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Basic Pharmacy

ARTICLE
PHARMACY
Pharmacy: Pharmacy derived its name from the word
Pharmakon means A Drug. Pharmacy is concerned
with the manufacture, formulation, quality control, and
dispensing of medicaments used to treat disease. The
majority of modern medicaments consist of tablets,
capsules, and injections, all produced under stringent
conditions.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Hospital Pharmacy
Community Pharmacy
Academics
Regulatory Affairs
Documentation, Library Information Services
& Pharmacy
10. Journalism
11. Consultancy
12. Opportunities Abroad
Drug: A chemical substance used in the treatment,
cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to
otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being.
Crude Drug: Natural substances of plant, animal or
mineral origin; which process therapeutic properties &
pharmacological actions & which have undergone no
treatment other than collection & drying.
Official Drugs:

Usually only a tiny part of the product is active drug, the


rest being the excipients which provides an
appropriate vehicle for delivery to the patient.

The art and science of preparing and


dispensing drugs
Place where drugs are dispensed

Pharmacist: Who is educated about pharmacy, prepare


medicine by processing drug, give information to the
public & dispense drugs.
Rx: An instruction to the pharmacist to take the items
listed in order to prepare the medicine. When printing
came, it was rendered as "Rx".
Mission of Pharmacy: The mission of pharmacy is to
serve society as the profession responsible for the
appropriate use of medications, devices, and services to
achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes.
Pharmaceutical Care: The components of pharmacy
practice which entails the direct interaction of the
pharmacist with the patient for the purpose of caring for
that patients drug-related needs.
Careers of the Pharmacist:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Production & Manufacturing


Research & Development
Analysis & Testing
Marketing

Current issue of the pharmacopoeia of a


country
Official used for therapeutic purpose

Un-Official Drugs:

Recognized as a drug in the pharmacopoeia


No current issue of pharmacopoeia of a
country

Non-Official Drugs:

Possesses some medicinal properties


Unofficially used for therapeutic purposes
Never include in the pharmacopoeia

Synthetic Drug: The term synthetic drug strictly refers


to psychoactive substances that are manufactured
through a chemical process in which the essential
psychoactive constituents are not derived from
naturally occurring substances.
Prodrugs: Prodrug is a term used to describe a
compound that requires metabolic biotransformation
after administration to produce the desired
pharmacologically active compound. The conversion of
an inactive prodrug to an active compound occurs
primarily through enzymatic biochemical clevage.
Medicine: Medicine is the art and science of healing. It
encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to
maintain and restore health by the prevention and
treatment of illness.

Basic Pharmacy
Any drug which has a definite dosage form, dose,
therapeutic mode of action and used for the treatment
of disease is called medicine.
Medication: A medication or medicine is a drug taken to
cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or
medical condition, or may be used as preventive
medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any
existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.
Dispensing of Medication: It is often regulated by
governments into 3 categories
i.

ii.

iii.

Over the Counter (OTC) Medications, which are


available in pharmacies and supermarkets without
special restrictions
Behind the Counter (BTC) Medications, which are
dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a
doctor's prescription
Prescription only Medicines (POM), which must
be prescribed by a licensed medical professional,
usually a physician

Systemic Medications: Systemic drug therapy involves


treatment that affects the body as a whole or that acts
specifically on systems that involve the entire body,
such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal,
or nervous systems. Psychiatric disorders also are
treated systemically.
Dosage Form: A dosage form is the physical form in
which a drug is produced and dispensed, such as a
tablet, a capsule, or an injectable.
Loading Dose: Initial dose used to maintain plasmadrug concentration.
Maintenance Dose: Dose used to regulate plasma-drug
concentration.
Standard Dose: Generally usable for all patients.
In vivo: In vivo refers to experimentation using a whole,
living organism as opposed to a partial or dead
organism. Animal testing and clinical trials are two
forms of in vivo research.
In vitro: In vitro refers to the technique of performing a
given procedure in a controlled environment outside of
a living organism.
Pharmacopoeia: An official publication which lists
various drugs & therapeutic agents of current use with
their monographs & specifies tests & standards for them
(e.g. BP, USP, AP, IP).

Hospital Pharmacy: A department of hospital which


deals with procurement, storage, compounding,
dispensing, manufacturing, testing, packaging &
distribution of drugs.
Drug Discovery:

Choose a disease [companys market


strategists]
Choose a drug target [receptor, enzyme or
nucleic acid]
Identify a bioassay [in vitro, in vivo, High
throughput screening, Screening by NMR,
Affinity screening]
Find a lead compound
Isolate and purify the lead compound if
necessary
Determine the structure of the lead
compound if necessary

Drug Design:

Identify Structure Activity Relationships


Identify the pharmacophore
Improve Pharmacodynamics properties
Improve Pharmacokinetic properties

Drug Development:

Patent the drug


Carry out preclinical trials
[Pharmacology studies, drug metabolism,
toxicology, formulation and stability tests etc]
Design a manufacturing process
[Chemical and process development]
Carry out clinical trial
Register and market the drug
Make money

DOP Test: A DOP Test is a test used to assess the


efficiency of gas filters. Originally conceived as a test for
HEPA filters, but can be applied to a range of filter
media.
A liquid aerosol of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) of mean
diameter 0.3 micron is produced and caused to flow
toward the test medium. The concentration of DOP
upsteam of the test medium is measured and compared
with that present downstream, from which the
efficiency can be calculated.

DEFINITIONS OF SELECTED DRUG


CATEGORIES
2

Basic Pharmacy
A
Abradant: An agent that removes an external layer, such
as dental plaque. [Pumice]

Alpha Receptor Antagonist: A drug that reacts


asymptomatically with sympathetic nervous system
alpha receptors and prevents their endogenous
activities, e.g. to induce vasodilation. [Phentolamine]

Absorbent: A drug that takes up other chemicals into its


substance, use to reduce the free availability of toxic
chemicals. [Polycarbophil, gastrointestinal absorbent]

Anabolic Steroid: An androgen analogue with relatively


greater anabolic activity, used to treat catabolic
disorders. [Methandrostenolone]

Acidifier, Systemic: A drug that lowers internal body pH,


useful in restoring normal pH in patients with systemic
alkalosis. [Ammonium Chloride]

Analeptic: A central nervous system stimulant


sometimes used to stimulate respiration during severe
central nervous system depression. [Doxapram]

Acidifier, Urinary: A drug that lower the pH of the renal


filtrate and urine. [Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate]

Analgesic: A drug that suppresses pain perception


without inducing unconsciousness. [Morphine Sulfate,
opioid analgesic; Aspirin, nonopioid analgesic]

Adrenergic: A drug that activates organs innervated by


the sympathetic nervous system; a sympathomimetic
drug. [Epinephrine]
Adrenocorticosteroid, Anti-inflammatory: An adrenal
cortex hormone that regulates organic metabolism and
inhibits inflammatory response; a glucocorticoid.
[Prednisolone]
Adrenocorticosteroid, Salt-regulating: An adrenal
cortex hormone that regulates Na / K balance in the
body; a mineralcorticoid. [Desoxycorticosterone
Acetate]

Androgen: A hormone that stimulates and maintains


male reproductive function and sex characteristics.
[Testosterone]
Anesthetic, General: A drug that eliminates pain
perception by inducing unconsciousness. [Ether,
inhalation anesthetics, Thiopental Sodium, intravenous
anesthetics]
Anesthetic, Local: A drug that eliminates pain
perception in a limited body area by local action on
sensory nervous. [Procaine]

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: A hormone that


stimulates
the
adrenal
cortex
to
produce
glucocorticoids. [Corticotropin]

Anesthetic, Topical: A local anesthetic that is effective


upon application to mucous membranes. [Tetracaine]

Adsorbent: A drug that binds other chemicals onto its


surface, used to reduce the free availability of toxic
chemicals. [Kaolin, gastrointestinal adsorbent]

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] Inhibitors: A


drug that inhibits biotransformation of Angiotensin 1
into vasoconstricting Angiotensin 2, used to treat
hypertension. [Captopril]

Agonist: A drug that reacts with and activates


physiological receptors and induces the associated
biologic response. [Morphine, opioid receptor agonist;
Isoproterenol, Beta adrenergic receptor agonist]
Alcohol-Abuse Deterrent: A drug that alters physiology
so that unpleasant symptoms follow ingestion of
ethanol-containing products. [Disulfiram]
Alkalinizer, Systemic: A drug that raises internal body
pH, useful restoring normal pH in patients with systemic
acidosis. [Sodium Bicarbonate]
Alkylating Agent: An anti-neoplastic drug that attacks
malignant cells by reacting covalently with their DNA.
[Chlorambucil]
Alpha Receptor Agonist: A drug that activates
sympathetic nervous system alpha receptors, e.g. to
induce vasoconstriction. [Norepinephrine]

Anorexic: A drug that suppresses appetite, usually by


elevating mood. [Phentermine]
Antacid: A drug that neutralizes excess gastric acid.
[Aluminum Hydroxyl Gel]
Antagonist: A drug that reacts asymptomatically with
physiological receptors and prevents their endogenous
activation. [Naloxone, Opioid receptor antagonist,
Propranolol, Beta adrenergic receptor antagonist]
Anthelmintics: A drug that eradicates intestinal worm
infestation. [Thiabendazole]
Anti-acne Agent: A drug that combats the lesions of
acne vulgaris. [Tretinoin]
Anti-adrenergic: A drug that inhibits response to
sympathetic nerve impulses and adrenergic drugs; a

Basic Pharmacy
sympatholytic drug. [Phentolamine, alpha adrenergic
antagonist; Propranolol, beta adrenergic antagonist]

Anti-coagulant, Systemic: A drug administered to slow


clotting of circulating blood. [Warfarin]

Anti-amebic: A drug that kills or inhibits protozoan


parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica, causative agent
of amebiasis. [Metronidazole, intestinal anti-amebic;
Chloroquine, extraintestinal anti-amebic]

Anti-coagulant, for Storage of Whole Blood: A non-toxic


agent added to collected blood to prevent clotting.
[Anti-coagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution]

Anti-androgen: A drug that inhibits response to an


androgen hormone.
Anti-anemic: A drug use to treat anemia.
Anti-anginal: A coronary vasodilator useful in preventing
or treating attacks of angina pectoris. [Nitroglycerin]
Anti-arrhythmic: A coronary depressant useful in
suppressing rhythm irregularities of the heart.
[Procainamide]
Anti-arthritic: A drug that reduces the joint
inflammation of arthritis. [Prenisolone, Glucocorticoid;
Indomethacin, NSAID]
Anti-bacterial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic
bacteria. [Penicillin G, systemic antibacterial;
Nitrofurantoin, urinary antibacterial; Bacitracin, topical
antibacterial]
Anti-biotic: A drug originally of microbial origin used to
kill or inhibit bacterial and other infections. [Penicillin,
Tetracycline]
Anti-cancer Drugs: Anti-cancer or anti-neoplastic drugs
are used to treat malignancies, cancerous growths. Drug
therapy may be used alone, or in combination with
other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy.
Cancer chemotherapy strives to cause a lethal cytotoxic
event in the cancer cell that can arrest a tumors
progression.
Anti-cholesterol Agent: A drug that lowers plasma
cholesterol level. [Colestipol]
Anti-cholinergic: A drug that inhibits response to
parasympathetic nerves impulses and cholinergic drugs;
a parasympatholytic drug. [Atropine]
Anti-cholinesterase Antidote: A drug that reactivates
cholinesterase enzyme after its inactivation by
organophosphate poisons. [Pralidoxime]
Anti-coagulant Antagonist: A drug that opposes over
dosage of anti-coagulant drugs. [Phytonadione, supplies
vitamin K to oppose vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants]

Anti-convulsant: An anti-epileptic drug administered


prophylactically to prevent seizures, or a drug that
arrests convulsions by inducing general central nervous
system
depression.
[Phenytoin,
anti-epileptic
prophylactic; Diazepam, central nervous system
depressant anti-convulsant]
Anti-depressant: A centrally acting drug that induces
mood elevation, useful in treating mental depression.
[Amitriptyline]
Anti-diabetic: A drug that supplies insulin or stimulates
secretion of insulin, useful in treating diabetes mellitus.
[Insulin Injection, supplies insulin; Tolbutamide,
stimulates insulin secretion]
Anti-diarrheal: A drug that inhibits intestinal peristalsis,
used to treat diarrhea. [Diphenoxylate]
Anti-diuretic: A drug that promotes renal water
reabsorption, thus reducing urine volume, used to treat
neurogenic diabetes insipidus. [Desmopressin]
Anti-dote, General Purpose: A drug that reduces the
effects of ingested poisons [or drug overdoses] by
absorbing toxic material. [Activated Charcoal]
Anti-dote Specific: A drug that reduces the effects of a
systemic poison [or drug overdoses] by a mechanism
that relates to the particular poison. [Dimercaprol,
specific antidote for arsenic, mercury, and gold
poisoning]
Anti-eczematic: A topical drug that aids in control of
chronic exudative skin lesions. [Coal Tar]
Anti-emetic: A drug that suppress nausea and vomiting.
[Prochlorperazine]
Anti-eneuretic: A drug that aids in control of bedwetting [enuresis]. [Imipramine]
Anti-epileptic: A drug that prevents epileptic seizures
upon prophylactic administration. [Ethosuximide]
Anti-estrogen: A drug that inhibits action of estrogenic
hormones. [Tamoxifen]
Anti-fibrinolytic: A drug that promotes homeostasis by
inhibiting clot dissolution [fibrinolysis]. [Aminocaproic
Acid]

Basic Pharmacy
Anti-filarial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic
filarial worms. [Diethylcarbamazine]
Anti-flatuent: A drug that reduces gastrointestinal gas.
[Simethicone]
Anti-fungal, Systemic: A drug that kills or inhibits
pathogenic fungi. [Griseofulvin]
Anti-fungal, Topical: A drug applied externally to kill or
inhibit pathogenic fungi. [Tolnaftate]
Anti-glaucoma Agent: A drug that lowers intraocular
fluid pressure, used to treat glaucoma. [Methazolamide
reduces fluid formation; Isofluorophate promotes fluid
drainage]
Anti-gonadotropin: A drug that inhibits anterior
pituitary secretion of gonadotropins, used to suppress
ovarian malfunction. [Danazol]
Anti-gout Agent: A drug that reduces tissue deposits of
uric acid in chronic gout or suppresses the intense
inflammatory reaction of acute gout. [Allopurinol for
chronic gout; Indomethacin for acute gout]
Anti-hemophilic: A drug that replaces blood clotting
factors absent in the hereditary disease hemophilia.
[Anti-hemophilic factor]
Anti-herpes Agent: A drug that inhibits replication of
Herpes simplex virus, used to treat genital herpes.
[Acyclovir]
Anti-histaminic: A drug that antagonizes histamine
action at H1 histamine receptors, useful in suppressing
the
histamine-induced
symptoms
of
allergy.
[Chloropheniramine]
Anti-hyperlipidemic: A drug that lowers plasma
cholesterol and lipid levels. [Clofibrate]
Anti-hypertensive: A drug that lowers arterial blood
pressure, especially the elevated diastolic pressure of
hypertension. [Guanethidine]
Anti-hypocalcemic: A drug that elevates plasma Ca
level, useful in treating hypocalcaemia. [Parathyroid
injection]
Anti-hypoglycemic: A drug that elevates plasma glucose
level, useful in treating hypoglycemia. [Glucagon]
Anti-infective, Topical [or Local]: A drug that kills or
inhibits pathogenic microorganisms and is suitable for
sterilizing skin and wounds. [Povidone iodine liquid
soap]

Anti-inflammatory: A drug that inhibits physiologic


response to cell damage [inflammation]. {Prednisolone,
Adrenocorticosteroid; Ibuprofen, non-steroid]
Anti-insomnia Drugs: Anti-insomnia drugs are
medications that help people who have difficulty falling
asleep, staying asleep, awakening early, or who have
disturbed sleep patterns resulting in insufficient sleep.
Anti-leishmanial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic
protozoa of the genus Leishmania. [Hydroxystilbamidine
isethionate]
Anti-leprotic: A drug that kills or inhibits Mycobacterium
leprae, causative agent of leprosy. [Dapsone]
Anti-malarial: A drug that kills or inhibits protozoa of
the genus Plasmodium, causative agents of malaria.
[Chloroquine]
Anti-manic: A drug that suppresses the excitement
phase [mania] of bipolar disorder. [Lithium Carbonate]
Anti-metabolite: A drug that attacks malignant cells or
pathogenic cells by serving as a nonfunctional substitute
for an essential metabolite. [Fluorouracil, anti-neoplastic
anti-metabolite]
Anti-microbial: An antimicrobial is a substance that kills
or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as
bacteria, fungi, or protozoans, as well as destroying
viruses. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes
(microbicidal) or prevent the growth of microbes
(microbistatic).
Main classes of Antimicrobial Drugs:

Anti-biotics
Anti-virals
Anti-fungals
Anti-parasitics

Anti-migraine Agent: A drug that reduces incidence or


severity
of
migraine
vascular
headaches.
[Methylsergide]
Anti-motion Sickness Agent: A drug that suppresses
motion-induced nausea, vomiting, and vertigo.
[Dimenhydrinate]
Anti-muscarinic: An anti-cholinergic drug that inhibits
symptoms mediated by acetylcholine receptors of
visceral organs [muscarinic receptors]. [Atropine]
Anti-nauseant: A drug suppresses nausea and vomiting;
an anti-emetic. [Ondansetron]

Basic Pharmacy
Anti-neoplastic: A drug that attacks malignant
[neoplastic] cells in the body. [Chlorambucil, alkylating
agent]

Anti-septics: Anti-septics are anti-microbial substances


that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the
possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

Anti-parasitic: A drug that eradicates parasitic


arthropods, helminthes, protozoa, etc. [Lindane for
scabies; Thiabendazole for intestinal worms;
Metronidazole for amebic dysentery]

Anti-spasmodic: A drug that inhibits motility of visceral


smooth muscles. [Atropine]

Anti-parkinsonism / Anti-dyskinetic: A drug that


suppresses the neurologic disturbances and symptoms
of parkinsonism. [Levodopa]
Anti-peristaltic: A drug that inhibits intestinal motility;
an anti-diarrheal drug. [Diphenoxylate]
Anti-platelet Agent: A drug that inhibits aggregation of
blood platelets, used to prevent heart attack. [Aspirin]
Anti-protozoal: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic
protozoa. [Metronidazole]
Anti-pruritic: A drug that reduces itching [pruritus].
[Trimeprazine, systemic anti-pruritic; Menthol, topical
anti- pruritic]
Anti-psoriatic: A drug that suppresses the lesions and
symptoms of psoriasis. [Methotrexate, systemic antipsoriatic; Anthralin, topical anti-psoriatic]
Anti-psychotic: A drug that suppresses symptoms of
psychoses of various diagnostic types. [Haloperidol]
Anti-pyretic: A drug that restores normal body
temperature in the presence of fever. O/R, Lowering an
elevated body temperature and relieving pain without
impairing consciousness. [Acetaminophen]
Anti-rachitic: A drug with vitamin D activity, useful in
treating
vitamin
D
deficiency
and
rickets.
[Cholecalciferol]
Anti-rheumatic: An anti-inflammatory drug used to
treat arthritis and rheumatoid disorders. [Indomethacin]
Anti-rickettsial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic
microorganisms
of
the
genus
Rickettsia.
[Chlorampenicol]
Anti-schistosomal: A drug that kills or inhibits
pathogenic flukes of the genus Schistosoma.
[Oxaminiquine]
Anti-scorbutic: A drug with vitamin C activity, useful in
treating vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. [Ascorbic Acid]
Anti-seborrheic: A drug that aids in the control of
seborrheic dermatitis [dandruff]. [Selenium Sulfide]

Anti-thyroid Agent: A drug that reduces thyroid


hormone action, usually by inhibiting hormone
synthesis. [Methimazole]
Anti-treponemal: A drug that kills or inhibits Treponema
pallidum, causative agent of syphilis. [Penicillin]
Anti-trichomonal: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic
protozoa of the genus Trichomonas. [Metronidazole]
Anti-tubercular: A drug that kills or inhibits
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causative agent of
tuberculosis. [Isoniazid]
Anti-tussive: A drug
[Dextromethorpan]

that

suppresses

coughing.

Anti-viral: A drug that kills or inhibits viral infections.


[Idoxuridine, Ophthalmic Anti-viral]
Anti-viral, Prophylactic: A drug useful in preventing
[rather than treating] viral infections. [Amantadine,
prophylactic for influenza]
Anti-xerophthalmic: A drug with vitamin A activity,
useful in treating vitamin A deficiency and
xerophthalmia. [Vitamin A]
Anxiolytic: A drug suppresses symptoms of anxiety.
[Diazepam]
Astringent: A drug used topically to toughen and shrink
tissues. [Aluminum Acetate Solution]
Astringent, Ophthalmic: A mild astringent suitable for
use in the eye. [Zinc Sulfate]
B
Barbiturate: A sedative-hypnotic drug that contains the
barbituric acid moiety in its chemical structure.
[Phenobarbital]
Belladonna Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from
Atropa belladonna and related species, with anticholinergic action. [Atropine]
Benzodiazepine: A sedative-anxiolytic-muscle relaxant
drug that contains the benzodiazepine moiety in its
chemical structure. [Diazepam]

Basic Pharmacy
Beta Receptor Agonist: A drug that activates
sympathetic nervous system beta receptors, e.g. to
induce bronchodilation. [Isoproterenol]

Catecholamine Synthesis Inhibitor: A drug that inhibits


biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters such
as Norepinephrine. [Metyrosine]

Beta Receptor Antagonist: A drug that reacts


asymptomatically with sympathetic nervous system beta
receptors and prevents their endogenous activation, e.g.
to oppose sympathetic stimulation of the heart.
[Propranolol]

Cathartic: A dug that promotes defection, usually


considered stronger in action than a laxative. [Danthron]

- Receptor blockers: Beta blockers are a class of drugs


used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias,
cardio-protection after myocardial infarction (heart
attack), and hypertension. Beta blockers may also be
referred to as beta-adrenergic blocking agents, betaadrenergic antagonists, or beta antagonists.

1 - Adrenergic Receptors are located mainly


in the Heart and in the Kidneys.
2 - Adrenergic Receptors are located mainly
in the Lungs, GIT, Liver, Uterus, Vascular
Smooth Muscle, and Skeletal Muscle.
3 - Adrenergic Receptors are located in Fat
Cells.

Bone Metabolism Regulator: A drug that slows calcium


turnover in bone, used to treat Pagets disease.
[Etidronate]
Bronchodilator: A drug that expands bronchiolar
airways, useful in treating asthma. [Isoproterenol,
adrenergic bronchodilator; Oxytriphylline, smooth
muscle relaxant bronchodilator]
C
Calcium Channel Blocker: An anti-anginal drug that acts
by impairing function of trans-membrane calcium
channels of vascular smooth muscle cells. [Verapamil]

Caustic: A topical drugs that destroys tissue on contact,


useful in removing skin lesions. [Toughened Silver
Nitrate]
Centrally Acting Drug: A drug that produces its
therapeutic effect by action on the central nervous
system, usually designated by type of therapeutic
action. [Sedative, Hypnotic, Anti-convulsant, etc]
Cephalosporin: An anti-microbial drug that contains the
cephalosporin moiety in its chemical structure.
[Cefotaxime]
Chelating Agent: A complexing agent that binds metal
ions into stable ring structures, useful in treating
poisoning. [Edetate Calcium Disodium, chelating agent
for lead]
Cholelitholytic: A drug that promotes dissolution of
gallstones. [Ursodoxycholic acid]
Choleretic: A drug that increases bile secretion by the
liver. [Dehydrocholic acid]
Cholinergic: A drug that activates organs innervated by
the
parasympathetic
nervous
system;
a
parasympathomimetic drug. [Neostigmine, systemic
cholinergic; Pilocarpine, ophthalmic cholinergic]
Chrysotherapeutic: A drug containing gold, used to treat
rheumatoid arthritis. [Auranofin]
Coagulant: see Hemostatic, Systemic.

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A drug that inhibits the


enzyme carbonic anhydrase, the therapeutic effects of
which are diuresis and reduces formation of intra-ocular
fluid. [Acetazolamide]

Contraceptive, Oral: An orally administered drug that


prevents conception. Currently available oral
contraceptives are for use by females. [Norethindrone
Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets]

Cardiac Depressant, Anti-arrhythmic: A drug that


depresses myocardial function, useful in treating cardiac
arrhythmias. [Procainamide]

Contraceptive, Topical: A spermicidal agent used


topically in the vagina to prevent conception.
[Nonoxynol 9]

Cardiac Glycoside: A plant principle derived from


Digitalis purpurea and related species, with cardiotonic
action. [Digoxin]

Cycloplegic: An anti-cholinergic drug used topically in


the eye to induce paralysis of accommodation
[cycloplegia] and dilation of the pupil. [Cyclopentolate]

Cardiotonic: A drug that increases myocardial


contractile force, useful in treating congestive heart
failure. [Digoxin]

Basic Pharmacy
Decongestant, Nasal: An adrenergic drug used orally or
topically to induce vasoconstriction in nasal passages.
[Phenylephrine]

Estrogen: A hormone that stimulants and maintains


female reproductive organs and sex characteristics and
functions in the uterine cycle. [Ethinyl Estradinol]

Demulcent: A bland viscous liquid, usually water-based,


used to coat and soothe damaged or inflamed skin or
mucous membranes.

Expectorant: A drug that increases respiratory tract


secretions, lowers their viscosity, and promotes
removal. [Potassium Iodide]

Dental Caries Prophylactic: A drug applied to the teeth


to reduce the incidence of cavities. [Stannous Fluoride]

Dentin Desensitizer: A drug applied to the teeth to


reduce the sensitivity of exposed sub-enamel dentin.
[Zinc Chloride]
Depigmenting Agent: A drug that inhibits melanin
production in the skin, used to induce general
depigmentation in certain splotchy depigmented
conditions [e.g. Vitiligo]. [Hydroquinone]
Detergent: An emulsifying agent used as a cleanser.
[Hexachlorophene Liquid Soap, anti-infective detergent]
Diagnostic Aid: A drug used to determine the functional
state of a body organ or to determine the presence of
disease. {Peptavlon, gastric secretion indicator;
Fluorescein Sodium, corneal trauma indicators]
Digestive Aid: A drug that promotes digestion, usually
by supplementing a gastrointestinal enzyme.
[Pancreatin]
Disinfectant: An agent that destroys microorganisms on
contact and suitable for sterilizing inanimate objects.
[Formaldehyde Solution]
Diuretic: A drug that promotes renal excretion of
electrolytes and water, useful in treating generalized
edema. [Furosemide, loop diuretic; Hydrochlorothiazide,
thiazide diuretic; Triamterene, potassium-sparing
diuretic]
Dopamine Receptor Agonist: A drug that activates
dopamine receptors, e.g. to inhibit anterior pituitary
secretion of prolactin. [Bromocryptine]
E
Emetic: A drug that induces vomiting, useful in expelling
ingested but unabsorbed poisons. [Ipecac Syrup]
Emollient: A topical drug, especially an oil or fat, used to
soften the skin and make it more pliable. [Cold Cream]
Ergot Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from the fungus
Claviceps purpurea grown on rye or other grains.
[Ergonovine, uterine contractant; Ergotamine]

Fecal Softener: A drug that promotes defecation by


softening the feces. [Docusate]
Fertility Agent: A drug that promotes ovulation in
women of low fertility or spermatogenesis in men of low
fertility. [Clomiphene]
Fibrinolytic proteolytic: An enzyme drug used topically
to hydrolyze exudates of infected and inflammatory
lesions. [Fibrinolysin and Desoxyribonuclease, Bovine]
G
Galactokinetic: A drug used to initiate lactation after
childbirth. [Oxytocin Nasal Spray]
Glucocorticoid: An adrenocortical hormone that
regulates organic metabolism and inhibits inflammatory
response. [Betamethasone]
Gonadotropin: A drug that supplies the gonadstimulating actions of follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]
and luteinizing hormone [LH], used to promote fertility.
[Menotropins contains FSH and LH, Human Chorionic
Gonadotropin has LH-like activity]
Growth Hormone, Human: A drug that duplicates
endogenous growth hormone, used in children to treat
growth failure due to growth hormone lack. [Somatrem]
H
Heavy Metal Antagonist: A drug used as an anti-dote to
poisoning with toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury.
[Dimercaprol]
Hematopoietic: A vitamin that stimulates formation of
blood cells, useful in treating vitamin-deficiency anemia.
[Cyanocobalamin]
Hematinic: A drug that promotes hemoglobin formation
by supplying iron. [Ferrous Sulfate]
Hemorheologic Agent: A drug that improves the flow
properties of blood by
reducing viscosity.
[Pentoxyfylline]

Basic Pharmacy
Hemostatic, Local: A drug applied to a bleeding surface
to promote clotting or to serve as a clot matrix.
[Thrombin, clot promoter, Oxidizer Cellulose, clot
matrix]
Haemostatic, Systemic: A drug that stops bleeding by
inhibiting systemic fibrinolysis. [Aminocaproic Acid]
Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist: A drug used to
combat the histamine-induced symptoms of allergy;
anti-histamine [Chlorpheniramine]
Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonist: A drug that inhibits
histamine-mediated gastric acid secretion, used to treat
peptic and duodenal ulcers. [Cimetidine]

Ion Exchange Resin: A drug that in the gastrointestinal


tract takes up ions present in a toxic amount with
equivalent release of nontoxic ions. [Sodium Polystyrene
Sulfonate takes up potassium ions with release of
sodium ions]
Irritant, Local: A drug that reacts weakly and nonspecifically with biological tissue, used topically to
induce a mild inflammation response. [Camphor]
K
Keratolytic: A topical drug that toughens and protects
skin. [Compound Benzoin Tincture]
L

Hormone: A drug that duplicates action of a physiologic


cell regulator [hormone]. [Insulin, Estradiol, Thyroxine]
Hydantoin: An anti-epileptic drug that contains the
hydantoin moiety in its chemical structure. [Phenytoin]
Hydrolytic, Injectable: An enzyme drug that promotes
the diffusion of other injected drugs through connective
tissues. [Hyaluronidase]
Hyperglycemic: A drug that elevates blood glucose level.
[Glucagon]
Hypnotic: A central nervous system depressant used to
induce sleep. [Flurazepam]

Laxative: A drug that promotes defecation, usually


considered milder in action than a cathartic.
[Methylcellulose, bulk laxative, Mineral oil, lubricant
laxative; Sodium Phosphates Oral Solution, saline
laxative]
Leprostatic: see Anti-leprotic.
Loop Diuretic: A diuretic with renal site of action in the
thick ascending loop of Henle. Loop diuretics inhibit the
Na-K-Cl co-transporter in the thick ascending limb. This
transporter normally reabsorbs about 25% of the
sodium load. [Furosemide]
M

Hypotensive: see Anti-hypertensive.


MAO Inhibitor: see Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor.
I
Immunoglobulin: Anti-body protein derived from blood
serum, used to confer passive immunity to infectious
disease. [Immunizing agent, Passive]
Immunizing Agent, Active: An anti-gen that induces
anti-body
production
against
a
pathogenic
microorganism, used to provide permanent but delayed
protection against infection. [Tetanus Toxoid]
Immunizing Agent, Passive: A drug containing antibodies against a pathogenic microorganism, used to
provide immediate but temporary protection against
infection. [Tetanus Immune Globulin, Immune Globulin]
Immunosuppressant: A drug that inhibits immune
response to foreign materials, used to suppress
rejection of tissue grafts. [Azathioprine]
Inotropic Agent: A drug that increases the contractile
strength of heart muscle; a cardiotonic. [Digitoxin,
Dopamine]

Metal Complexing Agent: A drug that binds metal ions,


useful in treating metal poisoning. [Dimercaprol,
complexing agent for arsenic, mercury, and gold]
Mineralocorticoid: An adrenocortical hormone that
regulates sodium/potassium balance in the body.
[Desoxycorticosterone Acetate]
Miotic: A cholinergic drug used topically in the eye to
induce constriction of the pupil [miosis]. [Pilocarpine]
Monoclonal
Anti-body:
A
highly
specific
immunoglobulin produced by cell culture cloning.
[Muromonab, CD-3, inactivates T-lymphocytes, that
reject tissue grafts]
Mucolytic: A drug that hydrolyzes mucoproteins, useful
in reducing the viscosity of pulmonary mucus.
[Acetylcysteine]
Multi-vitamin: A multivitamin is a preparation intended
to supplement a human diet with vitamins, dietary
minerals and other nutritional elements. Such

Basic Pharmacy
preparations are available in the form of tablets,
capsules, pastilles, powders, liquids and injectable
formulations. Multivitamin supplements are commonly
provided in combination with minerals.
Muscle Relaxant, Skeletal: A drug that inhibits
contraction of voluntary muscles. [Dantrolene,
Succinylcholine]
Muscle Relaxant, Smooth: A drug that inhibits
contraction of visceral smooth muscles. [Aminophylline]
Mydriatic: An adrenergic drug used topically in the eye
to induce dilation of the pupil [mydriasis].
[Phenylephrine]
N
Narcotic: A drug that induces action by reacting with
opioid receptors of the CNS, or a drug legally classified
as a narcotic with regard to prescribing regulations.
Narcotic Antagonist: A drug that reacts with opioid
receptors asymptomatically, used to terminate the
action of narcotic drugs. [Naloxone]
Neuromuscular Blocking Agent: A drug that paralyzes
skeletal muscles by preventing transmission of neural
impulses to them. [Succinylcholine]
Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug: An analgesic,
anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin
synthesis. [Indomethacin]
NSAID: see Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug.
O
Opioid: see Narcotic.
Opioid Antagonist: see Narcotic Antagonist.
Oxytoxic: A drug that stimulates uterine motility, used
in obstetrics to initiate labor or to control postpartum
hemorrhage. [Oxytocin]
Osmotic diuretic: An osmotic diuretic is a type of
diuretic that inhibit reabsorption of water and sodium.
Osmotic diuretics works by increasing blood flow to the
kidney. This washes out the cortical medullary gradient
in the kidney.
P
Parasympatholytic: A drug that inhibits response to
parasympathetic
nerve
impulse
and
to
parasympathomimetic drugs; an anti-cholinergic drug.
[Atropine]

Parasympathomimetic: A drug that activates organs


innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system; a
cholinergic drug. [Neostigmine]
Pediculicide: An insecticide suitable for eradicating
louse infestations [pediculosis]. [Lindane]
Penicillin Adjuvant: A drug that extends systemic
duration of penicillin by inhibiting its renal excretion.
[Probenecid]
Phenothiazine: An anti-psychotic or anti-depressant
drug that contains the Phenothiazine nucleus in its
chemical structure. [Chloropromazine, anti-psychotic;
Imipramine, anti-depressant]
Photo-sensitizer: A drug that increases cutaneous
response to ultraviolet light, used with ultraviolet light
to treat certain skin diseases [e.g. psoriasis].
[Methoxsalen]
Pigmenting Agent: A drug that promotes melanin
synthesis in the skin. [Trioxsalen, oral pigmenting agent;
Methoxsalen, topical pigmenting agent]
Posterior Pituitary Hormone, Anti-diuretic: A hormone
that promotes renal reabsorption of water, useful in
treating diabetes insipidus. [Vasopressin injection]
Potassium-sparing Diuretics: A diuretic that does not
make systemic potassium reduction as a side effect.
[Triamterene]
Potentiator: An adjunctive drug that enhances the
action of a primary drug, the total response being
greater than the sum of the individual actions.
[Hexafluorenium, potentiator for Succinylcholine]
Progestin: A progesterone-like hormone that stimulates
the secretory phase of the uterine cycle.
[Norethindrone]
Proton Pump Inhibitors: PPIs are a group of drugs
whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting
reduction of gastric acid production. PPIs act by
+ +
irreversibly blocking the H /K ATPase of the gastric
parietal cell. They are more effective than H2
antagonists and reduce gastric acid secretion by up to
99%.
Prostaglandin: A drug from the classes of cell-regulating
hormones cyclized from arachidonic acid. [Alprostadil,
maintains ductus arteriosis patency in newborn infants
pending corrective surgery for congenital heart defects]
Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitor: A drug that inhibits
prostaglandin synthesis and prostaglandin-intended

10

Basic Pharmacy
symptoms such as inflammation; a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug. [Ibuprofen]
Protectant: A topical drug that provides a physical
barrier to the environment. [Zinc Gelatin, skin
protectant; Methylcellulose, ophthalmic protectant]
Proteolytic, Injectable: An enzyme drug for injection
into herniated lumber intervertebral discs to reduce
interdiscal pressure. [Chymopapain]
Prothrombogenic: A drug with vitamin K activity, useful
in treating the hypoprothrombinemia of vitamin K
deficiency or overdosage with a vitamin K antagonist.
[Phytonadione]
Psychedelic: A drug [especially a street drug] that
induces vivid sensory phenomena and hallucinations.
[Mescaline]
Psychotherapeutic: A drug used to treat abnormal
metal or emotional processes. [Chlorpromazine,
Haloperidol]

Specific: A drug specially adapted in its indicated use,


usually because of a functional relationship between
drug metabolism and disease patho-physiology.
Stimulant, Central: A drug that increases the functional
state of the CNS, sometimes used in convulsion therapy
of mental disorders. [Flurothyl]
Stimulant, Respiratory: A drug that selectively
stimulates respiration, either by peripheral initiation of
respiratory reflexes, or by selective CNS stimulation.
[CO2, reflex respiratory stimulant; Ethamivan, central
respiratory stimulant]
Sum Screening Agent: A skin protectant that absorbs
light energy at wavelengths that cause sunburn. [ParaAmino-Benzoic Acid]
Sulfonylurea: An oral anti-diabetic drug that contains
the sulfonylurea moiety in its chemical structure.
[Tolazamide]
Suppressant: A drug that inhibits the progress of a
disease but does not cure it.

R
Rauwolfia Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from
Rauwolfia serpentina and related species, with antihypertensive and anti-psychotic actions. [Reserpine]
Radiographic Agent: see X-Ray Contrast Medium.
Radiopharmaceutical: A drug containing a radioactive
isotope, used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
125
131
[Iodinated Albumen with I or I]
Resin, Electrolyte Removing: see Ion Exchange Resin.
Rubefacient: A topical drug that induces mild skin
irritation with erythema, used as a toughening agent.
[Rubbing Alcohol]
S
Salt Substitute: A sodium-free substance, alternative to
sodium chloride, used for flavoring foods. [Potassium
Chloride]
Scabicide: An insecticide suitable for eradication of the
itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei [scabies]. [Lindane]
Sclerosing Agent: An irritant drug suitable for injection
into varicose veins to induce their fibrosis and
obliteration. [Morrhuate Sodium Injection]
Sedative: A central nervous system depressant used to
induce mild relaxation. [Phenobarbital]

Sympatholytic: A drug that inhibits response to


sympathetic nerve impulses and to sympathomimetic
drugs; an anti-adrenergic drug. [Phentolamine, alpha
sympatholytic; Propranolol, beta sympatholytic]
Sympathomimetic: A drug that activates organs
innervated by the sympathetic nervous system; an
adrenergic drug. [Epinephrine]
Synergistic Effect: Sometimes a combination of two
drugs is given because this can be significantly more
effective than either compound alone.
Systemically Acting Drug: A drug administered so as to
reach systemic circulation, from which the drug diffuses
into all tissues, including the site of the therapeutic
action.
T
Thiazide Diuretic: A diuretic that contains the
benzothiadiazide [thiazide] moiety in its chemical
structure. [Hydrochlorothiazide]
Thrombolytic: An enzyme drug administered
parenterally to solubilize blood clots. [Urokinase]
Thyroid Hormone: A hormone that maintains metabolic
function and normal metabolic rate of tissues.
[Levothyroxine]
Topically Acting Drug: A drug applied to the body
surface for local therapeutic action.

11

Basic Pharmacy
Toxoid: A modified anti-gen from an infectious organism
used as a vaccine. [Tetanus Toxoid]
Tranquilizer: A drug [such as anti-psychotic] used to
suppress an acutely disturbed emotional state.
[Trifluroperazine, anti- psychotic]
Tranquilizer, Minor: An old term for an anxiolytic drug.
Tricyclic Anti-depressant: An anti-depressant that
contains the Tricyclic Phenothiazine nucleus in its
chemical structure. [Imipramine]
Tuberculostatic: see Anti-tubercular.

X
Xanthine Alkaloid: A plant principle chemically related
to xanthine, with CNS stimulant, smooth muscle
relaxant, and diuretic actions. [Caffeine]
X Ray Contrast Medium: A drug opaque to x-rays that
assists visualization of an internal organ during
radiographic examination. [Barium Sulfate, Iopanoic
Acid]

PHARMACEUTICAL DEFINATIONS

U
Uricosuric: A drug that promotes renal excretion of uric
acid, useful in treating chronic gout. [Probenecid]
Uterine Contraction: An obstetric drug used after
placenta delivery to induce sustained uterine
contraction to reduce bleeding. [Methylergonovine]
Uterine Contraction Inhibitor: A drug that inhibits
uterine muscle contraction, used in preterm labor to
prolong gestation. [Ritodrine]
V
Vaccine: An anti-gen containing drug used to induce
active immunity against an infectious disease. [Hepatitis
B vaccine, Rabies Vaccine]
Vasoconstriction: A drug that narrows arterioles, usually
to elevate blood pressure. See Vasopressor.
Vasodilator, Coronary: A drug that expands blood
vessels in the heart and improves coronary blood flow,
useful in treating angina pectoris; an anti-anginal drug.
[Nitroglycerin]
Vasodilator, Peripheral: A drug expands peripheral
blood vessels and improves blood flow to the
extremities of the body. [Minoxidil]
Vasopressor: An adrenergic drug administered to
constrict arterioles and elevate arterial blood pressure.
[Norepinephrine]
Vinca Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from Vinca
rosea and related species, with anti-neoplastic action.
[Vincristine]
Vitamin: An organic chemical essential in small amounts
for normal metabolism, used therapeutically to
supplement the vitamin content of foods.

Acceptance Criteria: The product specification and


acceptance or rejection criteria, such as acceptable
quality level and unacceptable quality level, with an
associated sampling plan, that are necessary for making
a decision to accept or reject a lot or batch.
Action Limit: The established criteria, requiring
immediate follow-up and corrective action if exceeded.
Action Yield: The quality that is actually produced at any
appropriate phase of manufacturing, processing or
packaging of particular drug product.
Alert Limit: The established criteria, giving early warning
of potential drift from normal conditions which are not
necessarily grounds for definitive corrective action but
which require follow-up investigation.
Aseptic Processing Area: A controlled environment
consisting of several zones, in which the air supply,
equipments and personnel are regulated to control
microbial and particulate contamination to acceptance
levels.
Aseptic Area: A room or suite of rooms or special area,
designed, constructed, serviced and used with the
intension of preventing microbial contamination of the
product.
Aseptic Filling: The part of aseptic processing whereby
the product is sterilized separately then filled and
packaged using sterilized containers and closures in
critical processing zones.
Authorized Person: Person who is responsible for the
release batches of finished product for sale. The batch
documentation of a batch of the finished product must
be signed by an authorized person from the production
department and the batch test results by an authorized
person from the QC department for batch release.

12

Basic Pharmacy
Batch Records: All documents associated with the
manufacture of a batch of bulk product or finished
product.
Bio-Burden: The total number of viable microorganism
on or in health care product prior to sterilization.
Bulk Product: Any product that has completed all
processing stages up to, but not including final
packaging.
Calibration: The rest of operations that established,
under specific condition, the relationship between
values indicated by an instrument or system for
measuring, recording, and controlling, or the values
represented by a material measure, and the
corresponding known values of a reference standard.
Change Control: A formal system by which qualified
representatives of appropriate disciplines review
proposed or actual changes that might affect the
validated status of facilities, systems, equipment or
process.
Changing Room: A room or suite of rooms designed for
the changing of clothes and from which a clean or
aseptic area is entered.
Clean Area: An area with defined environmental control
of particulate and microbial contamination constructed
and used in such a way as to reduce the introduction,
generation, and retention of contaminants within the
area.
Cleaning Validation: Documented evidence that has an
approved cleaning procedure will provide equipment or
area which is suitable for processing medicinal products.
Chemical Disinfectant: A chemical or chemical solution
capable of destroying microorganism through
dehydration, alkylation, protein denaturation, oxidation,
and wall permeability.
Critical Process: A process that may cause variation in
the quantity of a pharmaceutical product.
Critical Area: An area with defined environment control
of particulate and microbial contamination, construction
and used in such a way as to reduce the introduction,
generation and retention of contaminants within the
area.
Critical Surfaces: Surfaces which come into contact with
sterilized product or containers that may lead to

contamination of product contact surfaces, if not


appropriately controlled.
Cross Contamination: Contamination of a starting
material, intermediate product or finished product with
another starting material or product during production.
De-Contamination: The process of removing organism
and rendering the object safe for handling.
Disinfection: A process that kills or destroys most
disease producing microorganisms but rarely kills all
spores.
D-Value: Sterilization exposure under a defined set of
conditions that result in one logarithmic [to the base 10]
or 90% reduction in the population of particular
microorganisms.
Finished Product: A product that has undergone all
stages of production, including packaging in its final
container and labeling.
In Process Control: Checks performed during production
in order to monitor and necessary to adjust the process
to ensure that the product conforms to its
specifications. The control of environment or equipment
may also be regarded as a part of in process control.
Integrity Test: Test to determine the functional
performance of a filter system.
Intermediate Product: Partly processed material that
must undergo further manufacturing steps before it
becomes a bulk product.
Laminar Air Flow: Air flowing in a single direction,
through a clean room or clean room area with uniform
velocity along parallel flow lines. Laminar air flow
system should provide a homogenous air speed of 0.30
m/s for vertical flow and 0.45 m/s for horizontal flows.
Large Volume Parenterals: A sterile single dose
injectable product intended for administration through
the skin or suitable parenteral route, with a normal fill
volume of more than 100 ml.
Manufacture: All operations of purchase of materials
and products, production, quality control, release,
storage, shipment of finished products and related
controls.
Manufacturing Process: The transformation of starting
materials into finished products through a single
operation or a sequence of operation involving

13

Basic Pharmacy
installations,
environment.

personnel,

documentation

and

Marketing Authorization: A legal document issued by


the competent drug regulatory authority that
establishes the detailed composition and formulation of
the product and the pharmacopoeias or other
recognized specifications of its ingredients and of the
final product itself, and includes details of packaging,
labeling and self life.
Master formula: A document or set of documents
specifying the starting materials with their quantities
and the packaging materials, together with a description
of the procedures and precautions required to produce
a specified quantity of a finished product as well as the
processing instructions, including the in process control.
Packing: All operations, including filling and labeling,
that a bulk product has to undergo in order to becomes
a finished product, sterile filling would not normally be
regarded as part of packaging, the bulk product being
the filled, but not the finally packaged, primary
container.

Packaging Material: Any material, including printed


material, employed in the packaging of a pharmaceutical
product, excluding any other packaging used for
transportation or shipment.

Quality Drug + Quality Packaging Quality


Product

Aim of Packaging:

Protection
Identification
Presentation

Components of Packaging:

Container
Closure
Carton / Outer
Box

Drug Packaging: Pharmaceutical blister films, high


barrier thermoformable films (PCTFE, PVDC, COC or
EVOH), Al-Al Pack, Al-PVDC Pack, Al-Strip Pack, Amber
Paint Bottle.

Drug Packaging Hazards


Mechanical
Hazards

Shock or Impact damage


Compression
Vibration

Environmental
Hazard

Biological Hazard

Chemical Hazard

Abrasion
Puncture or Piercing
Moisture
Temperature
Pressure
Light
Atmospheric Gases
Solid airborne
contamination
Microbiological
Other form of infestation
Pilferage & Adulteration
risks
Chemical interactions

Stability Test of Drugs:

Freezing & Thawing


Elevated temperature
Pressure
Added chemical agents, various light sources
Phase-Volume ratio variation
Mechanical stress

Pharmaceutical Product: Any medicine intended for


human use or veterinary product administration to food
producing animals, presented in its finished dosage form
or as a starting material for use in such a dosage form,
which is subject to control by pharmaceutical legislation
in both the exporting and importing state.
Positive Pressure: Atmospheric pressure which is higher
than the immediate surrounding area usually measures
in inches of water or Pascal.
Procedures: Description of the operation to be carries
out, the precautions to be taken and measures to be
applied directly or indirectly related to the manufacture
of the medicinal product.
Qualification of Equipments: The act of planning, caring
out and recording the results of tests on equipment to
demonstrate that it will perform as intended. Measuring
instruments and systems must be calibrated.
Recovery: The introduction of all or part of previous
batches of the required quality into another batch at a
defined stage of manufacture.
Returned Product: Finished product sent back to
manufacture.
Revalidation: A repeat of process validation to provide
an assurance that changes in the process / equipment

14

Basic Pharmacy
introduced in accordance with
procedures do not adversely
characteristics and product quality.

change control
affect process

Specification: A document describing in detail the


requirements with which the product or material used
or obtained during manufacture have to confirm.
Specifications serve as a basis for quality evaluation.
Standard Operating Procedure: An authorized written
procedure giving instruction for performing operations
not necessarily specific to a given product or material
but of a more general nature [e.g. equipment,
operation, maintenance and cleaning, validation,
cleaning of premises and environmental control,
sampling and inspection etc.]. Certain SOPs may be used
to supplement product specific MPCR and BPCRs.
Starting Material / Raw Material: The substances which
are use in the process of pharmaceutical product
production.
Sterility: The complete absence of microorganisms.
Sterile Product: A product which is in a state free of
viable microorganisms.
Strength: The concentration of the drug substance [e.g.
weight/weight, weight/volume, or unit dose/volume
basis] or the potency, that is, the therapeutic activity of
a drug product as indicated by appropriate laboratory
tests or by adequately developed and controlled clinical
data.
Validation Protocol/Plan: A document describing the
activities to be performed in a validation, including the
acceptance criteria for the approval of a manufacturing
process or apart thereof for routine use.

Z Value: The temperature change required causing a


one-log [change] decrease in the D value, and its
expressed in degrees Celsius.

GLOSSARY OF PHARMACEUTICAL TERMS


A
Active ingredient: The ingredient or ingredients of a
pharmaceutical
product
responsible
for
its
pharmacological activity [also medicament, drug
substance, active pharmaceutical ingredient].
Aerosol: A dosage form that is packaged under pressure
and contains therapeutically active ingredients that are
released upon activation of an appropriate valve system.
Ampoule: A final container that is all glass in which the
open end, after filling with product, is sealed by heat.
Aseptic: Lacking disease-producing microorganisms; not
the same as sterile.
Aseptic Processing: Manufacturing dosage forms
without terminal sterilization. The dosage form is sterilefiltered, then aseptically filled into the final package and
aseptically called.
B
Bead: A solid dosage form in the shape of a small
sphere. The dosage form generally contains multiple
beads [also pellet].
Bolus: A large, long tablet intended for administration to
animals.
C

Yield:

Theoretical Yield: The quantity that would be


produced at any appropriate phase of
manufacture, processing or packaging of a
particular drug product, based upon the
quantity of components to be used in the
absence of any loss or error in actual
production.
Actual Yield: The quantity that is actually
produced at any appropriate phase of
manufacture, processing, or packaging of a
particular drug product.
Percentage of Theoretical Yield: The ratio of
actual yield to the theoretical yield, stated as a
percentage.

Capsule: A solid dosage form in which the drug is


enclosed within a hard or soft soluble container or shell.
Capsule, Delayed Release: A coated capsule or more
commonly encapsulated granules that may be coated to
resist releasing the drug in the stomach because the
drug will irritate gastric mucosa or gastric fluid will
inactivate the drug.
Capsule, Extended Release: A capsule that is formulated
in such a manner as to make the contained medication
available over an extended period following ingestion.
Capsule, Soft Shell: A solid dosage form in which one or
more active ingredients, normally in solution or

15

Basic Pharmacy
suspension or in the form of a paste, is filled into a onepiece shell.
Collodion: A liquid preparation composed of pyroxylin
dissolved in a solvent mixture of alcohol and ether and
applied externally.
Concentrate for Dip: A preparation containing one or
more active ingredients usually in the form of a paste or
solution; it is used to prepare a diluted suspension,
emulsion, or solution of the active ingredients for the
prevention and treatment of ectoparasitic infestations
of animals.
Creams: A semisolid dosage form containing one or
more drug substances dissolved or dispersed in a
suitable base.
D
Drops, Oral: A solution, emulsion, or suspension that is
administered in small volumes, such as drops, by means
of a suitable device.
E
Effervescent: A dosage form containing ingredients that
rapidly release CO2 when in contact with water.
Elixir: A clear, pleasantly flavored, sweetened hydroalcoholic liquid containing dissolved active ingredients
intended for oral use.
Emulsion: A two-phase system in which one liquid is
dispersed throughout another liquid in the form of small
droplets.
Excipient: An inactive ingredient of a dosage form.
Extract: A concentrated preparation of vegetable or
animal drug obtained by removal of the active
constituents with suitable menstrual, by evaporation of
all or nearly all of the solvent and by adjustment of the
residual mass or powder to the prescribed standards.
F
Fluidextract: A liquid preparation of vegetable drug
containing alcohol as a solvent, preservative, or both
and so made that unless otherwise specified in an
individual monograph, each milliliter contains the
therapeutic constituents of 1 g of the standard drug.
Foam: An emulsion packaged in a pressurized aerosol
container that has a fluffy, semisolid consistency when
dispensed.

Gel: A semisolid system consisting of either a suspension


of small inorganic particles or large organic molecules
interpenetrated by a liquid.
Granules: A preparation of dry aggregates of powder
particles that may contain one or more active
ingredients with or without other ingredients.
H
Hygroscopic Drugs: That absorbs moisture from air and
dissolved in it
I
Implant: A small sterile solid mass consisting of a highly
purified drug with or without excipients made by
compression or molding and put in place by injection or
incision.
Infusion, Intramammary: A suspension of a drug in a
suitable oil vehicle; intended for veterinary use only.
Inhalation: A solution, suspension or powder of one or
more drug substances administered by the nasal or oral
respiratory route for local or systemic effect.
Injection: A preparation intended for parenteral
administration or for constituting or diluting a
parenteral article prior to administration.
Irrigation: A sterile solution intended to bathe or flush
open wounds or body cavities.
L
Liniment: An alcoholic or oleaginous solution (oily
solution) or emulsion applied by rubbing on the skin for
treating pain and stiffness of underlying musculature.
Lotion: A fluid suspension or emulsion applied to the
surface of the skin.
Lozenge: A solid preparation that is intended to dissolve
or disintegrate slowly in the mouth.
Lyophilization: Removal of water or other solvent from
a frozen solution by sublimation caused by combination
of temperature and pressure differentials.
M
Modified Release: A release pattern of the active
ingredient from the dosage form that deliberately
changed from that of the conventional form includes
accelerated release, delayed release, extended release,
pulsatile release, targeted release, and so on.

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Basic Pharmacy
Molded Tablet: A tablet that has been formed by
dampening the ingredients and pressing them into a
mold, then removing and drying the resulting solid
mass.
Mouthwash: An aqueous solution used to rinse the oral
cavity.
O
Ointment: A semisolid preparation intended for external
application to the skin or mucous membrane.

Powder: An intimate mixture of dry, finely divided drug


or chemicals that may be intended for internal [oral] or
external [topical] use.
Premix: A mixture of two or more drug substances with
a suitable vehicle.
Pulsatile Release: A release pattern of the active
ingredient from the dosage form that is modified to
release aliquots of the total drug at two or more time
intervals.
R

Ophthalmic Preparation: Drug in dosage form intended


to be applied to the eye.
Ophthalmic Ointment: A sterile ointment intended for
application to the eye.
Ophthalmic Solution: A sterile solution, essentially free
from foreign particles, suitably prepared and packaged
for instillation into the eye.
Ophthalmic Suspension: A sterile liquid preparation
containing solid particles dispersed in a liquid vehicle
intended for application to the eye.
Ophthalmic Strip: A sterile single-use container or
sterile impregnated paper strip containing the drug to
be applied to the eye.
Orally Disintegrating: A solid oral dosage form that
disintegrates rapidly in the mouth to facilitate release of
the active ingredient.
Otic Solution: A solution intended for instillation in the
outer ear.
Otic Suspension: A liquid preparation containing
micronized particles intended for instillation in the outer
ear.

Rinse: A solution used to cleanse by flushing.


S
Shampoo: A solution, emulsion, or suspension used to
clean the hair and scalp.
Soap: The alkali salts of one or more fatty acid.
Solution: A liquid preparation that contains one or more
dissolved [molecularly dispersed] chemical substances in
a suitable solvent or mixture of miscible solvents; may
be oral, topical, otic, and ophthalmic.
Spirit: An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution of volatile
substances prepared usually by simple solution or by
admixture of the ingredients.
Sterile: Completely lacking living [viable] microbial life.
Sterility: An acceptably high level of probability that a
product processed in an aseptic system does not contain
viable microorganisms.
Stick: A slender, cylindrical dosage form of rigid
consistency.

Suppositories: A solid body adapted for introduction


into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice.

Paste: A semisolid dosage form that contains one or


more drug substances intended for topical application. It
generally contains a high concentration of solids and has
a stiff consistency.

Suppository Tablet or Insert: A vaginal suppository


prepared by compression of powdered materials into a
suitable shape; can also be prepared by encapsulation in
soft gelatin.

Pellet: see bead [Also a solid granule or regular shape


prepared by compaction or by granulation]

Suspension: A liquid preparation that consists of solid


particles dispersed throughout a liquid phase in which
the particles are not soluble; may be oral, topical, otic,
ophthalmic.

Pill: A solid spherical dosage form, usually prepared by


wet massing technique.
Plaster: A solid or semisolid mass supplied on a backing
material and intended to provide prolonged contact
with the skin.

Syrup: A solution containing a high concentration of


sucrose or other sugars.

17

Basic Pharmacy
System: A dosage form developed to allow for uniform
release or targeting of drugs to the body.

applied electric current to facilitate drug diffusion


through the skin.

System, Transdermal: A self-contained, discrete dosage


form that is designed to deliver drugs through the intact
skin to the systemic circulation.

Transdermal Delivery System, Phonophoresis: A


transdermal delivery system enhanced by the
application of low-frequency ultrasound to facilitate
drug diffusion through the skin.

System, Ocular: A dosage form intended for placement


in the lower conjunctival fornix, from which the drug
diffuses through a membrane at a constant rate.
System, Intrauterine: A system that is intended for
release of drug over a long period, such as a year.
T
Tablet: A solid dosage form containing medicinal
substances with or without diluents.
Tablet, Chewable: A tablet formulated so that it may be
chewed, producing a pleasant-tasting residue that is
easily swallowed and does not leave a bitter or
unpleasant aftertaste.
Tablet, Delayed Release: A tablet with a coating that is
intended to postpone release of the medication until
the tablet has passed through the stomach.
Tablet, Extended Release: A tablet that is formulated so
as to make the contained medication available over an
extended period following ingestion.
Targeted Release: Release of the active ingredient from
a dosage form modified to preferentially deliver most of
the drug to a specific region, organ, or tissue.

Transdermal Matrix Patch: A transdermal matrix system


using a polymeric matrix containing drug intended for
systemic delivery through the skin; generally the skin is
the rate-controlling membrane for drug diffusion.
Transdermal Membrane Patch: A transdermal system
containing a drug reservoir entrapped between backing
and adhesive layers and a drug diffusion-controlling
membrane; the reservoir is usually a semisolid
dispersion or solution of the drug.
U
Urethral: A dosage form intended for insertion into the
urethra to provide a local effect of the active ingredient.
V
Validation: Scientific study to prove that a process is
doing what it is supposed to do and is under control.
W
Water, Aromatic: A clear, saturated aqueous solution of
one or more volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile
substances.

Terminal Sterilization: A process used to produce


sterility in a final product contained in its final packaging
system.
Tincture: An alcoholic or hydro-alcoholic solution
prepared for vegetable materials or from chemical
substances.
Transdermal Delivery System, Electroporation: A
transdermal delivery system enhanced by the
application of short, high-voltage electric pulses to
create aqueous pores in the lipid bilayer of skin and
thereby facilitate drug diffusion.
Transdermal Delivery System, High Velocity Powder
Particles: A transdermal delivery system using
supersonic shock waves of helium gas to enhance drug
diffusion through the skin.
Transdermal Delivery System, Iontophoresis: A
transdermal delivery system enhanced by the use of

18