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KING ABDULLAH BIN ABDULAZIZ PROJECTTHIRD SAUDI EXPANSION OF HOLY HARAM MAKKAH & SURROUNDING AREAS

CENTRAL UTILITY COMPLEX & SERVICE TUNNEL

SECTION 15181 - HYDRONIC PIPING


PART 1 - GENERAL
1.1
A.

1.2

RELATED DOCUMENTS
Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including Conditions of Contract and
Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.
SUMMARY

A.

This Section includes piping, special-duty valves, and hydronic specialties for chilled-water
cooling, and condenser water systems; makeup water for these systems; blowdown drain
lines; and condensate drain piping.

B.

Related Sections include the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1.3
A.

Division 7 Section "Through-Penetration Firestop Systems" for materials and


methods for sealing pipe penetrations through fire and smoke barriers.
Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants" for materials and methods for sealing pipe
penetrations through exterior walls.
Division 15 Section "Basic Mechanical Materials and Methods" for general piping
materials and installation requirements.
Division 15 Section "Hangers and Supports" for pipe supports, product descriptions,
and installation requirements. Hanger and support spacing is specified in this
Section.
Division 15 Section "Valves" for general-duty gate, globe, ball, butterfly, and check
valves.
Division 15 Section "Meters and Gages" for thermometers, flow meters, and pressure
gages.
Division 15 Section "Mechanical Identification" for labeling and identifying hydronic
piping.
Division 15 Section "Hydronic Pumps" for pumps, motors, and accessories for
hydronic piping.
Division 15 Section "HVAC Instrumentation and Controls" for temperature-control
valves and sensors.
Division 15 Section Testing, Adjusting and Balancing for hydronic system
adjusting and balancing.

STANDARDS
The following standards are referred to in this section as alternative
1.
2.
3.
4.

BS 10 Flanges for bolting pipes, valves and fittings


BS 21 Pipe threads for tubes and fittings where pressure-type joints are made on
threads (metric dimensions)
BS 916 Black bolts, screws and nuts
BS 1387 Screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars for plain end steel tubes
suitable for welding of for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads

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5.
6.
7.
1.4

BS 1845
BS 1965
BS 4504

Filler metals for brazing


Butt-welding pipe fittings for pressure purposes
Circular flanges for pipes, valves and fittings (PN designated)

SUBMITTALS

A.

Product Data: For each type of special-duty valve indicated. Include flow and pressure
drop curves based on manufacturer's testing for diverting fittings, calibrated balancing
valves, and automatic flow-control valves.

B.

Shop Drawings: Detail fabrication of pipe anchors, hangers, special pipe support
assemblies, alignment guides, expansion joints and loops, and their attachment to the
building structure. Detail location of anchors, alignment guides, and expansion joints and
loops.

C.

Welding Certificates: Copies of certificates for welding procedures and personnel.

D.

Field Test Reports: Written reports of tests specified in Part 3 of this Section. Include the
following:
1.
2.
3.

Test procedures used.


Test results that comply with requirements.
Failed test results and corrective action taken to achieve requirements.

E.

Maintenance Data: For hydronic specialties and special-duty valves to include in


maintenance manuals specified in Division 1.

F.

Water Analysis: Submit a copy of the water analysis to illustrate water quality available at
Project site.

1.5

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Surface preparation for all steel pipes: Shot blasting to SA 2.5 and then immediate
application of 150 um polyamide epoxy paint to be confirmed for proper bonding with preinsulated pipes manufacturer.

B.

Welding: Qualify processes and operators according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code: Section IX, "Welding and Brazing Qualifications and ASME B31.1.
Welders shall be certified for the type of pipe material specified and position of welds
required during fabrication of the piping. Submit the welding certificates and pictorial
identification of each welder to the Engineer for review prior to commencing piping
fabrication. The certificate shall be current and not more than one year old.

C.

Non destructive examination shall be performed to all pipe welds in accordance to ASME
B31.1. A third party inspection approved company shall perform the tests and submit the
related reports.

D.

All welds shall be identified by the welders mark and a sequence number. The Contractor
shall employ a Certified Welding Inspector (CWI), certified as Level 2 minimum in the
NDE methods utilized, independent of the contractor fabricating or installing the piping, to
visually examine all welds in accordance with inspection and examination requirements of
ANSI B 31.9. Any welds failing the visual inspection shall be ground out, re-welded and

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radio graphed at the expense of the Contractor. The CWI shall submit a written report of his
examination of each weld to the Engineer.
E.

Additionally, 5% of all fitting, flange and joint welds, shop or field, minimum of 5% welds,
randomly selected by the Engineer, shall be radio graphed at the expense of the contractor.
The certified welding inspector shall examine the films and provide a written report to the
Engineer. All welds not meeting the requirements of ANSI B 31.1 latest edition will be
ground out, re-welded and re-radio graphed at the expense of the Contractor. If any two of
the randomly selected radio graphed welds fail, all welds in the piping will be radio graphed
and repaired at the expense of the contractor

F.

ASME Compliance: Comply with ASME B31.9, "Building Services Piping," for materials,
products, and installation. Safety valves and pressure vessels shall bear the appropriate
ASME label. Fabricate and stamp air separators and expansion tanks to comply with the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.

G.

All pre-insulated piping systems shall be completely sealed and waterproof, and they shall
be capable of allowing sufficient movement for thermal expansion and contraction. Each
assembly shall be factory-designed for the specific service medium, temperature, and
pressure. Expansion loops, expansion joints, anchors, and guides shall be furnished and
installed to provide a trouble-free system and avoid stress on any equipment.

H.

On Site Supervision of Underground Pre-insulated Chilled Water Piping Installation:


1.
2.
3.

The pre-insulated pipe manufacturer shall have a determined quality assurance


program to ensure compliance with specifications.
All inner polyurethane insulation to be visually inspected to ensure absence of any
void prior to the application of jacket.
The following tests shall be performed on daily basis to ensure quality of installation:
a.
b.
c.
d.

4.
5.

6.

Density (greater or equal to 50 Kg/m3)


Thermal conductivity (smaller or equal to 0.023 W/mC)
Compressive strength (greater or equal to 300 KPa)
Closed cell content (smaller or equal to 88%)

Provide services of a factory trained representative of the pipe manufacturer for a


minimum of three days, to include pre installation, installation and testing periods.
Representative's daily written reports to the Resident Engineer: Present the original of
each report on the day it is prepared. The report shall be signed by the manufacturer's
representative. The report shall state whether or not the condition and quality of the
materials used and the installation of the system is in accordance with the plans,
specifications, and published standards of the manufacturer, and is satisfactory in all
respects. If anything connected with the installation is unsatisfactory, the report shall
state that corrective action has been taken or shall contain the manufacturer's
recommendations for corrective action. The report shall cover any condition that
could result in an unsatisfactory installation. The representative shall take prompt
action to return to the factory all damaged and defective material, and shall order
prompt replacement of such material.
On completion of the installation, the Contractor shall deliver to the Resident
Engineer a certificate from the manufacturer that the installation is in compliance
with all installation recommendations and warranty requirements of the manufacturer.

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1.6

COORDINATION

A.

Coordinate layout and installation of hydronic piping and suspension system components
with other construction, including light fixtures, HVAC equipment, fire-suppression-system
components, and partition assemblies.

B.

Coordinate pipe sleeve installations for foundation wall penetrations.

C.

Coordinate piping installation with roof curbs, equipment supports, and roof penetrations.
Roof specialties are specified in Division 7 Sections.

D.

Coordinate pipe fitting pressure classes with products specified in related Sections.

E.

Coordinate size and location of concrete bases. Cast anchor-bolt inserts into base.
Concrete, reinforcement, and formwork requirements are specified in Division 3 Sections.

F.

Coordinate installation of pipe sleeves for penetrations through exterior walls and floor
assemblies. Coordinate with requirements for firestopping specified in Division 7 Section
"Through-Penetration Firestop Systems" for fire and smoke wall and floor assemblies.

1.7

DELIVERY, STORAGE and HANDLING

A.

Products shall be delivered in original, unbroken packages, containers, or bundles bearing


the name of the manufacture.

B.

Products shall be carefully stored in a manner that will prevent damage and in an area that is
protected from the elements.

C.

End caps weather supplied by the piping manufacturer or fabricated by the contractor are to
be placed at the ends of the piping sections to keep debris and reptiles from entering inside
the pipe while it is placed in storage.

D.

Prefabricated sections of the pre-insulated pipe are to be handled per the manufacturers
recommendations or instructions.

E.

All pre-insulated pipes shall be protected from direct sunlight while transported or stored.

1.8
A.

1.9
A.

EXTRA MATERIALS
Water Treatment Chemicals: Furnish sufficient chemicals for initial system startup and for
preventive maintenance for one year from date of Substantial Completion.
WARRANTY
Manufacturer's warranty form in which manufacturer agrees to repair or replace components
that fails in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period.

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PART 2 - PRODUCTS
2.1
A.

MANUFACTURERS
Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering
products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:
1.

Calibrated Balancing Valves:


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

2.

Pressure-Reducing Valves:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

3.

Flow Design, Inc.


Griswold Controls.

Expansion Tanks:
a.
b.
c.
d.

6.

Amtrol, Inc.
Armstrong Pumps, Inc.
Conbraco Industries, Inc.
ITT McDonnell & Miller Div.; ITT Fluid Technology Corp.
Kunkle Valve Division.
Spence Engineering Company, Inc.

Automatic Flow-Control Valves:


a.
b.

5.

Amtrol, Inc.
Armstrong Pumps, Inc.
Conbraco Industries, Inc.
ITT Bell & Gossett; ITT Fluid Technology Corp.
Spence Engineering Company, Inc.
Watts Industries, Inc.; Watts Regulators.

Safety Valves:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

4.

Armstrong Pumps, Inc.


Flow Design, Inc.
Gerand Engineering Company.
Griswold Controls.
ITT Bell & Gossett; ITT Fluid Technology Corp.
Taco, Inc.

Amtrol, Inc.
Armstrong Pumps, Inc.
ITT Bell & Gossett; ITT Fluid Technology Corp.
Taco, Inc.

Air Separators and Air Purgers:


a.
b.
c.
d.

Amtrol, Inc.
Armstrong Pumps, Inc.
ITT Bell & Gossett; ITT Fluid Technology Corp.
Taco, Inc.

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2.2

PIPING MATERIALS
A.

2.3

General: Refer to Part 3 "Piping Applications" Article for applications of pipe and fitting
materials.
PIPE AND TUBING

A.

Minimum steel pipe size recommended for hydronic piping is NPS 3/4 (DN 20).

B.

Chilled Water (above ground), Condenser Water (above ground), and Vent Piping:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Steel DN 50 and smaller: ASTM A53 Grade B, seamless, Schedule 40 with threaded
ends.
Steel DN 65 and up to DN 600: ASTM A53 Grade B or ASTM 106 Grade B, ERW,
Schedule 40 with beveled ends for butt welding.
Pipes above DN 600: API 5L Grade B, SAW at both sides with helical seam and
beveled ends for butt welding.
Chilled water piping underground and in utility tunnels, pipe basements and crawl
spaces: Factory pre-insulated chilled water piping supplied in 12 meters lengths with
beveled ends.
Minimum wall thickness shall be in accordance with the following table. Contractor
shall submit complete calculation to ASME B31.1 to verify that wall thickness is
adequate enough as per actual system pressure:

Pipe Size (mm)

Chilled Water Pipe


Thickness (mm)

1500
1400
1300
1200
1150
1100
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600 and less

17.5
15.9
15.9
14.3
14.3
14.3
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
Standard 9.5

Condenser Water
Pipe Thickness
(mm)
11.1
11.1
10.3
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
Standard 9.5

C.

Underground Condenser Water Piping: Ductile iron pipe and fittings, with mechanical lock
joints.

D.

Extension of Domestic Water Make-up Piping: ASTM B88, Type K or L, hard drawn
copper tubing.

E.

Cooling Coil Condensate Drain Piping:


1.

From air handling units: Copper water tube, ASTM B88, Type M.

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2.

From fan coil or other terminal units: Copper water tube, ASTM B88, Type L for
runouts and Type M for mains.

F.

Chemical Feed Piping for Condenser Water Treatment: Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC), Schedule 80, ASTM F441.

G.

Diesel Engine Cooling Water: For DN 50 and smaller, use Schedule 40 steel pipe with
threaded joints; for DN 65 and larger, use Schedule 40 steel pipe with welded joints.

2.4
A.

FACTORY PREFABRICATED (PREINSULATED) CHILLED WATER PIPING


General:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

The piping system shall be designed for an assumed life time of 100 years.
The piping system shall be designed, fabricated and installed in accordance with
ASME B31.1.
The manufacturer of the pre-insulated pipes must have a minimum of 10 years
experience in the same field of specified application.
Factory trained field technical assistance shall be provided by pre-insulated
manufacturer during installation.
The pre-insulated pipe manufacturer shall be capable to provide the necessary
engineering to perform check calculation on piping net work stress analysis and to
advise the most appropriate support detail suitable to the insulation jacket.
The insulation and jackets shall be in accordance with EN253.

B.

Inner Carrier Pipe: refer to clause no. 2.4 PIPE AND TUBING

C.

Factory Applied Insulation:


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

For pipe sizes DN 75 and larger, the insulation process shall be applied by spraying
polyurethane foam directly on to the pipe and then extruding the HDPE jacket
directly above the top of foam.
For sizes DN 65 and smaller the polyurethane foam shall be directly injected under
pressure in the GRP gap between service pipe and insulation GRP jacket.
The insulation material shall be closed cell rigid polyurethane in accordance to
ASTM C1029, Type 3 (spray applied rigid cellular P.U insulation).
The PU density shall be minimum 50 Kg/m3 and to be tested during manufacturing
as per ASTM D1622.
The thermal conductivity shall be maximum 0.023 W/MC and tested to ASTM
C518.
The insulation thickness shall be minimum 50 mms for sizes up to DN 300 and shall
be 75 mms for pipe sizes DN 350 and larger.
All pre-insulated pipes shall be delivered from factory with water tight end seal at
each end.
The fittings shall be insulated in the factory with molded seamless HDPE jacket for
elbows and with butt fusion welded HDPE jackets for tees.
The HDPE jacket shall have a minimum thickness of 4 mms for sizes up to 300 mm
and 6 mm for sizes up to 600 mm and 10 mm for all larger sizes.
The HDPE jacket shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3 350 with a minimum
density of 58.7 Kg/m3.
The manufacturer must perform shear tests to verify that the foam is firmly bonded to
service pipe jacket. The shear bond required strength shall conform to EN253.

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D.

Leak Detection System:


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

The pre-insulated pipes manufacturer shall provide an integrated complete cable- type
leak detection and location system consisting of a micro processor based monitoring
unit, sensing cables and all auxiliary equipment necessary for continuous monitoring
of leaks in the entire pipe run of pre-insulated pipes.
The leak detection contractor shall have minimum 10 years experience in supplying
these systems to pre-insulated pipes.
The system shall be complete with alarm up on detecting leak and the type of
condition shall be identified and location clearly displayed on system monitors.
The leak detection system shall be easily interfaced with project SCADA system.
The leak detection and location system shall utilize the time domain refloctometry
(TDR) technology for detecting and locating leaks.

E.

Approved Manufacturers of Pre-Insulated Pipes and Leak Detection System: Perma Pipes,
Logsor, or equal and approved.

F.

Field Applied Insulation:


1.

2.
3.

G.

Insulation for valves, fittings, field casing closures, as required, and other piping
system accessories shall be cellular glass conforming to ASTM C552, calcium
silicate conforming to ASTM C533 or polyurethane matching the pipe insulation.
Insulation shall be premolded, precut or job fabricated to fit and shall be removable
and reusable. Thickness shall match adjacent piping.
Metal jackets shall be provided for all pipe insulation in manholes. Insulation bands
shall be 19 mm wide 0.13 mm stainless steel.
Buried fittings and accessories shall be factory fabricated and may have field foamed
polyurethane insulation to match adjacent piping and shall be protected with a
covering matching the pipe casing. Shrink sleeves shall be provided over casing
connection joints.

End Seals:
1.

General: Each pre-insulated section of piping shall have a complete sealing of the
insulation to provide permanent water and vapor seal at each end of the pre-insulated
section of piping. Pre-insulated sections of piping modified in the field shall be
provided with an end seal which is equivalent to the end seals furnished with the preinsulated section of piping. Provide complete sealing of the insulation at each end of
each pre-insulated conduit section by one of the following methods:
a.

b.

c.

d.

Carrying the outer casing over tapered pipe insulation ends and extending it to
the carrier pipe. Provide sufficient surface bonding area between the casing and
the carrier pipe to ensure a permanent water and vapor resistant seal.
Using specially designed prefabricated caps made of the same material and not
less than the same thickness as the casing. Provide sufficient surface bonding
area between the cap, and both the casing and carrier pipe, to ensure permanent
water and vapor resistant seal.
Using rubber ring gaskets designed and dimensioned to fit in the annular space
between the casing and carrier pipe in such a manner as to ensure a permanent
water and vapor resistant seal.
Using shrink sleeves that shall be either heat shrinkable high temperature
rubber or polyethylene material that can be bound to the carrier pipes and
casing to ensure a permanent water and vapor resistant seal.

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2.

Factory casing and end seal testing and certification:


a.

H.

Joints:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

2.5
A.

Testing and certification procedures by an independent testing laboratory shall


demonstrate that casings and end seals are capable of resisting penetration of
water into the casing and insulation at 60 kPa of head pressure, measured
above the highest point of the test sample, subjected over the entire surface of
an 2.5 m test sample of prefabricated pipe for not less than 48 hours. Test shall
use 24 degrees C water for chilled water service, while the sample is either
buried or encased in dry bedding sand with a minimum of 305 mm of sand all
around sample. The carrier pipe size in the test section shall be 75 mm in
diameter and shall be restrained during the test period. The insulation thickness
shall not exceed the maximum thickness provided for the piping in the project.

Welded joints: Welded joints between sections of pipe and between pipe and fittings
shall be provided where specified or indicated. Branch connections shall be made
with either welding tees or forged branch outlet fittings attached to the main and
reinforced against external strains.
Flanged joints: Flanged joints shall be provided with gaskets and made perfectly
square and tight. Full-faced gaskets shall be used with cast-iron flanges and all
gaskets shall be as thin as the finish of the flange face permits. Gaskets shall be 5 mm
(3/16-inch) thick for 25 through 300 mm (1 through 12 inch) flanges and 6 mm
(1/4-inch) thick for flanges 350 mm (14 inches) and larger.
Threaded joints: Joints shall be made tight with polytetrafluoroethylene tape applied
to the male threads only. Not more than three threads shall show after the joint is
made up.
Brazed and soldered joints: Brazed and soldered joints for copper pipe and fittings
shall conform to CDA A 4015. Silver solder or brazing alloys, ASTM B32, melting
above 593 degrees C (1100 degrees F) shall be utilized.
Mechanical joints: Sleeve and grooved pipe couplings shall be installed and protected
against corrosion as recommended by the coupling manufacturer. Joints between
nonmetallic and metallic carrier pipe shall be designed and furnished by the piping
system manufacturer. The transition pieces shall be factory fabricated and shall be
designed so that no field chemical welding of the carrier pipe will be required.
Transitional joint connections to manhole steel piping shall be made inside the
manhole except for prefabricated, pre-piped manholes where joints shall be outside
the manhole wall.
Insulating joints and dielectric fittings: Shall be installed where shown.
Nonmetallic pipe joints: Nonmetallic pipe joints shall be installed in accordance with
the written instructions of the manufacturer.

FITTINGS FOR STEEL PIPE


General
1.
2.
3.

The pipes fittings shall be to ASTM A234 WPB, ASTM A105 or ASTM A53 Grade
B, suitable for butt welding, seamless or ERW and thickness as per matching pipe.
All Butt welded fittings shall be in accordance with ASME B16.9, socket welded
fittings shall be to ASME B16.11.
Mechanical coupled joints are allowed as alternative in mechanical rooms and chiller
house but not in pre-insulated pipes running in culverts or tunnels.

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B.

50 mm and Smaller: Screwed. Mechanical couplings are optional for water piping only.
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
C.

Fitting shall have same wall thickness as pipes.


Pipes 50 mm and smaller shall have threaded ends.
Forged steel, socket welding or threaded: ASME B16.11.
Screwed: 150 pound malleable iron, ASME B16.3. 125 pound cast iron, ASME
B16.4, may be used in lieu of malleable iron. Bushing reduction of a single pipe size,
or use of close nipples, is not acceptable.
Unions: ASME B16.39.
Water hose connection adapter: Brass, pipe thread to 20 mm garden hose thread, with
hose cap nut.

65 mm and Larger: Welded or flanged joints. Mechanical couplings and fittings are optional
for water piping only.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pipe fitting material shall be to ASTM A 234 WPB, ASTM A105 or ASTM A53
Grade B ERW.
Butt welding fittings: ASME B16.9 with same wall thickness as connecting piping.
Elbows shall be long radius type, unless otherwise noted.
Socket welded fittings shall be in accordance with ASME B16.11.
Welding flanges and bolting: ASME B16.5:
a.

Water service: Weld neck or slip-on, plain face, with 6 mm (1/8 inch) thick full
face neoprene gasket suitable for 104 degrees C (220 degrees F).
1)

b.

Contractor's option: Convoluted, cold formed 150 pound steel flanges,


with teflon gaskets, may be used for water service.

Flange bolting: Carbon steel machine bolts or studs and nuts, ASTM A307,
Grade B.

D.

Welded Branch and Tap Connections: Forged steel weldolets, or branchlets and threadolets
may be used for branch connections up to one pipe size smaller than the main. Forged steel
half-couplings, ASME B16.11 may be used for drain, vent and gage connections.

E.

Mechanical Pipe Couplings and Fittings: If used and accepted by The Engineer shall be used
with roll grooved pipe, in water service up to 110 degrees C (230 degrees F).
1.

2.
3.

2.6
A.

Grooved mechanical couplings: Malleable iron, ASTM A47 or ductile iron, ASTM
A536, fabricated in two or more parts, securely held together by two or more
track-head, square, or oval-neck bolts, ASTM A183.
Gaskets: Rubber product recommended by the coupling manufacturer for the
intended service.
Grooved end fittings: Malleable iron, ASTM A47; ductile iron, ASTM A536; or steel,
ASTM A53 or A106, designed to accept grooved mechanical couplings. Tap-in type
branch connections are acceptable.

FITTINGS FOR COPPER TUBING


Solder Joint:
1.

Joints shall be made up in accordance with recommended practices of the materials


applied. Apply 95/5 tin and antimony on all copper piping.

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2.

B.
2.7

Mechanically formed tee connection in water and drain piping: Form mechanically
extracted collars in a continuous operation by drilling pilot hole and drawing out tube
surface to form collar, having a height of not less than three times the thickness of
tube wall. Adjustable collaring device shall insure proper tolerance and complete
uniformity of the joint. Notch and dimple joining branch tube in a single process to
provide free flow where the branch tube penetrates the fitting.

Bronze Flanges and Flanged Fittings: ASME B16.24.


FITTINGS FOR PLASTIC PIPING

A.

Schedule 80, socket type for solvent welding.

B.

Polypropylene drain piping: Flame retardant, drainage pattern.

C.

Chemical feed piping for condenser water treatment: Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC), Schedule 80, ASTM F439.

2.8

DIELECTRIC FITTINGS

A.

Provide where copper tubing and ferrous metal pipe are joined.

B.

50 mm and Smaller: Threaded dielectric union, ASME B16.39.

C.

65 mm and Larger: Flange union with dielectric gasket and bolt sleeves, ASME B16.42.

D.

Temperature Rating, 99 degrees C.

2.9

SCREWED JOINTS

A.

Pipe Thread: ANSI B1.20.

B.

Lubricant or Sealant: Oil and graphite or other compound approved for the intended service.

C.

Grooved Mechanical-Joint Fittings:


ASTM A 536, Grade 65-45-12 ductile iron;
ASTM A 47, Grade 32510 malleable iron; ASTM A 53, Type F, E, or S, Grade B fabricated
steel; or ASTM A 106, Grade B steel fittings with grooves or shoulders designed to accept
grooved end couplings.

D.

Grooved Mechanical-Joint Couplings: Ductile- or malleable-iron housing and synthetic


rubber gasket of central cavity pressure-responsive design; with nuts, bolts, locking pin,
locking toggle, or lugs to secure grooved pipe and fittings.

E.

Flexible Connectors: Stainless-steel bellows with woven, flexible, bronze, wire-reinforcing


protective jacket; 1035 kPa minimum working pressure and 121 deg. C maximum operating
temperature. Connectors shall have flanged or threaded-end connections to match
equipment connected and shall be capable of 20-mm misalignment.

F.

Spherical, Rubber, Flexible Connectors: Fiber-reinforced rubber body with steel flanges
drilled to align with Classes 150 and 300 steel flanges; operating temperatures up to 121
deg. C and pressures up to 1035 kPa.

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G.

Packed, Slip, Expansion Joints: 1035 kPa minimum working pressure, steel pipe fitting
consisting of telescoping body and slip-pipe sections, packing ring, packing, limit rods,
flanged ends, and chrome-plated finish on slip-pipe telescoping section.

H.

Welding Materials: Comply with Section II, Part C, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code for welding materials appropriate for wall thickness and for chemical analysis
of pipe being welded.

I.

Gasket Material: Thickness, material, and type suitable for fluid to be handled; and design
temperatures and pressures.

2.10

VALVES

A.

Gate, globe, check, ball, and butterfly valves are specified in Division 15 Section "Valves."

B.

All valves of the same type shall be products of a single manufacturer. Provide gate and
globe valves with packing that can be replaced with the valve under full working pressure

C.

Refer to Part 3 "Valve Applications" Article for applications of each valve.

D.

General
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
8.

All valves used in 150 psi circulating systems shall be ANSI Class 150. All valves in
300 psi systems shall be Class 300 valves and shall be constructed of all ASTM B-61
composition. All gate, globe and angle valves shall be screw-over-bonnet design.
Metal used in the stems of all bronze gate, globe and angle valves shall conform to
ASTM B371 Alloy 694, ASTM B99 Alloy 651 or other corrosion resistant
equivalents.
All iron body valves shall have the pressure containing parts constructed of ASTM
designated of 126 class B iron. Stem material shall meet ASTM B16 Alloy 360 or
ASTM 371 Alloy 876 silicon bronze or its approved equivalent model by listed
manufacturers.
All cast steel body valves shall have the pressure containing parts constructed of
ASTM designation A-216-GR-WCB carbon steel. Stems shall meet ASTM
designation A-186-F6 chromium stainless steel. Seat ring shall be hard faced carbon
steel or 13^ chromium A-182-F6 stainless. Handwheels shall be A47 grade 35018
malleable iron or ductile iron ASTM A536.
All forged steel body valves shall have the pressure containing parts constructed of
ASTM 105, Grade 2 forged carbon steel. Seat and wedges shall meet ASTM-A-182F6 chromium stainless steel. Seat rings shall be hard faced. Valves shall conform to
ANSI B16-34 pressure-temperature rating.
All gate valves, globe valves, angle valves and shutoff valves shall have malleable
iron hand wheels, except iron body valves DN 65 and larger which may have either
malleable iron or ASTM A-126 Class B, gray iron hand wheels.
Packing for all valves shall be free of asbestos fibers and selected for the pressuretemperature service of the valve. It is incumbent upon the manufacturer to select the
best quality, standard packing for the intended valve service.
Provide stem extensions on all insulated valves.
Valve chain operators shall be of cast iron or malleable iron and designed to provide
positive grip on wheel. Provide chain guide to prevent chain from slipping or
jumping on wheel. Employ rustproof chain complete with closing link of sufficient
length to operate at 6 feet-6 inches above floor level.

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9.
E.

Provide valves suitable for connection to adjoining pipe as specified for pipe joints
above. Use valves that are full size of pipe in which installed.

Gate Valves:
1.

150 Pound Class Valves:


a.
b.

2.

300 Pound Class Valves:


a.

b.
3.

F.

Bolted bonnet with OS&Y (outside screw and yoke) and rising stem design, integral
seats, with pressure temperature rating conforming to ANSI B16-34; NIBCO T-174A approved equal for DN 50 and smaller.

150 Pound Class Valves:


a.
b.

2.

Threaded pipe 2 inches and smaller: NIBCO T235-Y or approved equal, 150pound screwed, inside screw, rising stem, bronze body, union Bonnet.
Welded pipe 2-1/2 inches and larger: NIBCO F-718-B or approved equal, Cast
Iron with Brass Trim.

300 Pound Class Valves:


a.

b.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller: NIBCO T276-AP or approved equal, Class


300 screwed, inside screw rising stem, bronze body, union bonnet, stainless
steel disc.
Welded pipe DN 65 and larger. NIBCO F-768-B or approved equal, Class 250
iron body, flanged, bolted bonnet, Brass Trim.

Soft Seated Butterfly Valves:


1.

200 Pound Soft Seated:


a.
b.
c.
d.

H.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller: NIBCO T-174-A or approved equal,


bronze body, union bonnet, rising stem, solid wedge with integral seats
threaded.
Welded pipe 2-1/2 inches and larger: NIBCO F-667-0 or approved equal, iron
body, OS&Y, rising stem, solid wedge, flanged.

Globe Valves:
1.

G.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller: NIBCO T-134 or approved equal, bronze


body, union bonnet, rising stem, solid wedge disc, threaded.
Welded pipe DN 65 and larger: NIBCO F-617-0 or approved equal, iron body,
flanged, OS&Y (Outside Screw and Yoke), rising stem, solid wedge.

NIBCO LD-2000 or approved equal.


Ductile Iron body with Aluminum Bronze Disc, 400 series stainless steel stem.
Valves DN 150 and smaller shall have lever operators; DN 200 and larger shall
have gear operators.
All butterfly valves shall be suitable for bi-directional dead-end service without
the need for a downstream flange.

High Performance Butterfly Valves:


1.

150 Pound Class Valves:

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a.
b.
c.
2.

I.

300 Pound Class Valves: NIBCO LCS-7822 300 lb or approved equal. ANSI class
raised face, lug body, carbon steel body, stainless steel pin and shaft and disc,
stainless steel seat and PTFE seat ring, gear operated.

Check Valves:
1.

2.

Non-Slam or Silent Check Valve: Spring loaded double disc swing check or
internally guided flat disc lift type check for bubble tight shut-off. Provide where
check valves are shown in chilled water piping. Check valves incorporating a
balancing feature may be used.
150 Pound Class Valves:
a.

b.

J.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller. NIBCO T453-B, bronze body or approved


equal, Class 200, screwed connection, regrinding disc and seat with screw in
cap.
Welded pipe DN 65 and larger. NIBCO F910-B or approved equal. Flanged
style, spring-loaded type. Rate for 150 psig working pressure; Cast Iron body,
Bronze plates and 316 Stainless Steel springs.

Plug Valves:
1.

150 Pound Class Valves:


a.

b.

2.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller: 150-pound screwed, eccentric plug valve,


carbon steel or semi steel body, Buna-N faced plug, lever operated,
nonlubricated, short pattern plug valve.
Welded pipe DN 65 and larger: 150-pound flanged eccentric carbon steel or
semi steel, Hycar or Buna-N faced plug, manually operated, nonlubricated,
short pattern plug.

300 Pound Class Valves:


a.

b.

K.

NIBCO LCS-6822, carbon steel lug body valves or approved equal. ANSI
rated Class 150.
Valves to provide shutoff to 285 psi.
Provide 316 or UNS-S31803 stainless shaft, cast stainless steel disc, stainless
steel seat and PTFE seat ring.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller: Tufline 066, Powerll 3058. 300 psi
working pressure, cast carbon steel body and plug, threaded end valve, bolted
bonnet, nonlubricated or lubricated with lubricant suitable for water 0 degrees
C to 230 degrees C temperature, wrench operated.
Flanged piping DN 65 and larger: cast carbon steel body and plug conforming
to ASTM A216, Gr. WCB. Gear operated, bolted gland. Flanged per ANSI
B16.5. Pipe sizes 4 inches through 12 inches. Non-lubricated or lubricated
with lubricant suitable for water -20 degrees F to 450 degrees F temperature,
100 percent port.

Ball Valves:
1.

Threaded pipe DN 50 and smaller: NIBCO T 585-70-66. For threaded pipe 2-1/2
inches to 3 inches: Crane 9303-S or approved equivalent model by listed
manufacturers.

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a.

b.

2.

Threaded full port two-piece bronze body (ASTM-B584 Alloy 844, ASTM
B61, or ASTM B62 (No brass containing more than 15 percent Zinc will be
acceptable).
Stainless steel ball and stem, blowout proof stem with stem extension made of
non-thermal conducting material and having an adjustable memory stop after
insulation is installed.

Welded pipe DN 65 and larger: NIBCO F-515-CS-66FS or accepted substitute for


150 pound Class; NIBCO F-535-CS-66FS for 300 pound class, split steel body, full
bore, blowout proof stem with, flanged.

L.

Calibrated Balancing Valves, DN 50 and Smaller: Bronze body, ball type, 1035 kPa
working pressure, 107 deg. C maximum operating temperature, and having threaded ends.
Valves shall have calibrated orifice or venturi, connections for portable differential pressure
meter with integral seals, and be equipped with a memory stop to retain set position.

M.

Calibrated Balancing Valves, DN 65 and Larger: Cast-iron or steel body, ball type, 1035
kPa working pressure, 107 deg. C maximum operating temperature, and having flanged or
grooved connections. Valves shall have calibrated orifice or venturi, connections for
portable differential pressure meter with integral seals, and be equipped with a memory stop
to retain set position.

N.

Pressure-Reducing Valves: Diaphragm-operated, bronze or brass body with low inlet


pressure check valve, inlet strainer removable without system shutdown, and noncorrosive
valve seat and stem. Select valve size, capacity, and operating pressure to suit system.
Valve shall be factory set at operating pressure and have capability for field adjustment.

O.

Safety Valves: Diaphragm-operated, bronze or brass body with brass and rubber, wetted,
internal working parts; shall suit system pressure and heat capacity and shall comply with
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV.

P.

Automatic Flow-Control Valves: Gray-iron body, factory set to maintain constant flow with
plus or minus 5 percent over system pressure fluctuations, and equipped with a readout kit
including flow meter, probes, hoses, flow charts, and carrying case. Each valve shall have
an identification tag attached by chain, and be factory marked with the zone identification,
valve number, and flow rate. Valve shall be line size and one of the following designs:
1.
2.

3.

Gray-iron or brass body, designed for 1206 kPa at 93 deg. C with stainless-steel
piston and spring.
Brass or ferrous-metal body, designed for 2068 kPa at 121 deg. C with corrosionresistant, tamperproof, self-cleaning, piston-spring assembly easily removable for
inspection or replacement.
Combination assemblies, including bronze ball valve and brass alloy control valve,
with stainless-steel piston and spring, fitted with pressure and temperature test valves,
and designed for 2067 kPa at 121 deg. C.

Q.

Drain Valves: Valves shall be the gate valve type shall be in accordance with MSS SP-80.
Valve shall be manually operated, 20 mm pipe size and above with a threaded end
connection. Valve shall be provided with a water hose nipple adapter.

R.

Drain Cocks: MSS SP-110, DN20 ball valve, rated for 2760 kPa minimum CWP. Include
2-piece, bronze body with standard port, chrome-plated brass ball, replaceable seats and
seals, blowout-proof stem, and vinyl-covered steel handle.

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1.
2.
2.11

Inlet: Threaded or solder joint.


Outlet: Short-threaded nipple with ASME B1.20.7 garden-hose thread and cap.

WATER FLOW MEASURING DEVICES

A.

Minimum overall accuracy plus or minus three percent over a range of 70 to 110 percent of
design flow. Select devices for not less than 110 percent of design flow rate.

B.

Venturi Type: Bronze, steel, or cast iron with bronze throat, with valved pressure sensing
taps upstream and at the throat.

C.

Wafer Type Circuit Sensor: Cast iron wafer-type flow meter equipped with readout valves to
facilitate the connecting of a differential pressure meter. Each readout valve shall be fitted
with an integral check valve designed to minimize system fluid loss during the monitoring
process.

D.

Self-Averaging Annular Sensor Type: Brass or stainless steel metering tube, shutoff valves
and quick-coupling pressure connections. Metering tube shall be rotatable so all sensing
ports may be pointed down-stream when unit is not in use.

E.

Flow Measurement/Balance Valves: A system comprised of two valves of bronze and


stainless steel metallurgy designed for 1205 kPa pressure at 121 degrees C, with thermal
insulation sleeve.

F.

Measurement and shut-off valve: An on/off ball valve with integral high regain venturi and
dual quick connect valves with integral check valves and color coded safety caps for
pressure/temperature readout.

G.

A butterfly balancing valve as specified herein, with memory stop and quick connect valve
for pressure/temperature readout.

H.

Flow Measuring Device Identification:


1.
2.

Metal tag attached by chain to the device.


Include meter or equipment number, manufacturer's name, meter model, flow rate
factor and design flow rate in l/m (gpm).

I.

Vent and drain hose and two 3000 mm (10 feet) lengths of hose with quick disconnect
connections.

J.

Factory fabricated carrying case with hose compartment and a bound set of capacity curves
showing flow rate versus pressure differential.

K.

Provide one portable meter for each range of differential pressure required for the installed
flow devices.

L.

Permanently Mounted Water Flow Indicating Meters: Minimum 150 mm diameter, or 450
mm long scale, for 120 percent of design flow rate, direct reading in lps with three valve
manifold and two shut-off valves.

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2.12
A.

HYDRONIC SPECIALTIES
Air Vents:
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Manual Air Vent: Bronze body and nonferrous internal parts; 1035 kPa working
pressure; 107 deg. C operating temperature; manually operated with screwdriver or
thumbscrew; with DN 6 discharge connection and DN 15 inlet connection.
Automatic Air Vent: Designed to vent automatically with float principle; bronze
body and nonferrous internal parts; 1035 kPa working pressure; 116 deg. C operating
temperature; with DN 8 discharge connection and DN 15 inlet connection.
Air vents on water coils shall have not less than 3 mm threaded end connections.
Air vents on water mains shall have not less than 20 mm threaded end connections.
Air vents on all other applications shall have not less than 15 mm threaded end
connections.

B.

Expansion Tanks: Welded carbon steel, rated for 1206-kPa working pressure and 121
deg. C maximum operating temperature. Separate air charge from system water to maintain
design expansion capacity by a flexible [diaphragm] [bladder] securely sealed into tank.
Provide sight glass and include drain fitting and taps for pressure gage and air-charging
fitting. Support vertical tanks with steel legs or base; support horizontal tanks with steel
saddles. Factory fabricate and test tank with taps and supports installed and labeled
according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.

C.

Tangential-Type Air Separators: Welded black steel; ASME constructed and labeled for
860 kPa minimum working pressure and 191 deg. C maximum operating temperature;
perforated stainless-steel air collector tube designed to direct released air into expansion
tank; tangential inlet and outlet connections; threaded connections for DN 50 and smaller;
flanged connections for DN 65 and larger; threaded blowdown connection. Provide units in
sizes for full-system flow capacity.

D.

In-Line Air Separators: One-piece cast iron with an integral weir designed to decelerate
system flow to maximize air separation at a working pressure up to 1206 kPa and liquid
temperature up to 149 deg. C.

E.

Convertor: Shell and tube type, U-bend removable tube bundle, steam in shell, water in
tubes, equipped with support cradles.
1.
2.
3.

Maximum tube velocity: 2.3 m/s (7.5 feet per second).


Tube fouling factor: TEMA Standards, but not less than 0.001.
Materials:
a.
b.
c.
d.

4.

F.

Shell: Steel.
Tube sheet and tube supports: Steel or brass.
Tubes: 20 mm OD copper.
Head or bonnet: Cast iron or steel.

Construction: In accordance with ASME Pressure Vessel Code for 861 kPa (125
psig) working pressure for shell and tubes. Provide manufacturer's certified data
report, Form No. U-1.

Air Purgers: Cast-iron body with internal baffles that slow the water velocity to separate the
air from solution and divert it to the vent for quick removal. Maximum working pressure of
1035 kPa and temperature of 121 deg. C.

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KING ABDULLAH BIN ABDULAZIZ PROJECTTHIRD SAUDI EXPANSION OF HOLY HARAM MAKKAH & SURROUNDING AREAS
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G.

Bypass Chemical Feeder: Welded steel construction; 860 kPa working pressure; 19 L
capacity; with fill funnel and inlet, outlet, and drain valves.
1.

Chemicals: Specially formulated, based on analysis of makeup water, to prevent


accumulation of scale and corrosion in piping and connected equipment.

H.

Y-Pattern Strainers: 1035 kPa working pressure; cast-iron body (ASTM A 126, Class B),
flanged ends for DN 65 and larger, threaded connections for DN 50 and smaller, bolted
cover, perforated stainless-steel basket, and bottom drain connection.

I.

Basket Strainers: 1035 kPa working pressure; high-tensile cast-iron body (ASTM A 126,
Class B), flanged-end connections, bolted cover, perforated stainless-steel basket, and
bottom drain connection.

J.

Flexible Connectors: Stainless-steel bellows with woven, flexible, bronze, wire-reinforcing


protective jacket; 1035 kPa minimum working pressure and 121 deg. C maximum operating
temperature. Connectors shall have flanged- or threaded-end connections to match
equipment connected and shall be capable of 20 mm misalignment.

K.

Spherical, Rubber, Flexible Connectors: Fiber-reinforced rubber body with steel flanges
drilled to align with Classes 150 and 300 steel flanges; operating temperatures up to 121
deg. C and pressures up to 1035 kPa.

L.

Pressure Reducing Valve (Water): Diaphragm or bellows operated, spring loaded type, with
minimum adjustable range of 28 kPa (4 psig) above and below set point. Bronze, brass or
iron body and bronze, brass or stainless steel trim, rated 861 kPa (125 psig) working
pressure or to suit the system pressure at 107 degrees C (225 degrees F).

2.13

EXPANSION JOINTS

A.

Factory built devices, inserted in the pipe lines, designed to absorb axial cyclical pipe
movement which results from thermal expansion and contraction. This includes factory-built
or field-fabricated guides located along the pipe lines to restrain lateral pipe motion and
direct the axial pipe movement into the expansion joints.

B.

Manufacturing Quality Assurance: Conform to Expansion Joints Manufacturers Association


Standards.

C.

Bellows - Internally Pressurized Type:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

D.

Multiple corrugations of Type 304 or Type A240-321 stainless steel.


Internal stainless steel sleeve entire length of bellows.
External cast iron equalizing rings for services exceeding 340 kPa (50 psig).
Welded ends.
Design shall conform to standards of EJMA and ASME B31.1.
External tie rods designed to withstand pressure thrust force upon anchor failure if
one or both anchors for the joint are at change in direction of pipeline.
Integral external cover.

Bellows - Externally Pressurized Type:


1.
2.
3.

Multiple corrugations of Type 304 stainless steel.


Internal and external guide integral with joint.
Design for external pressurization of bellows to eliminate squirm.

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4.
5.
6.
7.
E.

Welded ends.
Conform to the standards of EJMA and ASME B31.1.
Threaded connection at bottom, 25 mm (one inch) minimum, for drain or drip point.
Integral external cover and internal sleeve.

Expansion Compensators:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Corrugated bellows, externally pressurized, stainless steel or bronze.


Internal guides and anti-torque devices.
Threaded ends.
External shroud.
Conform to standards of EJMA.

F.

Expansion Joint Identification: Provide stamped brass or stainless steel nameplate on each
expansion joint listing the manufacturer, the allowable movement, flow direction, design
pressure and temperature, date of manufacture, and identifying the expansion joint by the
identification number on the contract drawings.

G.

Guides: Provide factory-built guides along the pipe line to permit axial movement only and
to restrain lateral and angular movement. Guides must be designed to withstand a minimum
of 15 percent of the axial force which will be imposed on the expansion joints and anchors.
Field-built guides may be used if detailed on the contract drawings.

2.14

GAGES, PRESSURE AND COMPOUND

A.

ASME B40.100, Accuracy Grade 1A, (pressure, vacuum, or compound for air, oil or water),
initial mid-scale accuracy 1 percent of scale (Qualify grade), metal or phenolic case, 115
mm (4-1/2 inches) in diameter, 6 mm (1/4 inch) NPT bottom connection, white dial with
black graduations and pointer, clear glass or acrylic plastic window, suitable for board
mounting. Provide red "set hand" to indicate normal working pressure.

B.

Provide brass lever handle union cock. Provide brass/bronze pressure snubber for gages in
water service.

C.

Range of Gages: Provide range equal to at least 130 percent of normal operating range.
1.

2.15

For condenser water suction (compound): Minus 100 kPa (30 inches Hg) to plus 700
kPa (100 psig).

PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE TEST PROVISIONS

A.

Pete's Plug: 6 mm (1/4 inch) MPT by 75 mm (3 inches) long, brass body and cap, with
retained safety cap, nordel self-closing valve cores, permanently installed in piping where
shown, or in lieu of pressure gage test connections shown on the drawings.

B.

Provide one each of the following test items to the Resident Engineer:
1.
2.
3.

6 mm (1/4 inch) FPT by 3 mm (1/8 inch) diameter stainless steel pressure gage
adapter probe for extra long test plug. PETE'S 500 XL is an example.
90 mm (3-1/2 inch) diameter, one percent accuracy, compound gage, , 100 kPa
(30 inches) Hg to 700 kPa (100 psig) range.
0 - 104 degrees C (220 degrees F) pocket thermometer one-half degree accuracy, 25
mm (one inch) dial, 125 mm (5 inch) long stainless steel stem, plastic case.

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KING ABDULLAH BIN ABDULAZIZ PROJECTTHIRD SAUDI EXPANSION OF HOLY HARAM MAKKAH & SURROUNDING AREAS
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2.16

THERMOMETERS

A.

Mercury or organic liquid filled type, red or blue column, clear plastic window, with 150
mm (6 inch) brass stem, straight, fixed or adjustable angle as required for each in reading.

B.

Case: Chrome plated brass or aluminum with enamel finish.

C.

Scale: Not less than 225 mm (9 inches), range as described below, two degree graduations.

D.

Separable Socket (Well): Brass, extension neck type to clear pipe insulation.

E.

Scale ranges may be slightly greater than shown to meet manufacturer's standard. Required
ranges in degrees C (F):
1.

Chilled Water 0 to 38 degrees C (32-100 degrees F)

PART 3 - EXECUTION
3.1

PIPING APPLICATIONS
A.

Hot and Chilled Water, DN 50 and Smaller: Schedule 40 steel pipe with threaded joints
and malleable iron threaded fittings.
1.

B.

Hot and Chilled Water, DN 65 and Larger: Schedule 40 steel pipe with welded and
flanged joints.
1.

C.
3.2
A.

Contractor Option: Use of grooved mechanical-joint couplings.

Contractor Option: Use of grooved mechanical-joint couplings

Condensate Drain Lines: Galvanized steel.


VALVE APPLICATIONS
General-Duty Valve Applications: Unless otherwise indicated, use the following valve
types:
1.
2.

Shutoff Duty: Gate, ball, and butterfly valves.


Throttling Duty: Globe and ball valves.

B.

Install shutoff duty valves at each branch connection to supply mains, at supply connection
to each piece of equipment, unless only one piece of equipment is connected in the branch
line. Install throttling duty valves at each branch connection to return mains, at return
connections to each piece of equipment, and elsewhere as indicated.

C.

Install calibrated balancing valves in the return water line of each cooling element and
elsewhere as required to facilitate system balancing.

D.

Install silent type check valves at each pump discharge and elsewhere as required to control
flow direction.

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E.

Install safety valves as required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Install
safety-valve discharge piping, without valves, to floor. Comply with the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, for installation requirements.

F.

Install pressure-reducing valves as required to regulate system pressure.

3.3

PIPING INSTALLATIONS

A.

Refer to Division 15 Section "Basic Mechanical Materials and Methods" for basic piping
installation requirements.

B.

Install groups of pipes parallel to each other, spaced to permit applying insulation and
servicing of valves.

C.

Install drains, consisting of a tee fitting, DN 20 ball valve, and short DN 20 threaded nipple
with cap, at low points in piping system mains and risers, and elsewhere as required for
system drainage.

D.

Install piping at a uniform grade of 0.2 percent upward in direction of flow.

E.

Reduce pipe sizes using eccentric reducer fitting installed with level side up.

F.

Unless otherwise indicated, install branch connections to mains using tee fittings in main
pipe, with the takeoff coming out the bottom of the main pipe. For up-feed risers, install the
takeoff coming out the top of the main pipe.

G.

Install strainers on supply side of each control valve, pressure-reducing valve, solenoid
valve, in-line pump, and elsewhere as indicated. Install DN 20 nipple and ball valve in
blowdown connection of strainers DN 50 and larger. Match size of strainer blowoff
connection for strainers smaller than DN 50.

H.

Anchors shall be provided wherever necessary or indicated to localize expansion or to


prevent undue strain on piping. Anchors shall consist of heavy steel collars with lugs and
bolts for clamping and attaching anchor braces, unless otherwise indicated. Anchor braces
shall be installed in the most effective manner to secure the desired results using turnbuckles
where required. Supports, anchors, or stays shall not be attached where they will injure the
structure or adjacent construction during installation or by the weight of expansion of the
pipeline. Where pipe and conduit penetrations of vapor barrier sealed surfaces occur, these
items shall be anchored immediately adjacent to each penetrated surface, to provide
essentially zero movement within penetration seal. Detailed drawings of pipe anchors shall
be submitted for approval before installation.

3.4
A.

INSTALLATION OF PREINSULATED CHILLED WATER PIPING


Handling and Storage: Handle and store conduits, pipes, and all accessories to ensure
complete installation in a sound undamaged condition. Unloading, tacking, moving, and
storing of materials shall be in strict accordance with the manufacturer's requirements. Take
special care to ensure that materials which have exceeded their specified shelf life are not
used in the installation of the system. Before installation all materials shall be inspected for
defects. Materials found to be defective before or after installation shall be repaired or
replaced with sound material, with no additional expense to the Government.

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B.

Pre-insulated pipes shall be only stored under sheds and shall not be subjected to any direct
sunlight.

C.

Installation of Piping Systems:


1.

2.
3.
D.

Valve Boxes:
1.
2.
3.
4.

E.

Piping system furnished shall be installed in accordance with the piping system
manufacturer's instructions. Piping shall be installed without springing or forcing
other than what has been calculated for thermal expansion and contraction. Pipe ends
shall have burrs removed by reaming and shall be installed to permit free expansion
and contraction without damage to joints or hangers. Nonmetallic pipe cut in the
field shall be machined to fit couplings or joints and shall be coated or treated to
match standard factory coated ends. Copper tubing shall not be installed in the same
trench with ferrous piping materials. When nonferrous metallic pipe (e.g., copper
tubing) crosses any ferrous piping material, a minimum vertical separation of 300 mm
shall be maintained between pipes. Connections between different types of pipe and
accessories shall be made with transition fittings approved by the manufacturer of the
piping system.
Pitching of horizontal piping: Horizontal piping shall be pitched at a grade not less
than 25 mm in 12 m toward the drain points unless otherwise indicated.
Install vacuum and air relief valves, as required, for filling and draining of the system.

Set cover flush with finished grade.


Protect boxes located in roadway against movement by a concrete slab at least 900
mm square by 150 mm deep.
Set other valve boxes with a concrete slab 450 mm by 450 mm by 150 mm deep and
set flush with grade.
All exposed portions of valve boxes shall be painted "Traffic Yellow."

Pipe Sleeves:
1.
2.
3.

Pipe shall be continuous through sleeves. Set in place before concrete is poured.
Seal between sleeve and core opening with modular mechanical type link seal.
Provide where water lines pass through retaining walls and foundation walls.

F.

Cutting of Prefabricated Conduit Sections: Prefabricated conduit sections shall be cut in


strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and standards. The cut section
shall be treated as required to result in the cut section being identical in every respect to a
standard conduit section produced at the factory.

G.

Field Casing Closures: Field insulation and encasement of joints shall be accomplished after
the visual and pressure tests specified are completed. Field insulation and encasement shall
be in accordance with the manufacturer's written instructions. Thickness dimensions of the
insulation and casing materials shall not be less than those of the adjoining prefabricated
section. Insulating material may be foamed in place polyurethane or premolded
polyurethane foam sections. Care should be taken to ensure that field closures are made
under conditions of temperature and cleanliness required to produce a sound continuous
vapor barrier. A standard polyethylene heat shrink sleeve shall be installed over the casing
and shall have a 150 mm overlap at each end.

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H.

Insulation and Encasement of Pipe Accessories: Flanges, couplings, unions, valves, fittings,
and other pipe accessories, unless otherwise shown or approved, shall be insulated with
removable factory premolded, prefabricated or field fabricated insulation. For accessories
buried underground, the casing material and thickness shall be identical to that of the
adjoining casing material and thickness shall be identical to that of the adjoining casing
except that for polyethylene casing larger than 300 mm size, the casing material over fittings
shall be reinforced thermosetting resin (RTRP). For accessories in manholes, the casing
material shall be steel or aluminum sheet applied over the insulation. Where accessories are
designated not to be insulated, the adjoining insulation and jacket shall terminate neatly and
in a manner to provide a complete vapor seal.

I.

Trenching and Backfilling: Trench bottoms for underground prefabricated conduit systems
shall be smooth and free of sharp objects, stones, and debris that could puncture the casing.
Where this is a problem, the trench should be over excavated and stabilized by using sand,
fine dirt, or similar material. Partial backfilling is required immediately after installation of
the pipe. Selected backfill shall be tamped in not more than 150 mm layers under and around
the conduit to a height of not less than 150 mm above the top of the casing. During this
process, joints shall be left exposed for visual inspection during field tests.

J.

Open Ends: Open ends of pipe lines and equipment shall be properly capped or plugged
during installation to keep dirt and other foreign matter out of the system.

K.

Vapor Barrier: Install materials to provide and preserve the integrity of the vapor barrier.

L.

Prefabricated Manhole Tests: Each prefabricated manhole shall be air-tested and steel
manholes spark-tested after installation and before backfill to prove water tightness and
corrosion resistance.
1.

2.

3.5

Air pressure test: Air pressure test procedure shall be at a pressure of 34 kPa.
Manhole shall hold pressure for 2 hours. All seams and penetrations shall be coated
with a soap solution to aid in detecting leaks. All leaks shall be repaired and proved
tight. Protective coating shall be touched up at all repair points.
Holiday detector test: After visual examination and before installation, a holiday
detector test shall be performed on the coated portion of steel manholes. The tests
shall be accomplished with a silicone rubber electric wire brush or a coil probe testing
set connected to an operating bell, buzzer or other audible signal which will sound
when a holiday is detected at 5000 crest voltage, plus or minus 5 percent. The tester
shall be of a type which cannot be adjusted in the field. Calibration by the
manufacturer of the tester shall be required at 6-month intervals, or sooner, whenever
crest voltage is questionable. The manufacturer of the tester shall certify in writing
the date of calibration and crest voltage setting. The battery shall be maintained at a
charge ample to produce the crest voltage during all tests. Voids detected shall be
repaired by using material identical to that of the original coating. The repaired
sections shall be retested to prove that there is no holiday present.

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

A.

Hanger, support, and anchor devices are specified in Division 15 Section "Hangers and
Supports." Comply with requirements below for maximum spacing of supports.

B.

Install the following pipe attachments:


1.

Adjustable steel clevis hangers for individual horizontal piping less than 6 m long.

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2.
3.
4.
5.
C.

Adjustable roller hangers and spring hangers for individual horizontal piping 6 m or
longer.
Pipe Roller: MSS SP-58, Type 44 for multiple horizontal piping 6 m or longer,
supported on a trapeze.
Spring hangers to support pipe clamp system on vertical runs.
On PVC and RTRP (GRE) pipe, install rubber pads or cushions on bearing surfaces
to prevent hanger from scratching pipe.

Install hangers for steel piping with the following maximum spacing and minimum rod
sizes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

DN 20: Maximum span, 2.1 m; minimum rod size, 10 mm.


DN 25: Maximum span, 2.1 m; minimum rod size, 10 mm.
DN 40: Maximum span, 2.7 m; minimum rod size, 10 mm.
DN 50: Maximum span, 3 m; minimum rod size, 10 mm.
DN 65: Maximum span, 3.4 m; minimum rod size, 10 mm.
DN 80: Maximum span, 3.7 m; minimum rod size, 10 mm.
DN 100: Maximum span, 4.3 m; minimum rod size, 13 mm.
DN 150: Maximum span, 5.2 m; minimum rod size, 13 mm.
DN 200: Maximum span, 5.8 m; minimum rod size, 16 mm.
DN 250: Maximum span, 6.1 m; minimum rod size, 19 mm.
DN 300: Maximum span, 7 m; minimum rod size, 22 mm.
DN 350: Maximum span, 7.6 m; minimum rod size, 25 mm.
DN 400: Maximum span, 8.2 m; minimum rod size, 25 mm.
DN 450: Maximum span, 8.5 m; minimum rod size, 32 mm.
DN 500: Maximum span, 9.1 m; minimum rod size, 32 mm.

D.

PVC and RTRP (GRE) Piping Hanger Spacing: Space hangers according to pipe
manufacturer's written instructions for service conditions. Avoid point loading. Space and
install hangers with the fewest practical rigid anchor points.

E.

Support vertical runs at roof, at each floor, and at 3 m intervals between floors.

3.6

PIPE JOINT CONSTRUCTION

A.

Refer to Division 15 Section "Basic Mechanical Materials and Methods" for joint
construction requirements forthreaded, welded, and flanged joints in steel piping.

B.

Mechanical and Heat Fusion Joints: Assemble joints according to fitting manufacturers
written instructions.

3.7

HYDRONIC SPECIALTIES INSTALLATION

A.

Install manual air vents at top of risers and high points in piping, at heat-transfer coils, and
elsewhere as required for system air venting.

B.

Install automatic air vents in mechanical equipment rooms only at high points of system
piping, at heat-transfer coils, and elsewhere as required for system air venting.

C.

Install in-line air separators in pump suction lines. Install piping to compression tank with a
2 percent upward slope toward tank. Install drain valve on units DN 50 and larger.

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D.

Install combination air separator and strainer in pump suction lines. Install piping to
expansion tank with a 2 percent upward slope toward tank. Install blowdown piping with
gate valve; extend to nearest drain.

E.

Install bypass chemical feeders in each hydronic system where indicated, in upright position
with top of funnel not more than 1200 mm above floor. Install feeder in bypass line, off
main, using globe valves on each side of feeder and in the main between bypass
connections. Pipe drain, with ball valve, to nearest equipment drain.

F.

Install expansion tanks above air separator. Install gage glass and cocks on end of tank.
Install tank fitting in tank bottom and charge tank. Use manual vent for initial fill to
establish proper water level in tank.
1.

G.

3.8

Support tank from floor or structure above with sufficient strength to carry weight of
tank, piping connections, and fittings, plus weight of a full tank of water. Do not
overload building components and structural members.

Install expansion tanks on floor. Vent and purge air from hydronic system, and ensure tank
is properly charged with air to suit system design requirements.
TERMINAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTIONS

A.

Size for supply and return piping connections shall be same as for equipment connections.

B.

Install control valves in accessible locations close to connected equipment.

C.

Install bypass piping with globe valve around control valve. If multiple, parallel control
valves are installed, only one bypass is required.

D.

Install ports for pressure and temperature gages at coil inlet connections.

3.9

CHEMICAL TREATMENT

A.

Perform an analysis of supply water to determine the type and quantities of chemical
treatment needed to keep system free of scale, corrosion, and fouling, and to sustain the
water characteristics appropriate to use.

B.

Fill system and perform initial chemical treatment.

3.10
A.

FIELD QUALITY CONTROL


Prepare hydronic piping according to ASME B31.9 and as follows:
1.
2.

3.
4.

Leave joints, including welds, uninsulated and exposed for examination during test.
Provide temporary restraints for expansion joints that cannot sustain reactions due to
test pressure. If temporary restraints are impractical, isolate expansion joints from
testing.
Flush system with clean water. Clean strainers.
Isolate equipment from piping. If a valve is used to isolate equipment, its closure
shall be capable of sealing against test pressure without damage to valve. Install
blinds in flanged joints to isolate equipment.

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5.

B.

Perform the following tests on hydronic piping:


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
3.11

Install safety valve, set at a pressure no more than one-third higher than test pressure,
to protect against damage by expanding liquid or other source of overpressure during
test.

Use ambient temperature water as a testing medium. Another liquid that is safe for
workers and compatible with piping may be used.
While filling system, use vents installed at high points of system to release trapped
air. Use drains installed at low points for complete draining of liquid.
Check expansion tanks to determine that they are not air bound and that system is full
of water.
Subject piping system to hydrostatic test pressure that is not less than 1.5 times the
design pressure. Test pressure shall not exceed maximum pressure for any vessel,
pump, valve, or other component in system under test. Verify that stress due to
pressure at bottom of vertical runs does not exceed either 90 percent of specified
minimum yield strength or 1.7 times "SE" value in Appendix A of ASME B31.9,
"Building Services Piping."
After hydrostatic test pressure has been applied for at least 2 hours, examine piping,
joints, and connections for leakage. Eliminate leaks by tightening, repairing, or
replacing components, and repeat hydrostatic test until there are no leaks.
Prepare written report of testing.

ADJUSTING

A.

Mark calibrated nameplates of pump discharge valves after hydronic system balancing has
been completed, to permanently indicate final balanced position.

B.

Perform these adjustments before operating the system:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

3.12
A.

Open valves to fully open position. Close coil bypass valves.


Check pump for proper direction of rotation.
Set automatic fill valves for required system pressure.
Check air vents at high points of system and determine if all are installed and
operating freely (automatic type), or bleed air completely (manual type).
Set temperature controls so all coils are calling for full flow.
Check operation of automatic bypass valves.
Check and set operating temperatures of boilers, chillers, and cooling towers to
design requirements.
Lubricate motors and bearings.

CLEANING
Flush hydronic piping systems with clean water. Remove and clean or replace strainer
screens. After cleaning and flushing hydronic piping systems, but before balancing, remove
disposable fine-mesh strainers in pump suction diffusers.

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