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# Problem 2.

1
Use the MATLAB program of Example 2.3.3 to study the effects of changing engine parameters
on its torque generation performance.
a) Find the effect of a 10% reduction of piston and connecting rod masses on the engine torque.
b) Find the effect of reducing the connecting rod length by 10%.
c) Find the effect of reducing the connecting rod inertia by 10%.

Solution:
The solution is straightforward. Inside the program listing, just change the numerical
values and run the program.
a) Reducing the piston mass by 10% gives mP=387 g. The average engine torque will
not change and remain at 37.81 Nm. The same result is obtained for the connecting
rod mass with mC=396 g. Also it can be observed that for even larger changes, the
average engine torque does not change.
The maximum engine torque, however, increases 1.5% from 493.2 to 500.2 Nm
when reducing the piston mass by 10%. It increases by 0.6% when reducing the
connecting rod mass by 10%.
b) Reducing the connecting rod length by 10% gives l=126 mm. The average engine
torque will increase to 38.35 Nm, namely by 1.5%. The increase of maximum torque
for this case is more than 2%.
c) Reducing the connecting rod inertia by 10% gives IC=0.00135 kgm2. The average
engine torque will remain unchanged for this change. The maximum torque in this
case is 492.2 Nm, i.e. 0.2% decrease.
It is, therefore, concluded that the connecting rod length is the only influential factor
on the average engine torque.
It should also be noted that the average engine speed was assumed to remain at the
same value of 3000 rpm. In other words, the effect of engine speed itself was not
studied.

Problem 2.2
Use the data of Problem 2.1 to study the effects of changing the engine parameters on the engine

Solution:
The engine bearing loads include the main bearing and the crank pin bearing loads.
The latter was already included in the program. To include the former, the following
statements should be included at the end of the program listings:
% Main bearing force
mB=lA*mC/l;
FICW=mB*R*omeg^2; % The inertia force of the counterweight is considered to balance that of mB
for i=1: 361
thetai=theta(i)*pi/180;
FBx=Bx(i)+FICW*cos(thetai);
FBy=By(i)+FICW*sin(thetai);
FB(i)=sqrt(FBx^2+FBy^2);
end
figure
plot(theta, FB/1000)
xlabel('Crank angle (deg)')
ylabel(Main bearing force (kN))

## The overall crank-pin bearing force also is:

B=sqrt(Bx.^2+By.^2);

Now the variation of bearing forces can be studied. To this end it is useful to disable
all plot statements other than for the bearing forces.
a) Reducing the piston mass by 10% changes the average and maximum of the main
bearing force FB from 4.510 and 14.971 kN to 4.410 and 15.207 kN (1.5% reduction
and 1.6% increase respectively). The average and maximum of the crank-pin bearing
force B changes from 4.224 and 14.524 kN to 4.155 and 14.760 kN (2% reduction
and 1.6% increase respectively). A 10% reduction in the connecting rod mass
reduces the averages of main bearing and crank-pin forces by 3.3% and 2.5%, while
increasing the maximum of the same forces by 1% and 1.3% respectively.
b) Reducing the connecting rod length by 10% changes the averages of the main
bearing and the crank-pin bearing forces to 4.538 and 4.276 kN (i.e. 0.6% and 1.2%),
and at the same time reduces the maximum of the forces to 14.897 and 14.497 kN
(i.e. 0.5% and 0.2% each).
c) Reducing the connecting rod inertia by 10% results in the average and maximum
of the main bearing force of 4.496 and 14.969 kN (i.e. -0.3% and -0.01%). The
average and maximum of the crank-pin bearing force become 4.210 and 14.521 kN
respectively (i.e. -0.3% and 0.02%).
Therefore, the important parameters are the connecting rod mass and then the piston
mass. The connecting rod inertia has little effect on the bearing loads.

Problem 2.3
Derive expressions for the gudgeon-pin and crank-pin bearing forces A and B of the simplified
model according to the directions of Figure 2.32.
Results: Ax Ay tan , Ay FP (mP mA )aP , Bx Ax and B y Ay .
Solution:
According to the FBD shown in Figure S2.3 (a), one simply writes:
Ax FW

Ay FP (mP mA )aP

Recalling that in the simplified model the forces at A and B are in the direction of the
Ax Ay tan

## and from Figure S2.3 (b),

Bx Ax and B y Ay
The resultant forces are A B Ax2 Ay2

FP (mP m A )a P
cos

The results show that only information on the geometry, the pressure force (FP) and
the piston acceleration (aP) are needed to obtain the bearing forces.

Ay
FP
Ax

A
FW

Ax

Ay

B
Bx

FIP
By
(a)

(b)

## Figure S2.3 Free body diagrams for the simplified mode

Problem 2.4
For the engine of Example 2.3.3 compare the gudgeon-pin and crank-pin resultant forces of the
exact and simplified engine models at 3000 rpm.
Hint: To find the gudgeon-pin forces of the exact model use Equations 2.80, 81, 84 and 85.

Solution:
The crank-pin forces were calculated in Example 2.3.3 for the exact model. Those of
the simplified model are Bx and By of Problem 2.3. The gudgeon-pin forces of the
exact model from Equations 2.80, 2.81 and 2.85 are:

Ax FIx Bx , Ay FIP FP
where Bx is given in Equation 2.84. The gudgeon-pin forces of the simplified model
are Ax and Ay of Problem 2.3. The following simple MATLAB program can be used
to evaluate the bearing forces.
for i=1: 361
beta=asin(Rl*sin(theta(i)*pi/180));
Bx(i)=(-FIP(i)-Fp(i)+lB*FIy(i)/l)*tan(beta)-lA*FIx(i)/l-TIG(i)/l/cos(beta);
Ay_s(i)=-FPt(i);
Ax_s(i)=-Ay_s(i)*tan(beta);
end
By=Fp+FIP-FIy;
Ay_e=-FIP-Fp;
Ax_e=-Bx-FIx;
Bx_s=-Ax_s;
By_s=-Ay_s;
A_s=sqrt(Ax_s.^2+Ay_s.^2);
A_e=sqrt(Ax_e.^2+Ay_e.^2);
B_s=sqrt(Bx_s.^2+By_s.^2);
B_e=sqrt(Bx.^2+By.^2);

18000
Exact
Simplified

16000

## Crank-pin bearing forces (N)

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

90

180

270
360
450
Crank angle (deg)

540

630

720

Figure S2.4a
18000
Exact
Simplified

## Gudgeon-pin bearing forces (N)

16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

90

180

270
360
450
Crank angle (deg)

540

630

720

Figure S2.4b
Problem 2.5
Show that for the exact engine model the average of term Te-FWh during one complete cycle
vanishes.

Solution:
The term Te-FWh for the simplified model is always zero (Equation 2.103). For the
exact model, however, from Equation 2.90 it is:

## Te FW h FIx (h l A cos ) FIy l A sin TIG TIC

A closed form solution that deals with the integration of the above equation over the
complete cycle, is quite complicated. Within the MATLAB program, however, the
torque term can be determined easily as shown in Figure S2.5 for one complete
cycle. It is clear that the average of the function is zero.

8
6

## Torque term (Nm)

4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
0

90

180

270
360
450
Crank angle (deg)

540

630

720

## Figure S2.5 The variation of Te-FWh term with crank angle

Problem 2.6
Construct the firing map for a three cylinder in-line engine with cranks at 0-120-240 degrees.

Solution:
The solution is very similar to that of in-line six cylinder engine of Figure 2.55. The
difference is due to exchange of orders of the cylinders 2 and 3. The result for the 12-3 firing order is depicted in Figure S2.6. A 1-3-2 firing order is also possible by
changing the stroke orders of cylinders 2 and 3.

Firing order
1

240

Crank layout

0
2

240

Exhaust

Intake

Compression

60
Compression

Exhaust

Intake

120
120
Intake

Compression

Exhaust

240
180

180

180

180

Stroke order

## Figure S2.6 Firing order chart for Problem 2.6

Problem 2.7
Construct the firing map for a 4 cylinder 60 V engine with cranks at 0-0-60-60 degrees.

Solution:
The solution is simple when the cylinder configuration of the engine is known.
Figure S2.7a shows how the cylinders are arranged. According to this configuration,
cylinders 1 and 4 are both at TDC while the two others are at BDC. Thus this engine
works exactly as a 4-cylinder in-line engine works. One possibility is to consider the
cylinder 2 at compression when the cylinder 1 is at ignition. This results in 1-2-4-3
firing order as depicted in Figure S2.7b. A 1-3-4-2 firing order is also possible by
changing the stroke orders of cylinders 2 and 3.

4
3

60

Figure S2.7a
Firing order
1, 2

Exhaust

Intake

Compression

Exhaust

Intake

3, 4
1

Compression

0
3

Exhaust

Intake

Intake

Compression

180

180

Compression

Crank layout

Exhaust

60
180

180

Stroke order

## Figure S2.7b Firing order chart for Problem 2.7

Problem 2.8
Construct the firing map for a 6 cylinder in-line engine with cranks at 0-240-120-0-240-120
degrees.

Solution:
Comparing this layout with that of Figure 2.55 reveals that only the conditions of
cylinders 4 and 6 are changed. Therefore, the construction of the firing map is quite
similar to that of Figure 2.55. The result is shown in Figure S2.8.

Solution:
a) From the discussions of Section 2.4.1 for the firing order of an in-line 4 cylinder
engine with crank layout of 0-180-180-0, it may be recalled that two firing orders of
1-3-4-2 and 1-2-4-3 are possible. For the firing order of 1-4-3-2, therefore, the crank
layout must be different. The obvious difference between 1-4-3-2 and 1-3-4-2 firing
orders is the exchange of cylinders 3 and 4. For this reason the 0-180-180-0
configuration can be changed to 0-180-0-180. The firing map for this layout is
shown in Figure S2.9.
b) According to Equation 2.115, the crank angles i are 1, 2=1-, 3=1-2 and

4=1-3. The state angle Si shows the state of a cylinder relative to that of cylinder
1 that is at ignition. According to the firing diagram of Figure S2.9, cylinders 2 to 4
are at exhaust, intake and compression respectively. Thus the state angles are

Firing order
3

Exhaust

Intake

Compression

Exhaust

Intake

Compression

Intake

Compression

1
0
Crank layout

2
180
3

Exhaust

0
Compression

Exhaust

Intake

180
180

180
Stroke order

180

180

## Figure S2.9 Firing map for Problem 2.9

Problem 2.10
Compare the torque outputs of an inline four cylinder, four stroke engine at two firing orders of
1-3-4-2 and 1-2-4-3 using the information of Example 2.4.3.
Solution:
The solution for 1-3-4-2 firing order was performed in Example 2.4.3 with
MATLAB program listing of Figure 2.60. In order to solve for the 1-2-4-3 firing
order, only the state angles must be changed. These are S1 0 , S 2 3 , S 3
and S 4 2 for cylinders 1-4. The only change in the program is:
DF=[0 3*pi pi 2*pi];

## % State angle of cylinders

The result for the torque output of engine as would be expected, will be exactly
similar to Figure 2.61 belonging to 1-3-4-2 firing order.

Problem 2.11
Use the information of Example 2.4.3 to plot the variation of the torque of the three cylinder
engine of Problem 2.6 and calculate the flywheel inertia.

Solution:
The solution is quite similar to Problem 2.10 as the same MATLAB program can be
used. The changes in the program are 1) number of cylinders and 2) state angle
inputs. The state angles for this engine must be obtained according to Figure S2.6.
The state of cylinder 2 is 60 degrees before the compression state, or 120 degrees
after the intake state. This means S 2 3

2 8 . The state of
3
3
3

## cylinder 3 similarly is S 3 2 4 . Therefore in the MATALB program:

3
3
DF=[0 8*pi/3 4*pi/3];

## The result for this engine is shown in Figure S2.11.

In order to calculate the flywheel inertia, the areas under the engine torque curve
must be measured. This is a difficult process and only approximate values are
obtained here as shown in Table S2.11. It is concluded that min and Max (see
Section 2.3.4) occur before and after each large positive area. Therefore the area A*
equals (see Equation 2.114) 124 - (- 6) =130 (Joule) and for a fluctuation index of
200

A2=130

A =130

6
0.02, the flywheel inertia can be calculated from
Equation 2.113:

100
130
0.07 kgm2
2 A4=2
0.02 (3000 / 30)
50

A1=-6
(Nm)

Ie

## Total engine torque (Nm)

150

A5=-12

-50

A3=-120
-100

-150
0

90

180

270
360
450
540
First cylinder crank angle (deg)

630

720

## Figure S2.11 Torque variation of the 3-cylider engine of Problem 3.11

Table S2.11 Areas under the engine torque curve of Problem 2.11
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
Ai (Joule)
-6
130
-120
2
-12
130
-6
-6
124
4
6
124
A (Joule)
Amin
Amin
min A
AMax
AMax
Max A

Problem 2.12
Compare the variation of the torque of the 4 cylinder V engine of Problem 2.7 with an in-line
layout. Use the information of Example 2.3.3.
Solution:
According to the solution of Problem 2.7, the firing map of the V engine is exactly
similar to that of the in-line engine (see Figure S2.7). Therefore, the torque
variations of the both engines are similar. Also, based on the result of Problem 2.10,
the torque variations are the same as that for a 1-3-4-2 firing order given in Figure
2.61.

Problem 2.13
Plot the variations of engine power losses with altitude and temperature changes for Example
2.8.2 in SI units.

Solution:
The first part can be obtained from available program listing by simply removing
*3.2808 term from the plot statement. The result is shown in Figure S2.13a.
The second part of solution can be obtained by using the following simple program:
T=T0: 0.2: 323.16;
cft=sqrt(T0)./T.^0.5;
p_loss=100*(1-cft);

% Up to 50 deg C

figure
plot(T-273.16, p_loss)
grid
xlabel('Temperature (C)')
ylabel('Power loss (%)')

3000

2500

Altitude (m)

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

10
15
Power loss (%)

20

25

5
4.5
4

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
20

25

30

35
Temperature (C)

40

45

50

## Figure S2.13b Engine power loss with temperature increase

Problem 2.14
The variation of gas pressure of a single cylinder 4 stroke engine during 2 complete revolutions
in speed of 2000 rpm is simplified to the form shown in Figure p.2.14. Other engine parameters

Pressure (Mpa)

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

## Figure p.2.14 Cylinder pressure

Table p.2.14 Engine parameters
Parameter
value
Cylinder diameter
10 cm
10 cm
Connecting rod cent-cent
25 cm

Con rod mass
Piston mass

7 cm
1.0 kg
1.0 kg

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

## Find the equivalent mass mA for the connecting rod.

Calculate the inertia force FIP in terms of crank angle and engine speed.
Write an equation for the total vertical force FBy acting at point A.
Plot the variation of FBy and FW versus crank angle.
Plot the variation of torque versus crank angle.
Find the average engine torque and compare it with the quasi-steady torque resulting from
average pressure during combustion phase.
g) Determine the mean effective pressure for the engine.
Solution:
a) According to Equation 2.96:

mA

lB
7
m 1 0.28 kg
l
25

b) From Equation 2.102 for FIP and Equations 2.42 and 2.50 for the piston
acceleration:
FIP (mP m A ) (cos

R
cos 2 ) Re2 0.128(cos 0.4 cos 2 )e2
l

## c) According to Equation 2.105:

FBy FP FIP
where FP is the pressure force P.AP. Therefore:

## FBy P( ) AP FIP 7.85 103 P( ) 0.128(cos 0.4 cos 2 )e2

d) At 2000 rpm P() is given in Figure P2.14 and FBy can be determined at each
crank angle . FW according to Equation 2.92 is also dependent on FBy:

FW FBy tan
in which is given by Equation 2.48:

## sin 1 0.4 sin

The pressure distribution can be divided into 4 zones:

Solution (continued):
FBy therefore can be written as:

## FBy 31416 10000 5615(cos 0.4 cos 2 )

5615(cos 0.4 cos 2 )

## 23562 2500 5615(cos 0.4 cos 2 )

; 0

4
; 3
; 3 4
;

Similarly the equations for the variations of FW can be written. The variations of FBy
and FBx (FW) with crank angle are plotted in Figure S2.14a.
e) Based on Equation 2.103, the engine torque simply is Te FW h . However, h has a
complicated relation with . From Equation 2.109:

## h 0.1cos 0.25 cos sin 1 0.4 sin

Therefore:

Te FBy 0.1cos 0.25 cos sin 1 0.4 sin tan sin 1 0.4 sin

And the variation of torque with the crank angle will be that shown if Figure S2.14b.
f) The average torque is 181 Nm. The average pressure during the combustion phase
is:

Pav

13
13

MPa
8
8

The torque resulting from the average torque can be obtained by replacing pbme with
Pav in Equation 2.124:
Tav

Ve
Pav
s

in which

## Ve AP ( R l ) 7.854 103 (100 250) 103 0.0024 m3

Tav

Ve
0.0024 13
Pav
106 305 Nm
s
4
8

Solution (continued):
FBy therefore can be written as:

## FBy 31416 10000 5615(cos 0.4 cos 2 )

5615(cos 0.4 cos 2 )

## 23562 2500 5615(cos 0.4 cos 2 )

; 0

4
; 3
; 3 4
;

Similarly the equations for the variations of FW can be written. The variations of FBy
and FBx (FW) with crank angle are plotted in Figure S2.14a.
e) Based on Equation 2.103, the engine torque simply is Te FW h . However, h has a
complicated relation with . From Equation 2.109:

## h 0.1cos 0.25 cos sin 1 0.4 sin

Therefore:

Te FBy 0.1cos 0.25 cos sin 1 0.4 sin tan sin 1 0.4 sin

And the variation of torque with the crank angle will be that shown if Figure S2.14b.
f) The average torque is 181 Nm. The average pressure during the combustion phase
is:

Pav

13
13

MPa
8
8

The torque resulting from the average torque can be obtained by replacing pbme with
Pav in Equation 2.124:
Tav

Ve
Pav
s

in which

## Ve AP ( R l ) 7.854 103 (100 250) 103 0.0024 m3

Tav

Ve
0.0024 13
Pav
106 305 Nm
s
4
8

Solution (continued):
g) The mean effective pressure according to Equation 2.124 is:

s
Ve

Tav

4
181 0.965 MPa
0.0024

x 10

FBy
FBx
1.5

## Piston forces (N)

pbme

0.5

-0.5

-1
0

90

180

270
360
450
Crank angle (deg)

540

630

720

2100

## Engine torque (Nm)

1400

700

-700
0

90

180

270
360
450
Crank angle (deg)

540

630

720

## Figure S2.14b Engine Torque

Problem 2.15
The torque-angle relation for a four cylinder engine at an idle speed of 1000 rpm is of the form:

T T0 Ta cos 2( 0 )
a) Find the area A* of torque fluctuations relative to the average engine torque.
b) Show that the value of necessary flywheel inertia can be written as I kTa .
c) For a value of 2% permissible speed fluctuations, evaluate k.
Results: (a) Ta , (c) 0.0046

Solution:
a) The engine torque curve is depicted in Figure S2.15. Each of the equal areas in the
figure relative to the average torque T0 is the area A* that is:
M

A* (T T0 )d Ta cos 2( 0 )d

## m and M are the points at which T=T0, that is:

cos 2( 0 ) 0
with solutions: 0
Considering m 3

5 0
4

A
*

3 0
4

, 3 , ...
4 4

0 and M 5

## 0 , the result of integrating for A* is:

Ta cos 2( 0 )d Ta

A*
iF

2
av

1
iF

2
av

Ta

A*

Engine torque

Ie

/2

c) k simply is:

T0
0

1
iF

2
av

0.02 (1000

30
0.5

0.0046

2 /2

1.5

2.5

3.5

Engine torque

A*
/2

m
M

T0
0

/2

0.5

1.5

2.5

## Figure S2.15 Engine torque shape

3.5

Problem 3.1
The rolling resistance force is reduced on a slope by a cosine factor ( cos ). On the other hand,
on a slope the gravitational force is added to the resistive forces. Assume a constant rolling
resistance force and write the parametric forms of the total resistive force for both cases of level
and sloping roads. At a given speed v0,
a) Write an expression that ensures an equal resistive force for both cases.
b) Solve the expression obtained in (a) for the parametric values of corresponding slopes.
c) For the coefficient of rolling resistance equal to 0.02, evaluate the values of the slopes
obtained in (b) and discuss the result.
Result: (a) fR (1- cos ) = sin

Solution:
a) It is required that the total resistive force on a level road to be equal to that of a
sloping road at a certain forward speed v0. In mathematical form:
f RW cv02 f RW cos W sin cv02

or,

f R f R cos sin
which is an expression that relates the relevant parameters.
b) Solution of the above expression found in part (a) can be obtained by writing the
trigonometric functions in half-arc forms:

## sin ( f R sin cos ) 0

2
2
2
which has the two following answers:

sin 0
0

1
f R sin cos 0 tan

2
2
2 fR
c) Apart from the trivial solution =0, the second solution for fR=0.02 results in

=177.7! (Note that even for fR=1 the slope is 90). Thus it is concluded that there is
no slope for which the total resistive force at a given speed will be equal to that on
the level road at the same speed.

Problem 3.2
For the vehicle of Example 3.4.2,
a) Calculate the overall aerodynamic coefficient for the same temperature at altitude of 1000 m.
b) Repeat (a) for the same altitude at temperature 30 C.
c) At the same altitude of (a) at what temperature the drag force increases by 20%?
d) At the same temperature of (a) at what altitude the drag force reduces by 20%?

Solution:
a) From Equation 2.138, the air density for the specified altitude can be obtained:

1 9.21 105 H

0.714

0.714

1.225 1.143

## c 0.5 1.143 0.38 2.0 0.435

b) At the same altitude the air pressure is (Equation 2.137):
p (1 9.21 105 H ) p0 (1 9.21 102 ) 10132.5 9200

A 0.0348

P
9200
0.0348
1.056
T
273.15 30

## the overall aerodynamic coefficient therefore is:

c 0.5 1.1056 0.38 2.0 0.401

c) In order to have a 20% increase in the drag force the air density must increase by
20% (i.e. =1.372). Therefore:

T 0.0348

0.0348

9200
233.4 K 39.8C
1.372

d) The air density at (a) is 1.225. In order to have a decrease of 20% in the
aerodynamic force, the air density must decrease by the same amount. Thus from
Equation 2.138:
0.8 1 9.21 105 H

0.714

## which gives H = 2914 m.

Problem 3.3
In order to have a rough estimation for the performance of a vehicle, it is proposed to ignore the
resistive forces to obtain the No-Resistive-Force (NRF) performance.
a) Derive the governing equations of vehicle longitudinal motion for speed v(t) and distance S(t)
by neglecting all resistive forces for the CPP (see Section 3.5).
b) For a vehicle of mass 1.2 ton, determine the required engine power P for achieving
acceleration performance of 0-100 km/h during 10, 8 or 6 seconds.
c) Evaluate the power increase factors from 10 seconds to t* seconds defined as
[P/P10=[P(t*)-P(10)]/P(10)], for t*=8 and 6.
Results: (a) v v02

m(v 3 v03 )
2 Pt
, S
, (b) 46.3, 57.9 and 77.2 kW, (c) 0.25 and 0.67
3P
m

Solution:
a) By neglecting all resistive forces in Equation 3.58 the equation of motion is:

dv P

dt v

v v02

2 Pt
m

mv2 dv PdS

m(v 3 v03 )
3P

## 1200 (100 / 3.6) 2

2t

Results for t=10, 8 and 6 seconds are 46,300, 57,870 and 77,160 W respectively.
c) The increased power factor is:

P / P10

P(t * ) P(10)
P(10)

For t*=8 and 6 second, the results are 0.25 and 0.67.

Problem 3.4
Use the results of Problem 3.3 and,
a) Write the expression for the specific power Ps (in W/kg) of a vehicle to reach a certain speed v
(km/h) from the rest at a certain acceleration time t.
b) Plot the variation of Ps versus t from 6 to 10 seconds. Repeat the result for three speeds of 80,
90 and 100 km/h.
c) Are the results dependent on the vehicle properties?
Solution:
a) By assuming v=0 @ t=0; the speed relation reduces to:

2 Pt
m

Ps

v2
2t

## To obtain Ps in W with speed in km/h:

v2
Ps
25.92t

b) For the three speeds of 80, 90 and 100 km/h, the plots are given in Figure S3.4.
c) No, the results are valid for all vehicles as long as no resistive forces are present.
Thus this figure can be used to estimate the necessary power just by multiplying the
specific power by the vehicle mass.

65
80 km/h
90 km/h
100 km/h

60

## Specific power (W/kg)

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
6

6.5

7.5
8
8.5
Time of travel (s)

9.5

10

## Figure S3.4 Specific power requirements at no resistive force

Problem 3.5
At very low speeds the aerodynamic force is small and may be neglected. For example, at speeds
below 30 km/h, the aerodynamic force is one order of magnitude smaller than the rolling
resistance force. For such cases categorised as Low-Speed (LS), ignore the aerodynamic force
and for the CPP assume a constant rolling resistance force F0, and,
a) Integrate the equation of motion (Equation 3.58 with c=0) and use the initial condition of v=v0
at t=t0 to obtain an expression for the travel time in terms of speed.
b) For a vehicle of 1000 kg mass and total rolling resistance force of 200 N, when starting to
move from standstill, plot the variation of vehicle speed against elapsed time up to 10 seconds
and compare it with the results of NRF model (Problem 3.3). The engine power is 50 kW.
Results: (a) t t0

m( v 0 v )
P P F0 v0
m 2 ln
F0
F0
P F0 v

Solution:
a) For such cases the differential equation of motion will read:

dt

mdv
P
F0
v

## t C mp1 ln( P F0v) mv1

where, C is the constant of integration, F0 kW , p1

P
v
and v1 . For a general
2
F0
F0

t t0 mp1 ln

P F0v0 m(v0 v )

P F0v
F0

## b) For motions starting from rest, the equation is:

t mp1 ln

p1
mv1
p1 v1

In order to obtain the variation of speed with time, the values of speed ranging from
0 up to 30 m/s are given and the corresponding time values are obtained. For the
NRF model the speed relation was earlier found to be v

2 Pt
.
m

The variation of vehicle speed with time for P=50,000 W is shown in Figure S3.5. It
is clear that up to speeds of 40-50 km/h the differences are very small.

30

25

Velocity (m/s)

20
LS model
NRF model
15

10

0
0

10

Time (s)

## Figure S3.5 The time history of vehicle speed

Problem 3.6
For the vehicle of Problem 3.5 and using the LS method, find the required power for the 0-100
km/h acceleration to take place in 7 seconds.
Result: 58,849 W.
Hint: The following statements in MATLAB can be used with a proper initial guess for x0.
fun=inline(7-1000*x*log(x/(x-(100/3.6/200)))+1000*(100/3.6/200));
x=fsolve(fun, x0, optimset('Display','off')); (x = P/F0^2)

Solution:
In MATLABs command window simply type the first statement given:
fun=inline('7-1000*x*log(x/(x-(100/3.6/200)))+1000*(100/3.6/200)');

then specify an initial value for x (i.e. x0). Any value between 1 and 10 would be
fine. Then type the second statement:
x=fsolve(fun, x0, optimset('Display','off'))

## the result will be x=1.4712. x was defined as x = P/F0^2, so:

P = 1.47122002 = 58,849 W.

Problem 3.7
For the vehicle of Problem 3.5 using the LS method determine the power requirements for a
performance starting from rest to reach speed v at time t, for 3 cases of v=80, 90 and 100 km/h
for accelerating times varying from 6 to 10 seconds. Plot the results in a single figure.

Solution:
In Problem 3.6 a single point was considered. Here several similar calculations are
needed. A loop, therefore, can be created to repeat the calculations for all the points
in the range. A sample program in MATLAB is given below:
t=6: 0.02: 10;
% Time span
x0=1;
% Initial condition
for j=1:3 % Loop for speed
v=(80+(j-1)*10);
for i=1: length(t)
% Loop for time
P0=fsolve(@(x) t(i)-1000*x*log(x/(x-(v/3.6/200)))+1000*(v/3.6/200), x0, ...
optimset('Display','off'));
P(i)=P0*F0^2;
x0=P0;
% Initial condition for the next iteration
end
plot(t, P/1000)
hold on
end
xlabel('Time (s) to reach a certain speed v (km/h)')
ylabel('Power reqired (kW)')
grid
legend('v=80', 'v=90', 'v=100')

70
v=80
v=90
v=100

65

## Power required (kW)

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
6

6.5

7
7.5
8
8.5
9
Time (s) to reach a certain speed v (km/h)

9.5

10

## Figure S3.7 Power requirements for different acceleration times

Problem 3.8
The power evaluation for the NRF case (Problem 3.3) is a simple closed-form solution but it is
not accurate. The LS method (problems 3.5-3.7) produces more accurate results especially in the
low speed ranges. By generating plots similar to those of Problem 3.7 show that an approximate
equation of P=PNRF+0.75F0v can generate results very close to those of LS method.
Solution:
At the end of the MATLAB program of Problem 3.7 the simple calculations of NRF
model can be included and then the approximate model can be evaluated. The
following sample listing may be used:
for j=1: 3
v=80+(j-1)*10;
Ps=(m*v^2/25.920)./t; % NRF model
PA=(Ps+0.75*F0*v/3.6)/1000; % Approximate model
plot(t, PA, '-.')
end

The plots of approximate model are included in the same figure obtained in Problem
3.7. The result is Figure S3.8. The results of the two methods are very close.

70
v=80
v=90
v=100
Approximate

65

## Power required (kW)

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
6

6.5

7
7.5
8
8.5
9
Time (s) to reach a certain speed v (km/h)

9.5

10

## Figure S3.8 Comparison between the LS and approximate models

Problem 3.9
For the LS case use vdv adS that relates the speed to acceleration and distance, substitute for
acceleration in terms of speed and,
a) Integrate to obtain an expression for travel distance S in terms of velocity v.
b) Derive the equation for a motion starting at a distance S0 from origin with velocity v0.
c) Simplify the expression for a motion stating from rest at origin.
Results: (a) S C mF0 [ p12 ln( P F0v) 0.5v12 p1v1 ] , (c) S mF0 ( p12 ln

With p1

P
v
and v1 .
2
F0
F0

p1
0.5v12 p1v1 )
p1 v1

Solution:
a) Acceleration a is in the form of:

1 P
( F0 )
m v

vdv

1 P
( F0 )dS
m v

or,
dS

mv 2 dv
P F0 v

## Integration by separation of variables will lead to:

S C mF0 [ p12 ln( P F0v) 0.5v12 p1v1 ]

## where C is the constant of integration.

b) For a general case of starting the motion at a distance S0 from origin with velocity
v0,
C S0 mF0 [ p12 ln( P F0 v0 ) 0.5

v02
v
p1 0 ]
2
F0
F0

and

P F0 v0
v2
v
S S0 mF0 p12 ln
0.5( 02 v12 ) p1 ( 0 v1 )
P F0 v
F0
F0

## c) For a motion stating from rest at origin (S0=0, v0=0:

S mF0 ( p12 ln

p1
0.5v12 p1v1 )
p1 v1

Problem 3.10
A vehicle of 1200 kg mass starts to accelerate from the rest at origin. If power is constant at 60
kW, for a LS model with F0=200 N, determine the travel time and distance when speed is 100
km/h. Compare your results with those of NRF model.
Results: t= 8.23 s, S=153.65 m for LS and t= 7.72 s and S=142.9 m for NRF.

Solution:
From Problems 3.5 and 3.9 for motion starting from rest at origin (S0=0, v0=0):

p1
mv1
p1 v1

t mp1 ln

S mF0 ( p12 ln

with p1

p1

p1
0.5v12 p1v1 )
p1 v1

P
v
and v1 . Using the information for the current problem:
2
F0
F0

P 60000
v
100

1.50 and v1

0.1389
2
2
F0
200
F0 3.6 200

Therefore:

t 1200 1.5 ln

1.5
1200 0.1389 8.23 s
1.5 0.1389

S 1200 200(1.52 ln

1.5
0.5 0.13892 1.5 0.1389) 153.65 m
1.5 0.1389

For the NRF model the same quantities can be determined from relations obtained in
Problem 3.3 (S0=0, v0=0):

tm

v2
1002
1200
7.72 s
2P
2 3.62 60000

mv3
1200 1003

142.9 m
3P 3 3.63 60000

Problem 3.11
In Problem 3.8 a close approximation was used for the power estimation of LS method. For the
general case including the aerodynamic force, the approximation given by P = PNRF+0.5FRv
is found to work well.

For the vehicle of Example 3.5.3 plot the variations of power versus acceleration times similar to
those of Problem 3.8 and compare the exact solutions with those obtained from the proposed
method.
Solution:
Here the exact solution is first needed. For this purpose the MATLAB program of
Example 3.5.3 can be modified in order to repeat the power calculations at several
desired points. The following program can be used:
t=6: 0.02: 10;

% Time span

for j=1: 3
% Loop for speed
vd=(80+(j-1)*10)/3.6;
Ps=(F0+c*vd^2)*vd+1; % Initial guess for power
for i=1: length(t)
% Loop for time
td=t(i);
P0=fsolve(@f_353, Ps, optimset('Display','off'));
P(i)=P0;
Ps=P0; % Initial condition for the next iteration
end
plot(t, P/1000)
hold on
end

## At the next step, the approximation given by P = PNRF+0.5FRv should be

constructed. Note that instead of F0 in Problem 3.8, this time FR=F0+cv2 must be
used in the approximation equation.
The results plotted in Figure S3.11 show good agreement. Therefore, the power
estimation for an acceleration performance to a desired speed vd at a desired time td
can be performed accurately by the following simple formula:
P

mvd2 1
( F0 cv d2 )vd
2td 2

75
v=80
v=90
v=100
Approximate

70

## Power required (kW)

65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
6

6.5

7
7.5
8
8.5
9
Time (s) to reach a certain speed v (km/h)

9.5

10

## Figure S3.8 Comparison between the exact and approximate models

Problem 3.12
According to the solutions obtained for CTP (see Section 3.6) it turned out that at each gear, the
acceleration is constant to a good degree of approximation (see Figure 3.50). Thus a simpler
solution can be obtained by considering an effective resistive force for each gear that reduces the
problem to a Constant Acceleration Approximation (CAA). In each gear assume the resistive
force acting on the vehicle is the average of that force at both ends of the constant torque range.
Write the expressions for the average speed at each gear vav, the average resistive force Rav and,
a) Show that the acceleration, velocity and distance at each gear are ai

1
( FTi Rav ) ,
m

## vi (t ) ai (t t0 ) v0i and Si 0.5ai (t t0 )2 v0i (t t0 ) SOi , in which v0i vmax (i 1) and

S0i Smax (i 1) are the initial speed and distance from origin for each gear for i>1 and v0 and S0

for i=1.
b) Repeat Example 3.6.1 by applying the CAA method.

Solution:
a) The average speed at each gear is (no slip condition is assumed):

vav (i )

rw
av
ni

where:

av 0.5(1 2 )
and the average resistive force, therefore, is:
2
Fav F0 cvav

## Then the acceleration at each gear is:

ai

1
( FTi Fav ) cte
m

As the acceleration is constant, velocity and travel distance at each gear are:

vi (t ) ai (t t0 ) v0i
Si 0.5ai (t t0 )2 v0i (t t0 ) S0i

(15)

In which v0i and S0i are the initial speed and distance from origin at the start of
motion in each gear. For the first gear v01 is the initial speed of vehicle (often zero),
and at other gears it is the maximum attained speed before the gearshift:

v0i vmax (i 1) ,

i>1

Similarly the final distance travelled in previous gear is the initial distance for the
next gear:
S0i Smax (i 1) ,

i>1

Solution (continued):
b) The average engine speed is 2000 rpm. The calculated results for average speed at
each gear, accelerations, final speeds, travel times and distances are given in Table
S3.12. The final speed at each gear is calculated from:

vmax (i )

rw
M
ni

## The final travel time at each gear is:

vmax (i ) v0i
tmax t0i
ai
At each tmax, the final travel distance can be determined.
To plot the variation of parameters, the time span is divided into several small time
intervals and then each parameter is evaluated at each time value. The results for the
acceleration, speed and distance are shown in Figures S3.12a - S3.12c. A MATLAB
program to generate the results is given below:
m=2000; fR=0.02;
Ca=0.5; rW=0.3; nf=4.0; Tm=220;
wm=1200; % Minimum engine speed (rpm)
wM=2800; % Maximum engine speed (rpm)
n_g=[5.0 3.15 1.985 1.25]; % Transmission ratios 1-4
n=n_g*nf;
% Total gear ratios
F0=m*9.81*fR;
t0=0; v0=0; s0=0; % Initial conditions
w_av=0.5*(wm+wM)*pi/30;
t0i=t0; v0i=v0; s0i=s0;
for i=1: length(n_g)
vav(i)=rW*w_av/n(i);
FT(i)=n(i)*Tm/rW;
Fav(i)=F0+Ca*vav(i)^2;
a(i)=(FT(i)-Fav(i))/m;
vmax(i)=wM*rW*pi/n(i)/30;
tmax(i)=t0i+(vmax(i)-v0i)/a(i);
smax(i)=s0i+0.5*a(i)*(tmax(i)-t0i)^2+v0i*(tmax(i)-t0i);
t=t0i: 0.02: tmax(i);
acc=a(i)*ones(1, length(t));
v=v0i+a(i)*(t-t0i);
s=s0i+0.5*a(i)*(t-t0i).^2+v0i*(t-t0i);
if i>1
acc(1)=a(i-1);
end
figure(1), plot(t, acc), hold on
figure(2), plot(t, v), hold on
figure(3), plot(t, s), hold on
t0i=tmax(i);
v0i=vmax(i);
s0i=smax(i);
end

## Table S3.12 Results for Problem 3.12

Fav
(N)
397.34
404.83
423.73
471.36

FT
(N)
14667
9240
5821
3667

a
vmax
(m/s^2)
(m/s)
7.135 4.398
4.418 6.981
2.699 11.079
1.598 17.593

ti
(s)
0.617
1.201
2.719
6.796

Acceleration (m/s2)

1
0

Time (s)

18
16
14
12

Speed (m/s)

Gear 1
Gear 2
Gear 3
Gear 4

vav
(m/s)
3.142
4.987
7.915
12.566

10
8
6
4
2
0
0

Time (s)

Si
(m)
1.356
3.327
13.706
58.453

80
70

Distance (m)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

Time (s)

## Figure S3.12c Variation of distance

Problem 3.13
A 5th overdrive gear with overall ratio of 3.15 is considered for the vehicle in Problem 3.12, and
the torque is extended to 3400 rpm. Obtain the time variations of acceleration, velocity and travel
distance for the vehicle by both CAA and numerical methods and plot the results.
Solution:
The CAA solution of this problem is obtained just by inclusion of the fifth gear and
changing the maximum engine speed in the MATLAB program of Problem 3.12:
wM=3400; % Maximum engine speed (rpm)
n_g=[5.0 3.15 1.985 1.25 3.15/nf]; % Transmission ratios 1-5

Solution with the numerical method was examined in Example 3.6.2 with MATLAB
program of Figure 3.53. The same program with small modifications can be used
here as well. Results for the speed and distance are compared in Figures S3.13a and
S3.13b. The dashed plots belong to the numerical method.

35

30

Speed (m/s)

25

20

15

10

0
0

10

15

20

25

Time (s)

Figure S3.13a Comparison between speeds of CAA (solid) and numerical (dashed) methods
600

500

Distance (m)

400

300

200

100

0
0

10

15

20

25

Time (s)

Figure S3.13b Comparison between distances of CAA (solid) and numerical (dashed) methods

Problem 3.14
In Example 3.5.2 impose a limit for the traction force of FT < 0.5 W and compare the results.
Solution:
By defining a road adhesion coefficient R in the MATLAB program of Example
3.5.2 and including it in the global statement,
global p c f0 m Ftmax
Ftmax=mio_r*m*9.81;

Then the limit for the tractive force can be included in the function const_pow:
% Impose a limit on the traction force
if ft > Ftmax, ft=Ftmax; end
f=(ft-f0-c*v^2)/m;

The results with and without traction limit are plotted in Figure S3.14. The reason
for the small difference is that the tyre traction force is usually smaller than the
adhesion limit during the vehicle motion. Only at low speeds does the tyre traction
become large.

50
45
40

Velocity (m/s)

35

With limit
No limit

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

20

30

40
Time (s)

50

60

70

80

Figure S3.14 Comparison of vehicle speed with and without traction limit

Problem 3.15
For a vehicle with transmission and engine information given in Example 3.7.2, include a onesecond torque interruption for each shift and plot similar results. To this end, include a
subprogram with listing given below at the end of loop for each gear:
% Inner loop for shifting delay:
if i<5
% No delay after gear 5!
t0=max(t);
tf=t0+tdelay;
x0=[v(end) s(end)];
p=[0 0 0];
% No traction force
[t,x]=ode45(@Fixed_thrt, [t0 tf], x0);
v=x(:,1);
s=x(:,2);
end
% Now plot the results
p=[p1 p2 p3 p4]; % Set back the engine torque

Solution:
By including the proposed statements in the MATLAB program of Example 3.7.2,
before the gearshift section, the torque interruption will take place during the shifts.
In addition it is necessary to include tdelay=1; for the shift delay time in the input
section of the program.
The results with torque interruption are plotted in Figures S3.15a and S3.15b.
Note the negative values in the acceleration plot which result from the shifting
interruptions. Your MATLAB program will plot only the top and bottom parts of the
acceleration diagram in a discontinuous form. In order to have a continuous plot like
that shown in Figure S3.15b, the end point data of each previous segment must be
included as the first point of the next segment in the acceleration plot. This is left to

50

Velocity (m/s)

40
30
20
10
0
0
2500

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

1500
1000
500
0
0

## Figure S3.15a Speed and distance outputs of Problem 3.15

7
6
5

Acceleration (m/s2)

Distance (m)

2000

4
3
2
1
0
-1
0

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

## Figure S3.15b Acceleration output of Problem 3.15

60

Problem 3.16
Repeat Problem 3.15 with a different shifting delay for each gear of the form 1.5, 1.25, 1.0 and
0.75 second for 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 shifts respectively. (For this you will need to change the
program).
Solution:
Including different shifting delays in the MATLAB program of Problem 3.15 is a
very simple task. Instead of defining tdelay=1; for the shift delay time in the input
section of the program, tdelay is defined as an array:
tdelay=[1.5 1.25 1.0 0.75];

## In addition the statement tf=t0+tdelay; is modified to:

tf=t0+tdelay(i);

No other change is necessary and the results will be similar to those given in Figures
S3.16a and S3.16b.

50

Velocity (m/s)

40
30
20
10
0
0
2500

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

Distance (m)

2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

## Figure S3.16a Speed and distance outputs of Problem 3.16

7
6

Acceleration (m/s2)

5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
0

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

## Figure S3.16b Acceleration output of Problem 3.16

Problem 3.17
Repeat Example 3.7.2 for a different shifting rpm.
a) Shift all gears at times when the engine speed is 4500 rpm.
b) Shift the gears at 4500, 4000, 3500 and 3000 rpm for shifting 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5
respectively. (For this part you will need to change the program).

Solution:
Running the MATLAB program of Example 3.7.2 for a new shift rpm given in part
(a) is straightforward. However, in order to make the program general, instead of
defining a single value wem for the shift rpm of all gears, w_shift is defined as
an array that contains the shift rpms of all gears:
w_shift=[w1 w2 . wn];

where w1, w2, etc are the shift rpms for gear 1, gear 2 and so on. Note that wn
means the shift rpm for the final gear and is meaningless as no (up)shift takes place
for the final gear. So a large number can be considered for it (e.g. 8000 rpm). But at
the same time all we=6500; statements in the program also must be increased to a
value larger than that (e.g. we=max(w_shift)+10 rpm).
In addition a new statement wem=w_shift(i); needs to be included in the beginning of
the loop for gears.
a) Just insert w_shift=[4500 4500 4500 4500 8000]; and run the program. The
results are shown in Figures S3.17a and S3.17b.
b) This time insert w_shift=[4500 4000 3500 3000 8000];.
The results will be similar to those given in Figures S3.17c and S3.17d.

50

Velocity (m/s)

40
30
20
10
0
0
2500

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

Distance (m)

2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

Figure S3.17a Speed and distance outputs of Problem 3.17, part (a)
7

Acceleration (m/s2)

0
0

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

## Figure S3.17b Acceleration output of Problem 3.17, part (a)

50

Velocity (m/s)

40
30
20
10

Distance (m)

0
0
2000

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

1500
1000
500
0
0

Figure S3.17c Speed and distance outputs of Problem 3.17, part (b)
7

Acceleration (m/s2)

0
0

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

## Figure S3.17d Acceleration output of Problem 3.17, part (b)

Problem 3.18
In Example 3.7.3, investigate the possibility of having a dynamic balance point at gear 4. In case
no steady state point is available, find a new gear ratio to achieve a steady-state.

Solution:
For gear 4 the overall ratio is n4=1.14=4.4 and k1 and k2 are:

k1

(ni / rw )2 t2
(4.4 / 0.27) 2 0.3027

38.167
c (ni / rw )3 t1 0.35 (4.4 / 0.27)3 4.058 104

k2 F0 ni

t3
55.24
0.02 1000 9.81 4.4
704
rw
0.27

The solution of (v * ) 2 +k1 v * +k2=0 with MATLAB is: vstar=roots([1 k1 k2]). The
answers are v*=51.767 and -13.60. The engine speed at the positive answer is

*=8,056 rpm that is unacceptable. Thus, there is no dynamic balance point for the
gear 4.
If a maximum engine speed of 6000 rpm is considered, then the maximum speed
should be v*=6000rw/30/n4. The problem now is to find the unknown n4/rw in
the equation (v * ) 2 +k1 v * +k2=0 so that v* equals (6000/30)/(n4/rw). This can be
solved by using fsolve function in the statement below:
NRW=fsolve(@(x) (6000*pi/30/x)^2-(6000*pi/30/x)*(x^2*0.3027/(c+x^3*4.058e-4))...
+196.2-x*55.24, 10, optimset('Display','off'))

x in the equation stands for the ratio n4/rw, 196.2 is the value of F0 and 10 is an
initial guess for x. The answer for the above statement is NRW=12.332. Then n4
is: n4= NRWrw/nf = 0.8324.

Problem 3.19
Repeat Example 3.7.2 with transmission ratios 3.25, 1.772, 1.194, 0.926 and 0.711.

Solution:
Inclusion of the new gear ratios in the MATLAB program of Example 3.7.2 is a very
simple task and the results will look like those given in Figures S3.19a and S3.19b.
Comparing the results with those of Example 3.7.2 shows that with the new gear
ratios the shift times are changed considerably but the final performance at 60
seconds is almost similar with slight improvements for the new gear set. The
maximum speed is increased from 48 to 48.24 m/s (0.5%) and travel distance from
2267 to 2282 m (0.7%). The acceleration time to 100 km/h, however, is slightly
longer increasing from 10 to 10.5 seconds (5%).

50

Velocity (m/s)

40
30
20
10
0
0
2500

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

Distance (m)

2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

## Figure S3.19a Speed and distance outputs of Problem 3.19

Acceleration (m/s2)

0
0

10

20

30
Time (s)

40

50

60

## Figure S3.19b Acceleration output of Problem 3.19

Problem 3.20
In the program listing given for Example 3.7.2 no constraint is imposed for the lower limit of
engine speed and at low vehicle speeds the engine rpm will attain values less than its working
range of 1000 rpm.
a) For the existing program try to find out at what times and vehicle speeds the engine speed is
below 1000 rpm.
b) Modify the program to ensure a speed of at least 1000 rpm for the engine. How are the results
affected?

Solution:
a) Since the vehicle speed and engine speed arrays are already available in the
MATLAB program of Example 3.7.2, the variation of engine speed with vehicle
speed can be plotted by inclusion of a plot statement. The result is shown in Figure
S3.20a. At speeds below 1.8 m/s the engine speeds are below 1000 rpm.
b) The engine rpm only affects the engine torque that is calculated in the MATLAB
function Fixed_thrt (see Figure 3.60). In other words, at the engine speed
corresponding to the vehicle speed, the engine torque is calculated and transferred to
the driving wheels. In order to limit the engine speed, including the following single
statement inside the function is sufficient:
if omega < 1000, omega=1000; end

However, when regenerating the engine speed in the main program from the values
of vehicle speed (output of the ode function), it is also necessary to include the
above statement inside the main program as well.
Inclusion of this limit on the engine speed has little effects on the results. Figure
S3.20b compares the results for the first 5 seconds for both cases with and without
the rpm limit.

6000

## Engine speed (rpm)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

10

20
30
Vehicle speed (m/s)

40

50

Figure S3.20a Variation of engine speed with vehicle speed (No rpm limit)
20

Velocity (m/s)

15
10
5
0
0
60

Distance (m)

## With rpm limit

40

20

0
0

Time (s)

Figure S3.20b Comparison of the output results with and without rpm limit
Problem 3.21
In a vehicle roll-out test on a level road the variation of forward speed with time is found to be of
the form:
v a tan(b dt ) , where a, b and d are three constants.

## a) Assume an aerodynamic resistive force in the form of FA cv 2 and derive an expression

for the rolling resistance force FRR.
b) Write an expression for the total resistive force acting on the vehicle.
Result: (b) FR = md (a+v2/a)
Solution:
a) From Equation 3.145 for the coast down:

dv
FRR cv 2
dt

## The rolling resistance force FRR, therefore, is:

FRR m

dv
cv 2
dt

Differentiation from the given relation for the speed results in:

dv
d
dt
a
Substitution in equation for the rolling resistance force leads to:

1
a
b) The total resistive force also includes the aerodynamic force. Thus:
1
1

## FR FRR FA mad (md ac)v 2 cv 2 md a v 2

a
a

Problem 3.22
Two specific tests have been carried out on a vehicle with 1300 kg weight to determine the
resistive forces. In the first test on a level road and still air the vehicle reaches a maximum speed
of 195 km/h in gear 5. In the second test on a road with slope of 10%, the vehicle attains
maximum speed of 115 km/h in gear 4. In both tests the engine is working at WOT at 5000 rpm,
where the torque is 120 Nm.
a) If the efficiency of the driveline is 90% and 95% at gears 4 and 5 respectively, determine
the overall aerodynamic coefficient and the rolling resistance coefficient.
b) If the gearbox ratio at gear 5 is 0.711 and the wheel effective radius is 320 mm, assume a
slip of 2.5% at first test and determine the final drive ratio.
c) Calculate the ratio of gear 4 (ignore the wheel slip).
Results: (a) c=0.314, fR=0.014, (b) nf =4.24, (c) n4=1.206

Solution:
a) In both tests the vehicle attains steady state motion. Thus for gears 5 and gear 4
the equations of motion are:

## d 5 Pe5 ( f Rmg cv52 )v5

d 4 Pe 4 ( f Rmg cos 4 cv42 mg sin 4 )v4
As the engine working condition is identical for both cases, the engine powers Pe5
and Pe4 are equal to Tee. Thus the only two unknowns in the two above equations
are fR and c. The solution is:

## Tee d 4 d 5 cos mg sin

Tee d 5 cv52
v5
v5
v4

c
and f R
2
2
v4 v5 cos
mg
For the given numerical values the results are obtained as c=0.3135 and fR=0.0143.
b) From Equation 3.137:

Sx 1

v
rww

where w = e/(nf n5). Substituting into the above equation results in the following
equation for nf:

nf

rwe
1 S x
n5v5

## The numerical result is (use e in rad/s and Sx=0.025) nf=4.2418.

c) Since the wheel slip is ignored:

n4

rwe
n f v4

## and the numerical result is n4= 1.2056.

Problem 3.23
For a vehicle with specifications given in table below, engine torque at WOT is of the following
form:
Te=100+a(e-1000)-b(e-1000)2 ,

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

## Table P3.23 Vehicle information

Vehicle mass
Rolling Resistance Coefficient
Final drive Ratio
Transmission Gear Ratio 1
Gear Ratio 2
Gear Ratio 3
Gear Ratio 4
Gear Ratio 5
Aerodynamic Coefficient
CD
Frontal Area
Af
Air density
A

1200
0.02
0.35
3.5
4.00
2.63
1.73
1.14
0.75
0.4
2.0
1.2

## a) Determine the maximum engine power.

b) What is the maximum possible speed of the vehicle?
c) Calculate the maximum vehicle speed at gears 4 and 5.
Results: (a) 69,173 W, (b) 170.6 km/h, (c) 169.9 and 142.6 km/h

kg
m

m2
kg/m3

Solution:
a) The maximum engine power is the maximum of the following function:
Pe=[100+a(e-1000)-b(e-1000)2] e /30
Differentiation with respect to e and equating to zero results in:

## 3be2 (2a 4000b)e 103 a 106 b 100 0

which has a positive answer of e = 5,092.2 rpm. Substituting this value in the above
equation for the power gives: Pmax = 69,173 W.
b) The maximum possible speed of vehicle is achieved when the maximum power is
used to propel the vehicle. Therefore:
2
d Pmax ( f Rmg cvmax
)vmax

## in MATLAB the solution can be found from:

F0=m*g*fR; c=Cd*Af*air_dens/2;
vmax = 3.6*fsolve(@(x) Pmax*eta-(F0+c*x^2)*x, 20 ,optimset('Display','off'))
c) According to the solution given in Example 3.7.3, Equation 3.112 for this problem
can be written in the form (driveline efficiency is also included):

k1 (v* )2 k2v* k3 0
with k1 bk 2

crw
Fr
, k2 k (a 2000b) , k3 100 103 a 106 b 0 w and
d n
d n

30n
.
rw

The numerical results for n n4 3.5 1.14 and n n5 3.5 0.75 are 47.19 m/s
(169.9 km/h) and 39.62 m/s (142.6 km/h) respectively. Note that the maximum
speed in gear 4 is larger than that of gear 5. In addition the engine speeds are 5,137
and 2,837 rpm and are below 6000 rpm in both gears.

Problem 3.24
For the vehicle of Problem 3.23,
a) For a constant speed of 60 km/h over a slope of 10% which gears can be engaged?
b) For case (a) in which gear the input power is minimum?
c) On this slope what would be the maximum vehicle speed in each gear?
Hint: The following table is useful for solving this problem.
Table P3.24
1
2
3

Parameter
Engine speed
Engine torque
Vehicle maximum speed

Gear 1

Gear 2

Gear 3

Gear 3

Gear 5
rpm
Nm
km/h

Solution:
a) As the speed of motion is given (v*), the resistive forces are known quantities. In
order to have a constant speed, the condition is FT=FR=F*=known. For the specified
speed and traction force, each engaged gear will need a specific engine speed (

F*
n *
*
rw ).
v ) and a specific engine torque ( Te
rw
n
*
e

The maximum engine speed is bounded at 6000 rpm, therefore one condition for
each gear is to make engine turn at speeds below 6000 rpm. The other constraint is to
require engine torques below the maximum engine torque. Each gear that satisfies
these two conditions, can be engaged and produce the specified vehicle speed. The
first two rows of the proposed table are to check these two constraints. With the
following MATLAB commands the necessary information is obtained:
n =nf*[4.0 2.63 1.73 1.14 0.75]; % ratio of gears 1-5
j=1: 5;
d_eff=0.85+j/100; % Driveline efficieny array
wstar=30*n*vstar/rW/pi; % Engine speed in each gear
Te_star=rW*FR./(d_eff.*n); % Engine torque in each gear

The numerical results presented in the first two rows of Table S3.24, indicates that
only gears 2 and 3 satisfy the two constraints.
The following MATLAB commands can also be used to generate the results
automatically:
pos_w=find(wstar<6000); % Gears that produce speeds below 6000 rpm
pos_T=find(Te_star<150);% Gears that produce torques below 150 Nm
pos_acc=intersect(pos_w , pos_T); % Acceptable gears
T_acc=[Te_star(pos_acc); pos_acc] % Engine torques of acceptable gears
w_acc=[wstar(pos_acc); pos_acc] % Engine speeds of acceptable gears

b) The output power is obviously equal for both gears as the speed is considered
equal. The input power d Tee differs due to different driveline efficiencies.
According to the efficiency figures, the input power in gear 3 is 29,147 W whereas
in gear 2 it is 29,482 W.

Solution (continued):
c) The condition for having a dynamic balance is FT=FR, but the value of FR is not
known this time. This problem is exactly similar to the part (c) of Problem 3.23, the
only difference being the value of F0 which is:

## F0 mg( f R cos sin )

However, in this case a question arises of whether or not the high gears (e.g. gears 4
and 5) can be held at a constant speed on the slope? The answer to this question lies
with the solution of speed equation k1 (v* )2 k2v* k3 0 . In fact for those gears that
a dynamic balance point is not available, the roots of the equation will be complex
conjugates. In addition the result obtained for the speed must also comply with the
kinematic constraint of engine speed below 6000 rpm.
The following MATLAB program is based on the equations given in Problem 3.23
and above explanation. Running this program with proper data will automatically
specify the possible gears and their maximum speeds shown in the 3rd row of the
Table S3.24. In some gears the maximum speed is its kinematic limit and in others
its dynamic balance point.
for i=1: length(n)
ni=n(i);
eta=d_eff(i);
k=ni*30/rW/pi;
k1=-(b*k^2+c*rW/ni/eta);
k2=k*(a+2000*b);
k3=100-1000*a-1e6*b-F0*rW/ni/eta;
vmax=roots([k1 k2 k3]);
ireal=isreal(vmax);
% 0 if vmax is a complex number
vd(i)=ireal*vmax(1); % vd will be zero if vmax is complex
end
wd=30*n.*vd/rW/pi;
% Engine speed in each gear
pos_wd=find(wd<6000); % Check for engine speeds to be below 60000
pos_vd=find(vd>0);
% Check for vehicle speeds to be > 0
gearnumber=intersect(pos_wd , pos_vd); % Acceptable gears that satisfy both conditions
for i=1: min(gearnumber)-1
vk(i)=6000*pi*rW/30/n(i); % Gear below 'x' reach their kinematic speed
end
i_acc=1: 1: gearnumber-1;
vi=[i_acc gearnumber; vk*3.6 vd(gearnumber)*3.6];

Table S3.24
1
2
3

Parameter
Engine speed
Engine torque
Vehicle maximum speed

Gear 1
6366.2
44.74
56.6

Gear 2
4185.8
67.3
86.0

Gear 3
2753.4
101.1
115.1

Gear 3
1814.4
151.7
-

Gear 5
1193.7
228.0
-

rpm
Nm
km/h

Problem 3.25
The vehicle of Problem 3.23 is moving on a level road at the presence of wind with velocity of
40 km/h. Assume CD=CD0+ 0.1 |sin |, in which is the wind direction relative to the vehicle
direction of travel. Determine the maximum vehicle speed in gear 4 for:
b) A tailwind (=0)
c) A wind with =135 degree.
Results: (a) 142.5, (b) 192.0, (c) 140.5 km/h

Solution:
This problem is essentially similar to the part (c) of Problem 3.23. The difference
here is the aerodynamic drag force which is different. It is defined as:
RA=0.5A (CD0+ 0.1 |sin |) AF v A2
The angle and the air speed vA are different for the three cases. The former is given
for each case but the latter must be determined. The air velocity vA is (see Figure
3.23 considering V=0 and W=):

## v A (vW cos vV )i vW sin j

The effect of wind direction on the aerodynamic force is already considered in CD,
and the air speed is the component of vA in the opposite direction of motion or,

v A vV vW cos
The equation to be solved in this example is similar to that of Problem 3.23 part (c),
but instead of c(v*)2 in the aerodynamic force, the term c(vA)2 must be used. This will
only change k2 and k3:
k2 k (a 2000b) 2

crw
r
vW cos , k3 100 103 a 106 b w F0 c(vW cos ) 2
d n
d n

The MATLAB program given in the solution of Problem 3.24, part (c) can be
modified for this problem. The basic changes are:
wd=[180 0 135];
% Wind direction array
Cd=Cd0+0.1*abs(sin(wd*pi/180)); % Cd array
C=Cd*Af*air_den/2;
vwd=vw*cos(wd*pi/180)/3.6;
% Array of wind speed in the direction of motion
for i=1: length (wd)
% Loop for each case

## % Statements (modify the loop of Problem 3.24, part (c))

end

The results obtained from this program for the three cases are 142.5, 192.0 and 140.5
km/h.

Problem 3.26
Two similar vehicles with exactly equal properties are travelling on a level road but in opposite
directions. Their limit speeds are measured as v1 and v2 respectively. Engine torque at WOT is
approximated by following equation:
Te=150-1.1410-3(-314.16)2
Determine the aerodynamic drag coefficient CD and wind speed in direction of travel vw by:
a) Writing a parametric tractive force equation in terms of vehicle speed for both vehicles.
b) Then write a parametric resistive force equation in terms of speed for both vehicles.
c) Equate the two equations for each vehicle and use the numerical values of Problem 3.23 for m,
fR, Af, A, rW and the additional information given in table below,

1
2
3

## Results: 0.25 and 19.32 km/h

Table P3.26
Transmission Gear Ratio
v1
v2

0.9
180
200

Solution:
a) The tractive force for both vehicles is:

FT

n
n
Te
150 - 1.14 10-3 ( - 314.16) 2
rW
rW

## In terms of the vehicle speed:

FT

n
rW

-3 n
2
150 - 1.14 10 ( r vi - 314.16)
W

## in which vi is the speed of the ith vehicle.

b) The resistive forces for the first and second vehicles are,

FR1 f R mg c(v1 vw )2

FR 2 f Rmg c(v2 vw )2
c) At the limit speed, the tractive and resistive forces are equal and the governing
equations for the vehicles are:

n
rW

-3 n
2
2
150 - 1.14 10 ( r v1 - 314.16) f R mg c(v1 vw )
W

n
n
150 - 1.14 10-3 ( v2 - 314.16) 2 f R mg c(v2 vw ) 2

rW
rW

With the given numerical values for v1 and v2, the above equations reduce to

## c(v1 vw )2 k1 and c(v2 vw )2 k2 . Defining r

CD are: vw

k2
, the solutions for vw, c and
k1

2c
v2 rv1
k1
, c
and CD
2
A Af
1 r
(v1 vw )

## The numerical results are:

k1=925.24, k2=760.22, vw=5.37 (19.32 km/h), c=0.3018 and CD=0.252

Problem 3.27
While driving uphill in gear 4 on a road with constant slope , the vehicle of Problem 3.23
reaches its limit speed vU at an engine speed of at a still air. The same vehicle is then driven
downhill on the same road in gear 5, while keeping the engine speed same as before. Engine
powers for uphill and downhill driving are PU and PD respectively. The tyre slip is roughly
estimated from equation Sx=S0+P10-2 (%) where S0 is a constant and P is power in hp.
Assume a small slope angle and use the additional data given in the table to determine:
a) Uphill and downhill driving speeds
Table P3.27
1
2
3
4

Uphill power
Downhill power
Tyre basic slip
Gear progression ratio n4/n5

## Results: (a) 116.9 and 165.1 km/h, (b) 9.4 %

PU
PD
S0
C4

90
10
2.0
1.4

hp
hp
%

Solution:
a) In both cases the vehicle attains the limit speeds. Thus for gears 4 and 5 the
equations of motion are:

## d 4 PU ( f Rmg cos cvU2 mg sin )vU

d 5 PD ( f Rmg cos cv D2 mg sin )vD
In contrast with the case of Problem 3.22 the engine working condition is not
identical for both cases. In fact in this problem in spite of having equal engine
speeds, the throttle inputs are not equal and the engine powers Pu and Pd are different
as given. Thus the three unknowns in the two above equations are vU, vD and .
Assuming a small slope angle (i.e. cos =1 and sin = in rad) simplifies the
equations and can be solved to obtain:

## c(vU2 vD vD2 vU ) d 4 PU vD d 5 PDvU 2 f RmgvDvU

An additional equation can be obtained from the information given for the tyre slips.
The vehicle speed is related to the slip by:

vi

rw
(1 Si )
ni

## The ratio of speeds in gears 5 and 4 are ( is identical for both):

vD
n 1 S5
1 S5
k 4
C4
vU
n5 1 S4
1 S4
Substituting into the equation obtained earlier leads to an equation for vD:

c(1

1 3
)vD 2 f R mgvD d 4 PU k d 5 PD 0
k2

## vU and can then be determined from:

vU

1 d 4 PU
vD
and

mg vU
k

Solution (continued):
Numerical values are:
k = 1.4115, vD= 45.85 (165.1 km/h), vU= 32.48 (116.9 km/h) and = 0.093 (rad) or
5.34 (deg) or 9.4%.

Problem 3.28
For the vehicle of Problem 3.23,
a) Derive a general parametric expression for the value of speed v* at the maximum
attainable acceleration.
b) Use the numerical values and determine the values of v* at each gear.
c) Calculate the maximum accelerations at each gear.
30ni2 d (a 2000b)
Results: (a) v
, (b) 9.06, 13.38, 18.51, 21.45 and 17.88 m/s, (c) 4.07,
302 ni3
rW2
2(c d b 2 3 )
rW
*

## 2.59, 1.55, 0.796 and 0.298 m/s2.

Solution:
a) The vehicle acceleration in each gear ni is:

FT FR 1 ni
( d Te f R mg cv 2 )
m
m rW

Assuming no slip, Te in the above equation can be written as a function of the vehicle
speed:
30ni
30ni

Te 100 a
v 1000 b
v 1000
rW
rW

Substituting into the above equation makes the acceleration a function merely of the
vehicle speed. Differentiation with respect to v and equating to zero results in:
30ni

n 30ni
d
v 1000 2cv 0
a 2b
rW rW
rW

## The solution to this equation is v* that maximises the acceleration:

30 n
d i
rW

( a 2000b)
*

v
2
2bni 30ni

2c
d
rW

r
W
b) The numerical results for v* are 9.06, 13.38, 18.51, 21.45 and 17.88 (m/s) for
gears 1-5. To obtain values of amax, the values for Te can be determined first and then
substituted in the first equation. The results are:
Te: 149.99, 149.84, 148.44, 139.14 and 110.60 Nm.
a: 4.07, 2.59, 1.55, 0.796 and 0.298 m/s2.
It should be noted that the answer for gear 5 is not valid since the engine speed drops
to 281 rpm.

Problem 3.29
In Section 3.9 the effect of rotating masses were discussed and equations for including this effect
in the acceleration performance of a vehicle were developed. From an energy consumption point
of view, when vehicle is accelerated to the speed of v, the rotating inertias will be at rotational
speeds related to v (ignore the tyre slip).
a) Write the kinetic energies for the vehicle body mass m and rotating masses Ie, Ig and Iw
b) From the kinematic relations, relate the rotational speeds to the vehicle speed
c) Write the energy terms in terms of vehicle speed v
d) Write the total energy of vehicle as: Et 0.5meq v 2
e) Determine the equivalent mass meq and compare it with Equation 3.130

Solution:
a) The kinetic energies for the vehicle body and rotating masses are:
Ev 0.5mv2 , Ee 0.5I ee2 , Eg 0.5I gg2 and Ew 0.5I ww2

b) From the kinematic relations, the rotational speeds can be written as:

e
ng

, w

g
nf

The vehicle speed can be related to wheel rotational speed if no slip is assumed:

v w rw
c) Substituting the kinematic relations into the energy equations, all energy terms can
be expressed in terms of the vehicle speed v:

n
n
1
Ee 0.5I e ( ) 2 v 2 , E g 0.5I g ( f ) 2 v 2 and Ew 0.5I w ( ) 2 v 2
rw
rw
rw
d) The total energy simply is the summation of all energy terms:
Et Ev Ee Eg Ew 0.5meq v 2

e) Substituting the energy terms into the above equation results in:
0.5meq v 2 0.5mv2 0.5I e (

n
n 2 2
1
) v 0.5I g ( f ) 2 v 2 0.5I w ( ) 2 v 2
rw
rw
rw

## which simplifies to:

meq m[1

1
( I w I A n 2f I g n 2 I e )]
2
mrw

## that is, exactly similar to Equation 3.130.

Problem 3.30
For a tyre with the Magic Formula information given in Table 3.3,
a) Plot the longitudinal force (F) against slip (s) for both traction and brake regions at
normal load values 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kN (all in a single figure)
b) Plot coefficients of tyre-road friction for case (a)
c) At slip ratios 5, 10, 20 and 50%, plot the variation of Fx versus Fz (max Fz=5kN).
d) Differentiate the Magic Formula with respect to slip to find the value of slip at which the
force is maximum. Verify your results by comparing them with those of case (a).
e) In order to have an impression of the influence of different factors in the Magic Formula
tyre model, try the following for the above tyre in (a) at a normal load of 3.0 kN:
I. Multiply coefficient B by 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 while keeping the other coefficients
unchanged. Plot all three results in a single figure.
II. Repeat I for coefficient C.
III. Repeat I for coefficient D.
IV. Repeat I for coefficient E.

Solution:
a) This part is similar to Example 3.3.1 but for the full range of slip variations. The
MATLAB program of Figure 3.12 can be modified for this part. The result is plotted
in Figure S3.30a.
b) This part is similar to Example 3.3.2. By dividing the longitudinal forces by the
normal load the coefficient of adhesion is obtained. The result for the whole range is
shown in Figure S3.30b.
c) The following MATLAB commands may be used to generate the results shown in
Figure S3.30c:
figure, hold on
sx=[5 10 20 50];
fz=0: 25: 5000;
for i=1: length(sx)
for j=1: 201
fx(j)=FX(fz(j), sx(i));
end
plot(fz, fx)
end

## Note the nonlinear dependency of the longitudinal force on the slip.

d) The differentiation of Fx with respect to Sx results in the following equation:

Fx
BCD

S x 1 ( B ) 2

E
1 E
cos[C Arctan ( B )]
2
1 ( BS x )

The above derivative can have two possible answers when equated to zero. These
correspond to the last two factors. Equating the second factor to zero results in:

( BS x ) 2

1
E 1

Since E is always smaller than unity, the above equation has no practical solution.
Thus the only possible answer results from:
cos[C Arctan ( B)] 0

Solution (continued):
The solution of the above equation must satisfy:

B B S x (1 E ) E Arctan ( B S x ) tan

2C

This is a nonlinear equation for Sx that can be solved by the MATLAB command:
sx_star=fsolve(@(x) b*(1-e)*x+e*atan(b*x)-tan(pi/2/c), 1, optimset('Display','off'))

For the values of Fz=1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 N, the answers are Sx= 12.95, 11.86,
11.03 and 10.35%. These values can also be found from the solution of the part (a).
From Figure S3.30a the approximate values are observed.
e) For this part, the function fx of Figure 3.12 must be modified too. This can be
done in different ways. The multipliers can be multiplied inside the function for each
of the coefficients at a time, or a general multiplier can be used that could be
controlled within the main program. The results for the parts I through IV are shown
in Figures S3.30e to S3.30g.

5000
4000

## Longitudinal force (N)

3000
2000

Fz=1.0 kN
Fz=2.0 kN
Fz=3.0 kN
Fz=4.0 kN

1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000
-5000
-100

-50

0
Longitudinal slip (%)

50

100

Figure S3.30a Variation of tyre longitudinal force with slip at different normal loads
1.2

0.8

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

kN
kN
kN
kN

0.4

-0.4

-0.8

-1.2
-100

-50

0
Longitudinal slip (%)

50

100

Figure S3.30b Variation of adhesion coefficient with slip at different normal loads
6000

Sx=5%
Sx=10%
Sx=20%
Sx=50%

## Longitudinal force (N)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0

1000

2000
3000

4000

5000

Figure S3.30c Variation of tyre longitudinal force with normal load at different slips

4000
3000

## Longitudinal force (N)

2000

Multiplier=0.8
Multiplier=1.0
Multiplier=1.2

1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000
-100

-50

0
Longitudinal slip (%)

50

100

4000
3000

## Longitudinal force (N)

2000

Multiplier=0.8
Multiplier=1.0
Multiplier=1.2

1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000
-100

-50

0
Longitudinal slip (%)

50

100

4000
3000

## Longitudinal force (N)

2000

Multiplier=0.8
Multiplier=1.0
Multiplier=1.2

1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000
-100

-50

0
Longitudinal slip (%)

50

100

4000
3000

## Longitudinal force (N)

2000

Multiplier=0.8
Multiplier=1.0
Multiplier=1.2

1000
0
-1000
-2000
-3000
-4000
-100

-50

0
Longitudinal slip (%)

50

100

## Figure S3.30g Effect of the Magic Formulas E factor on the Fx

Problem 3.31
The vehicle of Problem 3.23 is moving with a constant speed of 100 km/h. Use the tyre data of
Table 3.3 for each of the two driving wheels and for a front/rear weight distribution of 60/40,
determine
a) Longitudinal slip (in percentage) of the tyres for both cases of FWD and RWD
c) Repeat (a) for a level road with adhesion coefficient of 0.4

Solution:
a) The vehicle is moving at a constant speed; nonetheless, the driving wheels are
exerting tractive force to overcome the resistive forces. The total tractive force
generated by the two driving wheels is equal to the total resistive forces. On a level
road the total resistive force is:

## FR mgf R cv 2 1200 9.81 0.02 0.5 1.2 0.4 2 27.782 605.9 N

Each of the driving wheels produces half of the force (i.e. 302.95 N). Due to the
constant speed there is no longitudinal load transfer and the tyre loads are static
loads. For a FWD vehicle the loads on the driving wheels are 60% of vehicle weight
whereas for a RWD vehicle the load is 40%. Therefore for the FWD case, the load
on each tyre is 1200 9.81 0.3 3532 N and for the RWD case it is 2354 N.
Once the longitudinal and normal loads of a tyre are known, its slip can be
determined from the Magic Formula. However, the process is of a trial and error
nature and MATLABs fsolve is useful. The following program uses the Magic
Formula equations and determines the slip if the normal load is given for each case:
fz=??
c=1.65d0;
d=-21.3d-6*fz*fz+1144.d-3*fz;
e=-.006d-6*fz*fz+.056d-3*fz+.486d0;
bcd=(49.6d-6*fz*fz+226.d-3*fz)*exp(-.069d-3*fz);
b=bcd/(c*d);
sx=fsolve(@(x) 302.95-d*sin(c*atan(b*(1.d0-e)*x+e*atan(b*x)/b)), 2, optimset('Display','off'))

The answers for the FWD and RWD are 0.27 and 0.44% respectively.
b) In this case the resistive load increases and the normal loads also decrease (the
load transfer due to the slope is ignored), otherwise the solution method is similar.
The total resistive force is:

## FR mg( f R cos sin ) cv 2 1631 N

Normal loads on front and rear tyres are cos 5 (0.996) times the previous loads.

Solution (continued):
Again, the above program with the new numerical values, generates slips of 0.75 and
1.24% for the FWD and RWD.
c) On a slippery road the tyre slip must be larger in order to produce a similar force
to that on a dry road. In order to change the adhesion coefficient of the Magic
Formula, the simplest way is to multiply the coefficient D by a factor of less than
unity. Assuming that this factor is the adhesion coefficient and is 1 for the dry
The solution will then be exactly similar to that of part (a) with exception that a
factor of 0.4 is considered for d in fsolve function. The answers for FWD and
RWD cases are 0.69% and 1.14%.

Problem 4.1
Explain why the term Nf+Nr of Equations 4.19 and 4.20 is not necessarily equal to Wcos and
discuss the conditions of equality.

Solution:
According to Equations 4.19 and 4.20, Nf and Nr each belong to FWD and RWD
categories. Summing up the two values, therefore, does not necessarily have a
physical meaning.
However, in order to find out the conditions of equality, using Equations 4.19 and
4.20 one obtains:

N f N r (k F k R )W cos
Thus for Nf+Nr= Wcos from Equation 4.25:

b hf R a hf R

1
l ph l ph

(*)

## The solution for p is:

b
l

a
l

p 2 fR ( ) /

h
l

(**)

Apart from the unimportant parameter fR, only 3 dimensionless parameters p , a/l
and h/l are involved. For the practical values, the plots of k F kR are shown in
Figures S4.1a and S4.1b for the variation of p. Figure S4.1a is drawn at h/l =0.3 for
different values of a/l and it is observed that only for the low values of a/l the
possibility of equality exists. Figure S4.1b illustrates the effect of variation of h/l at
a/l=0.4. Again it is observed that only at small values of h/l the condition holds. The
variation of p of Equation (**) is shown for different values of a/l in Figure S4.1c.
It can be concluded that the equality exists only at limited conditions, but again it
does not have a physical meaning.

1.4
a/l = 0.40

1.2
1
0.8
0.5
1.4

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.65
0.7
0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

kF+kR

a/l = 0.45
1.2

1
0.5
2

0.55

0.6

0.65
a/l = 0.50

1.5

1
0.5

0.55

0.6

1.03
1.02
h/l = 0.30

1.01
1

kF+kR

0.99
0.5
1.1

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.65
0.7
0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

h/l = 0.40
1

0.9
0.5
1.15

0.55

0.6

0.65

1.1
h/l = 0.50
1.05
1
0.5

0.55

0.6

a/l = 0.40
a/l = 0.45
a/l = 0.50

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0.2

0.25

0.3
h/l

0.35

0.4

## Figure S4.1c The variation of p of Equation (**)

Problem 4.2
Repeat Example 4.3.2 and show that for lower adhesion coefficients of below 0.7, FWD vehicle
can have better gradeability results than RWD vehicle.
Solution:
Figure 4.5 is regenerated in subplot format of Figure S4.2 in order to clearly
illustrate the effect of the location of CG (ratio

a
a
) on the results. At 0.4 and for
l
l

than that of RWD vehicle. At CG locations closer to the centre of vehicle, even at

25
20

a/l = 0.40
FWD
RWD

15
10
0.5
30

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.65
0.7
0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

a/l = 0.45
20

10
0.5
40

0.55

0.6

0.65

30
a/l = 0.50
20
10
0.5

0.55

0.6

Figure S4.2
Problem 4.3
For a vehicle with information given in table below,
a) Find an expression for the overall high gear ratio for the case in which the maximum
vehicle speed occurs at the engine speed corresponding to the maximum engine torque.
b) Repeat (a) for the case the maximum vehicle speed occurs at the engine speed
corresponding to the maximum engine power.

1
2
3
4
5

## Aero Drag Coefficient

Rolling Resistance Coefficient
High Gear Ratio
Maximum engine torque

c
f
R
n

TP
P

Vehicle mass

## Result: (a) T n 3 fmgRn 2 cR ( R* ) 2 0

Solution:
a) At the maximum vehicle speed we have:
2
FT FR fmg cv max

The tractive force and vehicle speed can be expressed in terms of engine torque and
engine speed respectively (driveline efficiency of 100% and no slip is assumed),

R*
nT *
FT
, vmax
n
R
Substituting into the above equation results in:
R*
nT *

fmg c
R
n

T n 3 fmgRn 2 cR ( R* ) 2 0
b) The first equation is still valid for this case, but the vehicle speed occurs at the
engine speed corresponding to the maximum engine power, so:

FT

nTP
R P
, vmax
R
n

## Substituting into the first equation results in a similar form:

TR n 3 fmgRn 2 cR ( R R )2 0

Problem 4.4
For the vehicle of Example 4.3.3 design the highest gear ratio in the manner described below and
compare the result with those of Examples 4.3.3-4.3.4.
First design gear 4 at the engine speed 10% above the speed at the maximum power and then
design gear 5 with a 25% overdrive.

Solution:
The final speed of vehicle according to Example 4.3.4 is 50.4 m/s (181.4 km/h). For
this speed and an engine speed of 10% above the speed at the maximum power, the
gear 4 is:
n4 e*

rw
0.3
1.1 5500
3.77
vmax
50.4 30

## A 25% overdrive for gear 5 gives:

n5 0.75 n4 2.83
To compare the results with those of Examples 4.3.3 and 4.3.4, it is important to note
that in those examples the calculation of the gear ratio was based on the dynamic
equilibrium whereas in the current method it is based on the kinematic relationship.
The results obtained in Examples 4.3.3 and 4.3.4 guaranteed the desired high speeds
(180 and 181.4 km/h respectively). For the current case, however, the actual
maximum speeds of gears 4 and 5 that are the result of the dynamic balance, might
be different from the expected speeds. By using following the MATLAB commands,
the actual limit speed of gear 4 can be obtained:
we=1000: 20: 6000;
v=we *rw*pi /n4/30;
DF4=n4*Te/rw-fr*m*9.81-c*v.^2; % Difference of traction and resistive forces
pos_F=find(DF4>=0);
% Points at which the above difference is positive
vmax4=3.6*v(pos_F(end))

The result is 179.95 km/h, which is close to 181.4. Similar calculation for the
maximum speed of gear 5 results in 161.95 km/h, which is 10% below the required
speed.
On the other hand the actual engine speeds at the maximum speeds of gears 4 and 5
are obtained as 6000 and 4050 rpm respectively. This gives a speed ratio of 0.675

Problem 4.5
Prove Equation 4.37 for the overdrive gear ratio by writing the kinematic equation of vehicle
motion. State the assumptions involved in this process.
Solution:
The kinematic equation of motion with the assumption of no slip can be written as:

nH vmax e rw
The ratios of variables at two different gears are:
nH vmax e

nH vmax
e

## Now if one of the gears is considered to be n H* , then:

nH

*
e vmax

nH*
e* vmax

Assuming that the overdrive does not change the maximum speed considerably (see
Example 4.3.5):
nH

e *
nH
e*

For a 10% overdrive the engine speed is considered to reduce to the 90% of the e* ,
so:

nH 0.9 nH*

Problem 4.6
In a 4WD vehicle the wheel torques at front and rear axles are distributed such that the ratio of
front to rear axle torques is given by r.
a) Assume the rear wheels are at the point of slip and derive an expression for the maximum
negotiable slope of the vehicle (assume equal gear ratios for front and rear and ignore the
rolling resistance).
b) Repeat (a) assuming the front wheels are at the point of slip.
c) For both cases of (a) and (b) derive expressions for the limits of torque ratio r.
d) Use numerical values 2.5, 0.5, 1.2, 0.8 and 0.02 for l, h, a, and fR to evaluate the limits
of r.
Result: (a) tan (1 r )

a hf R
(d) r 0.57 and r 0.57
l (1 r )h

Solution:
a) According to Figure 4.2, the total traction force is:
FT F f Fr

For equal gear ratios front and rear, the ratio of tractive force of the front to that of
the rear is r:

Tf
Tr

Ff
Fr

## Substituting into the above equation results in:

FT (1 r ) Fr

When the rear tyres are at the point of slip, according to Equation 4.10:
FT max (1 r ) p N r

Neglecting the h term in Equation 4.16 and substitution of the above equation
a
h
N r W cos (1 r ) p N r FRR
l
l

Nr

a hf R
W cos
l p h(1 r )

## The maximum traction force, therefore, is:

FT max

a hf R
(1 r ) pW cos
l p h(1 r )

The maximum negotiable slope is at low speeds where the tractive force overcomes
the resistive forces. Ignoring the aerodynamic and rolling resistance forces:

FT max W sin
Substituting for FT max leads to:

Solution (continued):

a hf R
(1 r ) pW cos W sin
l p h(1 r )
from which is obtained as:

tan

a hf R
(1 r ) p
l p h(1 r )

b) When the front tyres are at the point of slip, the maximum tractive force is:
1
FT max (1 ) p N f
r

FT max

b hf R

1
(1 ) pW cos
1
r
l p h(1 )
r

tan

b hf R

1
(1 ) p
1
r
l p h(1 )
r

## c) The maximum grade a 4WD vehicle can climb is when:

FT max pW cos W sin

tan

tan

a hf R
(1 r ) p p
l p h(1 r )
b hf R

1
(1 ) p p
1
r
l p h(1 )
r

(for case a)

(for case b)

## Solving for r results in:

b h( p f R )
a h( p f R )

(for case a)

Solution (continued):

b h( p f R )

(for case b)

a h( p f R )

d) The numerical results are r 0.57 and r 0.57 for cases (a) and (b) respectively.
For a better understanding of the problem the variation of slope angles for both cases
for different values of the torque ratio r is plotted in Figure S4.6. It is clear that the
curves above the maximum possible grade of the vehicle (i.e. tan p ) are not
acceptable and the limit for r is 0.57 for both cases.

70
65

55
Not acceptable
50
45
40

(deg)

60

(Atan P)

35
Front wheel skid
30

25
20
0

## Limit for 'r'

0.2

0.4
0.6
Torque ratio (r)

0.8

Figure S4.6 The variation of slope with the torque ratio of Problem 4.6

Problem 4.7
A method shown in Figure P4.7 is proposed for the evaluation of intermediate gearbox ratios. It
includes two low speed levels for the engine with the definition of L L ( 1 ),
2

## a) Find expressions for C g1 and C g2

b) Find expressions for n2 , n3 and n4 in terms of C gi .
c) Examine the difference between the average of C g1 and C g2 with C gp of geometric
progression.
d) Show that for 1 this method is identical to conventional geometric progression.

L2
L1

V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

## Figure P4.7 Engine-vehicle speed diagram of Problem 4.7

Results: (a) Cg1 Cgp and C g 2

C gp

Solution:
a) C g1 and C g2 are the geometric progression constants for L and L2 . According
1

H n1

n
and H 2

L1 n2
L1 n3

## Similar to Equation 4.43:

n1 n2 H

C g1
n2 n3 L1

or

n1
C g21 .
n3

Similarly:
n
n3 n4 H

C g 2 and 3 C g22
n5
n4 n5 L2

Therefore:
C g1 C g 2

and,
n1
n
2 3 .
n3
n5

2 n32 n1n5
Thus:
C g21

n1
n1
n
2

1 C gp
n3
n5
n1n5

or:

Cg1 Cgp

Solution (continued):
and,
Cg 2

C gp

n2

n1n5

n1
n1
, n3

C g1
C gp

and n4

n3
n
C g 2 n5 5 C gp
Cg 2

Cav

1
1
1
1
(C g 1 C g 2 ) (
)Cgp
Cgp
2
2

d) For =1:
Cg1 Cg 2 Cgp

## And this method will exactly be the geometric progression.

Problem 4.8
A method is proposed for the evaluation of intermediate transmissions ratios presented in Figure
P4.8. With the assumption of L L ( 1 ), 1 t , n1 / n5 N ,
2

## a) Find an expression for calculation of C g

H
in terms of N and t (or ).
L1

## b) Find expressions for n2 , n3 and n4 in terms of known parameters.

c) Show that for 1 the above results are identical to conventional geometric progression.

H
L2
L1

V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

## Figure P4.8 Engine-vehicle speed diagram of Problem 4.8

Result: (a) Cg4 tC g3 tC g2 N 2 0

Solution:
a) According to Figure S4.8, at V1 (points 1 and 2):
H n1

2 n2

where,

V
2 L1 1 t 1
V3

Writing the kinematic relation at points 1 and 5 of Figure S4.8 results in:
n3 V1

n1 V3

Thus:
n2 L1

n1 H

n
1 t 3
n1

or,
Cg n2 n1 tn3

(*)

Cg n3 n2 tn3

(**)

## At V3 and V4 geometric progression is applied, so:

n3 n4 H C g

n4 n5 L2

(***)

Eliminating n2 between (*) and (**) and dividing the result by n5 leads to:
(C g2 tC g t )

n3
N
n5

## After substituting from (***) for

Cg4 tC g3 tC g2 N 2 0

2
n3 C g
2 , the following equation can be obtained:
n5

(****)

Solution (continued):
b) Eliminating n3 between (*) and (**) gives:
n2

Cg t
C tC g t
2
g

n1

n3

1
n1
C tC g t
2
g

## For n4 directly from (***):

n4

Cg

n5

t, , n1 and n5 are known quantities, so after finding Cg from equation (****), all gear
ratios can be determined from the above equations.
c) For =1, equation (****) reduces to:
C g4 N

n1
4
C gp
n5

## and equations for n2, n3 and n4 become:

n2

1
1
n1 , n3 2 n1 and n4 Cgpn5
C gp
C gp

L1

V1

V2

L2

V3

V5

V4

## Figure S4.8 Speed diagram of Problem 4.8

Problem 4.9
Repeat Problem 4.8 for the following engine-vehicle speed diagram.
H

L2

L1

V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

## Figure P4.9 Engine-vehicle speed diagram of Problem 4.9

Result: (a) Cg4 t (Cg3 Cg2 Cg 1) N 0

Solution:
a) The same procedure used in Problem 4.8 provides following relations:
Cg n2 n1 tn5

(*)

Cg n3 n2 tn5

(**)

Cg n4 n3 tn5

(***)

Cg n5 n4 tn5

(****)

Substituting from (**), (***) and (****) in (*) and dividing the result by n5, results in:
Cg4 t (Cg3 Cg2 Cg 1) N 0

(*****)

## b) Dividing equation (*) by n1 leads to:

N t
n1
NCg
Same procedure for equations (**) and (***) results in:
n2

n3

n4

N t (C g 1)
NCg2

n1

N t (C g2 C g 1)
NCg3

n1

C g4 N

n1
4
C gp
n5

## and equations for n2, n3 and n4 become:

n2

1
1
1
n1 , n3 2 n1 and n4 3 n1
C gp
C gp
C gp

## These are identical with those of the geometric progression.

Problem 4.10
In a vehicle clutch, the inner and outer disk radii are r and R respectively, while the maximum
spring force is F .
a) Write an expression for T, the difference between delivered torque at the two cases of
constant pressure and uniform wear in terms of the uniform wear torque.
b) Calculate the ratio

r
for the three cases of T= 1%, 5% and 10% of the torque of constant
R

wear.
c) Draw the variation of T/Tuw versus

1
4 Rr
T
Result: (b)
2 uw
3 3( R r )

r
R

Solution:
a) Based on Equation 4.136 the ratio of torque capacities in the uniform pressure to
uniform wear regimes is:

Tup

4
kr
1
Tuw

3 (1 k r ) 2

in which k r

r
.
R

T is:

T Tup Tuw

4
kr
1
Tuw Tuw

3 (1 k r ) 2

1
4 Rr
T
T
2 uw
3 3( R r )
b) The general case for T aTuw is:
1 4 kr

a
3 3 (1 k r ) 2

## The solution of following second order polynomial gives the answer:

k r2 2

3a 1
kr 1 0
3a 1

For the values of a= 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1, the answers are kr = 0.705, 0.442 and 0.292
respectively.
c) The ratio is:
T 1 4
kr

Tuw 3 3 (1 k r ) 2

The variation of

T
versus kr is depicted in Figure S4.10.
Tuw

0.35

0.3

0.25

T
Tuw

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

kr

## Figure S4.10 The variation of

T
versus kr of Problem 4.10
Tuw

Problem 4.11
For the clutch of Problem 4.10,
a) Is there an answer for r for having equal torques at both cases of uniform pressure and
uniform wear? Explain why?
b) With being the coefficient of friction, find an expression for the maximum difference
between the clutch torques in the two cases.
Result: (b)

1
F * R
3

Solution:
a) Based on Equation 4.136 the ratio of torque capacities in the uniform pressure to
uniform wear regimes is:

kT

4
kr
1

3 (1 k r ) 2

in which k r

r
.
R

## In order that kT becomes equal to unity, then:

kr
1

2
(1 k r )
4
which has the solution kr=1 or r = R; that is, nonsense. Therefore, under no
circumstances are the torque capacities of uniform pressure and uniform wear equal.
b) The variation of

T
versus kr was shown in Figure S4.10. From that figure it can
Tuw

be seen that the maximum value of the torque difference occurs as kr approaches
zero. Therefore, from part (c) of Problem 4.10 and Equation 4.133:
2
1
Tmax 0Tuw F * rav
3
3

## When kr approaches zero, rav=R/2 and,

1
Tmax F * R
3

Problem 4.12
If the sum of groove angles on the clutch plate lining is (radians) show that the actual
maximum pressure on the material is

1
1

## times its theoretical value with no grooves, for both

Solution:
a) Uniform pressure:
Based on Equation 4.120 the relation of clutch force Fup with pressure Pu is:
Fup ( ro2 ri2 ) pu

## For a clutch plate with the total angle of instead of 2 it reads:

Fup

( ro2 ri2 ) pu

in which pu is the relevant pressure when grooves are present. Dividing the two
equations results in:

pu 2
2
1

pu 2 1
2
b) Uniform wear:
From Equation 4.120 the governing relation is:

Fuw 2 ri ( ro ri ) pm
For a clutch plate with the total angle of :

Fuw ri ( ro ri ) pm
and in a similar way leads to:

pm 2
2
1

pm 2 1
2

Problem 4.13
During the clutch release in gear 1 the clutch force is increased linearly from zero to the maximum
of 5000 N. The variations of the engine and clutch rotational speeds are of the form shown in
Figure P4.13.

1500

e
c

t*

## Figure P4.13 Engine-clutch speed diagram of Problem 4.13

For information given below determine the clutch efficiency.
Table P4.13 Information for Problem 4.13
1
2
3
4
5

Parameter
Engine maximum torque
*
Lockup time t
Dynamic coefficient of friction
Engine rotating inertia

Value
100
1
20
0.4
0.25

Unit
Nm
s
cm
kgm2

Solution:
At the time of clutch release the engine speed remains constant at 1500 rpm. The
speed of clutch plate linearly increasing with time is (rad/s):

1500
t 50 t
30t *

Fc

Fmax
t 5000 t N
t*

## Tc 2rav Fc 2 0.4 0.2 5000 t 800 t

It should be noted that the clutch torque attains its maximum (engine maximum
torque) before the clutch force reaches its maximum. The time t1 at which the torque
is maximised is:

## 100 800 t1 or t1 0.125 s

According to Equation 4.179:

Te Tc I e

de
0 , or Te Tc 800 t
dt

Ei Eloss
Ei

tL

## Ei 12 I ee2 (0) 12 I d c2 (0) Pedt

0

tL

tL

Eloss Pf dt Tc (e c )dt
The last term of Ei is:
tL

Ee Pe dt Tee dt

Solution (continued):
Therefore Eloss can be written as:

## Eloss Tce dt Tcc dt Ee Tcc dt

All integrals must be broken into the two intervals of 0-t1 and t1-tL:
t1

t1

## Ee (800t ) (50 )dt (100) (50 )dt 5000 4t 2

t1

t1

0.125
0

t 10.125 14,726 J

1
2

## 14726 3084 6913

0.612 , or 61.2%
14726 3084

Problem 4.14
The driver of a vehicle decides to gearshift from gear 1 to gear 2 when the travelling speed reaches
36 km/h. At the time driver releases the clutch pedal the engine is idling.
a) Determine the rotational speeds of engine, clutch plate and driving wheels at the time
clutch starts to be released (use Table P4.14).
b) Specify the torque flow direction if the driver:
1) Just releases the clutch pedal
2) Increases the engine speed before releasing the clutch pedal
c) Plot a rough variation of the engine and clutch plate speeds versus time during the gearshift
for two cases at which the driver attempts to:

## 1) Accelerate right after gearshift

2) Maintain a uniform speed
d) Is it possible to gearshift without clutching? Explain how.

## Table P4.14 Information for Problem 4.14

Engine idle speed
1000
33
Overall ratios at 1st, 2nd and 3rd gears
14, 9 and 6
Result: (a) e 1000 rpm , c 2578.3 rpm and w 286.5 rpm

rpm
cm

Solution:
a) At the time of clutch release the engine is at its idle speed of 1000 rpm. Since
gear 2 is engaged, the clutch plate is rotating through the driving wheels with speed

v
(1 S x )
rw

30 36
286.5 rpm
3.6 0.33

## and the speed of clutch plate is c 9 w 2,578.3 rpm.

b) The torque direction is from the surface with higher rotating speed towards the
surface with lower rotating speed. Thus:
1) If the driver just releases the clutch c 2578.3 e 1000 and hence the torque
direction will be from the clutch plate to the engine. As a result the engine will speed
up, while the vehicle slows down.
2) If the driver increases the engine speed before releasing the clutch pedal, then for
an engine speed higher than the clutch speed, the torque will flow from the engine
towards the clutch and the vehicle will accelerate.
c) Figure S4.14 illustrates the typical speed variations for the two cases.
d) In order to gearshift without using a clutch, the two surfaces must have equal
speeds at the time of shifting. This can be done by first disengaging the gear
(clutching is not necessary), adjusting the engine speed by the throttle and then
engaging the new gear.

e
1000

1000

t
(1)

t
(2)

Figure S4.14 Typical speed variations for (1) accelerating and (2) maintaining speed right after
gearshift
Problem 4.15
For a 4WD vehicle the CG is at equal distances from the front and rear axles and the CG height
to the ground is half of the same distance. For P=1, assume equal driveline efficiencies for
driving with front or rear wheels and determine the ratio of FWD to RWD low gear ratios

N L FWD
.
N L RWD

Result: k 0.6

Solution:
Based on Equation 4.24, with similar efficiencies:

N L FWD k F

N L RWD k R

## Substituting from Equation 4.25 results in:

(b hf R )(l p h )
(a hf R )(l p h )

## Dividing the numerator and denominator by h leads to:

b
l
( f R )( p )
h
k h
a
l
( f R )( p )
h
h
According to the information given, l = 2a = 2b = 4h or

a b
l
2 and 4 .
h h
h

( 2 f R )( 4 p )
( 2 f R )( 4 p )

## Substituting p 1 and ignoring fR (compared with 2), leads to:

4 1
0.6
4 1

Problem 4.16
The gear ratio of a layshaft gearbox in gear 1 is 3.85:1. Two options with sub ratio combination
1.752.2 and 1.9252 are proposed for the determination of tooth numbers (at each case the left
figure is input gear mesh ratio and the second figure is the output gear mesh ratio). The distance

between the centrelines of the upper and lower shafts has to be larger than 100 mm but as small
as possible. Gear modules must be larger than 1mm with spacing of 0.25 mm (e.g. 1.25, 1.50,
etc). Find the tooth numbers for all 4 gears for both given options and select the best answer.

Solution:
The solution is similar to Example 4.4.1. From Equations 4.89 and 4.85:
n1

N 2 N G1

3.85 and N1 N 2 N P1 N G1
N1 N P1

Table S4.16a is constructed for the two proposed values. For the first row:

## N 2 1.75 N1 , N G1 2.2 N P1 and N1 N 2 N P1 N G1 N

2.75 N1 N
Combining the two provides:
3.2 N P1 N
Since N, N1 and NP1 are all integer numbers, therefore N must be also a minimum
integer of multipliers 2.75 and 3.2, or N 176 k , k 1, 2,

N 112
N1 64
, 2
For k=1,
N P1 55 N G1 121
For the second row of the table, the result is:

2.925 N1 N
, N 117 k , k 1, 2,

3.0 N P1 N
N 77
N1 40
, 2
And the smallest gears for k=1 are:
N P1 39 N G1 78
The centreline distance based on Equation 4.84 is:

Ci

m
m
( N1 N 2 ) ( N Pi N Gi )
2
2

The minimum Ci for the two options, larger than 100 mm, are:
C1=0.51.25176=110 mm, C2=0.51.75117=102.375 mm,
The results for the two alternatives are summarised in Table S4.16b. It is clear that
the second case has smaller gears and centreline and thus makes a smaller gearbox.

1
2

N2
N1

N G1
N P1

n1

1.750
1.925

2.2
2.0

3.85
3.85

## Table S4.16b Solutions for the alternative ratios of Table S4.16a

1
2

N2
N1

N G1
N P1

N1

N2

NP1

NG1

Ci

1.750
1.925

2.2
2.0

64
40

112
77

55
39

121
78

352
234

110
102.4

Problem 4.17
For the vehicles with given properties in Table P4.17,
a. Determine the maximum grade each vehicle can climb.
b. At the grade found in (a) what percentage of maximum engine power is utilized at
speed of 30 km/h?
c. At the grade found in (a) what percentage of maximum engine torque is utilized at
speed of 30 km/h?

Parameter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

## Distribution of weight F/R

Rolling Resistance Coefficient
High Gear Ratio
Maximum engine torque
Engine speed at max torque
Torque at max engine power
Engine speed at max power
Vehicle mass
CG height to ground
Friction coefficient
Wheel base

(%)
(m)
(Nm)
(rpm)
(Nm)
(rpm)
(kg)
(m)
(m)

Vehicle 1
(RWD)
55/45
0.02
0.30
13.0
150.0
3000
120.0
5000
1200
0.6
0.8
2.2

Vehicle 2
(FWD)
60/40
0.02
0.30
12.0
150.0
3000
120.0
5000
1150
0.6
0.8
2.2

Solution:
a) According to Equation 4.30 the negotiable slopes based on the road friction are:

tan

b hf R
p fR
l ph

(for FWD)

tan

a hf R
p fR
l ph

(for RWD)

With the given values in the table and noting that for RWD case a/l=0.45 and
h/l=0.6/2.2=0.273:

tan RWD

a / l f Rh / l
0.45 0.02 0.273
p fR
0.8 0.02 0.435 , 23.5
1 ph / l
1 0.8 0.35

## and similarly for the FWD case:

tan FWD

b / l f Rh / l
0.60 0.02 0.273
p fR
0.8 0.02 0.377 , 20.7
1 ph / l
1 0.8 0.35

## ( f R cos sin )Wrw nLTMe

For the RWD case:

## (0.02 cos RWD sin RWD ) 1200 9.81 0.3 13 150

which has the solution 32.4 . Therefore, the smaller of the two (i.e. 23.5 )
is the maximum grade for the RWD case. For the FWD case the same procedure
b) The maximum power of engine is:

30

62,832W

## The power used at speed v is:

Solution (continued):

P FT v
According to Equation 4.37:

FT

nLF / Rd Te
rw

However, information regarding the engine torque (at speed of 30 km/h) and
driveline efficiency is not available and an alternative way must be chosen. As the
vehicle is at its maximum traction limit, therefore, the traction force is:

FT ( f R cos sin )W
Using this equation with the numerical values given, the power values used in the
RWD and FWD cases are obtained as 40,922 and 36,491 W. The power ratios,
therefore, are 65.1% and 55.1% respectively.
c) The engine torque is:

Te

FT rw

nLF / Rd

Assuming a fully efficient driveline ( d 1 ), the engine torque values for the RWD
and FWD vehicles are 113.3 and 101.1 Nm. The torque ratios relative to the engine
maximum torques, therefore, are 75.6% and 67.4% respectively.

Problem 4.18
The information for a passenger car clutch spring is given in Table P4.18.
a) Plot the FS -S and FB -B curves using the MG formulae.
b) Calculate the seesaw gain ks.

c) Plot the variation of clamp force inside the first plot of FS -S.
d) Calculate the initial deflection C*
Table P4.18 Clutch information of Problem 4.18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Parameter
Inner diameter Di
Outer diameter Do
Bellville inner diameter Db
Spring thickness t
Bellville height h
Set point deflection S*
Modulus of elasticity
Poisons ratio

Value
34
185
151
2.3
3.4
3.4
206
0.3

Unit
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
MPa
-

Solution:
This problem is exactly similar to Example 4.5.2.
Part (a) - With the following MATLAB program the required curves can be plotted.
The results are given in Figure S4.18a.
Dteff=0.98*Db;
R=Do/Dteff;
k1=6*((R-1)/R)^2/pi/log(R);
k2=(Do-Dteff)/(Do-Di);
k4=t/5;
k5=4000*E*k2*t^3/k1/(1-Nu^2)/Do^2;
kp4=t/6;
kp5=250*k5/k2/4000;
delta=0: 0.02: 5;
k3=((2*delta+t).*(h-1.45*delta)).*(h-k4*delta)/t^3;
FS=k5*(1+0.153*k3).*delta;
kp3=((delta-0.1*t).*(h-2.2*delta)).*(h-t*delta/6)/t^3;
FB=kp5*(1+0.133*kp3).*delta;
plot(delta, FS)
hold on
plot(delta, FB)

## Part (b) Similar to Example 4.5.2,

lf
Do Db
D Di
D Di
3.15
, lf b
and k s b
2
2
l s Do Db
Part (c) - Using following MATLAB program the results can be obtained as shown

ls

in Figure S4.18b.
dp=0: 0.01: 1.5; % Deflection of pressure plate
ksdp=ks*dp;
kp3=((ksdp-0.1*t).*(h-2.2*ksdp)).*(h-t*ksdp/6)/t^3; %
DD=dp+spd;
% Deflection of pressure plate relative to origin
FBp=kp5*(1+0.133*kp3).*ksdp;
k3p=((2*DD+t).*(h-1.45*DD)).*(h-k4*DD)/t^3;
FSp=k5*(1+0.153*k3p).*DD;
% Simultaneous variation of spring force
Fc=FSp-ks*FBp;
% Clamp force
figure
plot(delta, FS)
hold on
plot(DD, Fc)
grid
plot(DD, ks*FBp)

## 0 S* C* 4.2 mm (From Figure S4.18b)

Therefore: C* 0 S* 4.2 3.4 0.8 mm.

600

## Spring force (kgf)

500

400
Spring force
300

Bearing force

200

100

0
0

2
3
Displacement (mm)

600

500
Maximum

## Spring force (kgf)

400

300
Clamp force
200

100

0
Minimum
-100
0

2
3
Pressure plate displacement (mm)

## Figure S4.18b The variation of clamp force

Problem 4.19
For the vehicle with given specifications in Table P4.19.1, the engine is off. For the two cases of
uphill and downhill, determine the maximum grade vehicle can stop without slipping, if:
a. Only gear 1 is engaged.

## b. Only the handbrake on front wheels is activated

c. Only the handbrake on rear wheels is activated
d. Only the footbrake is activated
e. Gear 1 is engaged together with the handbrake acting on front wheels
f.

## Gear 1 is engaged together with the handbrake acting on rear wheels

Compare the results for both cases of FWD and RWD by filling in Table P4.19.2.
Table P4.19.1 Vehicle information of Problem 4.19
Parameter
unit value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

High Gear Ratio
Engine braking torque @ 0 rpm
Vehicle mass
Weight distribution F/R (FWD)
Weight distribution F/R (RWD)
CG height to wheelbase ratio h / l
Coefficient of rolling resistance fR

m
Nm
kg

0.30
14
30
1200
0.8
58/42
55/45
0.35
0.02

## Table P4.19.2 Proposed table for filling in the results

Uphill
FWD
1
2
3
4
5
6

Case a
Case b
Case c
Case d
Case e
Case f

RWD

Downhill
FWD
RWD

Solution:
a) Note that gravity is acting down the slope and the engine brake torque must resist
it, otherwise the vehicle skids down the hill. According to the Equation 4.30 the
negotiable slopes based on the road friction for an uphill stop are:

tan

b hf R
p fR
l ph

(for FWD)

tan

a hf R
p fR
l ph

(for RWD)

With the given values in Table 1 and noting that for the FWD case b/l=0.58:

tan FWD

b / l f Rh / l
0.58 0.02 0.35
p fR
0.8 0.02 0.347 , 19.13
1 ph / l
1 0.8 0.35

## and similarly for the RWD case:

tan RWD

a / l f Rh / l
0.45 0.02 0.35
p fR
0.8 0.02 0.472 , 25.3
1 ph / l
1 0.8 0.35

However, it must be checked whether or not the required wheel torques are available
from the engine torque. The condition according to Equation 4.31 is:

## ( f R cos sin )Wrw nLTbe

for FWD: (0.02 cos FWD sin FWD ) 1200 9.81 0.3 1283 14 30 420
for RWD: (0.02 cos RWD sin RWD ) 1200 9.81 0.3 1623 420
This means in both cases the vehicle cannot stop on the above slopes without
skidding. Therefore, the limitation is the engine brake torque and the maximum
slope must be determined based on this limitation, i.e.,

## ( f R cos sin )Wrw nLTbe

or,
(0.02 cos sin ) 3532 420

Solution (continued):
The answer is = 5.7 and is equal for both FWD and RWD cases.
For a downhill stop the results obtained for the FWD and RWD cases, are
exchanged. But as the limitation is the engine torque, the maximum slope will still
be = 5.7.
b) For this situation, the vehicle is using the road friction limitation at front axle.
Therefore the results obtained earlier can be used. Those are 19.13 and 25.3 for the
uphill and downhill stops.
c) This case is exactly the reverse of part (b) and the results are 25.3 and 19.13 for
the uphill and downhill stops.
d) In this situation all wheels at front or rear will lockup and use the road friction
limit, thus:

## s cos ( f R cos sin )

which is the governing equation for all cases. The result is (s=0.8 is assumed) =
38.
e) For FWD the engagement of gear does not increase the traction capacity and the
results at uphill and downhill are those obtained in part (b). For RWD, however, the
gear engagement will produce extra brake force at the rear wheels and hence the
governing equation for uphill is:

## k F pW cos nLTbe ( f R cos sin )W 0

and for downhill,
kR pW cos nLTbe ( f R cos sin )W 0

The results are = 21.1 and = 27.1 for the uphill and downhill.

Solution (continued):
f) The results obtained for part (e) can be used in a reversed order for the FWD and
RWD cases in this part.
The results for all parts are summarised in Table S4.19.

## Table S4.19 Maximum stopping grades

Uphill
1
2
3
4
5
6

Case a
Case b
Case c
Case d
Case e
Case f

FWD
5.7
19.13
25.3
38
19.13
27.1

RWD
5.7
19.13
25.3
38
21.1
19.13

Downhill
FWD
RWD
5.7
5.7
25.3
25.3
19.13
19.13
38
38
25.3
27.1
21.1
25.3

Problem 4.20
The intention is to investigate the existence of a certain grade and friction coefficient for which
both FWD and RWD vehicles with same properties generate equal traction forces.
a) In the expression for the tractive forces of FWD and RWD vehicles ignore the hfR term
and find a condition for friction coefficient which guarantees equal traction forces for the
both cases.
b) Using the result of (a) prove that for both cases: tan 0.5P .
a
b
c) Use 0.45 and 2.0 and calculate the values of P and .
l
h
d) Retain the hfR term and repeat case (a) and show that the result in (b) is still valid and that
4
the friction coefficient must satisfy the condition: P 2 f R
if values in (c) are used.
11

Solution:
According to Equation 4.27, the maximum tractive force is:

FTmax k F / R pW cos
For equal tractive forces for both the FWD and RWD cases, therefore, k F k R , or
after ignoring the hfR term:

b
l ph

a
l ph

## The solution for p is:

ba
h

b) Substituting the above result into the Equation 4.30 (ignore fR) results in:

tan k F p

tan k R p

b p
l ph
a p
l ph

b(b a )
b a p

h(l b a )
2h
2

(for FWD)

a (b a )
b a p

h (l b a )
2h
2

(for RWD)

b a b a l b
a l
1
4
2(1 ) 2(1 0.45
)
h h h l b h
l b
0.55 11

tan

p
2

2
, 10.3
11

## d) If hfR term is retained,

b hf R a hf R

l ph l ph
The solution for P is:

ba
2 fR
h

Solution (continued):
Substituting into the Equation 4.30 for FWD results in:

tan

b hf R
(b hf R )(b a 2hf R ) b a
p

2 fR p
l ph
h(l b a 2hf R )
2h
2

The same result also can be found for the RWD case. With the given values,
comparing to the result of part (c) P is:

4
2 fR
11

Problem 4.21
In the expressions for the tractive forces of FWD and RWD vehicles, ignore the hfR term and
derive equation for slope in the form of tan

c
d / P e

and then,

a
b
0.45 and 2.0 .
l
h

## b) From a mathematical point of view investigate the possibility of a maximum

grade each type of vehicle can negotiate by differentiating with respect to P
and find max for each case.
c) Draw the variation of versus P for both cases (evaluate values for P up to 4).
d) What would be the values of max for each case in the real practice? (Suggest a
practical max).

Solution:
When the hfR term is ignored, the sloping condition of the FWD and RWD vehicles
read (see Problem 4.20, part b):
for the FWD: tan

b p
l ph

a) Using

a p
l ph

b
l / p h
a
l / p h

## , (c=a, d=l and e=-h)

a
b
0.45 and 2.0 and noting that:
l
h

a a l b
2
18
l l b
1
40
b
a
1 0.55 , 0.45
and
2
l
l
h l b h
0.55 11
h b h 0.55
11
Then c, d and e for the FWD and RWD cases are 22, 40, 11 and 18, 40, -11
respectively.
b) From a mathematical point of view the maximum of slope is expected at:

d
0
d p
For the FWD it can be obtained as:

d
bl

0
d p (l h p ) 2 (b p ) 2
This can have an answer if P approaches infinity. For this case is obtained equal
to 63.44. For RWD case, the result is:

d
al

0
d p (l h p ) 2 (a p ) 2
For P approaching infinity,

tan

a
l / p h

a
0
h

## This means the function does not have a maximum.

Solution (continued):
c) The variation of with P is shown in Figure S4.21. The results obtained in part
(b) can also be noticed from this figure.
d) In practice, a value of P = 1 is reasonable and for the numerical values given in
part (a) the maximum slopes are:
tan

22
22
, max= 23.33 for FWD

40 11 51

tan

18
18
, max = 31.83 for RWD

40 11 29

100
80
60

40
20
0
-20
-40

FWD
RWD

-60
-80
-100
0

0.5

1.5
2
2.5

3.5

## Figure S4.21 Theoretical variation of slope with P

Problem 4.22
In the derivation of Equations 4.212 and 213 the limitation on the clutch torque was not included.
Derive the equations for the clutch efficiency with considering this limitation.

Solution:
Figure S4.22 shows the variation of the clutch torque during the release. The clutch
torque attains the constant input torque T* at time tT, then at time tr (pedal release
time) it reaches its maximum friction value of Tmax and remains constant up to the
lock-up time tL.
The input and loss energies Ei and Eloss are determined by using Equations 4.187 and
189. The integral term of Equation 4.187 is:

tL

tr

tL

tr

Pe dt Pe dt Pe dt

The first integral simply is the last term of Equation 4.212 when tL is replaced with
tr:

tr

1 *
1
Pe dt T *tr e (0)
T tr
Kk F tr2
2I e
6I e

## The second integral can be obtained using Equation 4.215:

tL

tr

tL

1
Pe dt T * e (tr ) (T * Tmax ) (t tr )dt
tr
Ie

## The result is:

tL

tr

1
Pe dt T * e (tr )
(T * Tmax ) (t L tr ) (t L tr )
2I e

## e (tr ) can be obtained from Equation 4.204,

e (tr ) e (0)

1 *
1
T tr
Kk F tr2
Ie
2I e

Substituting the results into Equation 4.187 provides the following relation for Ei:

1 *
1
Ei 12 I ee2 (0) 12 I d c2 (0) T *tr e (0)
T tr
Kk F tr2
2I e
6I e

T *tr Kk F 2 1
T * (t L tr ) e (0)

tr
(T * Tmax )(t L tr )
Ie
2Ie
2Ie

Solution (continued):
The energy loss from Equation 4.189 is:
tL

tr

tL

tr

Eloss Pf dt Pf dt Pf dt

The first integral is exactly similar to Equation 4.213 with tr replacing tL:

tr

Pf dt Kk F 12 13 tr 14 tr2 tr2

## The second integral is:

tL

tr

tL

Pf dt Tmax (e c )dt
tr

## which can be integrated to obtain:

tL

tr

Pf dt Tmax (t L tr ) 12 (t L tr ) 2 13 (t L tr ) 3

Clutch torque Tc

Tmax
T*

T(t)

tT

tr

tL

Time t

## Figure S4.22 Clutch torque variations during release

Problem 5.1
Use the information given in Section 5.3.1 and show that the average speeds over the NEDC and
FTP-75 cycles are almost equal.
Solution:
According to the information of Section 5.3.1 the averages of speeds for the ECE
and EUDC parts of NEDC cycle are 18.7 and 62.4 km/h respectively. The duration
of each cycle is 780 and 400 seconds. Therefore the average speed for NEDC cycle
is:

vav ( NEDC )

tECE tEUDC

## The result is 33.51 km/h. Alternatively a total of 11 km is driven during 1180

seconds which gives an average speed of 33.6 km/h.
For the FTP-75 cycle the average speed is already given 34.1 km/h. This is very
close to that obtained for the NEDC cycle (only 1.5% difference).

Problem 5.2
For the NEDC cycle determine:
a) Plot the variation of acceleration with time.
b) Plot the time history of travelled distance.
c) Specify the maximum and average of vehicle acceleration.
d) Repeat (c) only for the positive values.
Results: (c) amax= 1.04 and aav= 0 m/s2, (d) amax= 1.04 and aav= 0.124 m/s2

Solution:
The approximate values of speed versus time can be obtained from Figure 5.4 for the
NEDC cycle. These are given in Tables S5.2a and S5.2b for the repeating part of
the ECE and whole EUDC cycles.
a) If the NEDC cycle information is constructed into one single 1352 matrix DC
of time and speed values, then the following MATLAB commands can be used in
order to obtain the cycle acceleration variations:
t0=DC(:,1)';
% Values for time (s)
v0=DC(:,2)';
% Values for speed (km/h)
t=0: 0.1: max(DC(:,1)); % Define an evenly spaced time array
v = interp1(t0,v0,t)/3.6; % Obtain cycle speeds corresponding to the time array (m/s)
a=[diff(v)./diff(t) 0]; %Vehicle acceleration (m/s^2)

## The result is presented in Figure S5.2a.

b) The distance travelled can easily be obtained using the following instruction:
x=quad(@(x) interp1(t,v,x), 0, max(t)); % Distance per cycle (m)

## The result is 11,013 m.

c) The maximum and average of vehicle acceleration are determined by commands
max(a) and mean(a). The results are 1.04 and 0 m/s2 respectively.
d) In order to determine only the positive parts of the acceleration, the negative parts
can be set to zero by:
for j=1: length(t),

## if a (j)<0, a (j)=0; end, end

Then the maximum and average vehicle acceleration results are 1.04 and 0.124 m/s2.

t (s)
v (km/h)
t (s)
v (km/h)

0
0
96
0

6
0
112
0

11
0
117
0

15
15
122
15

23
15
124
15

25
10
133
35

28
0
135
35

44
0
143
50

49
0
155
50

54
15
163
35

56
15
176
35

61
32
178
32

85
32
185
10

93
10
188
0

## Table S5.2b EUDC cycle data

t (s)
v (km/h)
t (s)
v (km/h)

800

805

807

816

818

826

828

841

891

895

899

0
968
50

15
981
70

15
1031
70

35
1066
100

35
1096
100

50
1116
120

50
1126
120

70
1142
80

70
1150
50

60
1160
0

50
1180
0

1.5

Acceleration (m/s2)

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
0

200

400

600
Time (s)

800

1000

## Figure S5.2a The variation of cycle acceleration

Problem 5.3
Repeat Example 5.4.1 for the first part of trip as a sine function of the form:

v 10 10 sin( 50
t 2 )

1200

Solution:
The solution steps are identical to Example 5.4.1. This case is a variable acceleration
case and from Equation 5.34:

## term 1 12 1200 (202 0) 0.24 106 J

For the second term, the variation of speed with time must be substituted.
50

50

## term 2 ( 200 0.4v 2 ) v dt 200

10 10 sin( 50 t 2 )dt

400

50

1 sin( 50 t 2 )3 dt

The first integral is simple and has the value of 200500=105 J. The second integral
is difficult to find analytically. In MATLAB it can be obtained by symbolic
integration:
syms time
% Define time as a symbolic variable
q=400*int((1+sin(time*pi/50-pi/2))^3, 0, 50)
% Integrate the function from 0 to 50

The answer is 50000 J. Thus the total energy is 0.39 MJ. The fuel mass for the trip
can be calculated from Equation 5.32:

mf

Ev
0.39

0.0355 kg
fv Ecf 0.25 44

## The fuel volume simply is Vf = 0.0443 l = 44.3 cc.

In order to convert it to l/100 km, the total travelled distance in one cycle is needed.
From Equation 5.33 the travelled distance can be obtained by integration:

S (50) v dt 10 10 sin( 50
t 2 )dt 500 10
50

50

50

cos( 50
t 2 )

50
0

20

## At the end of the cycle: S (70) S (50) (20 t )dt 700 m

0

Thus for a 700 m trip 0.0443 l of fuel is consumed. For 100 km, the fuel
consumption is 6.33 l.

500 m

Problem 5.4
Repeat Example 5.4.1 for the driving cycle given in Figure P5.4. For the constant speed portion
use the information of Example 5.4.2.
25

Speed (m/s)

20

15

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Time (s)

## Figure P5.4 Driving cycle of Problem 5.4

Solution:
The solution steps are a combination of Examples 5.4.1 and 5.4.2. In fact, the first
portion is a constant acceleration map-free fuel consumption, whereas the second
portion is a zero acceleration map-based fuel consumption. In the first portion only
the time limits are different, so:

## term 1 12 1200 (202 0) 0.24 106 J

For the second term, the new time of 30 s must be used:
30

## term 2 {200 0.4(0.4t )2 } (0.4t ) dt 0.084 106

0

The total energy is 0.324 MJ. The fuel mass for the first portion is:

mf

Ev
0.324

0.029 5 kg
fv Ecf 0.25 44

For the second portion with constant speed of 20 m/s, the solution is similar to
Example 5.4.2. Tractive force is FT FR 200 0.4 v 2 360 N. The engine power
is:

Pe

FT v

Dt

360 20
7978 W
0.95 0.95

## The fuel mass in one second is:

m f (i ) Pe (i ) BSFC (i )

7978 330
0.7313 g
3.6 106

Total fuel for the second portion is 0.731330=21.94 g. The total fuel mass in kg is:
mf = 0.0514 kg
The fuel volume is Vf = 0.0642 l and the travelled distance is 1000 m; and for 100
km, the fuel consumption is 6.42 l.

Problem 5.5
Determine the map-free fuel consumption [in l/100 km] for a vehicle of 1500 kg mass if the
driving cycle in Figure P5.5 is repeatedly used. Due to the low speeds, the driving resistance can
be assumed to be a constant value of 250 N. The overall driveline efficiency from fuel caloric
energy contents to traction power at the drive shafts can be assumed a constant value of 20%.
The fuel has the caloric energy content of 40 MJ/kg and density of 800 kg/m3.
20

10
(m/s)

15

0
0

10

20

30

40
Time (s)

50

60

70

## Result: 8.1 l/100 km.

80

Solution:
The cycle as shown in Figure S5.5 is divided into 2 constant acceleration segments
of 1-2 and 4-5, and 2 constant speed segments of 2-3 and 5-6. The two other portions
are braking cycles and are not used for energy calculation. The energies for 1-2 and
4-5 are:
10

0

10

10 10
87,500 J
2

## Ev (4 5) ma2 S2 250 1.5t dt (1500 1.5 250)

0

10 15
187,500 J
2

The energies for 2-3 and 5-6 according to Equation 5.31 are :

Ev (2 3) FR v2 t 250 10 10 25,000 J
Ev (5 6) FR v5 t 250 15 30 112,500 J
The total energy, therefore, is Ev = 412,500 J. The fuel mass is:

mf

Ev
0.4125

0.0516 kg
fv Ecf 0.20 40

The fuel volume is Vf = mf /0.8=0.0645 l. The total travelled distance is the area
under the whole cycle:
S (80) 2 10 10 4 15 10 800 m

FC

Vf
6450
105
8.06 l.
S
800

20

10

(m/s)

15

0
0

4
20

30

40
Time (s)

50

60

70

7
80

## Figure S5.5 Different segments of the cycle

Problem 5.6
Repeat Problem 5.5 for the driving resistance in the form of FR 0.02W 0.5 v 2 .

Solution:
The solution steps are similar to those in Problem 5.5. The energies for 1-2 and 4-5
are:
10

## Ev (1 2) ma1S1 (0.02 1500 9.81 0.5t 2 )t dt 1500 1

0

10 10
2

1
1
294.3 102 104 90,965 J
2
8

Ev ( 4 5) ma2 S2

10

## 0.02 1500 9.81 0.5(1.5t ) (1.5t ) dt 1500 1.5 10 2 15

2

1.5
1.53
2
294.3
10
104 0.139 106 J
2
8
The energies for 2-3 and 5-6 are :

## Ev (2 3) FR v2 t (294.3 0.5 102 ) 10 10 34,430 J

Ev (5 6) FR v5 t (294.3 0.5 152 ) 15 30 183,060 J
The total energy, therefore, is Ev = 447,455 J. The fuel mass is:

mf

Ev
0.4475

0.0559 kg
fv Ecf 0.20 40

The fuel volume is Vf = mf /0.8=0.0699 l. The total travelled distance is 800 m and
the fuel consumption in 100 km is:

FC

Vf
6990
105
8.74 l.
S
800

Problem 5.7
Estimate the map-free fuel consumption [in l/100 km] for a vehicle with 1300 kg weight from the
urban part of NEDC driving cycle. Driving resistance is FR 0.015W 0.4 v 2 and the overall
efficiency can be assumed to the constant value of 30%, from fuel caloric energy contents to
traction power on the drive shafts. The fuel has the caloric energy content of 40 MJ/kg and
density of 800 kg/m3.

Solution:
The cycle information was given in Table S5.2a. According to Figure S5.7 the actual
cycle can be approximated by a cycle that consists of 3 constant acceleration
segments of 1-2, 4-5 and 7-8, and 4 constant speed segments of 2-3, 5-6, 8-9 and 1011. Data related to these segments is provided in Table S5.7.
The energies for 1-2, 4-5 and 7-8 are:
4

0

1300 1.043

4.17 4
1.043 2
1.0433
191.3
4 0.4
44
2
2
4

1.293 104 J

12

0

Ev (7 8) ma3S3

26

2

## Ev (2 3) FR v2 t (191.3 0.4 4.172 ) 4.17 8 6,614 J

Ev (5 6) FR v5 t (191.3 0.4 8.92 ) 8.9 24 47,628 J
Ev (8 9) FR v8 t (191.3 0.4 13.92 ) 13.9 12 44,800 J
Ev (10 11) FR v10 t (191.3 0.4 9.722 ) 9.72 13 28,950 J
The total energy, therefore, is Ev = 341,650 J. The fuel mass is:

mf

Ev
0.3417

0.0285 kg
fv Ecf 0.30 40

The fuel volume is Vf = mf /0.8=0.0371 l. The total travelled distance is 1015 m and
the fuel consumption in 100 km is:

FC

Vf
3710
105
3.81 l.
S
1015

40
10
30

(km/h)

Speed (km/h)

50

11

20
2

10

0
0

4
50

100
Time (s)

150

200

## Figure S5.7 Approximation and segmentation of the cycle

Table S5.7 Cycle data
Point
t (s)
v (km/h)

t (s)
v (km/h)
v (m/s)
a (m/s2)

1
11
0

2
15
15

3
23
15

4
15
4.17
1.043

8
0
0
0

4
49
0

5
61
32

6
85
32

12
32
8.9
0.742

24
0
0
0

7
117
0

8
143
50

9
155
50

26
50
13.9
0.535

12
0
0
0

10
163
35

11
176
35
13
0
0
0

Problem 5.8
In order to examine the effect of carrying cargo on the fuel consumption, consider the vehicle of
Problem 5.5 is carrying a weight of 50 kg. How much in percent will increase its fuel
consumption? Repeat this for weights of 100 and 150 kg.

Solution:
The solution of Problem 5.5 must be repeated for a different vehicle mass. The
energies for a 50 kg load are:

Ev (1 2) (1550 1 250)

10 10
90,000 J
2

## Ev (4 5) (1550 1.5 250)

10 15
193,125 J
2

Ev (2 3) FR v2 t 250 10 10 25,000 J
Ev (5 6) FR v5 t 250 15 30 112,500 J
The total energy, therefore, is Ev = 420,625 J. The fuel mass is 0.0526 kg and the
fuel consumption is 8.22 l/100 km. This is a 2% increase in fuel consumption for a
For the loads of 100 and 150 kg, the fuel consumption figures will be 8.374 and
8.533 l/100 km (3.9% and 5.9% consumption increase for 6.67% and 10% load
increase). The increase is linear with a slope of 0.59% for each 1% of load increase.

Problem 5.9
Repeat Example 5.5.2 for travelling speeds of 70 and 100 km/h.

Solution:
Part (a)- The gear ratios at the specified point for speeds of 70 km/h and 100 km/h
are n

rw 0.3 2700

## 4.36 and 3.05 respectively.

v
70 / 3.6
30

Part (b)- The result for this part will still be 56% throttle opening for the both cases.
Part (c)- The gear ratio 4.36 is closer to gear 4 (3.96), whereas the ratio 3.05 is closer
to gear 5 (3.13). The closeness of the gears dynamically can be examined by finding
the vehicle acceleration. The vehicle accelerations in the two gears are:

a70

1 4.36 90
(
200 0.4 (70 / 3.6)2 ) 0.798 and a100 0.340 m/s2
1200
0.3

The engine speeds and torques for gears 4 and 5 at specified vehicle speeds are
provided in Table S5.9. It is clear that for a speed of 70 km/h, gear 4 produces a
torque of 99 Nm and a speed of 2451 rpm, which are much closer to the values of 90
Nm and 2700 rpm of the minimum BSFC point than those of gear 5. For 100 km/h,
the EOP of gear 5 with a torque and speed of 87.8 Nm and 2768 rpm is located very
close to the minimum BSFC point.

## Result: (a) ng=3.74

Te*

100

Nm

Solution:
Part (a)- The given cycle shows a constant acceleration motion for which the
equation of motion is:

FT FR m a
At low speeds the aerodynamic force can be ignored and thus:

## FT 0.02 1000 * 9.81 1000 2 2,196.2 N

The traction force is related to the engine torque by:

FT

d nTe
rw

1000

rw FT 0.3 2196.2

18.7
d T0 0.85 41.5

18.7
3.74
nf 5

## Part (b)- In general the overall gear ratio is:

rw FT
7.7513

d Te ( )
1865
1 e

Finding the variation of n with is a simple task and the result is shown in Figure
S5.10a.

Solution (continued):
Part (c)- The overall gear ratios of part (b) were expressed in terms of the engine
speed. With a kinematic relation it can be written in terms of forward speed v:

7.7513
1 e

vn
301865rw

This is a nonlinear relation for n in terms of v that needs an iteration technique for
solution. The MATLAB commands listed below produce the results that are shown
in Figure S5.10b:
v=5: 0.1: 20;
p=30/pi/1865/rw;
for i=1: length(v)
n(i)=fsolve(@(x) x-7.7513./(1-exp(-p*v(i)*x)), 5 ,optimset('Display','off'));
end

20

## Overall gear ratio

18

16

14

12

10

8
1000

2000

3000
Engine speed (rpm)

4000

5000

Figure S5.10a The variation of overall gear ratio with engine speed

12.5
12

11.5
11
10.5
10
9.5
9
8.5
8
5

10

15

20

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

Figure S5.10a The variation of overall gear ratio with vehicle speed

Problem 5.11
In a micro-hybrid system the intention is to eliminate engine flywheel inertia in order to improve
the fuel economy. To see the effectiveness of such concept, consider a simple driving cycle
shown in Figure P5.5 and use the information in the tables below to find (assume no energy is
lost during a gearshift):
a) Total energy spent to accelerate the flywheel in one cycle.
b) Average power loss (Due to deceleration of flywheel).
c) Fuel consumed due to flywheel dynamics in one cycle.
d) Fuel consumption [in l/100 km].
e) Percentage of fuel economy in a vehicle with a 8 l/100 km fuel consumption.
Table P5.11.1 Transmission information
Max speed
Gear ratios
(km/h)
30
1st gear ratio
3.250
50
2nd gear ratio
1.772
70
3rd gear ratio
1.194
Final drive ratio
4.0
Table P5.11.2 Additional information for Problem 5.11
Flywheels moment of inertia
1 kgm2
Engine idle speed
800 rpm
30 cm
Fuel energy content
40 MJ/kg
Fuel density
0.8 kg/l

## Results: (a) 49,414 J, (b) 618 W

Solution:
When the vehicle moves according to the cycle of Figure S5.5 during the segments
1-2 and 4-5 the flywheel receives energy to speed up. During the two constant speed
segments of 2-3 and 5-6 its energy remains unchanged. During the two other
segments (i.e. 3-4 and 6-7) braking takes place and the flywheel loses energy and
slows down to the idle speed of engine. Therefore the flywheel loses energy twice in
the cycle.
Part (a)- Energy spent to accelerate the flywheel equals the energy losses and are:

EL1

1
I f (22 i2 )
2

EL 2

1
I f (52 i2 )
2

in which If is the inertia of flywheel and i, 2 and 5 are engine speed at idle, point
2 and point 5 of the cycle respectively. The engine speeds at points 2 and 5 depend
on the gear and must be determined according to the Table P5.11.1. At point 2, the
vehicle speed is 36 km/h and the gear must be 2. For point 5, the vehicle speed is 54
km/h and gear 3 is engaged. Using the kinematic relation at the two points with
known speeds and gear ratios results in:

n f ng 2 v2 4 1.772 10

rw
0.3

## The total energy is:

EL

1
1
I f (22 52 2i2 ) 1 (236.32 238.82 2 8002 2 / 900) 49,414 J
2
2

Part (b)- The average power loss is the total energy lost in the cycle time of 80
seconds:

Solution (continued):

PL

EL 49,414

618 W
tc
80

Part (c)- The fuel is consumed due to the flywheel energy use from the vehicle
engine. The mass of fuel is:

mf

EL
49,414

1.235 10 3 kg
E f 40 106

Part (d)- The volume of fuel is Vf = mf /0.8=0.00154 l. The total travelled distance
over the cycle was 800 m, so the fuel consumption in 100 km is:

FC

Vf
154
105
0.193 l.
S
800

Part (e)- This consumption relative to the total fuel consumption simply is 0.193/8 or
2.4%.

Problem 5.12
In order to examine the effect of driving aggressiveness on the vehicle fuel consumption consider
the vehicle and trip of Example 5.4.1 and increase the acceleration by having the maximum
speed at 40 seconds (see Figure P5.12). Repeat this for accelerating times of 30, 20, 10 and 5
seconds and plot the variation of fuel consumption with acceleration.
25

Speed (m/s)

20

15

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Time (s)

## Figure P5.12 Driving cycle of Problem 5.12

Solution:
The solution steps are exactly similar to those of Example 5.4.1. The total energy
consumed in the acceleration cycle consists of two terms. The first term has a
constant value of (top speed is 20 m/s for all cases):

## term 1 12 1200 (202 0) 0.24 106 J

The second term, can be written as:

## term 2 (200 0.4v 2 ) v dt 2000 2 202 tv

tv

in which tv is the time at the maximum speed (20 m/s). The total energy Ev,
therefore, is:

## Ev 0.24 106 2000 2 202 tv

that is, a linear function of tv which increases with acceleration time. Therefore, the
fuel consumption in 100 km is:

FC

Ev
102 3.9 0.0455 tv
fv Ecf f S

This relation shows that for any acceleration time the energy term resulting from the
acceleration (first term) remains constant (note that the required power increases
with acceleration but at a smaller duration, or E=Pt=cte). But the term resulting
from the work of resistive forces (the second term) increases with increasing the
acceleration time. For times 40, 30, 20, 10 and 5 seconds the fuel consumption
values are 5.72, 5.27, 4.81, 4.36 and 4.13 respectively. With a simple MATLAB
program listed below, the result is obtained at several points from 5 to 50 seconds as
shown in Figure S5.12.
tv=5: 0.2: 50;
Ev=2.4e5+2800*tv;
mf=Ev/0.25/44/1e6;
fc=1e5*mf/0.8/S;

6.5

## Fuel consumption (l/100 km)

5.5

4.5

4
5

10

15

20

25
30
35
Acceleration time (s)

40

45

50

## Figure S5.12 The variation of fuel consumption with acceleration time

Problem 5.13
To study the effect of aggressive driving at higher speeds Figure P5.13 is suggested. Use the
information of Problem 5.4 and compare the increase in fuel consumption for maximum speeds
of 15, 20, 25 and 30 m/s.
30

Speed (m/s)

25

20

15

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Time (s)

## Figure P5.13 Driving cycle of Problem 5.13

Solution:
The solution steps for each maximum speed are exactly similar to those of Problem
5.4. The total energy consumed in the acceleration cycle consists of two terms.
These are:

## term1 12 1200 (vm2 0) 600vm2

30
1

term 2 ( F0 cv 2 ) v dt 15 F0 c vm2 vm
0
2

in which vm is the maximum speed. The total energy Ev, therefore, is:

## Ev 3000 600vm 3 vm2 vm

That is a third order polynomial of vm. The fuel mass for this segment is proportional
to Ev. For the constant speed segment the fuel mass is:

mf 2

30BSFC ( F0 cv m2 )vm

dt

## 3.05 10 5 (200 0.4vm2 )vm

which is also a third order polynomial of vm. The total fuel consumption can be
determined by adding the fuel mass of the two segments (in kg) and using the
relation:

FC

mf
105
0.8S

For speeds of 15, 20, 25 and 30 m/s the fuel consumption values are 5.09, 6.43, 7.95
and 9.66 l/100 km. The variation of the total fuel consumption with the maximum
speed of the cycle, therefore, follows a third order relationship.

Solution (continued):
A MATLAB program can also be written in order to automatically obtain the fuel
consumption for different values of maximum speed. The following listing is a
sample that can be used to plot the variation of fuel consumption with maximum
speed variations. The result is shown in Figure S5.13:
% The segment times
t=0: 0.2: 70;
t1=0: 0.2: 30;
t2=30.2: 0.2: 60;
t3=60.2: 0.2: 70;
vm=15: 0.1: 30;
mf1=(3000+600*vm+3*vm.^2).*vm/0.25/44/1e6;
% Fuel mass for the acceleration segment
mf2=3.05e-6*(200+0.4*vm.^2).*vm;
% Fuel mass for the constant speed segment
mf=mf1+mf2;
for i=1: length(vm)
v=vm(i)*[t1/30 ones(1, length(t2)) (1-(t3-60)/10)]; % The cycle
S(i)=quad(@(x) interp1(t,v,x),0, 70); % Cycle distance
end
fc=1e5*mf./S/0.8;

10
9.5

## Fuel consumption (l/100 km)

9
8.5
8
7.5
7
6.5
6
5.5
5
15

20
25
Maximum speed (m/s)

30

## Figure S5.13 Variation of fuel consumption with maximum cycle speed

Problem 6.1
For a single cylinder internal combustion engine with schematic diagram shown in Figure P6.1:
a. Explain clearly how many transformers, gyrators, inertia elements, capacitor elements and
resistor elements do you find in the bond graph?
b. Construct the complete bond graph, number it and insert the causal strokes.
c. Specify the state variables of the system.
P ,Q

## Figure P6.1 Schematic diagram of engine for Problem 6.1

Solution:
Part (a)- The energy sequences according to Figure P6.1 are:
1. The pressure is exerted on the piston and force is generated (P, Q F, v). This
is a transformer operation. The transformer module is the piston area A.
2. The force on the piston is converted to torque around the crankshaft (F, v T,

## ). This is also a transformer operation. This transformer has a variable module

(the torque arm) and is a modulated transformer.
3. The passive elements are:
a. m and I are the inertia elements.
b. k is the capacitor element.
c. The resistor elements are bearings (B).
4. There is no gyrator in the system.
Part (b)- Based on the explanation given in (a), the bond graph is provided in Figure
R is first transformed
C: k
S6.1.1. This graph shows that the input fluid energy
to the

m
..

..
..
mechanical energy and a partI of it is used to accelerate
the1 piston (increase
its kinetic
I
R

## energy). The remaining energy is transformed to rotational mechanical energy and a

Se

part of it lost

P
Q
due

A
..

toTF
the

F
1
v
bearing

n..

MTF

Te

e the
of energy is used to twist
friction. A part

crankshaft and due to its internal damping, some energy is also lost. The remaining
R
..

energy reaches the crank output after using some part to accelerate the flywheel.
Figurestrokes
S6.1.1are
Bond
graph
Problem
6.1
The numbering and causal
shown
in of
Figure
S6.1.2.
Part (c)- According to Figure S6.1.2, all I and C elements are integrally stroked and
thus the state variables are p1, q2 and p3.

m..

B..

Se

TF

11

6
8

n..

MTF

..I
I

A
..

10

12

13

R
..

Figure S6.1.2 Numbering and causal strokes for the Bond graph of Problem 6.1

Problem 6.2
For a 2 cylinder internal combustion engine with schematic diagram shown in Figure P6.2:
a) Construct the bond graph.
b) Assign the causal strokes and specify the state variables.

P1 ,Q1

P2 ,Q2

K1

K2

## Figure P6.2 Schematic diagram of engine for Problem 6.2

Solution:
The solution of this problem is similar to that of Problem 6.1. In fact, the bond graph
part related to the cylinder (i.e. from far left up to the bond number 12 in Figure
S6.1.2) should be duplicated and only the two elements in far right will remain at the
end of graph.
Part (a)- The Bond graph is provided in Figure S6.2. It is noted that the cylinders are
shown vertically and the crankshaft horizontally. The numbering and causal strokes
are available in the same figure.
Part (b)- According to Figure S6.2, all I and C elements are integrally stroked and
thus the state variables are p1, q2, p3, q4 and p5.

Se1

Se2

00

TF

TF

11

17

1
R

12

18
2

MTF

MTF

13

15

1
10

14

16

21

20

22

1
6

19

## Figure S6.2 Bond graph of Problem 6.2

23

Problem 6.3
For a 4 cylinder internal combustion engine with schematic diagram shown in Figure P6.3:
a) Construct the bond graph
b) Assign causal strokes and specify the state variables.
P1 ,Q1

P2 ,Q2

K1

P3 ,Q3

K2

K3

P4 ,Q4

K4

## Figure P6.3 Schematic diagram of engine for Problem 6.3

Solution:
The solution of this problem is very similar to that of Problem 6.2.
Part (a)- The bond graph, numbering and causal strokes are presented in Figure S6.3.
Part (b)- According to Figure S6.3, all I and C elements are integrally stroked and
thus the state variables are p1, q2, p3, q4, p5, q6, p7, q8 and p9.

Se1

Se2

Se3

00

TF

000

TF

19
1

I
C

MTF
21

15

1
18

22

23

28

1
16

27

33

35

40

39

41

1
10

12

38

11

MTF

1
34

14

13

29

37

32

1
C

MTF

26

15

MTF

31

25
17

36

20

TF

30

0000

TF

24

Se4

42

## Figure P6.4 Schematic diagram of gearbox for Problem 6.4

Solution:
Part (a)- The input torque twists the input shaft and due to the internal damping of
the shaft some energy is lost. An amount of torque (energy) is lost in the bearing Bi
and some part is used to accelerate the gear Ni (Ii). The torque is transformed to the
layshaft by the amplification factor NL/Ni and after spending some part in the bearing
(BL) and some for the acceleration of the gear NL (IL), it twists the shaft in the KL1
segment and then accelerates gear N5 and its mating gear on the top (the total
moment of inertia is denoted by Ieq5). The remaining torque once again twists the
shaft now in the KL2 segment and then accelerates gear N4 and its mating gear on the
top, together with all free turning gears on the layshaft and their counterparts on the
top. The total moment of inertia will be Ieq4+ Ieq3+ Ieq2+ Ieq1. The remaining torque
transforms to the output shaft by the amplification factor No4/N4, and after losing a
part in the bearing Bo, it twists the output shaft and the output torque is resulted.
R
C above description,
R
R
C
Based on the
the bondCgraph
is obtained
as shown in Figure

1
S6.4.1.

L1

..Ii

..IL

..Ieq5
I

## ..Ieq4 +Ieq3 +Ieq2 +Ieq1

I

/N
../N
Part
(b)- The 1causalNTF
strokes
are inserted in Figure S6.4.2 and theN ..bond
graph
is alsoT
T
1
1
L

Se

Co

L2

o4

TF

numbered. All of the I and C elements except I12 are integrally stroked and thus the
R
..

R
..

R
..

Bi

BL

Bo

state variables are q1, p2, q3, p4, q5, p6 and q7.

S6.4.1
Bondi,graph
of Problem
Part (c)- When anotherFigure
gear, say
number
is engaged,
three 6.4
changes occur. The
obvious change is the module of the second transformer Noi/Ni. The second change is
the number 6-i of 0 junctions between the two transformers. This is the number of
elastic segments of the layshaft and for i=5 it is 1 whereas for i=1 it is 5. The third
change is the number of 1 junctions. In fact between every two 0 junctions, there
is a 1 junction with Ieq belonging to the inertias of gears between the two elastic
parts. Therefore, the element I6 of Figure S6.4.2 is Ieq(i)+ Ieq(i-1)+ ...+ Ieq1.

Ci

R
..Ii
I

15

Se

17

12

18

NL../Ni

TF

19

14

22

23

Co

25

24

## ..Ieq4 +Ieq3 +Ieq2 +Ieq1

I

21
20

CL2

10

..Ieq5
I

16
Ti

CL1 R

..IL 11

29

26

No4.. /N4

TF

13

27

28

R
..

R
..

R
..

Bi

BL

Bo

Figure S6.4.2 Numbering and causal strokes for bond graph of Problem 6.4
Problem 6.5
For a vehicle differential with details shown in Figure P6.5:
a)

b)

c)

p

B1

Tp

NP , IP

B2
NC , IC

B3
TR R

L TL

B4

N3 , I3

B2

N2 , I2 , m

## Figure P6.5 Schematic diagram of differential for Problem 6.5

To

Solution:
Part (a)- The bond graph for the differential is quite complicated as shown in Figure
S6.5.1. The flow of energy in bond graph starts from the input and after some part is
used to accelerate IP and overcome bearing friction B1, the remaining part transforms
to torque TC around differential cage. This torque after accelerating IC, transforms to
forces F at the centres of idler gears that produce gear forces FL and FR (see Figure
S6.6.2). These forces act both on the idlers and output gears attached to the left and
right half shafts. On the idler, the resultant force F accelerates it while the torque of
FL and FR after overcoming the friction, rotates the idler. On the output gears the
torque of FL and FR after overcoming the friction torque and accelerating the
attached inertia, reaches the output shaft.
Note that the two forces FL and FR shown in Figure S6.6.2 act on both idlers inside
the differential and thus the bond graph has two similar routes (shown at top and
bottom) for the two half shafts.
Part (b)- The causal strokes are inserted in Figure S6.3. All of I elements except I1
are differentially stroked and thus the only state variable of system is p1.

IP
Se

Tp

IC

nf

R..3

..

TF
B1

1/R
.. C

FR

TF

FL

TF

R..2

TF

B2

R..2

TF

R..3

TF

I2

1/R
.. C

TF

F
R..4

FR

TF
FL

R..2

TF

0
I4

B2

R..2

R..4

TF

TF
TL

I2

L
B4

F
A

B
R2

FL

I3

FR

B3

TR

IP
Se

Tp

1
IC

nf

R..3

..

TF
B1

1/R
.. C

FR

TF

FL

R..2

TF

TF

I3

TR

B2

R..2

TF

R..3

TF

B3

I2

1/R
.. C

TF

F
R..4

FR

TF
FL

0
I4

R..4

R..2

TF
B2

R..2

TF

TF
TL

I2

L
B4

## Figure S6.5.3 Causally stroked bond graph

Problem 6.6
For the planetary gear set shown in Figure P6.6 construct the bond graph for following cases:
a) When the Carrier C is fixed ( TR input and TS output)
b) When the Sun S is fixed ( TR input and TC output)
c) When the Ring R is fixed ( TS input and TC output)
d) Write the equations of motion of system in case (a)

Ring gear, R
Planet
gear, P

Sun gear, S

TC

TS
S

C
TR

IP

IS

IC

IR
Planet
carrier, C

Figure P6.6 Schematic diagram of epicyclic gear set for Problem 6.6
Solution:
The solution of this problem can be obtained easier by constructing the FBDs of
components shown in Figure S6.6.1.
Part (a)- The torque TR is first transformed to force FR at the gear teeth of the planet
gear. This force is transformed to torque around the centre of planet gear and some
part of it is used to accelerate the gear and some part to overcome the friction at the
bearing. The remaining torque is transformed to force FS at the sun gears teeth and
once again to torque TS around the gear axis. A part of this torque is used to
accelerate the gear and the remaining torque will be available at the output shaft.
Bond graph of this case is presented in Figure S6.6.2. Note that the two transformers
first converting the torque to force and then the force to torque again are combined.
The module of second transformer is negative, indicating the sun gear is rotating in
opposite direction relative to the input.
Part (b)- In this case the planets move while they rotate. So, energy is used to
accelerate them both in translation and rotation. The output torque this time is TC and
it is resulted from the force FC after reduction of some energy due to the acceleration
of the plants. The resulting bond graph is shown in Figure S6.6.3. Note that it is also
possible to include the effect of planet mass in the rotating inertia of the carrier and
to combine the last two transformers.

Solution (continued):
Part (d)- In Figure S6.6.5 the numbering and causality strokes are presented for the
case (a). Only I1 is integrally stroked and thus the state variable is p1. The equation
of motion is:

dp1
R
R
e1 TR e5 TR R e2 e4 P (TS e3 )
dt
RP
RS

where,

e2

dp2
df
R df
R I dp
I2 2 I2 P 1 P 2 1
dt
dt
RR dt RR I1 dt

e3

dp3
df
R df
R I dp
I3 3 I3 S 1 S 3 1
dt
dt
RR dt
RR I1 dt

e4 R4 f 4 R4

RP p1

RR I1

## Substituting into the first equation yields,

FR
dp1
1 dp1
p1 RR
TR ( I 2 I 3 )
R4
TS
dt
I1 dt
I1 RS
FS
F
R
Therefore:
FC

P
R S
I1TR R4 p1 I1 R TS
RS
FSdp1
dt
I1 I 2 I 3

TS

FC

TC

TR

## or in terms of known parameters:

Figure S6.6.1 Free-body-diagrams of planetary gear components
R
I RTR 4 Bp1 I R R TS
dp1
RS

dt
I R 4I P I S

Solution (continued):
Part (d)- In Figure S6.6.5 the numbering and causality strokes are presented for the
case (a). Only I1 is integrally stroked and thus the state variable is p1. The equation
of motion is:

dp1
R
R
e1 TR e5 TR R e2 e4 P (TS e3 )
dt
RP
RS

where,

e2

dp2
df
R df
R I dp
I2 2 I2 P 1 P 2 1
dt
dt
RR dt RR I1 dt

e3

dp3
df
R df
R I dp
I3 3 I3 S 1 S 3 1
dt
dt
RR dt
RR I1 dt

e4 R4 f 4 R4

RP p1

RR I1

dp1
1 dp1
p R
TR ( I 2 I 3 )
R4 1 R TS
dt
I1 dt
I1 RS
Therefore:

dp1

dt

I1TR R4 p1 I1

RR
TS
RS

I1 I 2 I 3

dp1

dt

I RTR 4 Bp1 I R

RR
TS
RS

I R 4I P I S

FR
FC
FS

FR
FC

TS

TC

FS
TR

IR

Se

TR

IS

4IP

RP/..RR

TF

-RS../ RP

TF

TS

4B

IR

Se

TR

2RP../ RR

4mP

4IP

TF

1/..RP

TF

FC
vC

IC

R..C

TF

TC

4B

IS

Se

TS

2R..P/ RS

TF

IC

4mP

4IP

1/ R
.. P

TF

FC
vC

R..C

TF

4B

## Figure S6.6.4 Bond graph of Problem 6.6, part (c)

TC

IR

TR

Se

IS

4IP

RP/..RR

TF

-RS../ RP

TF

TS

4B

Figure S6.6.5 Numbering and stroke of bond graph of Problem 6.6, part (a)
Problem 6.7
A rigid body model of the driveline is represented as a simplified model in Figure P6.7 by
ignoring damping.
a) Derive the equations of motion of the system (note the differential causalities).
b) Find the equation for the angular acceleration W of the wheel
c) Find an expression for the overall gear ratio n that maximizes W
d) Is the result useful?
IEQ

Se

Te

IW

n..

TF

1/r
.. W

TF

m
..
Iv

RW

## Figure P6.7 Rigid body bond graph model of Problem 6.7

Solution:
Part (a)- The bond graph, numbering and causal strokes are presented in Figure S6.7.
It is observed that when I1 is integrally stroked, the other I elements are differentially
stroked. Therefore, only one state variable p1 exists. The equation of motion is
obtained from:

dp1
e1 Se e2
dt
e2 can be written as:

1
1
1
df
e2 e3 (e4 e5 e6 ) ( I 4 4 R5 f 5 rW e7 )
n
n
n
dt
where:

f5 f3

1
P
f1 1
n
nI1

e7 I 7 rW

df 4
r df
I r dP
I7 W 1 7 W 1
dt
n dt I1 n dt

or,

dp1
1
dP

Te 2 ( I 4 rW2 I 7 ) 1 R5 P1
dt
n I1
dt

## Therefore the equation of motion is:

dp1
T n 2 I R5 P1
e 21
dt I 4 rW I 7 n 2 I1
Part (b)- The angular acceleration W is:

df 4
1 dP1
1 Te n 2 I1 R5 P1
nTe TRR
nT T

2 e RR
2
2
2
2
dt nI1 dt nI1 I 4 rW I 7 n I1 I 4 rW I 7 n I1 n I1 I eq

Solution (continued):
Part (c)- In order to maximize W with respect to n, the differentiation yields:

W
dn

## Te (n 2 I1 I eq ) 2nI1 (nTe TRR )

n I
2

1 I eq

or:

n 2 I1Te 2nI1TRR Te I eq 0
Solution for n is:
2

T I
T
n RR RR eq
Te
I1
Te
Part (c)- Obviously the negative part leads to a negative answer for n and is not
acceptable. The above equation with positive sign generates different answers for n
for different engine torques. At maximum engine torque the result can be used as an
estimation for the overall gear ratio when vehicle accelerates in full load.
IEQ

IW

As an example for a vehicle of mass 1000 kg, rolling resistance force of 200 N,
1

n..

1/rW

2
2
m
..
.. of 4 kgm and
of
0
2
7
6 wheel inertia
TF0.53kgm1 , the
1inertia

TF

Iv

5
engine torque of 100 Nm, the result from the equation
is n =14.32.
W
It is worth noting that the result of the current Rexample
can also be obtained for

S6.7 acceleration
Causal strokes
for the
Bondbygraph
Problem3.129
maximizingFigure
the vehicle
at low
speeds
usingofEquation
Problem
6.8 6.14).
Problem
Repeat Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and 6.5.3 for an initial speed of 15 m/s and gear ratio of 2.

Solution:
The solution of this problem can be obtained simply by changing the inputs of the
Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and 6.5.3. The Matlab listings for Example 6.5.1 is available
and changes for Examples 6.5.2 and 6.5.3 are given below.
Changes needed for Example 6.5.2:
% Main program
global thrtl Te0 kS RSv IEq rW n RDc mDc REq p
mDc=m+(Is+Iw)/rW^2;
RDc=Rv+(RS)/rW^2;
IEq=Ie+Ic+(Icw+Id)/n^2+(Ig+Ip)/ng^2;
REq=Re+(Rd)/n^2+(Rg+Rp)/ng^2;
thetas0=RDc*v0*rW/kS;
Te0=REq*omegae0+RDc*v0*rW/n;
a(i)=(-RDc*x(i,3)+kS*x(i,2)/rW)/mDc;
% Function
global thrtl Te0 kS RSv IEq rW n RDc mDc REq p
thetas=x(2);
f2=omegae/n-v/rW;
T1=(kS*thetas+RSv*f2)/n;
f1=(Te-REq*omegae-T1)/IEq;
f3=(-RDc*v+n*T1/rW)/mDc;

## Changes needed for Example 6.5.3:

% Main program
global thrtl Te0 RCv kC kS RSv Ie Ideq rW n RCDc mCDc Re Rdeq p
Idcw=Id+Icw;
mCDc=m+(Is+Iw)/rW^2;
RCDc=Rv+(RS)/rW^2;
Ideq=Id+Icw+(Ig+Ip)*nf^2+Ic*n^2;
Rdeq=Rd+(Rg+Rp)*nf^2;
thetas0=RCDc*v0*rW/kS;
Te0=Re*omegae0+kC*thetac0;
a(i)=(-RCDc*x(i,5)+kS*x(i,4)/rW)/mCDc;
% Function
thetas=x(4);
v=x(5);

Solution:
The solution of this problem can be obtained simply by changing the inputs of the
Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and 6.5.3. The Matlab listings for Example 6.5.1 is available
and changes for Examples 6.5.2 and 6.5.3 are given below.
Changes needed for Example 6.5.2:
% Main program
global thrtl Te0 kS RSv IEq rW n RDc mDc REq p
mDc=m+(Is+Iw)/rW^2;
RDc=Rv+(RS)/rW^2;
IEq=Ie+Ic+(Icw+Id)/n^2+(Ig+Ip)/ng^2;
REq=Re+(Rd)/n^2+(Rg+Rp)/ng^2;
thetas0=RDc*v0*rW/kS;
Te0=REq*omegae0+RDc*v0*rW/n;
a(i)=(-RDc*x(i,3)+kS*x(i,2)/rW)/mDc;
% Function
global thrtl Te0 kS RSv IEq rW n RDc mDc REq p
thetas=x(2);
f2=omegae/n-v/rW;
T1=(kS*thetas+RSv*f2)/n;
f1=(Te-REq*omegae-T1)/IEq;
f3=(-RDc*v+n*T1/rW)/mDc;

## Changes needed for Example 6.5.3:

% Main program
global thrtl Te0 RCv kC kS RSv Ie Ideq rW n RCDc mCDc Re Rdeq p
Idcw=Id+Icw;
mCDc=m+(Is+Iw)/rW^2;
RCDc=Rv+(RS)/rW^2;
Ideq=Id+Icw+(Ig+Ip)*nf^2+Ic*n^2;
Rdeq=Rd+(Rg+Rp)*nf^2;
thetas0=RCDc*v0*rW/kS;
Te0=Re*omegae0+kC*thetac0;
a(i)=(-RCDc*x(i,5)+kS*x(i,4)/rW)/mCDc;
% Function
thetas=x(4);
v=x(5);

Solution (continued):
T1=kC*thetac+RCv*f2;
f1=(Te-Re*omegae-T1)/Ie;
T2=kS*thetas+RSv*f4;
f5=(-RCDc*v+T2/rW)/mCDc;

The results for initial speed of 15 m/s and gear ratio of 2 are shown in Figures S6.8.1
and S6.8.2 for the clutch compliance; in Figures S6.8.3 and S6.8.4 for the driveshaft
compliance; and in Figures S6.8.5 - S6.8.7 for the clutch and driveshaft compliances
combined.

4400
4200
4000
3800
0
13

## Engine speed (rpm)

4600

12
11
10
9
8
7
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.1 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.8 for clutch compliance

17.5
17
16.5
16

## Vehicle acceleration (m/s2)

15.5
15
0
1

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.2 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.8 for clutch compliance

4400
4200
4000
3800
0
3

## Engine speed (rpm)

4600

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.3 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.8 for driveshaft compliance

17
16.5
16
15.5

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

17.5

15
0
1.5

0.5

0
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.4 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.8 for driveshaft compliance

4600
4400
4200
4000
3800
0

## Driveshaft speed (rpm)

560
540
520
500
480
460
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.5 Engine and driveshaft speed of Problem 6.8 for combined clutch and driveshaft

## Driveshaft rotation angle (degree) Clutch rotation angle (degree)

compliances
14
12
10
8
6
0
3

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.6 Clutch spring and driveshaft torsion of Problem 6.8 for combined clutch and
driveshaft compliances

17.5
17
16.5
16
15.5

## vehicle acceleration (m/s2)

15
0
1.5

0.5

0
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.8.7 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.8 for combined clutch and driveshaft
compliances
Problem 6.9
Repeat Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and 6.5.3 for an initial speed of 10 m/s and a sudden release of
accelerator pedal. In this case the engine will generate a braking torque that can be modelled by
the relation Tbe 0.1e (e in rad/s).
Solution:
Simple modifications to the MATLAB programs of Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and 6.5.3
are needed for this purpose. In the main programs only change the throttle input at
t=1 s from 100% to 0%. The MATLAB statement is thrtl=0;. Inside the functions,
including an if statement ensures when the throttle is closed, engine produces
braking torque. The MATLAB statements inside the functions are:
if t<1
Te=Te0;
else
if thrtl ==0
Te=-0.1*omegae;
else
pow=(1.003*omegae*30/pi)^1.824;
den=(1+exp(-11.12-0.0888*thrtl))^pow;
Te=polyval(p,omegae*30/pi)/den;
end
end

The results for initial speed of 10 m/s and gear ratio of 3 are shown in Figures S6.9.1
and S6.9.2 for the clutch compliance; in Figures S6.9.3 and S6.9.4 for the driveshaft
compliance; and in Figures S6.9.5 - S6.9.7 for the clutch and driveshaft compliances
combined.

4000
3500
3000
2500
2000

## Clutch spring torsion (degree)

1500
0
4

2
0
-2
-4
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.1 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.9 for clutch compliance

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

10
9
8
7
6
5
0
0

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.2 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.9 for clutch compliance

4000
3500
3000
2500
2000

## Driveshaft torsion angle (degree)

1500
0
1

0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.3 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.9 for driveshaft compliance

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

10
9
8
7
6
5
0
0

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.4 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.9 for driveshaft compliance

4000
3500
3000
2500
2000

## Driveshaft speed (rpm)

1500
0
350

300
250
200
150
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.5 Engine and driveshaft speed of Problem 6.9 for combined clutch and driveshaft

## Driveshaft rotation angle (degree) Clutch rotation angle (degree)

compliances
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
0
2

0
-2
-4
-6
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.6 Clutch spring and driveshaft torsion of Problem 6.9 for combined clutch and
driveshaft compliances

10
9
8
7
6

## vehicle acceleration (m/s2)

5
0
0

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.9.7 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.9 for combined clutch and driveshaft
compliances
Problem 6.10
Repeat Problem 6.9 for an initial speed of 15 m/s and gear ratio of 2.

Solution:
The solution of this problem can be obtained simply by changing the inputs of
Problem 6.9. The results for initial speed of 15 m/s and gear ratio of 2 are shown in
Figures S6.10.1 and S6.10.2 for the clutch compliance; in Figures S6.10.3 and
S6.10.4 for the driveshaft compliance; and in Figures S6.10.5 - S6.10.7 for the clutch
and driveshaft compliances combined.

3500
3000
2500
2000
0
10

4000

5
0
-5
-10
0

Time (s)

4000
3500
3000
2500

## Driveshaft torsion angle (degree)

2000
0
2

0
-2
-4
-6
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.10.3 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.10 for driveshaft compliance

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

16
14
12
10
8
0
0

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.10.4 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.10 for driveshaft compliance

4000
3500
3000
2500

## Driveshaft speed (rpm)

2000
0
500

450
400
350
300
250
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.10.5 Engine and driveshaft speed of Problem 6.10 for combined clutch and driveshaft

10
5
0
-5
-10
0
2

## Clutch rotation angle (degree)

compliances

0
-2
-4
-6
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.10.6 Clutch spring and driveshaft torsion of Problem 6.10 for combined clutch and
driveshaft compliances

## vehicle speed (m/s)

16
14
12
10
8
0
0

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.10.7 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.10 for combined clutch and
driveshaft compliances
Problem 6.11
Repeat Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and 6.5.3 for a 3 second pulse of throttle shown in Figure P6.11.
Use the braking torque of Problem 6.9.

Throttle (%)

100

t (s)

## Figure P6.11 Throttle pulse of Problem 6.11

Solution:
As before, the vehicle is at a steady-state and a 3-second pulse starts from t=1 s. The
first part up to t=4 s is a sudden throttle input similar to Examples 6.5.1, 6.5.2 and
6.5.3 and after t=4 s is a sudden release of throttle similar to Problem 6.9. In order to
combine the two parts, a pulse can be defined in the main program:
t_pulse=[1 4 4+1e-5 5];
thrtl_pulse=[100 100 0 0];

For the function, inside the listing given in Problem 6.9, an interpolation command is
introduced to calculate the throttle values at a given time:
else
thrtl=interp1(t_pulse, thrtl_pulse, t);
if thrtl ==0

In addition, the two arrays t_pulse and thrtl_pulse should be included in the global
statement.
The results of running the programs for an initial speed of 5 m/s and gear ratio of 3
are shown in Figures S6.11.1 and S6.11.2 for the clutch compliance; in Figures
S6.11.3 and S6.11.4 for the driveshaft compliance; and in Figures S6.11.5 - S6.11.7
for the clutch and driveshaft compliances combined.

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000

## Clutch spring torsion (degree)

1500
0
10

5
0
-5
-10
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.1 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.11 for clutch compliance

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

12
10
8
6
4
0
3

2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.2 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.11 for clutch compliance

5000
4000
3000
2000

## Driveshaft torsion angle (degree)

1000
0
10

5
0
-5
-10
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.3 Engine speed and clutch spring torsion of Problem 6.11 for driveshaft compliance

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

12
10
8
6
4
0
4

2
0
-2
-4
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.4 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.11 for driveshaft compliance

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000

## Driveshaft speed (rpm)

1500
0
350

300
250
200
150
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.5 Engine and driveshaft speed of Problem 6.11 for combined clutch and driveshaft

## Driveshaft rotation angle (degree) Clutch rotation angle (degree)

compliances
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
0
10

5
0
-5
-10
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.6 Clutch spring and driveshaft torsion of Problem 6.11 for combined clutch and
driveshaft compliances

11
10
9
8
7
6

## vehicle acceleration (m/s2)

5
0
4

2
0
-2
-4
0

Time (s)

Figure S6.11.7 Vehicle speed and acceleration of Problem 6.11 for combined clutch and
driveshaft compliances
Problem 6.12
Consider the bond graph of whole vehicle for straight ahead motion and ignore
propeller shaft elasticity and:
a) Simplify it by combining the elements around the middle transformers.
b) Insert causal stokes and specify the state variables of system.
c) Derive the equations of motion of the resulting bond graph.

Solution:
The bond graph of whole vehicle for straight ahead motion is given in Figure 6.18.
Ignoring the propeller shaft elasticity reduces the bond graph to that of Figure
S6.12.1.
Part (a)- In order to simplify the bond graph, at first the two neighbouring 1
junctions can be combined by adding their I elements and their R elements. Then the
two transformers can be combined to obtain a single transformer. The results are
shown in Figure S6.12.2. The equivalent inertia Ieq and resistor Req are (see Equation
A.27):
I eq n 2 I c n 2f ( I g I p ) I cw I d

Req n 2f ( Rg R p ) Rd

b) The causal strokes are inserted in Figure S6.12.3. According to this figure all of
the I and C elements are integrally stroked and thus the state variables are p1, q2, p3,
q4, p5, q6 and p7.
c) The equations of driveline motion according to the bond graph of Figure S6.12.3
are as follows (very similar to what presented in Section 6.4.6 and Equations 6.286.34):

dp1
dt
dq2
dt
dp3
dt
dq4
dt
dp5
dt

p1
Re T1
I1
p
T
p
f 2 f1 f13 nf 3 1 1 n 3
I1 Rcd
I3
p
e3 ne18 e12 e20 nT1 3 Req T2
I3
p p
f 4 f3 f5 3 5
I3 I5
p
e3 T2 e10 e23 T2 5 Rs T3rW
I5

e1 Te e15 e16 Te

Solution (continued):

dq6
p p
f 6 rW 5 7
dt
I5 I7
dp7
p
e7 T3 e8 T3 7 Rv
dt
I7
in which:

T1 k2 q2 Rcv q2
T2 k4 q4 RSvq4

T3 k6 q6 Rt q6

Rcv

Te

Re

Rcd

Rsv
Icw+Id

Ic

Ie

Se

Cc

Rt

Cs

Rg

Rp

Ct
1

Is+Iw
1/r
.. W

Ip

n..f

n.. g
MTF

Ig

TF

m
..
Iv

1
Rv

Rd

Rs

TF

Figure S6.12.1 Straight-ahead bond graph of driveline after ignoring propeller elasticity
Ig

Ic

n.. g
MTF

Ip

n..f

Rg

Rp

Ieq

Icw+Id

n..
MTF

TF

Req

Rd

## Figure S6.12.2 Combination of two transformers

Rcv
Ie

Cc

Se

1
15

Re

Ieq

16

11

17

0
13

18

n..
MTF

19

20

Req

Ct
6

Is+Iw

21

12

Rcd

Rt

Cs

14

Te

Rsv

5
22

23

1/r
.. W

TF

m
..
Iv

25
24

7
26

10

Rv
Rs

Figure S6.12.3 The bond graph of equivalent system with causal strokes
Problem 6.13
Consider the bond graph of whole vehicle for straight-ahead motion and:
a) Simplify it by combining the elements around the transformers.
b) For (a) insert causal strokes and specify the state variables of system
c) Derive the equations of motion of system.

Solution:
The bond graph of whole vehicle for straight ahead motion is given in Figure 6.18.
Part (a)- In order to simplify the bond graph, the two 1 junctions on the sides of the
two middle transformers can be combined. The results are shown in Figure S6.13.
The equivalent inertias IE1, IE2 and resistor RE2 are (see Equation A.27):
I E1 ng2 I c I g

I E 2 n 2f I p I cv I d
RE 2 n 2f R p Rd

b) The causal strokes are inserted in Figure S6.13. According to this figure all of the
I and C elements are integrally stroked and thus the state variables are p1, q2, p3, q4,
p5, q6, p7, q8 and p9.
c) The equations of motion according to the bond graph of Figure S6.13 are (see
Problem 6.12):

dp1
p
e1 Te e19 e20 Te 1 Re T1
dt
I1
dq2
p
T
p
f 2 f1 f17 ng f 3 1 1 ng 3
dt
I1 Rcd
I3
dp3
p
e3 ng e22 e16 e24 ng T1 3 Rg T2
dt
I3
dq4
p
p
f 4 f 3 f 26 3 n f 5
dt
I3
I5
dp5
p
e3 n f T2 e14 e28 n f T2 5 RE 2 T3
dt
I5

Solution (continued):

dq6
p p
f6 f5 f7 5 7
dt
I5 I7
dp7
p
e7 T3 e12 rW T4 T3 7 Rs rW T4
dt
I7
dq8
p
p
f 8 rW f 7 f 9 rW 7 9
dt
I7 I9
dp9
p
e9 T4 e10 T4 9 Rv
dt
I9
in which:

T1 k2 q2 Rcv q2
T2 k4 q4 R pvq4

T3 k6 q6 Rsv q6

T4 k8 q8 Rt q8

Rcv

Rpv

Cc

Cp

2
18

Ie

Te

Se

19

Rsv

22

n.. g
MTF

23

17

Rt

Ct

5
27

1
14

Is+Iw

30

m
..
Iv

33

29
28

11

1
12

31

Rg

Cs
13

24

16

IE2

25

Rcd

Re

20

IE1

1
21

15

1/r
.. W

TF

32

34

1
10

Rv
RE2

Rs

26

n..f

TF

Figure S6.13 The bond graph of equivalent system with causal strokes
Problem 6.14
Consider the rigid-body model of driveline.
a) Compare the system of Problem 6.7 with the rigid-body model and determine
RW and IEQ.
b) Specify which components have been ignored.
c) Describe what the system of Problem 6.7 is telling you and if it is comparable to
what was discussed in Chapter 3.
Solution:
The bond graph of rigid-body model is given in Figure 6.19. In order to make the
two systems comparable, the first step is to separate the IW element of Figure 6.19
from the other inertias and also to separate the rolling resistance from the total
resistive force Rv. The result is given in Figure S6.14.1.
Part (a)- The rolling resistance is transferred to the left of the transformer and thus
RW is:
RW rW2 FRR

The two left hand side transformers can now be combined to obtain a single
transformer as shown in Figure S6.14.2. The equivalent inertia IEQ and resistor REQ
are (see Equation A.26):
1
1
( I cw I d I s ) 2 ( I g I p ) I e I c
2
n
ng

I EQ

1
1
( Rd
Rcs ) 2 ( Rg R p I)g+I
pRe
Icw+Id+Is
Ie+I
IW
2
n
ng
Part (b)- Comparing Figures P6.7 with S6.12.2
reveals that two damping elements
nf
REQ

Se

Te

n..g
MTF

..

TF

1/r
.. W

TF

e
namely Raand
REQ have been ignored in the simple model of Problem 6.7. The

former stands for the aerodynamic resistance and the latter represents the driveline
Re

Rg+Rp

Rd+Rs

m
..
Iv

RW

## overall damping as seen by the engine.

Part (c)- The system of Problem 6.7 represents the vehicle longitudinal motion under
the action of tyre rolling resistance. It ignores the aerodynamic resistance, so it is

Ra

IEQ

Se

Te

IW

n..

TF

m
..
Iv
1/r
.. W

TF

1
Ra

REQ

RW

## Figure S6.14.2 Simplified bond graph of rigid body driveline

Problem 7.1
Consider the simple PSD of Section 7.3.1 under a transient (dynamic) working condition and
derive equations to replace Equations 7.4, 5 and 7.

Solution:
The equations of motion of the ring, the sun and the carrier according to Figures 7.11
and 7.12 are:
TR FR RR I R R

TS FS RS I S S
TC FC RC I CC
in which R stands for the radius. For the planet P the two equations for translation
and rotation read (see Figure 7.12):

FR FS FC mP aP mP RCC
FR RP FS RP I P P
The angular acceleration P of the planet is related to the angular accelerations C
and S of the planet carrier and the sun:

RC
R
C S S
RP
RP

Equation 7.2 can be used to relate the angular acceleration of the three elements:

( RS RR )C RS1 RR R
The requested relations can be obtained by eliminating the internal forces FR, FC and
FS and further use of the above equations:

TR N S T1 N R k1 e k21
T1 k3 e k 41

NS
Te
NS NR

TR k5 e k61

NR
Te
NS NR

where:

Solution (continued):
N N

N
k1 N R N S R 2 S I R C2 I P
NP
NP
1

N
N
k2 N R N S
I S S2 I R S2 I P
NR
NP
NS

k3

NR NS
N N
NR
1
I R C 2R I P
I C mP N R N C
NR
2N P
NS NR
2

k4

k5

NS
N N
I R S 2R I P
NR
2N P

NS
N N
1
I C C 2S I P mP N S N C
NS NR
2N P
2

N S2
k6 I S
IP
2 N P2
It is clear when the angular accelerations are zero, the dynamic equations reduce to
Equations 7.4, 5 and 7, which were derived for the quasi-steady case.
Problem 7.2
Repeat Example 7.3.4 considering global component efficiencies of 0.8, 0.8, 0.95 and 0.98 for
MG1, MG2, PSD and reduction gear respectively. For MGs use identical efficiencies for motor
or generator modes. (Hint: Derive necessary relations for power losses and circulating power).

Solution:
In the solution of Example 7.3.4 the power losses due to the efficiency of
components were ignored. In this problem such power losses should be included.
Two cases for the power circulation were illustrated in Figure 7.15 in which the
absolute values of P1 and P2 were equal (Equation 7.15). When the efficiencies are
involved, however, Equation 7.15 does not hold. For the case (a) of Figure 7.15, the
replacing equations for the circulating power of Equation 7.15, the output power of
Equation 7.12 and the traction force of Equation 7.19 are:

PCir MG1 P1 P2 / MG 2
PV PSD f Pe f (PSD MG1MG 2 ) P1

FT f

nf

P
PSD
PSD e (1
)T2

rW
R
MG1 MG 2

Obtaining the relations of TR and T1 with the engine torque, similar to Equations 7.4
and 7.5, needs additional information regarding the internal frictions of the PSD. It is
reasonable, however, to assume Equation 7.3 is approximately valid, then TR and T1
are determined from:
TR

NR
Te PSD
NS NR

T1

NS
Te
NS NR

The ratio of circulating power to engine power (Equation 7.16) is modified to:

PCir
N R 2
1
MG1
Pe
N R N S e

Solution (continued):
For the case (b) of Figure 7.15, the replacing equations are:

PCir MG 2 P2 P1 / MG1
PV PSD f Pe f (1 PSDMG1MG 2 ) P2

FT f

nf

P
PSD e ( MG1 MG 2 PSD 1)T2

rW
R

Using the given equations, the function v_find and the main program should be
modified. Program listing for the function is provided in Figure S7.2.1. Statements
used in the main program are very similar to those of the function and can be
modified easily. The outputs of the modified programs are illustrated in Figures
S7.2.2-6.
Compared to the results of Example 7.3.4, it is clear that the vehicle acceleration and
speed are lower here when the efficiencies are included. The variation of power loss
(Pe PV) depicted in Figure S7.2.7 shows that the power loss increases slightly as
the input power increases.

function vdot=v_find(t,v)
global m n rW k1 k2 Pcir T1 Tmmax FTmax
global MG1_eff MG2_eff PSD_eff RG_eff
vm=v;
omega_2=30*n*vm/rW/pi;
omega_1=Pcir/T1/MG1_eff;
omega_e=(omega_1+k2*omega_2)/k1;
Te=-4.45e-6*omega_e^2+0.0317*omega_e+55.24;
Pe=pi*Te*omega_e/30;
S_ratio=omega_2/omega_e;
Pratio=abs(1-S_ratio*k2/k1);
Pcir=-Pe*Pratio*MG1_eff*30/pi;
P1=abs(Pcir*pi/30)/MG1_eff;
% Calculate the output power
eff=(MG1_eff*MG2_eff-PSD_eff);
P_out=(Pe*PSD_eff+P1*eff)*RG_eff;
FT=P_out/vm;
FT(FT>FTmax)=FTmax;
% Calculate the motor torque T2
Tout=FT*rW/n/RG_eff;
T1=-Te/k1;
TR=-k2*Te*PSD_eff/k1;
T2=Tout+TR;
if T2>Tmmax
T2=Tmmax;
Tout=T2-TR;
FT=n*Tout*RG_eff/rW;
end
FR=300+0.25*vm^2;
vdot=(FT-FR)/m;

15
10

20

5
0
0
4

10

15

20

10
Time (s)

15

20

3
2
1
0
0

6000
5500
5000

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

500
TR
T2
Te
TR+T2

450

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

4000
3500

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000

w1
w2
we

500
0
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

35
30

25

Pe
P1
P2

20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

35

30

Pe
PV
PL

Power (kW)

25

20

15

10

0
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

## Figure S7.2.7 Engine power, output power and power loss

Problem 7.3
The vehicle of Example 7.3.4 starts the motion in electric-only mode up to speed of 30 km/h,
then the engine is started and vehicle is propelled in engine-only mode with full throttle. Plot
the vehicle performance curves up to 20 seconds after motion starts. The motor has a base speed
of 1200 rpm.
Solution:
When the engine is off and the vehicle sets off with electric power, only the torque
of MG2 (T2) produces the traction force:

FT

nf
rW

T2

The MATLAB program of Example 7.5.1 can still be used to determine the result of
this part in electric-only mode of driving up to the speed of 30 km/h. The base
velocity of the motor is:

vb

rW
0.3

b
1200 9.43 m/s (33.93 km/h)
nf
4
30

Therefore, when the vehicle attains 30 km/h, the motor is still working in constant
torque phase.
Similar to Example 7.3.4 the resistive forces are ignored and with a constant motor
tractive force, the vehicle acceleration and speed are:

nf
mrW

T2

4
400 3.56 m/s2 and v =at
1500 0.3

t*

30
2.344 s
3.6 3.56

## At this instant the speed of MG2 is:

nf
rW

4 30

0.3 3.6

Solution (continued):
Then the other variables can be produced, e.g.:
v1=a*t1;
% Speed variation
a1=a*ones(length(t1), 1)'; % Acceleration (constant)
FT1=m*a1;
% Tractive force

At the end of this stage, the vehicle speed reaches 30 km/h and the engine-only
mode begins. The initial conditions for this mode are t0=t*, v0=30/3.6 and e=1000
rpm. The MATLAB program of Example 7.3.4 can be used for the solution of this
mode. Before plotting the figures the results of the two modes must be combined.
This can be done by defining new arrays containg the results of the electric-only
mode before those of the engine-only mode, e.g.:
t=[t1; t];
a=[a1 a];
v=[v1; v];

Figures S7.3.1-S7.3.5 show the results. It can be seen that the acceleration is dropped
dramatically when the engine-only mode starts. This is due to the low ratio for the
20

## Vehicle speed (m/s)

reduction gear that is identical for both cases. Having separate gear ratios for the
15

motor and the PSD output, makes higher accelerations possible for the engine-only

mode.

10
5

0
0
4

10

15

20

10
Time (s)

15

20

3
2
1
0
0

## Figure S7.3.1 Variations of vehicle speed and acceleration

Solution (continued):
Then the other variables can be produced, e.g.:
v1=a*t1;
% Speed variation
a1=a*ones(length(t1), 1)'; % Acceleration (constant)
FT1=m*a1;
% Tractive force

At the end of this stage, the vehicle speed reaches 30 km/h and the engine-only
mode begins. The initial conditions for this mode are t0=t*, v0=30/3.6 and e=1000
rpm. The MATLAB program of Example 7.3.4 can be used for the solution of this
mode. Before plotting the figures the results of the two modes must be combined.
This can be done by defining new arrays containg the results of the electric-only
mode before those of the engine-only mode, e.g.:
t=[t1; t];
a=[a1 a];
v=[v1; v];

Figures S7.3.1-S7.3.5 show the results. It can be seen that the acceleration is dropped
dramatically when the engine-only mode starts. This is due to the low ratio for the
reduction gear that is identical for both cases. Having separate gear ratios for the
motor and the PSD output, makes higher accelerations possible for the engine-only
mode.

15
10

20

5
0
0
4

10

15

20

10
Time (s)

15

20

3
2
1
0
0

5500
5000

4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

400
TR
T2
Te
TR+T2

350

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

2500

2000

w1
w2
we

1500

1000

500

0
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

45
Pe
P1
P2

40

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
0

10
Time (s)

15

## Figure S7.3.5 Variations of component powers

Problem 7.4
Work Example 7.3.4 for the EM-PSD with kp=1.5.

20

Solution:
In the solution of Example 7.3.4 everything related to the simple PSD system must
be replaced with those of the EM-PSD. The changes are needed inside both the main
MATLAB program and the function v_find. Once the statements inside the
function are prepared, those inside the main program are almost identical (see
Example 7.3.4).
The listing for the function is given in Figure S7.4.1 and explanations will be
provided to make the changes clearer. The function is divided into five sections. The
first section is similar to the statements of Example 7.3.4. Section 2 includes three
check points for the speeds of engine, MG1 and MG2. The engine speed must stay
above 1000 rpm, at very low vehicle speeds, however, it may drop below the limit
inside the program (for the current example it happens for v <1.5 m/s). The two other
check points impose a limit on the speed of MG1 and MG2. This limit depends on
the manufacturers specifications. For the current example the limit speed is set at
6000 rpm. Section 3 is also similar to that in Example 7.3.4. The differences are a)
the calculation of the PSD output torque TR and b) moving the calculation of
circulating power to Section 4. When the speed is low (here v <1.5 m/s), the output
power (demand) is lower than the engine power and thus the battery must take some
part of the engine power. The circulating power, therefore, cannot be calculated from
Equation 7.36. In fact one of the MGs take the surplus power of the engine and only
a fraction of this power is circulated though the other MG. Thus the smaller of the
two powers is the circulating power. Section 4 is to check and specify the correct
value of the circulating power. With an initial speed of v >1.5 m/s this check point is
not necessary and Equation 7.36 is used to calculate the circulating power.

Solution (continued):
The last section is identical with that of Example 7.3.4.
The results obtained for this problem after implementing the changes into the main
program (not presented here) are illustrated in Figures S7.4.2-7. Figure S7.4.2 shows
that the vehicle speed and acceleration are similar to those of the simple PSD. There
is a little increase in the traction force (Figure S7.4.3) at the start of motion which is
the result of increase in the output torque TR (Figure S7.4.4). The output power is
reduced from around 35 kW to about 31 kW. In Figures S7.4.4 and S7.4.6 the sum
of components torques and powers are shown to vanish (see Equations 7.25 and
7.26). The circulating power of Figure S7.4.7, on the other hand, shows a
considerable decrease from around 12 kW to about 8.5 kW.

function vdot=v_find_EM(t,v)
global m n rW mratio nratio Pcir T1 T2 Tmmax FTmax
% Section 1
vm=v;
mpn=mratio+nratio;
omega_R=30*n*vm/rW/pi;
omega_1=Pcir/T1;
% Section 2
omega_1(omega_1>6000)=6000;
omega_e=(omega_1+mratio*omega_R)/(1+mratio);
if omega_e<1000
omega_e=1000;
omega_1=(1+mratio)*omega_e-mratio*omega_R;
end
omega_2=(1-nratio)*omega_e+nratio*omega_R;
if omega_2>6000
omega_2=6000;
omega_e=(omega_2-nratio*omega_R)/(1-nratio);
omega_1=(1+mratio)*omega_e-mratio*omega_R;
end
% Section 3
Te=-4.45e-6*omega_e^2+0.0317*omega_e+55.24;
Pe=pi*Te*omega_e/30;
FT=Pe/vm;
FT(FT>FTmax)=FTmax;
TR=-FT*rW/n;
T2=-(mratio*Te+(1+mratio)*TR)/mpn;
% Impose limit on the motor torque
if abs(T2)>Tmmax
T2=Tmmax*sign(T2);
TR=-(mpn*T2+mratio*Te)/(1+mratio);
FT=-n*TR/rW;
end
T1=-(nratio*Te-(1-nratio)*TR)/mpn;
% Section 4
P1=T1*omega_1*pi/30;
P2=T2*omega_2*pi/30;
if vm < 1.5
Pcir=-min(abs(P1), abs(P2))*30/pi;
else
omegRpE=omega_R/omega_e;
Pratio=abs(1-2*nratio*(mratio+1)/mpn+mratio*nratio*...
omegRpE/mpn+(1+mratio)* (nratio-1)/mpn/omegRpE);
Pratio(Pratio>1)=1;
Pcir=-Pe*Pratio*30/pi; % Equation 7.36
end
% Section 5
% Calculate the vehicle acceleration
FR=300+0.25*vm^2;
vdot=(FT-FR)/m;

20
15
10
5

25

0
0
5

10

15

20

10
Time (s)

15

20

4
3
2
1
0
0

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

400
300

100
0
-100
-200

T1
T2
TR
Te
SUM

-300
-400
-500
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

4000
3500
3000

200

2500
2000
1500
1000

we
w1
w2
wR

500
0
-500
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

40
30

20

Pe
P1
P2
PR
SUM

10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
0

10
Time (s)

15

20

9
8

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10
Time (s)

15

## Figure S7.4.7 Circulating power

20

Problem 7.5
The overall efficiency of a battery can be regarded as:

Ed
Ec

in which Ed and Ec are the discharged and charged energies of the battery. A simple experiment
is designed in which a battery cell is discharged and charged again in a controlled manner.
Energy is given to a consumer from a battery at a constant current I during time tf. At this time
period, the voltage of battery remains a constant V. Then the battery is charged at the same
voltage V, current I and time tf.
a) Derive an equation for the overall efficiency of the battery.
b) For a battery with open terminal voltage of 11.2 V and internal resistance of 0.05 ohm,
plot the efficiency of battery for different currents

Solution:
Part (a)- For Ed and Ec one can write:
tf

Ed Vd I d dt
0

tf

Ec Vc I c dt
0

## where Vd and Vc are:

Vd VO Ri I d
Vc VO Ri I c
As Ic=Id=I,

Ed VO Ri I

Ec VO Ri I

Part (b)- For the given information, the efficiency of the battery is:

11.2 0.05I
11.2 0.05I

## 1 for different values of the current is shown in Figure S7.5.

The variation of
b
0.9

Battery efficiency

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

20

40
60
Battery current (Amp)

80

100

## Figure S7.5 Battery overall efficiency for different currents

Problem 7.6
In Example 7.4.3 if the battery must be charged when SOC is below 60%, determine the time at
which the engine must be started to recharge the battery and also calculate the travelled distance
by then.
Solution:
From the solution of Example 7.4.3 the value of SOC at the end of one cycle is
0.9152. The number of cycles that the vehicle can travel before the SOC drops to
60% is:

1 0.6
0.4

4.719
1 0.9152 0.0848

The time at which the engine must start to recharge the battery is:
t=804.719=377.5 s.
The distance travelled in a single cycle can be determined by MATLAB command:

## % Distance per cycle

The result is 800 m. The total distance travelled when the SOC drops to 60%,
therefore, is:
St=8004.719=3,775 m.

Problem 7.7
Consider the vehicle and driving cycle of Example 7.4.3 and determine:
a) Total tractive energy consumption in a cycle
b) Total regenerative energy and its ratio to the tractive energy

Solution:
In this problem the intention is to investigate the regenerative energy gain in
Example 7.4.3 relative to the total energy consumption for the motive force. The real
energy consumption is the energy taken from the battery and the real energy
absorption is that returned to the battery. The variation of battery power indicates the
flow of the energy from or to it.
In the MATLAB program for Example 7.4.3 the power of the MG (Pin) was
determined. For the motor this is the input electrical power (output of the battery)
whereas for the generator it is the output electrical power (input to the battery). For
the motor the actual power consumption, therefore, is obtained by dividing the input
power to the battery efficiency. For the generator, however, this input power must be
multiplied by the battery efficiency. The following MATLAB listing can be used to
calculate these two powers:
Pm=Pin; Pinn=Pin;
Pmot(Pmot<0)=0; % Motor power
Pgen(Pgen>0)=0; % Generator power
Pbc=Pmot/Bat_eff; % Battery consumed power
Pba=Pgen*Bat_eff; % Battery absorbed power

Problem 7.8
Once the consumed and regenerated powers are obtained, the relevant energies are
Rework Example 7.5.1 by including the torque-speed characteristics of the motor that has a base
the time integration of the powers. Following commands can be used to determine
speed of 1000 rpm but with the same maximum power.
the energy values and their ratio:
E_ratio=-100*E_regen/E_cons;
% Ratio of regenerated to consumed energies

## The numerical result is 15.1%.

Solution:
The MATLAB program of Example 7.5.1 can be used here only by changing the
motor input data. The motor power is kept unchanged, so its maximum torque is:

Tmax

## Pmax 124 2200

272.8 Nm
b
1000

Part (a)- The full load torque-speed plot of the motor is shown in Figure S7.8.1.
Part (b)- The base speed is reduced to 6.3 m/s (proportional to the new motor base
speed). The final velocity will remain unchanged (36 m/s) since the maximum power
is kept unchanged.
Part (c)- The intersecting point in the force diagram of Figure S7.8.2 verifies the
result of part (b).
Part (d)- The base speed time reduces to 1.85s. Times to reach the 0.98, 0.99 and
0.995 of the maximum speed are obtained as 83.8, 100.5 and 117.2s respectively.
These are smaller than those of Example 7.5.1, because in this case the acceleration
300

## is higher according to the traction diagram of Figure S7.8.2.

Motor/Generator Torque (Nm)

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

1000

2000

3000

## 4000 5000 6000

Motor Speed (rpm)

7000

8000

9000

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

1000

2000

3000

## 4000 5000 6000

Motor Speed (rpm)

7000

8000

9000

4500
4000

3500
3000
2500
2000
Example 7.5.1
1500
1000
500
0
0

10

20

36 m/s
30
Velocity (m/s)

40

50

60

## Figure S7.8.2 Traction-resistive force diagram

Problem 7.9
Repeat Example 7.7.1 for maximum battery charging currents of 20, 50 and 70 A. Also plot the
variation of regenerating efficiency with maximum charging current.
Results: 7.3%, 17.6% and 24.1%

Solution:
The solution of Example 7.7.1 is simple and can be performed by hand calculations.
Nonetheless, the following MATLAB program facilitates the calculations for all
battery currents and plots the requested plot as shown in Figure S7.9.
% Problem 7.9
% Inputs
m=1000; v0=100; s0=100; V=200;
etagb=0.85;
Imax=[20 50 70 100];
pbm=V*Imax;
v0=v0/3.6;
a=v0^2/2/s0;
t2=v0/a;
t1=t2-pbm/etagb/a^2/m;
eb=pbm.*t1+etagb*m*(v0-t1*a).^2/2;
ev=m*v0^2/2;
eff=100*eb/ev;
plot(Imax, eff)
xlabel('Maximum battery charging current (A)')
ylabel('Regeneration efficiency (%)')

35

## Regeneration efficiency (%)

30

25

20

15

10

5
20

30

40
50
60
70
80
Maximum battery charging current (A)

90

100

Figure S7.9 The variation of regenerating efficiency with maximum battery charging current

Problem 7.10
Repeat Example 7.7.2 for maximum battery charging currents of 20, 50 and 70 A. (Suggestion:
write a MATLAB program).
Result for I=20 A: 84.4% and 33.7%.
Solution:
A MATLAB program facilitates the calculation of the results for the three cases
automatically. For this reason, the process used in Example 7.7.2 should be included
in the program. A sample program provided below is used for those parts of the
driving cycle when a braking occurs.
In the ECE15 cycle, four identical segments are present and performing the
calculations for only one segment suffices. In each segment there are 4 braking parts;
one for each of the two first micro-trips and two for the third micro-trip. The
program listing for the first braking part is:
% First part of ECE cycle
v0=15; % Initial speed
tb=5; % Braking time
v0=v0/3.6; % m/s
a=v0/tb; % Braking deceleration
pmec=m*a*v0; % Mechanical power (Resistive forces ignored)
if pmec < pab % pab=Maximum absorbable mechanical power = V*I/ gb
ts=0;
else
ts=tb-pab/a^2/m; % 't*' of Example 7.7.1
end
% Absorbed energy in this part
eb11=pbm*ts+etagb*m*(v0-ts*a)^2/2;
em11=m*v0^2/2; % Available mechanical energy in this part

For the second braking part only the initial speed and braking time are changed
(v0=32; tb=11;) and the above program is repeated with these input values to obtain
eb12

and em12. The third part involves two brakings with initial speeds v0 and v1 and

braking times tb1 and tb2. The listing for this part is:

Solution (continued):
% Third part of the ECE cycle
v0=55; v1=35;
tb1=8; % First braking time
tb2=12; % Second braking time
v0=v0/3.6; v1=v1/3.6;
a1=(v0-v1)/tb1; % Deceleration in first braking
pmec1=m*a1*v0;
if pmec1 < pab
ts=0;
else
ts=tb1-pab/a1^2/m;
ts(ts<0)=0; % When 'ts' occurs at speeds below 'v1'
end
e131=pbm*ts+etagb*m*((v0-ts*a1)^2-v1^2)/2;
a2=v1/tb2; % Deceleration in second braking
pmec2=m*a2*v1;
if pmec2 < pab
ts=0;
else
ts=tb2-pab/a2^2/m;
end
e132=pbm*ts+etagb*m*(v1-ts*a2)^2/2;
eb13=e131+e132;
em13=m*v0^2/2;

The total absorbed and available energies for one segment of the ECE15 cycle are:
ebECE=eb11+eb12+eb13;
emECE=em11+ev12+em13;

## The regenerating efficiency, therefore, is:

eff_ECE=100*ebECE/emECE;

In the EUDC cycle, the first braking reduces the initial speed from 70 km/h to 50
km/h within 8 seconds. For this part, the program listing is:
v0=70; v1=50;
tb=8;
v0=v0/3.6; v1=v1/3.6;
a1=(v0-v1)/tb;
pmec1=m*a1*v0;
if pmec1 < pab
ts=0;
else
ts=tb-pab/a1^2/m;
ts(ts<0)=0;
end
eb21=pbm*ts+etagb*m*((v0-ts*a1)^2-v1^2)/2;
em21=m*(v0^2-v1^2)/2;

Solution (continued):
For the second braking at the end of the cycle, it is assumed that the deceleration is
constant starting from the initial speed of 120 km/h up to a full stop within 34
seconds. The program listing given for the first braking of the ECE15 cycle can be
used here to evaluate eb22 and em22. The total absorbed and available energies for the
EUDC cycle and the resulting efficiency for the regenerative braking are:
ebEUDC=eb21+eb22;
emEUDC=em21+em22;
eff_EUDC=100*ebEUDC/emEUDC;

The results of running this program for I=20A are 78.6% and 31.6% for the ECE15
and EUDC respectively. The results for I=50 are 85% and 55.2%; and for I=70 A are
85% and 67.1%.

Problem 7.11
Repeat Example 7.7.1 with a rolling resistance coefficient of 0.015 and overall drag factor of 0.3.

Solution:
Assuming a constant deceleration during the braking phase, the solution of the first
part for the acceleration and stopping time is identical to that of Example 7.7.1. The
results are a = 3.858 m/s2 and tb=7.2s. In order to determine the time t* at which the
input mechanical power equals the maximum absorbable power by the battery,
however, the nonlinear equation (see Equations 7.107, 7.108 and 7.109):

bg Pm (t ) bg ma(t )v(t ) PR (t ) VI
must be solved. In which:

PR mgf R ca v 2
The direct result of the above equation is the corresponding vehicle speed v* and as
the deceleration is assumed to be a constant a, then t*=(v0-v*)/a. The following
MATLAB commands can be used to obtain the results:
% Speed at which the input mechanical power equals the maximum absorbable power
vs=fsolve(@(x) m*a*x-(fR*m*9.81+ca*x^2)*x-pbm, 15, optimset('Display','off'));
ts=(v0-vs)/a; % Time of 'vs'

Problem 7.12
The total absorbed energy by the battery (Eb) and the total available energy (Em) are:
Repeat Example 7.7.2 with a rolling resistance coefficient of 0.015 and overall drag factor of 0.3.
tb

Eb Pbmt * * gb Pm (t )
t

tb

Em 0.5mv02 PR (t )
0

The regenerating efficiency then is the ratio of the two. These can be evaluated by
making use of the following instructions:
% Total absorbed energy
eb=pbm*ts+etagb*quad(@(x) (m*a*x-(F0+ca*x.^2).*x)/a, 0, vs); % Integral is over v
% Total available energy
% Efficiency of regenerative braking
eff=100*eb/em;

The numerical results are Eb=127.5 kJ (0.6% reduction) and Em=381.8 (7%
reduction). This leads to the efficiency of 35.5% (a 10% increase).

Solution:
The MATLAB program provided for the solution of Problem 7.10 needs some
modifications to include the effect of resistive forces. This can be done by making
use of Problem 7.11, in which the inclusion of resistive forces in the determination
of regenerative braking efficiency was discussed.
The first necessary change is the inclusion of resistive power PR (Equation 7.107) in
the available mechanical power and to check if the value of this power exceeds the
absorbable power of the battery (see Problem 7.11). The process for each part of the
driving cycle then follows by the calculation of the total absorbed and available
energies. Changes to the MATLAB program can be obtained from the following
statements prepared for the first part of the ECE cycle:
pmec=m*a*v0-(F0+ca*v0^2)*v0; % Maximum available mechanical power
if pmec < pab
ts=0;
vs=v0;
else
% Speed at which the input mechanical power equals the maximum absorbable power
vs=fsolve(@(x)
m*a*x-(F0+ca*x^2)*x-pab, 5);
Problem
7.13
ts=(v0-vs)/a; % Time of 'vs'
end
The generator
of Example 7.7.1 has a maximum torque of 200 Nm up to base speed of 1200
% Total absorbed energy
and a %
reduction
gear ratio
Total available
energyof 5.0. The rolling radius of the wheel is 30 cm. Calculate the

regenerative braking efficiency (The braking force is produced only by the generator).
Similar statements can be used for the other parts of both the ECE and ECDC cycles.
The numerical results for the problem are: Eb11=6.05 kJ, Eb12=26.97 kJ, Eb13=74.51
kJ, Eb21=52.32 kJ, Eb22=321.07 kJ, Em11=7.12 kJ, Em12=31.73 kJ, Em13=87.66 kJ,
Em21=61.55 kJ, Em22=377.73 kJ. The efficiencies of regenerative braking, therefore,
are: r(ECE)= r(EUDC)=0.85.
It is worth noting that the efficiency for each part alone is also the same value. This
is because the available energy values for all parts are less than the absorbable
energy. The efficiency values may reduce by decreasing the battery charging current.

rpm,

Solution:
The MATLAB program provided for the solution of Problem 7.10 needs some
modifications to include the effect of resistive forces. This can be done by making
use of Problem 7.11, in which the inclusion of resistive forces in the determination
of regenerative braking efficiency was discussed.
The first necessary change is the inclusion of resistive power PR (Equation 7.107) in
the available mechanical power and to check if the value of this power exceeds the
absorbable power of the battery (see Problem 7.11). The process for each part of the
driving cycle then follows by the calculation of the total absorbed and available
energies. Changes to the MATLAB program can be obtained from the following
statements prepared for the first part of the ECE cycle:
pmec=m*a*v0-(F0+ca*v0^2)*v0; % Maximum available mechanical power
if pmec < pab
ts=0;
vs=v0;
else
% Speed at which the input mechanical power equals the maximum absorbable power
vs=fsolve(@(x) m*a*x-(F0+ca*x^2)*x-pab, 5);
ts=(v0-vs)/a; % Time of 'vs'
end
% Total absorbed energy
% Total available energy

Similar statements can be used for the other parts of both the ECE and ECDC cycles.
The numerical results for the problem are: Eb11=6.05 kJ, Eb12=26.97 kJ, Eb13=74.51
kJ, Eb21=52.32 kJ, Eb22=321.07 kJ, Em11=7.12 kJ, Em12=31.73 kJ, Em13=87.66 kJ,
Em21=61.55 kJ, Em22=377.73 kJ. The efficiencies of regenerative braking, therefore,
are: r(ECE)= r(EUDC)=0.85.
It is worth noting that the efficiency for each part alone is also the same value. This
is because the available energy values for all parts are less than the absorbable
energy. The efficiency values may reduce by decreasing the battery charging current.

Problem 7.13
The generator of Example 7.7.1 has a maximum torque of 200 Nm up to base speed of 1200 rpm,
and a reduction gear ratio of 5.0. The rolling radius of the wheel is 30 cm. Calculate the
regenerative braking efficiency (The braking force is produced only by the generator).
Solution:
The braking force is produced by the generator based on its torque-speed diagram.
For speeds below 1200 rpm the generator torque is constant at 200 Nm, whereas for
speeds above 1200 rpm it is obtained from:

Tg

Pmax

where Pmax 200 1200 / 30 and g is the rotational speed of the generator

Fb

n g Tg
rw

in which ng and rw are the reduction gear ratio and the wheel radius respectively. In
order to obtain the speed time history of the vehicle, the following equation of
motion (see Chapter 3) must be solved:

nT
dv
Fb g g
dt
rw

## g is related to the vehicle speed by (ignore the wheel slip):

ng v
rw

Note that for the constant power portion of the generator torque-speed, the equation
of motion reduces to:

dv
P
max
dt
v

In a MATLAB program, first the time history of vehicle motion must be obtained by

Solution (continued):
function f=fP7_13(t, v)
global m rw Pmax ng Tg_max
wg=ng*v/rw; % Generator speed
Tg=Pmax/wg; % Generator torque
Tg(Tg>Tg_max)=Tg_max; % Generator torque limit
Fb=-ng*Tg/rw; % Braking force
f=Fb/m; % Acceleration
f(f>0)=0; % Must be negative or zero

In the main MATLAB program this function is invoked by ode45 function with the
specified initial conditions and the time span for integration. Typical statements are:
tspan=0: 0.05: 20;
[t,v]=ode45(@fP7_13, tspan, v0);

Once the speed time history is available, the process of determining the absorbed and
available energies are similar to those presented in Problems 7.10-7.12. A sample
MATLAB program listing is also given below:
tpos=find(v>0);
t=t(tpos); v=v(tpos);
wg=ng*v/rw;
Tg=Pmax./wg;
Problem
7.14
Tg(Tg> Tg_max)= Tg_max;
Fb=ng*Tg/rw;
Use the
generator of Problem 7.13 with a maximum torque of 150 Nm to rework Example 7.7.2.
a=Fb/m;
p=m*a.*v;
% Obtain the speed and time when the input mechanical power equals the absorbable power
ppos=find(p*etagb>=pbm);
tss=t(ppos);
vss=v(ppos);
if isempty(tss)~= 1
ts=tss(end);
vs=vss(end);
else
ts=0;
vs=v0;
end
% Total absorbed energy
% Total available energy
em=m*v0^2/2;
% Efficiency of regenerative braking
eff=100*eb/em;

## The result for the regenerative efficiency is 79.9%.

Solution (continued):
function f=fP7_13(t, v)
global m rw Pmax ng Tg_max
wg=ng*v/rw; % Generator speed
Tg=Pmax/wg; % Generator torque
Tg(Tg>Tg_max)=Tg_max; % Generator torque limit
Fb=-ng*Tg/rw; % Braking force
f=Fb/m; % Acceleration
f(f>0)=0; % Must be negative or zero

In the main MATLAB program this function is invoked by ode45 function with the
specified initial conditions and the time span for integration. Typical statements are:
tspan=0: 0.05: 20;
[t,v]=ode45(@fP7_13, tspan, v0);

Once the speed time history is available, the process of determining the absorbed and
available energies are similar to those presented in Problems 7.10-7.12. A sample
MATLAB program listing is also given below:
tpos=find(v>0);
t=t(tpos); v=v(tpos);
wg=ng*v/rw;
Tg=Pmax./wg;
Tg(Tg> Tg_max)= Tg_max;
Fb=ng*Tg/rw;
a=Fb/m;
p=m*a.*v;
% Obtain the speed and time when the input mechanical power equals the absorbable power
ppos=find(p*etagb>=pbm);
tss=t(ppos);
vss=v(ppos);
if isempty(tss)~= 1
ts=tss(end);
vs=vss(end);
else
ts=0;
vs=v0;
end
% Total absorbed energy
% Total available energy
em=m*v0^2/2;
% Efficiency of regenerative braking
eff=100*eb/em;

## The result for the regenerative efficiency is 79.9%.

Problem 7.14
Use the generator of Problem 7.13 with a maximum torque of 150 Nm to rework Example 7.7.2.
Solution:
In this problem the driving cycle is given and the vehicle is to follow it. It will be
assumed that when the generator torque is unable to produce sufficient braking
force, the vehicle service brake will produce the balance.
The solution of this problem differs from that of Problem 7.10 only in the value of
available power for the absorption. In fact in this case the generator receives power
according to its torque and power limitations. Therefore, imposing these two
limitations on the torque and power is the main difference of the two solutions.
Furthermore, in order to make the main program simpler, it is better to collect all
repetitive statements into a separate function and invoke it where is needed. The
inputs to this function are the time and speed range of the braking cycle and the
outputs are the absorbed and available energies in that part. Listing for a typical
function follows:
function [eb, em]=p714(tb, v0, v1)
global m rw Pmax ng Tg_max etagb pbm
a=(v0-v1)/tb; % Braking deceleration
Fb=m*a;
% Braking force
Tg=Fb*rw/ng; % Generator torque
Tg(Tg>Tg_max)=Tg_max; % Impose torque limit
t=0: 0.05: tb; % Time array
v=v0-a*t;
% Speed time history
p=wg.*Tg;
% Generator power
p(p>Pmax)=Pmax; % Impose power limit
tss=t(find(p*etagb>=pbm)); % Time array for power larger than absorbable
if isempty(tss)~= 1
ts=tss(end);
else
ts=0;
end

% If not empty

## eb=pbm*ts+etagb*quad(@(x) interp1(t,p,x), ts, tb); % Absorbed energy

em=m*(v0^2-v1^2)/2;
% Available energy

Solution (continued):
In the main program, for each part of the cycles, the input arguments for the p714
function are specified and the outputs are determined by invoking the function. The
basic part of the main program is given below:
% Input data
% First part of the ECE cycle
v0=15/3.6; % Initial speed (m/s)
tb=5; % Braking time
% Determine the absorbed energy eb11 and
% available energy em11 for a braking with
% initial and final speeds v0 and 0 during tb seconds
[eb11, em11]=p714(tb, v0, 0);
% Second part of the ECE cycle
v0=32/3.6;
tb=11;
[eb12, em12]=p714(tb, v0, 0);
% Third part of the ECE cycle
v0=55/3.6;
v1=35/3.6;
tb1=8; % First braking time
tb2=12; % Second braking time
[e131, em131]=p714(tb1, v0, v1);
[e132, em132]=p714(tb2, v1, 0);
eb13=e131+e132;
em13=em131+em132;
ebECE=eb11+eb12+eb13;
emECE=em11+em12+em13;
eff_ECE=100*ebECE/emcee;
% The EUDC cycle
% First part
v0=70/3.6;
v1=50/3.6;
tb=8;
[eb21, em21]=p714(tb, v0, v1);
% Second part
v0=120/3.6;
tb=34;
[eb22, em22]=p714(tb, v0, 0);
ebEUDC=eb21+eb22;
emEUDC=em21+em22;
eff_EUDC=100*ebEUDC/emEUDC;

The result of this program for the regenerative efficiencies of the ECE and EUDC
cycles are 85% and 71.95% respectively.

Solution (continued):
In the main program, for each part of the cycles, the input arguments for the p714
function are specified and the outputs are determined by invoking the function. The
basic part of the main program is given below:
% Input data
% First part of the ECE cycle
v0=15/3.6; % Initial speed (m/s)
tb=5; % Braking time
% Determine the absorbed energy eb11 and
% available energy em11 for a braking with
% initial and final speeds v0 and 0 during tb seconds
[eb11, em11]=p714(tb, v0, 0);
% Second part of the ECE cycle
v0=32/3.6;
tb=11;
[eb12, em12]=p714(tb, v0, 0);
% Third part of the ECE cycle
v0=55/3.6;
v1=35/3.6;
tb1=8; % First braking time
tb2=12; % Second braking time
[e131, em131]=p714(tb1, v0, v1);
[e132, em132]=p714(tb2, v1, 0);
eb13=e131+e132;
em13=em131+em132;
ebECE=eb11+eb12+eb13;
emECE=em11+em12+em13;
eff_ECE=100*ebECE/emcee;
% The EUDC cycle
% First part
v0=70/3.6;
v1=50/3.6;
tb=8;
[eb21, em21]=p714(tb, v0, v1);
% Second part
v0=120/3.6;
tb=34;
[eb22, em22]=p714(tb, v0, 0);
ebEUDC=eb21+eb22;
emEUDC=em21+em22;
eff_EUDC=100*ebEUDC/emEUDC;

The result of this program for the regenerative efficiencies of the ECE and EUDC
cycles are 85% and 71.95% respectively.