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As record numbers of people leave prison, thousands of ex-criminals are pouring into
communities. They have served their time, but their conviction bars them from many jobs.
Their conviction bars them from some state and federal programs and some types of
housing. Is someone leaves the prison system with no house, no job, no training,
nothing; what are their hopes of remaining a law abiding citizen? It seems that we have a
legal system that says, "You have been in prison, we are going to make it hard, if not
impossible for you to get a job, and housing." Leinwarn, D (2007) "Ex-cons' sentences
don't always end with release" USA Today.Did you know that the United States
Government has a list of buildings that it is illegal to photograph? One day Keith (a
tourist) was walking down the street in Arlington, Virginia when he stopped to take a
picture of this beautiful building. A police officer told him to delete the photo from his
camera. He later found out that the government has a list of buildings it won't allow
people to photograph. But citing security concerns, it refuses to release that list or warn
people in advance that they can't photograph the building. If Keith would have refused to
hand over the camera or refused to delete the photo, he would have been charged with a
terrorist act, this is a felony.

Do the crime, do the time

One saying that is associated with the justice system is - "Do the crime, do the time."
When has a person completed doing the time? After reading about some of these people,
it seems that they are going to do time for the rest of their lives. One man got out of jail
for his third DUI; (driving under the influence) he couldn't return home to live with his
family because he now had a felony on his record. His family was living in low income
HUD housing and a person with a felony can not live in HUD housing. This man can't
return to his family? What is wrong with this picture? How are we going to help him?A
young man breaks his leg; he is given pain pills when he didn't use them all, he sold one
of them to a friend. This young man was convicted of selling drugs. He doesn't qualify for
federal student loans, he can't adopt a child, he can't vote, he can't work with vulnerable
children or adults. He can't even coach his son's little league baseball team.By not giving
civil rights back to the felons who have paid for their crimes, we do them a mighty
injustice. We make them second-class citizens; we do our best to daily remind them that
they are ex-offenders.

Some sociologists such as Georg SimmelandFerdinand Tönnies,have posed the
theory that the anonymity of the city leads to a feeling of alienation (Hess, A, 2001)
(Lucaccini, G, 2009). Twentieth century urban planning policies and rapid urbanisation;
characterised by single use zoning; low density land use; large corporate business and
car dependent communities; have served to separate people from traditional community
interaction. For many this individualistic existence can be perceived as a dystopia.
Furthermore, with 75 per cent of the 10 billion people expected to inhabit the planet by

2050 predicted to reside in urban centers this is a global issue that needs to be
addressed (Ripplinger, S, 2009).
The future shaping and wellbeing of cities requires the promotion and implementation of
new models of flexible mixed use and adaptive buildings responding to and promoting
cooperative, supportive and sustainable communities.

Scattered and isolated communities are no more apparent than in Leeds (Nuttgens, P,
1979). Over the course of the last century city residents have been "driven from" the City
Centre and out into the suburbs leaving some urban areas neglected, unsafe and
underused (Nuttgens, P, 1979) especially during times of economic decline such as that
precipitated by the credit crunch.
Although £1.8 billion of major property development has been undertaken in
Leeds over the last 10 years, this part of the City remains detached and aloof, and many
city dwellers still face exclusion or separation from community support. Maxwell
Hutchinson's assertion that Leeds is 'building the high rise slums of tomorrow ...they're
forgetting to build communities" would appear particularly accurate, despite Leeds City
Planning Policy that sets out to tackle social exclusion and foster better communities
(BBC Inside Out - Leeds - Changing for the Better?) (Leeds City Council 2007,
Sustainable Development in Leeds).


The Fish Street area is deep within the commercially driven retail heart of Leeds City
Centre. The site, having once accommodated thriving mixed use markets in the 19th
Century, is now an unattractive backland space which for big brand retail outlets, is
unappealing and limited in size and economic potential.
However it is the ideal place to shape and develop a sustainable urban community which
is accessible for all, inclusive and community focused.


The reuse and repositioning of obsolete or underutilised buildings and sites is essential to
revitalising Leeds City Centre and renewing blighted neighbourhoods and replacing them
with more prosperous communities. Six such areas were analysed to identify the best
opportunities to shape a sustainable urban community within Leeds City Centre and
promote opportunity for investment, business enterprise and social interaction. The sites
were analysed in terms of size, transport links, proximity to community essential
amenities, foot fall, gathering and retreating, sense of entry and arrival, parking and


The most suitable location was the Fish Street Area. This location benefits from excellent
footfall, permeability and connectivity (See Right). It lies directly between the two main
East-West pedestrian routes across the City Centre (Kirkgate and King Edwards Street)
as well as the main North-South pedestrian and vehicular routes (Briggate and Vicar
The Fish Street area is located in close proximity to the Victorian Boutique Retail Outlets,
the City Markets and Briggate, all of which are major tourist attractions. Community
essential amenities are plentiful as are transport facilities with major bus routes on Vicar
Lane and Leeds Railway Station is a 5 minute walk away.

Essential Environmental Design Factor

Health care
Useful Space
Flexible, cost
effective floor
covers, seating and
working area,
additions, restored
areas, basements
Auxiliary work
space, flexible,
rapid change cost
effective, highly

adaptive area
Flexible, cost
effective, primary
work area,
standing, sitting,
Enhances personal
compared to other
floor covers
nurseries, halls
Slippery, hard
floor alternative
Slippery, hard
floor alternative,
impact reducer
Slippery, hard
floor alternative
especially in halls
and common areas,
impact reducer

Color, patterns,
Corporate image
Color, inviting.
Color soothing,
Softening, casual
Softening, secure
Softening, secure
Low albedo
Low albedo
Low albedo
especially in
highly naturally
lighted schools
Low albedo, stress
Vibration control

controlled work
Noise control
essential in school
and not possible
without carpet
Vibration control,
Climate control
Insulator, heat
sink, air resistant
Insulator, heat
sink, air resistant
Insulator, heat
sink, air resistant
Insulator, heat
sink, air resistant
Vacuuming and
Cost Effective

Vacuuming and
Cost Effective
Vacuuming and
Cost Effective

Microorganisms in carpets
In a world where textile production and fabric weaving is increasingly automated, hand
woven and hand-knotted carpets and rugs are masterpieces which are pricey. provides a lot of important information on new research studies
conducted on microorganisms affecting the quantity and quality of carpets and rugs. It
would also provide an insight in new loom for Indian carpet weavers, carpet culture
related with people, and those interesting rugs and carpet museums in the world.
Carpet cleaning is considered to be an important task pertaining to protection of health
when factors like activity management, design and ventilation of all indoor pollutants like
gases, particles, and biopollutants at sanitary levels, and source control. It is done by
various energy efficient carpet cleaning methods which would do maximum extraction
and minimum traces of unwanted matter.
Latest studies have concluded that many commercial and residential carpets and rugs
are perceived as home to illness, asthma, and allergies. It is been thought to promote as
a habitat of microorganisms in the indoor environment.