You are on page 1of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

Information on Pavement Design


With reference to MPW Memo dated 07-04-2007, the requested information regarding
pavement design is being provided herein.

A. Information Request on Specific Parameters:


A1: Adopted Classification system for vehicles
A2: Equivalent single axle load assumed per each vehicle classification
A3: Design sub-grade CBR, MR, R-value which one used in design
A4: Coefficient of layer (a)
B. Detailed Design information by ASSHTO 1993
The details of above are given in following paragraph.

A1: ADOPTED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR VEHICLES


The classification system for vehicles has been covered under Para 7.2.4 Design
Traffic Loading and Table 7.1: Types and composition of commercial Vehicles of
Preliminary Design Report submitted to MPW. The same has been reiterated here.

Traffic for pavement design purpose constitutes using commercial vehicles


having at least one axle with dual wheels and /or having more than two axles.
The base year traffic in different categories for various links is estimated and
projected by adopted growth rates for the entire design period and have been
derived from the data provided in Traffic Report and Concept Design Report.
A ratio of commercial vehicles, comprised of buses and trucks, to the total traffic
stream has been taken as 5%, as mentioned in the Traffic Report. Further, in
view of the prevailing vehicles type in the State of Kuwait, the axle configuration
of the traffic composition adopted for the commercial vehicles is given below:
Table A1.1: Types and Composition of Commercial Vehicles
Designation
Mini Bus
Regular Bus
2-Axle
3-Axle
4- Axle
5 -Axle
6 Axle

April 2007

Gross Weight in
Tons
3.5 tons
12 tons
18 tons
24 tons
30 tons
42 tons
58 tons

% of Total commercial
Vehicles in ADT
33%
22%
16%
14%
9%
4%
2%

Page 1 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

A2: EQUIVALENT SINGLE AXLE LOAD ASSUMED PER EACH VEHICLE


CLASSIFICATION
Pavement Structural design requires a quantification of all expected loads a pavement
will encounter over its design life. One of the methods used to determine these
cumulative loads is Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs) approach.
The load equivalency factors (LEFs) recommended by AASHTO 1993, (Table D.4 of
Appendix-D-6) have been adopted for the project. Typical values of LEFs, assuming
SN=5 and Pt=2.5 are given in Table A2.1 below:
Table A2.1: Typical Values of LEFs (Assumption SN=5 and Pt=2.5)
Axle Type

Single Axle

Tandem Axle

Axle Load
(kN)
8.9
44.5
62.3
80.0
89.0
133.4
8.9
44.5
62.3
80.0
89.0
133.4
151.2
177.9
222.4

(lbs)
2,000
10,000
14,000
18,000
20,000
30,000
2,000
10,000
14,000
18,000
20,000
30,000
34,000
40,000
50,000

Load Equivalency
Factor (LEF)
0.0002
0.088
0.360
1.00
1.51
7.0
0.000
0.007
0.027
0.077
0.121
0.658
1.09
2.08
4.86

In order to compute the exact values of the load equivalency factors, one should have
the axle loads together with the axle configurations for the predicted traffic composition
of the project being studied. By considering the maximum loads for different vehicle
types and their computed equivalency factors were applied as follows:
Table A2.2 : Vehicle Type and Load Equivalency Factors
Vehicle Type
Mini Bus
Bus
2-Axle Truck
3-Axle Truck
4-Axle Truck
5-Axle Truck
6-Axle Truck

Gross Weight
3.5 tons
12 tons
18 tons
24 tons
30 tons
42 tons
58 tons

Axle Configuration
2.45 ton SXL + 1.05 ton SXL
8.40 ton SXL + 3.60 ton SXL
11 ton SXL + 7 ton SXL
18 ton TXL + 6 ton SXL
18 ton TXL + (2x6) ton SXL
18 ton TXL + 16 ton TXL + 8 ton SXL
30 ton TrXL + 18 ton TXL + 10 ton SXL

LEF
0.0073
1.240
3.855
2.103
2.126
4.455
8.090

SXL: Single Axle Load, TXL: Tandem Axle Load, TrXL: Tridem Axle Load

The above values of LEFs were used to compute the cumulative 18-kip ESAL values
over the design period of 20 years. The computed 18-kip ESAL values were then used
in the structural design of pavement layers.
April 2007

Page 2 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

A3: DESIGN SUBGRADE CBR, MR, R-VALUE WHICH ONE USED IN DESIGN

Sub-grade resilient Modulus


Sub-grade support is characterised by the sub-grades resilient modulus (MR).
The correlations between MR and CBR developed by Heukelom and Klomp,
which are given in ASSHTO (Para. 1.5) is as follows:
MR (psi) 1500 x CBR
For design purpose CBR value of 10% (soaked) has been considered.
Hence, the Road Bed Modulus MR = 1500 x 10 = 15000 psi
The above relationship, as recommended in AASHTO, holds good for fine
grained soil with soaked CBR of 10 or less. Therefore the modulus has also been
cross checked by other correlations given in AASHTO.
As per Figure 2.7 of AASHTO 1993, the Resilient Modulus for sub-grade is found
around 11,000. Since soaked CBR is taken, no reduction for relative damage due
to rains has been considered. The conservative value of Resilient Modulus for
sub-grade soil of 11000 is taken for pavement design.

A4: COEFFICIENT OF LAYER (a)

Based on the recommendations given in Para 2.3.5 of AASHTO 1993, the


following values of layer coefficient for the different pavement materials have
been adopted for pavement design. Pavement structural strength and layer
strength coefficient are presented in Table A4.1.
Table A4.1: Pavement Layers and Strength Coefficient
Pavement Material

ai

MR (psi)

Asphalt Concrete (AC)

0.42

EAC =400,000

Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM)

0.35

EDBM =300,000

Wet Mix Macadam (WMM)

0.14

EBS =32,000

Granular Sub base (GSB)

0.12

EBS =15,000

B: DETAILED DESIGN INFORMATION BY AASHTO 1993

April 2007

Page 3 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

B1: Design Considerations


The AASHTO design method requires the parameters to take into account the
following aspects:

pavement performance;
traffic;
sub-grade soil strength;
materials of construction;
environment;
drainage; and,
reliability.

The AASHTO (1993) relationship used for the design of flexible pavement is as
under:
PSI
log10
.
4.2 15
log10 W18 ZR So 9.36 log10 SN 1 0.20
2.32 log10 MR 8.07
1094
0.40
SN 15.19

Where,

W18

is predicted number of 18000-pound equivalent single axle load application.

ZR

is standard normal deviate.

So

is combined standard error of the traffic prediction and performance prediction.

PSI

is difference between the initial design serviceability index, po, and the design terminal
serviceability index, pt.

MR

is resilient modulus.

SN

is structural number indicative of the total pavement thickness required:


= ai Di mi

where,

ai is ith layer coefficient.


Di is ith layer thickness (inch).
mi is ith layer drainage coefficient.
The mi values recommended by AASHTO (1993) are as given under:

Drainage Quality

April 2007

mi value/ % of Time Pavement Structure is Exposed


to Moisture Levels Approaching Saturation
< 1%

1-5%

5-25%

> 25%

Excellent

1.40-1.25

1.35-1.30

1.30-1.20

1.20

Good

1.35-1.25

1.25-1.15

1.15-1.10

1.00

Page 4 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

Fair

1.25-1.15

1.15-1.05

1.00-0.80

0.80

Poor

1.15-1.05

1.05-0.80

0.80-0.60

0.60

Very Poor

1.05-0.95

0.95-0.75

0.75-0.40

0.40

For the present design, the value of mi has been taken as 1.0 corresponding to
drainage quality as Good with the pavement structure exposed to >25% of time
exposed to moisture approaching saturation.
The MR values of unbound granular materials have been estimated using the
following relationship (AASHTO, 1993):
MR = k1 k2
where,

k1, k2

is the stress state. The values of within the base courses vary depending on the resilient
modulus of soil and the asphalt layer thickness. The values used in the design are
(AASHTO, 1993):

are

AC Thickness

Roadbed Soil

(inch)

Resilient Modulus, MR (psi)


3000

7500

15000

<2

20

25

30

24

10

15

20

46

10

15

>6

regression coefficients which are dependent of the material type used in the
pavement courses. The suggested values of k1 and k2 are given below:

Moisture Condition

k1 (Note 1)

k2 (Note 1)

Base
Dry

6000 - 10000

0.5 - 0.7

Damp

4000 - 6000

0.5 - 0.7

Wet

2000 - 4000

0.5 - 0.7

Sub-Base
Dry

6000 - 8000

0.4 - 0.6

Damp

4000 - 6000

0.4 - 0.6

Wet

1500 - 4000

0.4 - 0.6

Note: (1) Range in k1 and k2 is a function of the material quality.


For this important project, it is envisaged that high quality materials
would be used and strict quality control of works would be imposed.

April 2007

Page 5 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

Based on the above considerations and also keeping in mind the ISOHDM
(1995) recommendations, the following values of layer coefficient for the different
pavement materials have been adopted for pavement design: Pavement
structural strength and layer strength coefficient derived from various agencies is
presented in Table 3.6.
Table 3.6
Pavement Material

ai

MR (psi)

Asphalt Concrete (AC)

0.42

EAC =400,000

Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM)

0.35

EDBM =300,000

Wet Mix Macadam (WMM)

0.14

EBS =32,000

Granular Sub base (GSB)

0.12

EBS =15,000

The values of ZR and So have been assumed based on the following:

The pavement is for a heavily trafficked rural highway, which has been designed for Service Level
B. The overall reliability level for the facility has, therefore, been assumed as 90 per cent. For a
two-stage strategy i.e. initial pavement plus one overlay, the design reliability for each stage should
0.50
or 0.95 per cent.
be 0.90

The value of the normal deviate, ZR, corresponding to 95 per cent reliability has been taken as
1.645 (AASHTO, 1993)

The overall standard deviation suitable for the design of flexible pavements range between 0.40 and
0.50. The overall standard deviation, So, has been taken as 0.40 on the assumption that the
projection of the future traffic represents the most likely scenario.

The values of initial serviceability index, pi, and terminal serviceability index, pt,
have been assumed as under:

The pi value of 4.5 has been adopted on the basis of the consideration that the implementation of the
project would be done with strict adherence of quality control norms for materials and works.

For this heavily trafficked important road, the value of the terminal serviceability index, pt, i.e., the
lowest acceptable level of serviceability before the resurfacing would be necessary has been taken
as 2.5.

B2: Road Bed Modulus


For design purpose CBR value of 10% (soaked) has been considered.
Road Bed Modulus Mr = 1500 x 10 = 15000 psi
As per Figure 2.7 of AASHTO 1993, the Resilient Modulus for sub-grade is found
around 11,000. Since soaked CBR is taken, no reduction for relative damage due
to rains has been considered. The conservative value of Resilient Modulus for
sub-grade soil, as 11000 is taken for pavement design.
B3: Design of Pavement
The thickness requirements for the pavement have been worked out based on
the preceding discussions. The basic steps followed for the computation of the
composition requirements are as under:

April 2007

Page 6 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

B4: Calculation of W18 for different SN Value


For different SN values, the Cumulative Standard Axles (W18) have been
calculated and given in Table B1.1.
Table B1.1: SN Value and Design Loading (msa)
Road Name

Projected Number of
Standard Axles
(W18)

SN Value and Design


Loading (W18)
SN

Allowable
Cumulative Traffic

Main Line
Nasser Road

32.3 x 10^6

5.07

32.73 x 10^6

Jahra Road

29.7 x 10^6

5.02

30.45 x 10^6

Nasser Road

5.2 x 10^6

3.9

5.23 x 10^6

Jahra Road

15.3 x 10^6

4.6

16.26 x 10^6

4th Ring Road

33.3 x 10^6

5.1

34.18 x 10^6

Al-Jahez Road

21.0 x 10^6

4.8

22.02 x 10^6

Ghazali Road

9.8 x 10^6

4.3

10.15 x 10^6

Airport Road

18.8 x 10^6

4.7

18.94 x 10^6

2nd Ring Road

17.1 x 10^6

4.65

17.55 x 10^6

Service Road

Note: (1) W18 is cumulative number of equivalent standard axle.

3.3.2.4

Proposed Pavement Composition

Determination of the structural layer thickness


The overall structural number for each respective ESAL is given in Table B1.1.
Hence, the Structural number for the asphalt layer (SNAL) consists of Wearing
course and binder course can be calculated as follow:
SNAL=SN - ai x di x mi
Where
SN is the overall structural number above the sub-grade layer
ai is the pavement layer coefficient,
Di is the layer thickness; and
Mi is the drainage coefficient
April 2007

Page 7 of 8

Upgrade of Jamal Abdul Nasser Street and Jahra Road

Information on Pavement Design

By taking the base course and sub-base course thicknesses of 250mm and
200mm, respectively, then
SNAL = SN (0.0394 x (0.14 x 250 x 1.0 + 0.12 x 200 x 1.0)
The thickness of the asphalt layer (DAL) = D1 wearing course + D2 asphalt base
A wearing course thickness 50mm and 40mm for ESAL of more than 10msa and
less than 10msa respectively. Based on this assumption, the thickness worked
out for wearing course and asphalt base for all road segments is given in table
B1.2 below:
Table B1.2: Pavement Structure based on AASHTO-1993
Road Section
Nasser Road
(ML)
Jahra Road
(ML)
Nasser Road
(SR)
Jahra Road
(SR)
4th Ring
Road (SR)
Al-Jahez
Road (SR)
Ghazali Road
(SR)
Airport Road
(SR)
2nd Ring
Road (ML)

ESAL

Required
SN

Proposed Pavement Layers (mm) and SN Value


ACWC

ACBC

CABC

GSBC

Total

5.07

50

150

250

200

650

5.18

29.7 x 10^6

5.02

50

140

250

200

640

5.04

5.2 x 10^6

3.90

40

75

250

200

565

3.98

15.3 x 10^6

4.60

50

110

250

200

610

4.63

33.3 x 10^6

5.10

50

150

250

200

650

5.18

21.0 x 10^6

4.80

50

125

250

200

625

4.84

9.8 x 10^6

4.30

40

100

250

200

590

4.33

18.8 x 10^6

4.70

50

120

250

200

620

4.77

17.10 x 10^6

4.65

50

120

250

200

620

4.77

32.3 x 10^

(ML): Main Line, (SR): Service Road


ACWC: Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course, Type III of Clause 404
ACBC: Asphalt Concrete Base Course, Type II of Clause 404
CABC: Crushed Aggregate Base Course
GSBC: Granular Sub base Course

April 2007

Page 8 of 8

SN