1.015

(z/;

4.

Sensitivity as a Specification.

now

Attention is

If

## was not obtained indicates the need

specific solution

for another

equation which, for the system being developed, implies the need
for

## Since the design specifications have

another specification.

it

One choice

## for a general control

system specification

is

C*

where Sq

is

(Jtrn

it

dP/r

(Sit)

(4-1)

## read as "the sensitivity of a function P with respect

to a parameter Q.

because

P)

"

by the author

it

## that sensitivity is essentially the ratio of the percentage

in the function to the percentage

## reason for this choice

is

change

states

change

in the parameter.)

The

Specifically,

it

requires

environment.

On

25

which not

## maintain the desired performance in spite of undesired parameter

variations.

Root Sensitivity-

Use

## compliance with the design specifications, P should ideally

be a function of all the design specifications.

However,

## this presentation, only the root specification, i.e.

wQ

will be considered.

j? Q

in

and

## and pole sensitivity will be used interchangeably.)

Restricting attention to root sensitivity does not completely

fact, there are

In

One argument

is that root

## specifications are more stringent than either the bandwidth or

error coefficient specifications.

a certain

can be

minimum

or

specifications.

maximum value.

Another argument

is

26

If

restricted by

means

## of the remaining closed loop poles is also restricted.

This

statement stems from the fact that the specified poles have

equation.

Now,

## equation must have remained reasonably constant for small

parameter changes.

## hence the remaining poles, also remained reasonably constant.

Since both bandwidth and the error coefficients are partially

## dependent (and, in fact, totally dependent for low order systems

without zeroes) on the characteristic equation,

it

follows that

## their sensitivity functions bear an approximate relation to the

root sensitivity functions.

been recognized,

was expended

it

in the

(2)

## major advancement towards this goal.

is

considered to be a

## the definition of sensitivity, equation (4-1), in conjunction with

the generalized Mitrovic equations, equations (2-6) and (2-7),
to obtain algebraic expressions for (what the author considers

to be) the

components

of root sensitivity.

27

## based on a specified pole pair, but also simplify sensitivity

computations because they permit the exclusive use of real
variables in calculating the sensitivity of a function containing

complex variables.
Since the Kokotovic and Siljak sensitivity equations will

a parameter

OJm

gives

^" j=^
+

-'

f61{

^k-l( J^

^ 4s? *>
and 2^-1

(4

4><

(f)

= o

'

" 2)

jz

and

4K (?) = -z[s

&

Appendix

<3

\$?4+**irf*o

+
where

II.

jzf,"

+*-,\$

+ t^ <C* wj

(4

. 4)

are given in

(4-5)

28

where

Bi

= ^wf

(f ;

&

/%?<**&* 4 K <r)

(4- 7)

e2 =j

(4-8)

w\$ <?^j

^ -&*>
Q

C -f ^ "* ^.^

<?

Q and S^n

(4-9)

gives

(4-10)

if

(4-1 1L

5q ^~<3 D
where

4,

5;

a*

Be,

(4-12)

c,
^2.

(4-13)
|

A,

(4-14)
E

C*

equations.

(Hereafter,

Sq and

simplicity is

number

their

## dependence on the solution

of auxilliary equations

")

of a

fQ

and

wQ

and the

known

2-9

(aP)

This

## Equations (4-10) and (4-11) may be used in two ways.

Substitution of a given set of parameter values into the right

hand side

of the

## equations gives a definite sensitivity value

parameter values.

## for a specific set of

Alternatively, the

## assignment of a sensitivity value to the component sensitivity

functions give the parameter relations which must be satisfied in
order to obtain a system of the specified sensitivity.
In either case, the final design will be dependent

It

upon the

is

(4-1)) are

A.

Signs

(+ or -) of

minimum value

## implying that a function

is totally

of sensitivity is zero,

insensitive to variations of a

parameter.
B.

SJJ=

in Q.i.e.
is

if

5% change

in

results in a

5% change

in P.

This

## considered to be the maximum permissible value of sensitivity;

possible, systems should have sensitivity values

than one.

30

much less

c.

variation.

This

is

in

some detection

schemes)

D.

As indicated

properties.

in

A above,

## Therefore, the total root sensitivity, Si^", is

appropriately expressed as
(S<RT)2

(S

F)2 +

(S j^n)

(4-15)

Sensitivity as a Specification

that

it

The

Example 4

## Reconsider example 3.3 in view of a specification requiring

minimum sensitivity

## Considering the system gain, K, as a parameter, the system

characteristic equation is

(1)

in detail to

## demonstrate the solution of the auxilliary equations.

equations (4-7) and (4-8) gives

3D

Applying

SOO Oj /OO Oz

/?/

/? 2

= /oo /z

Bz.

wn

after substituting

-^t%

m /oo oz
=

wQ

o,

?se> i/2 o3

2 oco

## and sz^_^(0. 707) from Appendices

and

II.

jz

(0.707)

Although specific

(1)

in

## conjunction with the results of example 3.3 show that the

coefficients of the characteristic equation must have the

QZ=Z0

Q,

=/>

<* *

/,

(2),

gives
(3)

## Taking the partial of each coefficient in equation

(1)

with

respect to K gives

and

f or

k (0.707) gives

jzf

which, for Z =
c, * s-

- o r

Cz

* \$

>"

lJT ~

## Applying equation (4-12) and substituting equation

(3)

gives

D -ZSo x to 3
Applying equation (4-13) and substituting from equations

and

wn

(5)

gives
32

(6)

(3)

D** =
1

ZSoo

(7)

## Applying equation (4-14) and substituting from equations

and

(5)

gives

>k
Substituting
(7)

and

(3)

(8)

= K = 50,

**-'*-&*/& ('-'*#*)

fQ =

^
(9)

and

-M/**r-/J

3**Equations

0. 707

(8)

(9)

do)

Vz

## would normally be squared and added to obtain an expression

In this case, however,

S^nis

## Therefore, the minimum pole

observed to be a constant.

(10)

equal to zero.

This gives

Kj.

For

Kj.

k

## per cent change in

wR

while

remains constant.

The system

## characteristic equation for the specified value of

ForK=50:

w Q =7.07

ForK=55:

w =7.42
33

These

Kj.

is

= 0.707

Jf =0.708

Au>^

Therefore

^^ 9 <r%

Aj_

0m/

+%

Parameter Selection

## The preceeding example raises several questions which

have yet to be discussed.
a parameter on

The

first

One

is

## widest variations during expected conditions of operation, e.g.

the gain of an electronic amplifier.

is

is naturally

This

system

It

may be possible

There is no
that the

it

in value.

It is

>

## answer, then, requires investigation of

It is

of

all

possible parameters.

for

systems.

is not

34

## select any parameter which will facilitate demonstration of the

algebraic method.
It

If

and

Q3

is desired, the

all three

that individual

circumstance

is that the

Aj, A2,

for

parameters is
,

## Since the sense

is a possibility

Another fortunate

B]_,

Minimum

Sensitivity

is the

ease with

is not a

it

was possible

relations for

for

This

to obtain

it

Q2

N-fold.

The total

of

Q^

However,

35

the problem

parameter

if

## the sensitivity with respect to more than one

being considered.)

is

(Note

## taken to insure that the function to be differentiated

form which will indicate minima near zero.

must be

is in a

This is necessary

The above

## stipulation can be conveniently accomplished by considering

either the absolute value or the square of the

Use

/S^^j

or

component

(Sq n )

vice

S<?

**

appropriate.

Discussions thus
sensitivity."

far

design.

it

be zero or

example,

if

## the pole locations are only required to be accurate

within five per cent for satisfactory system response and the

parameter of interest

is

if

Of course,

## should be based on the lower value provided

it

can be achieved

system performance.

36

design value

is

also of concern.

If

## associated with a point on the sensitivity function curve where

the curve is very steep or irregular, the system is likely to be

## more sensitive than an alternative design based on a (reasonably)

higher value which corresponds to a smooth portion of the
sensitivity function curve.

Example 4.2

with

= 1/2 and

jT

Overshoot

is of

2)

(s

+4).

Q should be

of

5%.

in the

signals.

and SjJ and

parameters.

## concerning S w n would normally require the insertion of an

additional parameter whereas a specification regarding the total

permit

wQ

to vary,

if

## necessary, in order to maintain

approximately constant.)

37

fQ

s3

System CE:

2* (k + <K<x} ts(ftKkT)t K =

Mitrovic equations:

K * zs

zs K Ka

*"

(1)

(2)

At - 31S- Sao*.

/?

SOqz. - So,

a.

(3)

C^i-ZSKKv

C*,

=S(Ka-Kr)

## Unlike example 4.1, the coefficients of the characteristic

equation do not have fixed numerical values.
solution of the determinants for

D and

D,

Therefore, the

(4-14), will be

At this point

it

## will be convenient to solve equations

Then equation

for

and

K.

(3)

of all 3 parameters.

can be expressed

(1)

and

(2)

in terms of

only.

I2y

Kr=

^#

(4 )

Therefore
/),

C,

IZS-2K

Az

=-

*-

IZS

C z * -I/o/k

25/k

D and

7
0^:

Using equation

(5)

to solve for

Using equation

(6)

## to solve equation (4-13:

(7)

^<
Inspection of equation

K*
(7)

IZSK ? I2SZ

shows that s =
38

for

K = 86.5.

Since

S,*

\$:

Kj.

397 and K

0284

For K = 86.5,

## loop pole is located at d" = -3.4.

are not completely dominant.

sensitivity.

and Ka = 0.0384.

becomes very

Kj-

= 0.238

a value <

minimum

## on the basis of K = 600.

is stated

shows the

large.

It

is

is

now located

at <T~= -24

It

w
also approaches zero as K
S^n

f
also less sensitive than S/

39

having

*-K

*5/js/7-/

vry

(S\$)

vs

x^^^/.s

/-or.

40

G,*/n (k)
4--

5.

Conclusions

## The purpose of this paper was to develop a design technique

based on the premise that design can be accomplished by solving
a set of algebraic simultaneous equations derived from the

## sections also showed that the method developed has certain

desirable characteristics.
is analytically simple,

The method

is in

The

## specifications considered were simply selected to enhance the

In general, a system can be designed to satisfy

presentation.

any set

It is

obvious, of

## more difficult as the number

reason,

it

is

of specifications increase.

For this

## which are exactly specified as opposed to others stated

of inequalities or approximations.

also satisfied.
41

if

The results

those
in

terms

of this analysis

The inclusion

## was considered especially

constraint equations

## again, the use of sensitivity equations is in no

of root sensitivity to

in Section 4

demonstrated in example 4

was

of particular

way dependent

This

was

use

of root

logically

## concern while the system sensitivity had no

restrictions whatsoever.

discussed, there

Here

significant.

system

is

## cannot be imposed on other design specifications.

As previously indicated

need

At the

## be evaluated with respect to each specification and to each other

before a meaningful design can be achieved.

Analysis of even

of computation

because

number

of

parameter/

It"

42

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

## Clark, R. N. Introduction to Automatic Control Systems,

Wiley and Sons, 1955.

2.

Kokotovic, P.

## and D. D. Siljak, "The Sensitivity Problem

Continuous and Sampled-Data Linear Control Systems by
Generalized Mitrovic's Method" IEEE Transactions
(Applications and Industry) v. 83, Sept. 1964: 321-324.
,

in

3.

Mitrovic, D.
"Graphical Analysis and Synthesis of Feedback
Control Systems", AIEE Transactions (Applications and
,

Industry)

## v. 77, Jan. 1959:

476-503.

4.

Thaler, G. J.
U. S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey,
California, "Algebraic Methods for Dynamic Systems
(Extension and Generalization of Mitrovic's Method)",
unpublished notes.

Systems, 2nd ed

6.

Truxal,

J.

G.

## Analysis and Design of Feedback Control

McGraw-Hill, 1960.

## Control System Synthesis

43

McGraw-Hill, 1955

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"SI

No. Copies
1

## Defense Documentation Center

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2

4.

22314

Library

U.
3

S.

## Naval Material Command

Department of the Navy
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Dr. G.

Thaler

J.

10

Department of Electrica 1
U. S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif.
5.

LT Albert

B.

Lemanski,

USN

## FPO San Francisco 96601

6.

LT H. H. Choe

Chinhae, Korea 96669
7.

LT C. H. Hyon

Chinhae, Korea

96669

8.

Dr. D. D. Siljak
University of Santa Clara
Santa Clara, California

9.

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## NOL, White Oaks

Silver Springs, Maryland
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CDRR.

L.

20910

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## NOL, White Oaks

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## Mr. Walt Blum burg

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i\9

13.

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Code R-ASTR-NG
NASA George Marshall Space
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
14.

Mr. D.

Flight Center

R. Towill

Welch College

Cathays Park
Cardiff, Wales, Great Britain

to

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## presented for the analytic design of linear control

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Specifications considered include the system damping ratio, undamped
natural frequency, bandwidth, steady state error coefficients and root
is

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is shown to be fast, accurate, specific and capable
any number of parameters. In addition, the analytic
approach minimizes dependence on graphical techniques and trial
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The method

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