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# MATH3041, 2015

Problem sheet 1 of 2
1. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the following matrices

4
2
(a) A =
3 1

3 2
(b) B =
2 1

3 2
(c) C =
17 7
2. Convert these systems into second order dierential equations and solve them. Check
(a) x = x + y
y = 4x 2y

(b) x = x + 2y
y = x

3. Convert these dierential equations to systems of first order dierential equations and
write the resulting systems in matrix form
(a)
x
+x=1
(b)
d3 x
d2 x
+
3
2x = 0
dt3
dt2
(c)
d4 x
d2 x dx
+
4

x = 11
dt4
dt2
dt
4. Determine the fixed points of the following systems of dierential equations
(a) x = 3x + y
y = x + 3y
(b) x = x y 2
y = x2 y

(c) x = x(3 x y)
y = y(x 1)

## 5. Determine the fixed points of the following systems of dierence equations

(a) xn+1 = 5xn + 10
yn+1 = 2yn
(b) xn+1 = 12 xn 2
yn+1 = 21 yn 2
(c) xn+1 = 0.8xn
yn+1 = 1.2yn

## 6. Sketch the trajectory for the following initial value problem,

(a) x = y

y = x,

x(0) = 1 y(0) = 0

0 1
You may assume the eigenvalues of
are i and i and the corresponding
1 0

1
1
eigenvectors are
and
.
i
i
7. Real and distinct eigenvalue phase portraits
Sketch the phase portrait for each of the following systems, stating the type of critical
point and the stability
(a) x = 2x + 3y
y = x 3y

(b) x = 2x + 3y
y = 4x + 2y

## 8. Repeated eigenvalue phase portraits

Sketch the phase portrait for each of the following systems, stating the type of critical
point and the stability
(a) x = 3x + y
y = 3y

(b) x = 4x
y = 4y

## 9. Complex eigenvalue phase portraits

Sketch the phase portrait for each of the following systems, stating the type of critical
point and the stability
(a) x = x 3y
y = x y

(b) x = y
y = 5x + 4y
10. Convert these dierence equations to systems of first order dierence equations and
write the resulting systems in matrix form
(a) xn+2 axn+1 + bxn = 1

## (b) xn+2 + 2xn+1 xn = 2

11. Suppose that each of the following is the coecient matrix for a system of dierence
equations. Find the eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. Describe the corresponding dynamics and sketch some iterations on the phase diagram; on and o the
eigenvector axes (if applicable),

5 3
(a)
3 5
2

(b)

0 1
4 0

dN
N
N
= f (N ) = rN
1
1
dt
U
K

(1)

## where r, K, and U are positive parameters with U < K

(a) Sketch the function f (N ),
(b) Discuss the behaviour of N (t) as t .
13. For some organisms finding a suitable mate may cause diculties at low population
densities, and a more realistic equation for population growth than a linear one in the
absence of intraspecific competition may be N = rN 2 , with r > 0, to be solved with
initial conditions N (0) = N0 .
(a) Solve this problem and show that the solution becomes infinite in finite time.
(b) The model above is improved to

N
dN
2
= rN 1
dt
K
Without solving this equation find the steady state solutions and their stability.
14. Consider a population of annual plants with the following characteristics. Seeds are
produced at the end of the summer. A proportion survive one winter, and a proportion
of these germinate the following spring. Of the remainder, a proportion survive a
second winter, and a proportion of these germinate the spring following this second
winter, but none can germinate later than this.
(a) Justify the model
Nn+2 = Nn+1 + (1 ) 2 Nn
for the population, and interpret the parameters biologically.
15. A colleague presents to you a simple model of predator-prey interaction,
dA
= B + A
dt
dB
= A + B
dt

(2)
(3)

where A, B represent the population density of foxes and rabbits respectively. The
parameter values , are positive. How realistic is this model?