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You are on page 1of 38

Chapter 2- Electricity

2.1

CHARGE AND

ELECTRIC CURRENT

GCKL 2011

the generator can produced a strong force

of

___________ between the opposite

charges. ___________ will suddenly

accelerate from the finger to the dome of

the generator and causes a spark.

21

Van de Graaf

1.

What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.

A device that ...................... and ........................................

+ +

+

+

+

2.

when your finger is brought close to the

dome of the generator.

(2)

EXPLANATION

belt. This cause the rubber belt to rub against

the roller and hence becomes _______

charged. The charge is then carried by the

moving belt up to the metal _______ where

it is collected. A large amount of _________

charge is built up on the dome.

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

3. When the wire touches the dome, the microammeter needle is deflected. This shows that a

__________ is flowing through the galvanometer.

4.

The electric current is produced by the flow of ____________ from earth through the

galvanometer to the metal dome to neutralize the positive charges on its surface.

5.

The metal dome can be safely touched with the finger as all the positive charges on it have

been ________________.

2The

microammeter

needle is returned

2. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van

de Graaff is connected to the earth via a

microammeter? Explain.

1meter.

This indicates an electric current

..............

discharging metal sphere to the

charged dome.

4. The

When the

discha

rging

metal

sphere

is

broug

ht

near

the

charg

ed

dome,

..........

.......

occurs

.

to

its .....................

.............

position when

the Van de

Graaf is

switched off.

+

+

+

+

+

2An

ele

ctri

c

cur

ren

t

.....

..... + +

+

.....+

...

+

..................

..................

....

2-2

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Electric Current

1. Electric current is defined as the ................................................................................................

2. In symbols, it is given as:

where I = ...............................

Q = ...............................

20

= .................

..............

Coulomb / Volt)

hour)

// Cs-1)

I

t

(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It / t

/ I )

4. Example :

Charge of 1 electron =

..

Charge of 1 proton =

.

5. Total Charge :

23

GCKL

2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

Electric Field

a. An electric field is a ................ in which an ......................... experiences a .........................

b. An electric field can be represented by a number of

c. The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :

(i) electric field lines always extend from a ..............................................

.........................-charged object to infinity, or from .................

(ii) electric field lines never ..............

(iii) electric field lines are ...................

object to a

to a ..................

-charged object,

in a ....................... electric field.

Observation:

(a) The ball will still remain ..........................

This is because the force exert on the ball by the

............................

plate is ..................

to the

plate.

(a)

(b) If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right

to touch

then

be

and

wil

..........................

(b)

(c) When the ping pong ball

..........

...........

........................... the .............................

This process repeats again and again, causes the

ping pong ball ............................ to and fro

continuously between the two plates.

(c)

2-4

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Conclusion

......................................

......................................

Electric field is a ..........................

Like charges

.............................

.............

1.

2.

3.

from ...................

.......................... to

EXERCISE 2.1

1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s.

What is the current in the wire?

2.

every 2 minutes. What is the electric current

in the bulb?

3.

amount of electric charge that passes through

the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

many electrons pass through the wire in one

minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is

1.6 x 10-19 C)

25

Chapter 2- Electricity

for 3 seconds, what is the

2.2

(1)

electric charge

(2)

the resistor?

IDEAS

POTENTIAL

DIFFERENCE

OF

GCKL 2011

(b)

(a)

X

Y

P

pressure at point Q

Gravitational potential

energy at X is ........

the gravitational

than than

the

potential energy at Y.

valve is opened.

This due to the ............... in the pressure of

water

is released.

This due to the ................... in the gravitational

potential energy.

2-6

GCKL

2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

(c) Similarly,

terminal

terminal

potential at B.

Bulb

A

the bulb.

the two terminals.

between

electrical energy is transformed to ......... and .......energy.

The ....................................

between two points in a

circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when

one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the

other point in an electric field.

will be given by:

V=

Work

Quantityofcharge

W

=Q

Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

2-7

EXPERIMENT 1:

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FOR AN OHMIC CONDUCTOR.

(a)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits.

Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?

(b

)

Why do the ammeters show

different readings?

complete the following table:

(a) Inference

Apparatus / materials :

The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference

across it.

(b) Hypothesis

(c) Aim

constantan wire.

(d) Variables

(i) manipulated variable :

(ii) responding variable :

2-8

Physics Module

Form 5

Method

Chapter 2Electricity

GCKL

2011

:

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure.

2. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads

the current, I= 0.2 A.

3. Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire.

Tabulation of

data

Analysis of data

Current,I/A

Volt, V/V

0.2

1.0

0.3

1.5

0.4

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.6

3.0

0.7

3.5

2-9

Physics Module

Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

Discussion

GCKL

2011

(a)

I

......................................................................................................................

(b) What is the relationship between V and I?

.......................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................

2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal

to the gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

......................................................................................................................

Conclusion

Ohms Law

(a)

Ohms law states

the potential difference across the ends of the ohmic conductor,

V

I = constant

2-10

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

(c) The constant is known as

.................................... of the conductor.

(d) The unit of resistance is

of the ability of the conductor to (resist /

allow) the flow of an electric current

through it.

(directly / inversely) proportional to the

resistance, R.

factors affecting the resistance in the table

below.

The cross-sectional

area of the

conductor, A

material of the

conductor

conductor, l

Diagram

Length of the

Factors

211

So

5.

Chapter 2- Electricity

i) Electric charge,

R=

or

Q = ( It / I

/t )

Q/V

EXERCISE 2.2

1. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and

heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences

across the ends of the wire.

In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed

through it and 25 J of electrical energy is

converted to light and heat energy. What is the

potential difference across the bulb?

done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the

motor?

GCKL 2011

21

2

Chapter 2- Electricity

6. Wh

at

is

the

4. When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V,

val

the current flow is 3 A. How much work done to

ue

transform electrical energy to light and heat energy

of

in 50 s?

the

res

ist

or

in

the

fig

ur

5. Wh

e,

at

if

is

the

dr

the

y

pot

cel

ent

ls

ial

su

diff

pp

ere

ly

nce

2.0

V

acr

an

oss

d

a

the

lig

am

ht

me

bul

ter

b

rea

of

di

ng

resi

is

sta

0.5

nce

A?

5

wh

en

the

cur

ren

t

7. If

tha

the

t

bu

pas

lb

ses

in

thr

the

ou

fig

ur

gh

e

it is

ha

0.5

s a

A?

res

ist

an

Bulb

GCKL 2011

ce

of

6

,

wh

at

is

the

rea

din

g

sho

wn

on

the

am

me

ter,

if

the

dry

cell

s

sup

ply

3

V?

the

res

ist

or

of

3

in

the

fig

ur

e,

cal

cul

ate

the

vo

lta

ge

su

pp

lie

d

by

the

dr

y

cel

ls?

8. If a

cur

ren

t of

0.5

A

flo

ws

thr

ou

gh

213

Chapter 2- Electricity

(1) The current flowing through the resistor.

GCKL 2011

5

12

V

Y

two

con

duc

tors

,X

(2) The

amount of electric

charge that passes through

the resistor in 30 s

to the heat energy in 30 s.

between the potential difference,

V and current, I flowing through

2

I/A

3) I

2) Calculate the resistance

of conductor Y.

and

Y.

1) C

al

c

ul

at

e

th

e

re

si

V/V

X

s

e

c

t

i

o

n

2-14

2.3

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

SERIES CIRCUIT

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

1. Effective Resistance:

R=

2. Current:

3. Potential Difference:

V=

1. Effective Resistance:

R=

2. Current:

3. Potential Difference:

V=

Effective resistance, R

(a)

(b)

2-15

Chapter 2- Electricity

(d)

(c)

(e)

(f)

(h)

(g)

EXERCISE 2.3

1.

respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate

(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

GCKL 2011

2-16

Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL

2011

2.

resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow

through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

3.

A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2. Calculate

the voltage supplied.

4.

have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate

(a) the potential difference across each resistor

2-17

Physics Module Form 5

2.4

GCKL

2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

INTERNAL RESISTANCE

Electromotive force

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,

Voltmeter reading,

potential difference, V <

e.m.f., E

e.m.f.

E,r

e

n

t

fl

o

w

i

n

g

C

u

r

r

R

No current flow

shown in figure (a). A high 2) T

2-18

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

1) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

2) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in

2

1

9

across the dry cell / potential difference across the

bulb / electromotive force).

closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than)

when the switch is open.

potential difference across the bulb, VR and

drop in potential difference due to internal

resistance, Vr.

3.

a)

Why is the potential difference across the

resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?

The potential drops as much as

Since

=

r

Ir

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

EXERCISE 2.4

1

A voltmeter connected directly across a

battery gives a reading of

1.5 V. The

voltmeter reading

drops to 1.35 V

when a bulb is

connected to the

battery and the

ammeter reading is

0.3 A. Find the

internal resistance

of the battery.

resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of

10.0 and the potential difference across it is 2.5

V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit

and the internal resistance, r.

cell with an internal resistance of 0.5.

When the switch is closed, the ammeter

reading is 0.4 A.

Calculate

reading in closed circuit

22

0

Chapter 2- Electricity

4

Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance,

R of the

resistor.

e.m.f.

connected to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I

and the voltmeter reading, V are recorded for

different resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph

of V

GCKL 2011

/

V

a)

2

/

A

2

the cell

2-21

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Hence,

2.5

; where V = IR

Hence,

Electrical Energy

; where I = V

R

points is

the

SI unit :

SI unit

energy,E

3. Hence,

E = VQ

4. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.

5. Hence,

Energy dissipated, E

Power, P =

time, t

dissipated or transferred by a

coulomb of charge, Q that moves

across the two points.

2. Therefore,

Potential difference, V =

Electrical Energy, E

From the definition of

potential difference, V

Electrical energy converted, E

; where Q = It

energy,

22

2

Chapter 2- Electricity

223

Various Electrical Appliances

1.

The amount of electrical energy consumed in

a given period of time can be calculated by

Energy consumed

E

Power rating x

Pt

where

COST OF ENERGY

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Bulb

60

Refrigerator

400

Kettle

1500

Iron

1000

Cost

=

=

kWh

kWh x RM 0.28

= RM

GCKL 2011

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

EXERCISE 2.5

1. How much power dissipated in the bulb?

(1)

R = 10

5V

(b)

R = 10

R = 10

5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate :

(a) the current, I in the circuit

released in R 1 in 10 s.

10 s.

2

2

4

Chapter 2- Electricity

kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is

12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A,

calculate

GCKL 2011

22

5

Chapter 2- Electricity

Part A: Objective Questions

GCKL 2011

4.

5.

A current of

5 A flows

through an

electric

heater when

it

is

connected to

the 240 V

main supply.

How much

heat is

released

after 2

minutes?

1

1

200

J

3

4

2

400

J

14

400

J

144

000

J

much

energ

el

y is

ec

used

tri

by

the

bu

bulb

lb

in

is

one

la

minu

be

te if

le

the

bulb

is

40

conn

V,

ected

60

to a

240V

powe

suppl

y?

2.

Diagram 1

6.

60 J

360 J

600 J

3600 J

internal resistance connected to two

resistor and a battery.

Calculate the power used by the light bulb.

n

n

u

s

m

1

6W

b

f

2

12 W

e

l

r

o

3

20 W

w

o

i

4

50 W

f

n

g

3. When the switch is

e

on, the current that

l

i

flows in an

e

n

electronic

c

advertisemen

t

t

t board is 3.0

r

h

x 10 -5 A.

o

e

What is the

resistors

a

d

v

e

r

t

i

s

e

m

e

n

t

b

o

ard when it

is switched

on for 2

hours ?

A

0.4

0A

0.2

5A

[ Charge of an

electron = 1.6 x 10 -19

C]

A 3.84 x 1011

What is

the value

of

current,

I?

B 1.67 x 1014

C 1.35 x 1018

1

2-26

0

.

4

5

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