You are on page 1of 16

INTRODUCTION

Solids suspended in water may consist of inorganic and organic particles or of immiscible
liquids. Inorganic solids such as clay, silt, and other soil constituents are common in surface
water. Organic material such as plant fibers and biological solids (algal cells, bacteria, etc.) are
also common constituents of surface waters. These materials are often natural contaminants
resulting from the erosive action of water flowing over surfaces. Because of the filtering capacity
of the soil, suspended material is seldom a constituent of groundwater.
Other suspended material may result from human use of the water. Domestic wastewater
usually contains large quantities of suspended solids that are mostly organic in nature. Industrial
wastewater may result in a wide variety of suspended impurities of either organic or inorganic
nature. Immiscible liquids such as oils and greases are often constituents of wastewater.
Suspended solids, where such material is likely to be organic and/or biological in nature,
are an important parameter of wastewater. The suspended solids parameter is used to measure the
quality of wastewater influent, to monitor several treatment processes, and to measure the quality
of the effluent. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum suspended solids
standard of 30 mg/L for most treated wastewater discharges.
A well-mixed measured sample is filtered through a weighed standard glass-fiber filter
and the residue retained on the filter is dried to a constant weight at 103C to 105C. The
increase in weight of the filter represents the total suspended solids. If the suspended material
clogs the filter and prolongs filtration, it may be necessary to increase the diameter of the filter or
decrease the sample volume.
OBJECTIVE
To provide and strengthen knowledge, skill, and understanding in solid determination and enable
to relate theories taught to the practices in laboratory

THEORY
Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or waste water. Solids may affect water or
effluent quality adversely in a number of ways. Waters with high dissolved solids generally are
of inferior palatability and may induce a favorable physiological reaction in the transient
consumer. Solids analyses are important in the control of biological and physical wastewater
treatment process and for assessing compliance with regulatory agency wastewater effluent
limitations. Generally, total solids is the term applied to the material residue left in the dishes
after evaporation of a sample at 103C to 105C. Total solids include total suspended solids,
and total dissolved solids. Total suspended solid is the portion of total solids retained by filter,
and total dissolved solids is the portion of solids that passes through a filter of 2.0 m (or
smaller) nominal pore size under specified conditions. Fixed solids is refer to the temperature
(500C 50C for 15 minutes). The weight loss on ignition is called volatile solids.
Determination of fixed and volatile solids does not distinguish precisely between inorganic and
organic matter because it includes losses due to decomposition or volatilization of some mineral
salts. settleable solids is the term applied to the material setting of of suspension within a
defined period. It may include floating material, depending on the technique.

DIAGRAM

Settle able
solids

Inhofe
cone

Samples

Microwave
(at 103 c105c)

Fiber
glass filter
( < 2.0
m)

Microwave (at
103 c- 105c)

Microwave (at
180 c- 2c)

Dissolved solids
(DS)

Suspended solids
(ss)

Muffle furnace
( at 500 c -50 c)

Volatile suspended
solids (VSS)

Total
solids
(TS)

Muffle furnace ( at
500 c -50 c)

Fixed suspended
solids (FSS)

Total Volatile solids (TVS) =


VSS + VDS

Total solids (TS)

Volatile dissolved
solids (VDS)

Fixed dissolved
solids (FDS)

Total Fixed solids (TFS) =


FSS + FDS

EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS


Sets of evaporating dishes: dishes of 100 ml
capacity made of porcelain, platinum or high
silica glass and apparatus.

Muffle furnace for operating at 500 0C + 50 0C

Steam bath
Desicator

Dyring oven

Analytical balance

Magnetic stirrer
Graduated cylinder

Wid-bore pipet

Low-form beaker

PROCEDURE

A. Total Solid Test


i.

Weight of empty evaporation dish is taken.

ii.

The sample is poured into the dish

iii.

The sample on evaporating dish is weighted

iv.

The sample is placed in the incubator for drying process at 180C for 30
minutes.

v.

After 30 minutes the sample to remove from incubator and place in the
desicator to cool up for 10 minutes.

vi.

The sample is weight.

vii.

The sample is put in the furnace for drying process at 300C

viii.

After 15 minutes, sample size is removed, the sample place in the desicator
again for 10 minutes and after that the weight is taken.

B. Total Solid Suspended Solid Test


i.

Put the filter pad in defecator. The purpose is to drying or inquiring, cooling,
desiccating and weighing until the weight of the filter pad change less than
4% or 0.5 mg from the previous weight.

ii.

After remove from the desiccators, each filter is weighed and the weight is
logged on the beach sheet in the appropriated section.

iii.

Use tweeters to put the filter pad at the top of the vacuum (stream both).

iv.

Put the filter pad at the aluminum pad.

v.

Weight the filter pad and the aluminum pad

vi.

Put the sample at the steel tray. Leave the filter pad for a while

vii.

Weight again the filter pad and aluminum pad again.

viii.

Put the filter pad and aluminum in the furnace for 15 minute.

ix.

Remove the filter pad and aluminum and weight again to record data.

C. Total Dissolved Solid Test.


i.

Measure the volume of the sample water. Use 5ml for each sample water in the
evaporation dishes.

ii.

Weight the sample water record.

iii.

Put the sample water and evaporating dished in the oven for 30 minutes at 180C
and cool the sample water.

iv.

Remove from desiccators, each sample water and the evaporating dishes is get the
weight.

v.

Put the sample water and evaporating dishes in the furnace for 15 minutes at
300C.

vi.

Remove the sample water and the evaporating dishes from furnace. Put it in the
dictator for 10 minutes to balance the temperature and weight.

RESULT AND CALCULATION

Sample A

Sample B

10

Volume of sample (ml)

Weight of evaporating dish (g)

21.39

20.2

Weight of evaporating dish + sample

27.56

30.2

Weight of sample (g)


= (3 2)

6.17

Weight of evaporating dish + sample


after drying process at 103oC - 105oC

22.86

Weight of solid (g)


= (5 2)

1.47

7
8

Weight of evaporating dish ( g ) +


solid after drying process at 103c105c
Weight of volatile solid ( g )
(5 7)

21.9

1.7

21.32

20.2

1.54

1.7

Total Solid (TS) (mg/L)


= [(5 2)g x 1000] / 5 mL

294.0

10

Percentage of solid in sample (%)


= (6 / 4 ) x 100

23.8

11 Total volatile solid ( VS ) ( mg/L )


12 Percentage of volatile solid ( % )
1. TOTAL SOLID

10

308 x 103
25

340.0

17
170 x 103
17

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2.

Volume of Sample (ml)


Weight of filter paper (g)
Weight of filter paper + solid after
drying at 103oC - 105oC or at 180oC
Weight of solid (g)
Weight of filter + solid after drying
at 500oC 50oC (g)
Weight of volatile solid (g)
Total Suspended Solid (SS) (mg/L)
Percentage of Volatile Suspended
Solid (VSS) %
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID

3. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID

Sample A
5
0.0922
21.40
27.83
21.39
0.01

Sample B
10
0.0922
22.81
26.69
22.80
0.01

Sample A

Sample B

10

Weight of evaporating dish (g)

22.65

21.2

Weight of evaporating dish +


sample (g)

27.21

23.5

Weight of sample (g)


= (3 2)

4.56

2.3

Weight of evaporating dish


+
sample after drying at 180oC (g)

22.76

22.23

Weight of Solid (g)


= (5 2)

0.11

0.03

Total Dissolve Solid (TDS) (mg/L)


= [(5 2) x 1000] / 5

4.552

Weight of evaporating dish + solid


after drying at 500oC 50oC (g)

22.70

21.23

Weight of dissolved solid (g)


= (8 2)

0.05

0.03

0.5

0.3

2.27

Volume of sample (ml)

Total dissolved Solid (SS) (mg/L)

10 = [(8 2) x 1000] / 100

11

Percentage of Volatile dissolved


Solid (VSS) %
= (10 / 7) x 100

CALCULATION FOR TOTAL SOLID


1) weight of sample
Sample A :

= (3) (2)

= 27.56 21.39
= 6.17g
2) Weight of dissolved solid
Sample A :

= (5) (2)
= 22.86 21.39
= 1.47g

3) Weight of volatile solid


Sample A :

= (5) (7)
= 22.86 21.32
= 1.54 g

4) Total solid
Sample A :

=
=
=
=

(6)
103 103
Volume of sample
Weight of solid x 103 103
Volume of sample
(1.47x 103 x 103 ) / 5 ml
294.0 mg/L

5) Percentage of solid in sample


Sample A :

= [(6) / weight of sample ] x 100%


= [ (1.47) / 6.17] x 100%
= 23.8%

6) Total volatile solid


Sample A :

= [ (8) / volume of sample] x 103 x 103


= [ (1.7906) / 5 ] x 103 x 103
= 358.12 x 103 mg/L

7) Percentage of volatile solid


Sample A :

= [(8) / weight of sample] x 100%


= [(1.54) / 6.17] x 100 %
= 25 %

CALCULATION FOR TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID


1) Weight of Filter Paper

Sample A :
Evaporating Dish + Filter Paper = 18.3669 g
Evaporating Dish
= 18.2739 g
So, weight of filter paper
= 18.3669 18.2739= 0.0930 g
2) Weight of filter paper + solid after drying at 103oC - 105oC or at 180oC
Sample A:
Weight of Evaporating Dish
= 18.2739 g
Weight of Evaporating Dish + Filter Paper + Solid after drying = 30.1388 g
So, Weight of filter paper + solid after drying at at 180oC
= 30.1388 18.2739
= 11.8649g
3) Weight of Solid
Sample A:
Weight of Evaporating Dish
= 18.2739 g
Weight of Evaporating Dish + Filter Paper + Solid = 30.1388 g
Weight of Filter Paper
= 0.0930 g
So, Weight of Solid = 30.1388 18.2739 0.0930 = 11.7719 g
4) Weight of filter + solid after drying at 500oC 50oC (g)
Sample A:
Weight of Evaporating Dish
= 18.2739 g
Weight of Evaporating Dish + Filter Paper + Solid after drying = 18.3605 g
So, Weight of filter + solid after drying at 500oC 50oC (g)
= 18.3605 18.2739
= 0.0866 g
5) Weight of volatile solid (g)
[(Weight of residue + dish or filter before ignition) (Weight of residue + dish or filter after
ignition)] x 1000 / 20
Sample A:
Weight of residue + dish or filter before ignition
Weight of residue + dish or filter after ignition
So, Weight of volatile solid = 11.8649 0.0866

= 11.8649 g
= 0.0866 g
= 0.01178mg x 1000 / 5

= 2.3560 g
6) Total Suspended Solid (SS)
[(Weight of filter + dried residue) (Weight filter)] x 1000 / 5
Sample A:
Weight of filter + dried residue = 11.8649 g
Weight filter
= 0.0930 g
So, Total Suspended Solid
= 11.8649 0.0930 = 11.7719g x 1000 /5
= 2.3544 mg/L
7) Percentage of Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS) %
Sample A:
Weight of volatile solid x 100 = 2.356 x 100 = 235.6

DISCUSSION
1. Distinguish between suspended solid and dissolve solid.

Total suspended solids are retained on a filter and weighed while total dissolved solids
are solids dissolved in the solution that passes through the filter.
A suspended solid refers to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a
colloid or due to the motion of the water. It is used as one indicator of water quality.
The dissolved is a very small pieces of organic and inorganic material contained in water.
Excessive amounts make water unfit to drink or limit its use in industrial processes.

2. Suggest some possible causes of high levels of total suspended solids

The possible causes of high levels of total suspended solids in could be:
a) Domestic Wastewater has low TSS(around 400mg/L) because this domestic
wastewater is discharged from our household usages: we are not using more solid from
our house.
b) Industrial Wastewater- has high TSS(around few 1000mg/L) because, the clean
is used for various purposes in various industries. Not all industry discharge
with high TSS but some industries like tannery industries, food

water

wastewater

industry

discharge

wastewater weight high TSS. Here the causes of high TSS are animal hair, preservatives and
coloring agent.

3. The suspended solid for a wastewater sample was found to be 175mg/L. If the
following test results were obtained, what size sample was used in the analysis?
Tare mass of glass fibre filter = 1.5413g
Residue on glass fibre filter after drying at 1050C = 1.5538 g

Total Suspended Solid (TSS), mg/L =____(A B) x 106_____


Volume of Sample (mL)

Where :
A : Residue on glass fibre filter after drying at 105oC (g)
B : Tare mass of glass fibre filter (g)
175 mg/L = (1. 5538- 1. 5413) x 106
Volume of sample (mL)
Volume of sample (mL) = (1.5538- 1. 5413) x 106
175 mg/L
= 71.4286 mL

CONCLUSION
From the experiment, we able to characterize a water sample with respect to its
solid content. Total solid in water are due to suspended matter and dissolved matter. These are
determined separately and then added together. The suspended solids are found by filtering the
water through a fine filter. The material retained on the filter is weighed. This gives the dissolved
matter. Total solids include both total suspended solids and total dissolved solids.
The average value of total solid (TS) is 357.24 mg/L, total suspended solid (TSS) is
2.3544 mg/L, total dissolved solid (TDS) is 3.4 mg/L. Interim National River Water Quality
Standard for Malaysia(INWQS) can also be used to determine the quality of water in stream. It
is based on parameter measured then, compared the data with the INQWS.
Total dissolved solids are includes all solids present in a water sample filtered. It
determined by evaporating a known volume of the filtrate sample in a 180 oC oven. Total
suspended solids is includes all solids present in a sample that remain on filter. Determined by
filtering a known volume of sample and placing the filter and filter container in a 180 oC oven to
evaporate the water. Fixed solids are solids that remain after firing a sample in a 300 oC muffle
furnace. It can be performed on total, dissolved, or suspended samples to determine total fixed
solids, fixed dissolved solids, or fixed suspended solids. Volatile solids is solids that removed by
firing a sample in a 300 oC muffle furnace. It can be performed on total, dissolved, or suspended
samples to determine total volatile solids, volatile dissolved solids, or volatile suspended solids.
The result that we have obtained do not have proper standard, it is because we had to use
a temperature of 300 oC for muffle furnace. From this experiment, we can identify that
temperature plays an important role to obtain accurate results.