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LINGUISTICS

HISTORICAL
0001. Anstey, M. P. THE BIBLICAL HEBREW QATAL VERB: A FUNCTIONAL DISCOURSE GRAMMAR ANALYSIS. Linguistics. 2009, 47(4):825844.
Functional discourse grammar (FDG) is a theory with a rich descriptive apparatus, facilitating the modeling of language data that takes into account the several tiers of interdependent
information that are present in any utterance, namely, interpersonal, representational, syntactic,
and expression. The explanatory component of FDG comes through complementary principles
of linguistic cause and effect, be they diachronic, synchronic, areal, typological, neurological,
and so forth. It is this comprehensiveness that sets it apart from many other theories that tend to
predicate- or syntax-centricity. FDG is used to analyze the Biblical Hebrew so-called qatal
verb (QV), which is characterized by a high degree of multifunctionality. An FDG analysis of
several of its functions is provided and although this analysis is shown to be descriptively
robust it is also theoretically problematic in some respects. These broader problems in the
description and explanation of QV according to the theory of FDG are considered.
0002. Caglioti, E. et al. A STOCHASTIC LOCAL SEARCH APPROACH TO LANGUAGE TREE RECONSTRUCTION. Diachronica. 2010, 27(2):341358.
In this paper we introduce a novel stochastic local search algorithm to reconstruct phylogenetic
trees. We focus in particular on the reconstruction of language trees based on the comparison of the
Swadesh lists of the recently compiled ASJP database. Starting from a generic tree configuration,
our scheme stochastically explores the space of possible trees driven by the minimization of a
pseudo-functional quantifying the violations of additivity of the distance matrix. As a consequence
the resulting tree can be annotated with the values of the violations on each internal branch. The
values of the deviations are strongly correlated with the stability of the internal edges; they are measured with a novel bootstrap procedure and displayed on the tree as an additional annotation. As a
case study we considered the reconstruction of the Indo-European language tree. The results are
quite encouraging, highlighting a potential new avenue to investigate the role of the deviations
from additivity and check the reliability and consistency of the reconstructed trees.
0003. Coghill, E. THE GRAMMATICALIZATION OF PROSPECTIVE ASPECT IN A
GROUP OF NEO-ARAMAIC DIALECTS. Diachronica. 2010, 27(3):359410.
This paper examines the development of a future (more precisely prospective) auxiliary from
a motion verb in a small group of Neo-Aramaic dialects spoken in Iraq. The long written record of
Aramaic allows us to follow the grammaticalization process in some detail, and recent documentation of dialects has shown that various stages co-exist synchronically. The Neo-Aramaic case
challenges the theory that future auxiliaries from a verb to go should derive from an
imperfective in languages which have one. The development of the auxiliary also involves the
reanalysis of a present perfect as an immediate future: this apparently surprising development is
explained and possible parallels to it in other languages given. The prospective construction
exists alongside another future tense and the differences in form and function can be seen to
reflect the different origins and ages of the two constructions. There are strong indications that
the prospective construction has developed as a result of contact with a similar vernacular Arabic
construction. The distribution and level of maturity of the construction in the different dialects
can be explained by an origin in a village close to the Arabic-speaking area, and thence diffusion
to the neighbouring villages.
1
2012, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.
http://baywood.com

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0004. Croft, W. THE ORIGINS OF GRAMMATICALIZATION IN THE VERBALIZATION OF EXPERIENCE. Linguistics. 2010, 48(1):148.
The origins of language change, particularly grammatical change, appear to be unobservable.
But the first step in language change, innovation, can be observed in the production of synchronic
variation in sound change. The same can be done for morphosyntactic change such as
grammaticalization by comparing alternative verbalizations of the same experience in a controlled situation. Examples of innovation in lexical semantic change and grammaticalization are
examined using the twenty parallel English narratives of the Pear Stories. Morphosyntactic variation is pervasive in the Pear Stories narratives and the alternative verbalizations show that
morphosyntactic change is drawn from a pool of synchronic variation. These results disconfirm
the traditional theory of morphosyntactic change, in which innovation is rare and special mechanisms are required to produce it. Instead, grammaticalization, and language change in general,
originates in the variation inherent in the verbalization of experience.
0005. DJsveaux, E., and de Fornel, M. FROM OJIBWA TO DAKOTA: TOWARD A
TYPOLOGY OF SEMANTIC TRANSFORMATIONS IN AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES. Anthropological Linguistics. 2009, 51(2):95128.
In this article we propose a radical new typological approach to the diversity of North American
languages that is directly inspired by Claude Lvi-Strausss Mythologiques and his concept of
transformation. As with mythology, the semantic dimension of phenomena is crucial. A comparison between the grammars of an Algonquian and a Siouan language will serve as a first
illustration of the logical transformations linking two language families that previously have
been considered to be fundamentally distinct. A parallel appears between the results obtained
and those stemming from a comparison between the principal ritual manifestations of Sioux
culture and Subarctic Algonquian culture.
0006. Grant, A. P. SWADESHS LIFE AND PLACE IN LINGUISTICS. Diachronica.
2010, 27(2):191196.
A biography of American linguist Morris Harry Swadesh is presented. He was born on
January 22, 1909 in Holyoke, Massachusetts and studied at the University of Chicago,
majoring in languages. He then enrolled at Yale under the linguist Edward Sapir. He conducted fieldworks and literacy project for the Mexican government and as a linguist under
Henry Lee Smith at the Foreign Services Institute for the U.S. Army during World War II.
His works on glottochronology and lexicostatistics are explored.
0007. Grant, A. P. ON USING QUALITATIVE LEXICOSTATISTICS TO ILLUMINATE LANGUAGE HISTORY: SOME TECHNIQUES AND CASE STUDIES. Diachronica.
2010, 27(2):277300.
Following certain aspects of the work on lexicostatistics carried out in the 1960s and
published thereafter and thereby working in a tradition which has most recently been practised
by Ringe, among others, I maintain that much of lasting value can be learned about linguistic
interrelationships by using techniques which have been developed in work on qualitative
(rather than merely quantitative) lexicostatistics, using character-based methods.
0008. Hammarstrm, H. A FULL-SCALE TEST OF THE LANGUAGE FARMING DISPERSAL HYPOTHESIS. Diachronica. 2010, 27(2):197213.
One attempt at explaining why some language families are large (while others are small) is
the hypothesis that the families that are now large became large because their ancestral speakers had a technological advantage, most often agriculture. Variants of this idea are referred to
as the Language Farming Dispersal Hypothesis. Previously, detailed language family studies
have uncovered various supporting examples and counterexamples to this idea. In the present
paper I weigh the evidence from ALL attested language families. For each family, I use the
number of member languages as a measure of cardinal size, member language coordinates to
measure geospatial size and ethnographic evidence to assess subsistence status. This data

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shows that, although agricultural families tend to be larger in cardinal size, their size is hardly
due to the simple presence of farming. If farming were responsible for language family expansions, we would expect a greater east-west geospatial spread of large families than is actually
observed. The data, however, is compatible with weaker versions of the farming dispersal
hypothesis as well with models where large families acquire farming because of their size,
rather than the other way around.
0009. Heggarty, P. BEYOND LEXICOSTATISTICS: HOW TO GET MORE OUT OF
WORD LIST COMPARISONS. Diachronica. 2010, 27(2):301324.
This article surveys various long-standing ambiguities and confusions that continue to dog
lexicostatistics and glottochronology. I aim to offer some novel perspectives and clarifications,
which also help map out how we might devise new, alternative methods to build upon the good
in Swadeshs troubled legacy. I challenge the recent trend towards honing down Swadeshs
original list to a minimal core. A richer signal on language relationships is to be had not by discarding the data in meanings considered unstable, but by exploring the revealing patterns that
emerge only when those meanings are kept, and contrasted against their core counterparts.
0010. Hill, E. A CASE STUDY IN GRAMMATICALIZED INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY: ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE GERMANIC WEAK PRETERITE.
Diachronica. 2010, 27(3):411458.
This paper deals with one of the oldest and most controversial problems in the historical
morphology of the Germanic branch of Indo-European: the origin and historical development
of the so-called weak preterite. In Germanic, the weak preterite is the only means of forming
the preterite tense of a derived verb. In spite of two hundred years of research into the weak
preterite and a large number of hypotheses concerning its origin, it is not even securely established how the inflectional endings of this formation should be reconstructed for the common
prehistory of the attested Germanic languages. Traditionally the inflectional endings of the
weak preterite are conceived of as reflecting free inflectional forms of the verb do, only
recently having been grammaticalized as inflectional morphology for derived verbs. But it has
never been possible to identify the inflectional forms in question satisfactorily within the paradigm of do. This paper reconsiders the evidence of the Germanic daughter languages by
taking into account West Germanic irregularities previously neglected or viewed as irrelevant.
It is shown that the West Germanic evidence provides a key to understanding the origin and the
later developments of the weak preterite inflectional endings.
0011. Holman, E. W. DO LANGUAGES ORIGINATE AND BECOME EXTINCT AT
CONSTANT RATES? Diachronica. 2010, 27(2):214225.
The shape of phylogenetic trees of language families is used to test the null hypothesis that
languages throughout a family originate and go extinct at constant rates. Trees constructed
either by hand or by computer prove to be more unbalanced than predicted, with many languages on some branches and few on others. The observed levels of imbalance are not
explainable by errors in the trees or by the population sizes or geographic density of the languages. The results suggest changes in rates of origination or extinction on a time scale shorter
than the time depth of currently recognized families.
0012. Kossmann, M. PARALLEL SYSTEM BORROWING: PARALLEL MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS DUE TO THE BORROWING OF PARADIGMS. Diachronica. 2010,
27(3):459488.
In the typology of morphological borrowing, one type has received little attention: cases
where words are borrowed in several paradigmatic forms. An example of this is found in English alumnusalumni, where Latin nouns are borrowed both in their singular and plural forms.
Such borrowings lead to a coexistence of borrowed and native paradigms in one and the same
language. This type of borrowing is called Parallel System Borrowing (PSB). Such patterns are
wide-spread, and concern virtually all parts of morphology, including verbal inflection and

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pronouns. The emergence of PSB is not governed by a single sociolinguistic factor, such as the
existence of learned registers (as with alumnusalumni). In fact, it appears that some of the
most spectacular cases of PSB have no relation to learned registers at all.
0013. Landsbergen, F. et al. A CULTURAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PATTERNS
IN SEMANTIC CHANGE. Linguistics. 2010, 48(2):363390.
This article explores several mechanisms that may lead to language change, and examines
whether they may be responsible for unidirectionality. We use a cultural evolutionary computational model with which the effects of individual behavior on the group level can be
measured. By using this approach, regularities in semantic change can be explained in terms of
very basic mechanisms and aspects of language use such as the frequency with which particular
linguistic items are used. One example is that frequency differences by themselves are a strong
enough force for causing unidirectionality. We argue that adopting a cultural evolutionary
approach may be useful in the study of language change.
0014. Leslie, D. HEKIMA AND BUSARAARE THEY DIFFERENT CONCEPTS AND
HOW DO THEY RELATE TO UTU? Swahili Forum. 2010, 17:2433.
Swahili literature provides us with a useful insight into the meanings of the words busara,
hekima and utu. Understanding these words helps us to see the relationship between different
types of wisdom, intelligence and thought as seen by Swahili speaking people.
0015. Owens, J., and Dodsworth, R. STABILITY IN SUBJECT-VERB WORD ORDER:
FROM CONTEMPORARY ARABIAN PENINSULAR ARABIC TO BIBLICAL ARAMAIC. Anthropological Linguistics. 2009, 51(2):151175.
This article differs from traditional treatments of subject-verb word order in Semitic in two
respects. First, we take as our point of departure a detailed study of word order in contemporary
Arabian Peninsular Arabic, which shows that the respective order of the subject and verb in that
variety is determined by morpholexical and by discourse-immanent factors. From this starting
point, we work backwards, applying the same analytical framework to subject-verb word order in
Biblical Aramaic. Secondly, we use corpus-based quantitative methods and regression analysis
to determine the degree of similarity between Arabian Peninsular Arabic and Biblical Aramaic. It
emerges that, for all intents and purposes, subject-verb word order in Arabian Peninsular Arabic
and Biblical Aramaic are governed by an identical set of morpholexical and discourse constraints. Historical explanations for these results are discussed; it is emphasized that, whether the
patterns are due to common inheritance or to diffusion, a complex pattern of word order determination is sustained over at least 2,500 years of chronological time.
0016. Ranne, K. HEAVENLY DROPS THE IMAGE OF WATER IN TRADITIONAL
ISLAMIC SWAHILI POETRY. Swahili Forum. 2010, 17:5881.
Iba Ndiaye Diadji, a Senegalese professor of aesthetics, sees water as intrinsic to African
ontology. He also argues that water is the most important substance to inspire African artists.
Water certainly has a significant role in Swahili poetry, written traditionally by people living
on the coast of the Indian Ocean. Swahili poems have used aquatic imagery in expressing different ideas and sensations, in different contexts and times. Water imagery can be found in
hundreds of years old Islamic hymns as well as in political poetry written during the colonial
German East Africa. This article discusses water imagery in traditional Islamic Swahili poetry.
0017. Rettov, A. PHILOSOPHY IN UTENZI METRE: EXPRESSION OF IDEAS AND
VALUES IN POSTINDEPENDENCE SWAHILI HISTORIOGRAPHIC POETRY. Swahili
Forum. 2010, 17:3457.
Traditionally poetry has been a very important, even the predominant medium of the expression of ideas, values and viewpoints in Swahili culture. 1 Jan Knappert saw Swahili poetry,
with a particular focus on the utenzi genre, as an articulation of the Swahili worldview.
Adopting a diachronical perspective, Albert Grard has shown how the development of society
and its values is reflected in three tenzi.

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0018. Sullivan, J., and McMahon, A. PHONETIC COMPARISON, VARIETIES, AND


NETWORKS: SWADESHS INFLUENCE LIVES ON HERE TOO. Diachronica. 2010,
27(2):325340.
While his eponymous basic vocabulary lists and the study of language divergence may be
Swadeshs most appreciated legacies, we demonstrate that phonetic quantification of language
varieties also follows very much in the tradition of Swadeshs own work. We compare a few
different measures of phonetic distance on a very small set of data from Germanic varieties,
showing the influence of lexicostatistics and the relevance of Swadeshs Mesh Principle.
What we emphasise overall is that Swadeshs influence is palpable, even in domains outside
those for which he is best remembered.
0019. Tadmor, U., Haspelmath, M., and Taylor, B. BORROWABILITY AND THE
NOTION OF BASIC VOCABULARY. Diachronica. 2010, 27(2):226246.
This paper reports on a collaborative quantitative study of loanwords in 41 languages, aimed
at identifying meanings and groups of meanings that are borrowing-resistant. We find that
nouns are more borrowable than adjectives or verbs, that content words are more borrowable
than function words, and that different semantic fields also show different proportions of loanwords. Several issues arise when one tries to establish a list of the most borrowing-resistant
meanings: Our data include degrees of likelihood of borrowing, not all meanings have counterparts in all languages, many words are compounds or derivatives and hence almost by
definition non-loanwords. We also have data on the age of words. There are thus multiple factors that play a role, and we propose a way of combining the factors to yield a new 100-item list
of basic vocabulary, called the Leipzig-Jakarta list.
0020. Van de Velde, F. THE EMERGENCE OF MODIFICATION PATTERNS IN THE
DUTCH NOUN PHRASE. Linguistics. 2009, 47(4):10211040.
This article gives a diachronic account of adnominal modification from Proto-Indo-European
to present-day Dutch. The main conclusion is that through the ages, noun phrases appear to fold
out: they acquire their layered structure for different lexical modifiers over time. The latest stage
in this process is the fairly recent development of a specific slot for interpersonal modification of
the whole noun phrase. The different stages in the diachronic development are described with the
layered and modular representation of functional discourse grammar (FDG).
0021. Wichmann, S., Mller, A., and Velupillai, V. HOMELANDS OF THE WORLDS
LANGUAGE FAMILIES: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH. Diachronica. 2010, 27(2):247
276.
A systematic, computer-automated tool for narrowing down the homelands of linguistic families
is presented and applied to 82 of the worlds larger families. The approach is inspired by the wellknown idea that the geographical area of maximal diversity within a language family corresponds
to the original homeland. This is implemented in an algorithm which takes a lexicostatistically
derived distance measure and a geographical distance measure and computes a lexical diversity
measure for each language in the family relative to all the other related languages. The location of
the language with the highest diversity measure is heuristically identified with the homeland.

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
0022. Akita, K. AN EMBODIED SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
MIMETICS IN JAPANESE. Linguistics. 2010, 48(6):11951220.
This paper claims that psychological sound-symbolic words (or psych-mimetics; e.g., kat (to)
angry, wakuwaku exhilarated) in Japanese and predicates they form have embodied semantic
characteristics. Previous studies have assumed that psych-mimetics form one category. However, the possibility of cooccurrence with locus NPs enables a clear distinction among them.
Psych-mimetics that optionally take a locus NP (termed somatopsych-mimetics) refer to

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bodily sensation and those that cannot take one (termed visuopsych-mimetics) refer to observable activity or behavior in addition to emotion. Several sorts of reinforcement are given to this
dichotomy. First, not a few somato- and visuopsych-mimetics can be synchronically or
diachronically analyzed as being derived from mimetics for bodily sensation and mimetics of
vision, respectively. Second, some morphosyntactic properties of mimetic psych-verbs, including their morphology and participation in two controllability-related constructions, support the
distinctive statuses of somato- and visuopsych-mimetics. Third, an experiment asking Japanese
speakers to draw pictures for psych-mimetics provided further evidence for the visual basis of
visuopsych-mimetics. Thus, like other psychological/perceptual expressions, psych-mimetics
represent emotion by referring to particular physical experiences associated with or similar to it.
Consequently, this study is dually significant. It contributes to the embodiment theory and points
out the regularity of this apparently peculiar word class.
0023. Ambrose, S. H. COEVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE-TOOL TECHNOLOGY, CONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY, AND LANGUAGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF
MODERN HUMAN BEHAVIOR. Current Anthropology. 2010, 51(Suppl 1):S135S145.
The evolution of modern human behavior was undoubtedly accompanied by neurological
changes that enhanced capacities for innovation in technology, language, and social organization associated with working memory. Constructive memory integrates components of
working memory in the medial prefrontal cortex to imagine alternative futures. Enhanced
mental time travel permits long-range strategic planning. Within this broadly conceived area of
cognitive neuropsychology, I will focus on two stages of the evolution of cognitive faculties for
planning. The first involves executing complex sequences of actions involving manufacture of
multicomponent artifacts; the second involves enhanced planning through information sharing, which required the establishment of extended regional social interaction networks based
on trust and cooperation. Both stages were probably accompanied by important innovations in
grammatical speech.
0024. Bruner, E. MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN THE PARIETAL LOBES
WITHIN THE HUMAN GENUS: A NEUROFUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE. Current
Anthropology. 2010, 51(Suppl 1):S77S88.
There have been very few morphological studies regarding brain parietal volumes. This is
probably a result of the fact that their boundaries are rather difficult to establish. Functions of
the parietal lobes that have already been documented range from visuospatial integration,
category recognition, and praxis to orientation, numerical processing, and speech decoding. It
has been hypothesized that the parietal lobes have had a major role in the evolution of the
human brain because of their morphological changes.
0025. DeDe, G. UTILIZATION OF PROSODIC INFORMATION IN SYNTACTIC
AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(4):345374.
Two self paced listening experiments examined the role of prosodic phrasing in syntactic
ambiguity resolution. In Experiment 1, the stimuli consisted of early closure sentences
(e.g., While the parents watched, the child sang a song.) containing transitive-biased subordinate verbs paired with plausible direct objects or intransitive-biased subordinate verbs
paired with implausible direct objects. Experiment 2 also contained early closure sentences
with transitively and intransitive-biased subordinate verbs, but the subordinate verbs were
always followed by plausible direct objects. In both experiments, there were two prosodic
conditions. In the subject-biased prosodic condition, an intonational phrase boundary
marked the clausal boundary following the subordinate verb. In the object-biased prosodic
condition, the clause boundary was unmarked. The results indicate that lexical and
prosodic cues interact at the subordinate verb and plausibility further affects processing at
the ambiguous noun. Results are discussed with respect to models of the role of prosody in
sentence comprehension.

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0026. Duman, T. Y. TIME REFERENCE THROUGH VERB INFLECTION IN TURKISH AGRAMMATIC APHASIA. Brain and Language. 2009, 108(1):3039.
This study tested the production of tensed finite verbs and participles referring to the past and
future in agrammatic speakers of Turkish. The agrammatic speakers did not make more time reference errors in tensed verbs than in participles. This is interesting because tense in general cannot
therefore be the main problem, since time reference for participles lacking tense inflection is as difficult as for verbs with tense inflection. Besides that, the past tense/perfect aspect was found to be
more difficult to produce for the agrammatic speakers than the future tense/imperfect aspect. None
of the current theories on agrammatic deficits can explain why reference to the past/perfect aspect is
more difficult than reference to future/imperfect aspect, although a similar finding was reported for
Dutch by We present a remoteness model of time reference to account for the data.
0027. Gawda, B. SYNTAX OF EMOTIONAL NARRATIVES OF PERSONS DIAGNOSED WITH ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010,
39(4):273283.
The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons
diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of
60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with low antisocial tendencies, and
100 men without the antisocial tendencies, were analyzed. The participants had to describe the
situations of love, hate and anxiety inspired by the photographs. The narrative discourse was
analyzed. The research was concentrated on syntactic elements. Comparisons between the three
groups were conducted. The results show the differences between the antisocial inmates, nonantisocial inmates, and controls. In their emotional narratives, the antisocial individuals used
more repetitions, pauses and negations. These linguistic characteristics are attributed to high
activity, psychopathy and emotionality of persons diagnosed with antisocial personality.
0028. Hsu, C.-H. ORTHOGRAPHIC COMBINABILITY AND PHONOLOGICAL CONSISTENCY EFFECTS IN READING CHINESE PHONOGRAMS: AN EVENT-RELATED
POTENTIAL STUDY. Brain and Language. 2009, 108(1):5666.
In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace the temporal dynamics of
phonological consistency and phonetic combinability in the reading of Chinese phonograms.
The data showed a significant consistency-by-combinability interaction at N170. High phonetic combinability characters elicited greater negativity at N170 than did low phonetic
combinability characters, and the combinability effect was only found in the reading of high
consistency characters. The results support the phonological mapping hypothesis of the readingrelated N170 effect and suggest that the earlier stages of visual word recognition are shaped by
the mapping of orthography to phonology even in Chinese. Moreover, our data revealed both
consistency and combinability effects at P200 and N400, accounted for by the two-stage
framework for visual word recognition. That is, characters with high combinability or high
consistency facilitated the earlier stages of orthographic or phonological processing which
were due to increased activation at the perceptual level; consequently, less positive P200 was
demonstrated. In the later stages, high combinability or high consistency characters were associated with a larger semantic neighborhood, which increased semantic competition and
exaggerated the N400 effect. These data support the assumption of radical-based inputs proposed by the lexical constituent model. However, the phonetic consistency effects found at
N170 and P200 cannot be reconciled with the current framework of the lexical constituent
model. A possible revision will be discussed.
0029. Hu, C.-F. PHONOLOGICAL BASES FOR L2 MORPHOLOGICAL LEARNING.
Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(4):305322.
Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in
childrens ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input.
In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted

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the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflateinflation) from
multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed childrens ability to use morphological
cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms
(e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb).
The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the
input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA
were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary
knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning.
0030. Huumo, T. IS PERCEPTION A DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIP? ON
DIRECTIONALITY AND ITS MOTIVATION IN FINNISH EXPRESSIONS OF SENSORY
PERCEPTION. Linguistics. 2010, 48(1):4998.
This article examines the hypothesis that sensory perception is linguistically conceptualized as a directional relationship that involves the motion of a signal between the experiencer
and the stimulus. The hypothesis is tested with data from Finnish. The study focuses on
expressions of visual, auditory and olfactory perception. The data consist of sentences
including a perception verb and a locative element that indicates the position of either the
experiencer or the stimulus. There are three options for marking such a locative: a static in/
on/at case, a directional from case, or a directional to case. The results reveal crucial
differences on the one hand between different verbs in each domain, on the other between the
different sensory domains. Agentive perception verbs favor the directionality experiencer
⇒ stimulus to a greater extent than non-agentive or intransitive perception verbs. The
opposite directionality (stimulus ⇒ experiencer) is favored if the stimulus is a signal or a
mental content rather than a concrete entity. In general, expressions of visual perception
favor the static coding to a greater extent than expressions of auditory and olfactory perception, which favor the directional stimulus ⇒ experiencer coding. It is argued that this
difference follows from the conceptualization of auditory and olfactory perception as involving the motion of a signal (a sound or a smell) as opposed to visual perception, which is
conceptualized as the perception of a concrete entity.
0031. Keng Wee Ong, K., and Jun Zhang, L. METALINGUISTIC FILTERS WITHIN
THE BILINGUAL LANGUAGE FACULTY: A STUDY OF YOUNG ENGLISH-CHINESE
BILINGUALS. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(3):243272.
This study reports two metalinguistic parameters that constitute the schematic control of lateral
inhibitory links between translation equivalents within the bilingual lexico-semantic system of
Greens inhibitory control (IC) model. Building on Greens postulation that the bilingual lexicosemantic system is controlled by a hierarchy of schemas under a supervisory attentional system, the
bilingual unconsciously filters activated lemmas during fluent spontaneous codeswitching, such
that lemmas that are semantico-syntactically versatile or morphosyntactically transparent are likely
to reach a threshold of activation first while other lemmas are inhibited. To investigate the issue, we
collected code-paired naturalistic and elicited data with a focus on code-switched determiner
phrases from 140 Mandarin-English simultaneous bilinguals who were post-secondary students in
Singapore. We found that the semantico-syntactic and morpho-syntactic dissimilarities between
Mandarin and English activated both filters. As most Mandarin determiners are economical vis-vis their English counterparts, their lemmas were selected frequently while English lemmas
were largely inhibited. It was also found that our participants preferred English nouns in filling
the lexical category for their interpretable feature of number, a feature that is normally absent in
Mandarin nouns.
0032. Nejati, V., and Asadi, A. SEMANTIC AND PHONEMIC VERBAL FLUENCY IN
BLINDS. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(3):235242.
A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a
brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive

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function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and
semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124 sighted people
in verbal fluency task. The tasks were phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test that subjects should be generate as many word as possible in a limited amount of time for a given
letter (Phonemic fluency) or a given category (Semantic fluency). Independent T Test was
used to comparing blind with sighted. Findings show significant difference between two
groups so that that sighted subjects have higher performance in semantic verbal fluency
task ( p = 0.000). Comparing sighted and blind subjects in phonemic verbal fluency task
shows performance in sighted subjects ( p = 0.000). Based on this study blinds have lower
performance in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency task as a executive function of
frontal lobe.
0033. OConnell, D., and Kowal, S. INTERJECTIONS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF
JANE AUSTENS PRIDE AND PREJUDICE. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010,
39(4):285304.
Three data sets of primary and secondary interjections were compared: (1) the original interjections written into the text of Jane Austens (1813/1994) novel Pride and Prejudice; (2) the
interjections read aloud in commercial recordings by six professional readers of the entire text
of the novel; (3) the interjections spoken by actresses and actors in the film production whose
script, despite modest selectiveness, adheres most closely of all film versions to Austens original
text. Overall, the respective frequencies of occurrence of interjections were 136 < 141 < 398.
Of the 136 interjections in Austens printed text, 96% were attributable to womens roles, particularly Elizabeth Bennet and her mother. The second of these figures (141) is an average
across all six readers. Hence, readers added a very modest number of interjections. But the
actresses and actors added a large number of interjections. The dramatic oral expressiveness
of the film performance is largely carried by and reflected in the actresses and to a lesser extent
in the actors use of these primary interjections. A large percentage (96%) of the interjections
in the film performance served the function of initializing various units of discourse, either
after a pause before articulatory phrases, or before a sentence and/or turn. Both the emotional
and initiating functions of interjections are characteristic of conceptual and medial orality
rather than of conceptual and medial literacy. Accordingly, their usage throws further light on a
theory of spontaneous spoken discourse.
0034. OConnell, D. C. et al. START-UP RHETORIC IN EIGHT SPEECHES OF
BARACK OBAMA. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(5):393409.
Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S.
President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from
May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and
purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for the
excellence of his rhetorical performance, would pursue both constant and variable strategies in his effort to establish contact with his audience. More specifically, it was
hypothesized that the make-up of the audience-primarily native or non-native speakers of
English-would be a prominent independent variable. A number of temporal and verbal
measures were used as dependent variables. Variations were evident in mean length in syllables and duration in seconds of utterances (articulatory phrases), articulation rate in
syllables per second of ontime, mean duration of silent pauses in seconds, and frequency of
fillers, hesitations, colloquial words and phrases, introductory phrases, and 1st person singular pronominals. Results indicated that formality versus informality of the setting and
presence or absence of a teleprompter were more prominent than native versus non-native
audiences. Our analyses confirm Obamas skillfulness in challenging and variable settings
and clearly detect orderliness and scientific generalizability in language use. The concept
of orality/literacy provides a theoretical background and emphasizes dialogical interaction
of audience and speaker.

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0035. Poirier, J. et al. THE REAL-TIME PROCESSING OF SLUICED SENTENCES.


Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(5):411427.
Ellipsis refers to an element that is absent from the input but whose meaning can nonetheless
be recovered from context. In this cross-modal priming study, we examined the online processing of Sluicing, an ellipsis whose antecedent is an entire clause: The handyman threw a book to
the programmer but I dont know which book the handyman threw to the programmer To
understand such an elliptical construction, the listener arguably must fill in the missing material (the handyman threw___to the programmer) based on that which occurs in the antecedent
clause. We aimed to determine the point in time in which reconstruction of the sluiced sentence
is attempted and whether such a complex antecedent is re-accessed by the ellipsis. Out of the
two antecedent constituents for which we probed, only the Object (programmer) was found
active in the elliptical clause, confirming that an antecedent is attributed to the sluice in real
time. Possible reasons for the non-observation of the Subject (handyman) are considered. We
also suggest that ellipses are detected earlier in coordinated than subordinated sentences.
0036. Reuland. E. IMAGINATION, PLANNING, AND WORKING MEMORY: THE
EMERGENCE OF LANGUAGE. Current Anthropology. 2010, 51(Suppl 1):S99S110.
Imagination (leading to planning, culture, theory of mind) is a powerful property of the
human mind. This article will focus on the relation between imagination, planning, and language. Language is a systematic mapping between arbitrary forms in a medium and
interpretations. Its minimal unitswordscombine an instruction for realization with an
instruction for interpretation. A crucial condition for language to emerge is the ability to access
and recursively combine concepts as words by form rather than meaning. I will discuss what
such control over lexical access depends on. Using language requires holding forms in working
memory while temporarily suppressing their realization and interpretation. A memory system
with a buffer able to hold chunks of material of sufficient size is necessary. I will argue that the
limiting factor is not so much working memory per se, as understood in the seminal work by
Baddeley, but rather the interface/area of overlap between short-term declarative and procedural memory systems as discussed by Ullman. I conclude with a discussion of the relation
between the shape of the grammatical system and (limitations on) working-memory processing
resources thus conceived.
0037. Tomita, K., Yamada, J., and Takatsuka, S. ENGLISH VOWEL SPACES PRODUCED BY JAPANESE SPEAKERS: THE SMALLER POINT VOWELS AND THE
GREATER SCHWAS. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(5):375391.
This study investigated how Japanese-speaking learners of English pronounce the three
point vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ appearing in the first and second monosyllabic words of English
noun phrases, and the schwa /c/ appearing in English disyllabic words. First and second formant (Fl and F2) values were measured for four Japanese speakers and two American English
speakers. The hypothesis that the area encompassed by the point vowels in the F1F2 vowel
space tends to be smaller for the Japanese speakers than for the English speakers was verified.
The hypothesis that the area formed by the three schwas in $${{chick\underline{e}n}}$$,
$${{spoonf{\underline{u}}1}}$$, and $${{Tarz\underline{a}n}}$$ is greater for the Japanese speakers than for the English speakers and its related hypothesis were largely upheld.
Implications for further research are briefly discussed.
0038. Turella, L. MIRROR NEURONS IN HUMANS: CONSISTING OR CONFOUNDING EVIDENCE? Brain and Language. 2009, 108(1):1021.
The widely known discovery of mirror neurons in macaques shows that premotor and parietal
cortical areas are not only involved in executing ones own movement, but are also active when
observing the action of others. The goal of this essay is to critically evaluate the substance of
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies whose aim has been to reveal the presence of a parallel system in humans. An inspection of

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this literature suggests that there is relatively weak evidence for the existence of a circuit with
mirror properties in humans, such as that described in monkeys.
0039. Wilke, M. COMBINED FUNCTIONAL AND CAUSAL CONNECTIVITY ANALYSES OF LANGUAGE NETWORKS IN CHILDREN: A FEASIBILITY STUDY. Brain and
Language. 2009, 108(1):2229.
Instead of assessing activation in distinct brain regions, approaches to investigating the
networks underlying distinct brain functions have come into the focus of neuroscience
research. Here, we provide a completely data-driven framework for assessing functional and
causal connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, employing
Grangers causality. We investigate the networks underlying story processing in 17 healthy
children (8f, 9m, 10.4 2.8 years, 6.515.4 years). Extensive functional connectivity exists
between brain regions, including some not detected in standard random effects analyses.
Causal connectivity analyses demonstrate a clear dominance of left-sided language regions for
both forward and backward interactions with other network nodes. We believe our approach to
be useful in helping to assess language networks in the normal or pathological setting; it may
also aid in providing better starting estimates for the more hypothesis-driven approaches like
structural equation or dynamic causal modeling.
0040. Xiang, M. ILLUSORY LICENSING EFFECTS ACROSS DEPENDENCY TYPES:
ERP EVIDENCE. Brain and Language. 2009, 108(1):4055.
A number of recent studies have argued that grammatical illusions can arise in the process of
completing linguistic dependencies, such that unlicensed material is temporarily treated as
licensed due to the presence of a potential licensor that is semantically appropriate but in a syntactically inappropriate position. A frequently studied case involves illusory licensing of
negative polarity items (NPIs) like ever and any, which must appear in the scope (i.e., c-command
domain) of a negative element. Speakers often show intrusive licensing effects in sentences
where an NPI is preceded but not c-commanded by a negative element, as in *The restaurants
that no newspapers have recommended in their reviews have ever gone out of business. Existing accounts of intrusive licensing have focused on the role of general memory retrieval
processes. In contrast, we propose that intrusive licensing of NPIs reflects semantic/pragmatic
processes that are more specific to NPI licensing. As a test of this claim, we present results from
an ERP study that presents a structurally matched comparison of intrusive licensing in two
types of linguistic dependencies, namely NPI licensing and the binding of reflexive anaphors
like himself, and herself. In the absence of a potential licensor, both NPIs and reflexives elicit a
P600 response, but whereas there is an immediate ERP analog of the intrusion effect for NPI
licensing, no such effect is found for reflexive binding. This suggests that the NPI intrusion
effect does not reflect general-purpose retrieval mechanisms.
0041. Yu, V., and Andruski, J. A CROSS-LANGUAGE STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF
LEXICAL STRESS IN ENGLISH. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 2010, 39(4):
323344.
This study investigates the question of whether language background affects the perception
of lexical stress in English. Thirty native English speakers and 30 native Chinese learners of
English participated in a stressed-syllable identification task and a discrimination task involving three types of stimuli (real words/pseudowords/hums). The results show that both language
groups were able to identify and discriminate stress patterns. Lexical and segmental information affected the English and Chinese speakers in varying degrees. English and Chinese
speakers showed different response patterns to trochaic vs. iambic stress across the three types
of stimuli. An acoustic analysis revealed that two language groups used different acoustic cues
to process lexical stress. The findings suggest that the different degrees of lexical and segmental effects can be explained by language background, which in turn supports the hypothesis that
language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English.

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SOCIOLINGUISTICS
0042. Amfo, N. A. A. LEXICAL SIGNALING OF INFORMATION STRUCTURE IN
AKAN. Linguistics. 2010, 48(1):195226.
Akan (Kwa, Niger Congo) has a rich inventory of lexical items for the purposes of signaling
information structure. This article examines the communicative role of a number of these markers.
The focus marker na singles out the constituent within its scope as the only new information in the
utterance in which it is contained. Two inclusive markers are identified; they are (n)so and mpo.
(N)so is an additive focus marker which indicates that the utterance to which it is attached has to be
interpreted in a context parallel to that of the immediately preceding utterance. Mpo is a scalar
marker; the entity within its scope is considered quite low on a pragmatically given scale. Exclusive
markers in the language include the restrictive nko and the multifunctional ara. The latter combines
with features of the context to communicate restriction, simultaneity, continuity, or it may cause the
accompanying utterance to receive a scalar reading. Finally, the traditional analysis associated with
the information structural marker de is shown to be untenable. Thus, an alternative analysis is
proffered, based on critical examination of its discourse function, using attested data.
0043. Armour, W. RECONCEPTUALISING IDENTITY SLIPPAGE: ADDITIONAL
LANGUAGE LEARNING AND (L2) IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT. Journal of Multilingual
and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(4):311326.
This paper reconsiders the theoretical concept of identity slippage by considering a detailed
exegesis of three model conversations taught to learners of Japanese as an additional language.
To inform my analysis of these conversations and how they contribute to identity slippage, I have
used the work of the systemic-functional linguist Jay Lemke and the educational linguist James
Paul Gee as well as using the guiding principle of semogenesis. It is suggested that the three interrelated frames of correctness, norms, and conformity need to be accounted for in a discussion of
how learning an additional language impacts of identity development.
0044. Bensoussan, M. READING PREFERENCES AND EXPECTATIONS OF MULTILINGUAL ISRAELI UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development. 2009, 30(6):465480.
Israeli students need to be multilingually literate to read academic texts, mainly in Hebrew,
Arabic, Russian and English. In fact, little is known about students reading habits despite a
variety of university reading comprehension courses in different languages. The present study
examines students reading preferences and textual expectations, comparing reading in L1 with
L2/L3/Ln. Two questionnaires on reading habits and expectations were administered to 226
students during the academic year 20052006. Reading preferences were found to be multilingual, linked to the readers interests, as well as to text genre and availability. Students reported
reading the Internet, textbooks, literature and poetry mostly in L1 (Hebrew, Arabic or Russian), newspapers mostly in L1/L2 (Hebrew, Arabic), academic articles mostly in L2/L3
(Hebrew, English) and sacred texts mostly in L1 (Arabic, Hebrew). In addition, English texts
were read regardless of native language, indicating a situation of multilingualism with English.
Most reading was reported for social purposes, followed by academic purposes, with personal
reading least frequent. English was read more for social and academic purposes than for personal reading, which occurred mostly in L1. Most of the students expected to read for
information (indicating social and academic) rather than imagination or fantasy (personal).
0045. Bliss, L. S., and McCabe, A. PATTERNS OF DISCOURSE COHERENCE: VARIATIONS IN GENRE PERFORMANCE IN CHILDREN WITH LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. 2009, 28(2):137154.
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the discourse coherence of 36 children
with language impairment (LI) who produced 3 types of genres: scripts, personal narratives,
and procedural discourse. The children described in random order a routine activity, personal
experience, and a favorite game. The genres were analyzed for length, Syntactic complexity,

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topic maintenance, informativeness, and fluency. Scripts resulted in short, simple, and fluent
utterances. Personal narratives and procedural discourse were similar in their length, informativeness, and fluency. Procedures were more syntactically complex and on topic than personal
narratives. Children with LI are influenced by discourse genre. Different discourse genres
should be compared in clinical assessments. Intervention should include different discourse
genres in order to maximize a childs social, communicative, and classroom discourse.
0046. Bobda, A. S. THE MEANING OF ENGLISH WORDS ACROSS CULTURES,
WITH A FOCUS ON CAMEROON AND HONG KONG. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(5):375389.
A word, even when considered monosemic, generally has a cluster of meanings, depending
on the mental representation of the referent by the speaker/writer or listener/reader. The variation is even more noticeable across cultures. This paper investigates the different ways in
which cultural knowledge helps in the interpretation of English lexical items. After a brief
review of the traditional World Englishes structural perspective, the paper analyses the various
ways in which the schema helps in the construction of lexical meaning: it helps to decode the
denotative meaning of some words with possible multiple interpretations; to perceive the referential boundaries; to understand the connotative meaning; to modulate meaning, demoting
some features and promoting others; to understand the physical elements which contribute to
the mental representation of some words; to perceive the bodily movements and other
paralinguistic elements which contribute to the construction of the meaning of some words; to
perceive the salience of a word within a cultural community; to perceive and predict collocates;
to perceive cultural assumptions; to perceive political politeness and taboos; to distinguish
transactional language from interactional language, and so on. The study is shown to have
implications for lexicography and for English Language teaching.
0047. Brown, I., and Sachdev, I. BILINGUAL BEHAVIOUR, ATTITUDES, IDENTITY
AND VITALITY: SOME DATA FROM JAPANESE SPEAKERS IN LONDON, UK. Journal
of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(4):327343.
Although the Japanese community in London is relatively small, its composition is stable and
reflects several aspects of Japans relationship with the international community. Yet there
appears to have been no systematic research exploring patterns of bilingual behaviour in relation
to social psychological processes amongst Japanese nationals in London. The 95 participants in
this study were all Japanese nationals, who came from three major groups in this community,
namely company employees, students and pupils at a Japanese school. They completed a quantitative questionnaire about language use, attitudes to use, proficiency, identity, contact and
perceived vitalities in both London and Japan. Although the findings confirmed the dominance of
Japanese in proficiency and identity, they also suggested some systematic variance in use and
attitudes according to context. Furthermore, while multivariate analyses supported the predictive
value of English proficiency for the use of each language, the prediction of English use and attitudes was significantly enhanced by incorporating three factors related to identities and vitalities.
Finally, Japanese use and attitudes were also associated with social contact. These findings are
discussed with reference to ethnolinguistic identity theory, intergroup and intragroup factors, and
the international status of English.
0048. Chan, A. Y. W. AN INVESTIGATION INTO CANTONESE ESL LEARNERS
ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH INITIAL CONSONANT CLUSTERS. Linguistics. 2010,
48(1):99142.
This article discusses the acquisition of English initial consonant clusters by Cantonese ESL
learners in Hong Kong with an aim to examine the explanatory power of the Markedness Differential Hypothesis (MDH) and the Interlanguage Structural Conformity Hypothesis (ISCH)
and to gain insights into the interlanguage phonology of the learners. Both hypotheses make
predictions about second language learning on the basis of implicational universals, but the
former is also premised on the differences between the native and target languages. The study

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investigated Cantonese ESL learners acquisition of English obstruent + nasal onsets and
obstruent + liquid onsets as well as their acquisition of two-member onsets and three-member
onsets. A total of twelve learners participated in the study. They were asked to perform four different speech tasks including the reading of a word list, the description of a series of pictures
using isolated words, the reading of three passages, and a conversational interview. The participants speech was recorded using a high-quality mini-disk recorder and transcribed by two
raters. The results of the study show that the implicational relationships which hold between
the different categories of onset clusters also hold for the interlanguages of the participants, and
the predictions of the MDH and the ISCH are also borne out. Where no universal markedness
relationships exist among different onset clusters, the inherent difficulty of a segment resulting
from the phonotactic constraints of a learners mother tongue remains the most important
factor contributing to the overall level of difficulty of an onset cluster. It is also argued that, in
the interlanguages of the participants, there exists a phonological rule which neutralizes liquids
in clusters. Further research is needed to investigate the abilities of Cantonese ESL learners to
perceive English speech sounds and the possible effects that their perceptual abilities may have
on their production abilities.
0049. Clift, R., and Helani, F. INSHALLAH: RELIGIOUS INVOCATIONS IN ARABIC
TOPIC TRANSITION. Language in Society. 2010, 39:357382.
The phrase inshallah God willing is well known, even to non-Arabic speakers, as a mitigator of
any statement regarding the future, or hopes for the future. Here we use the methods of conversation analysis (CA) to examine a less salient but nonetheless pervasive and compelling interactional
usage: in topic-transition sequences. We use a corpus of Levantine (predominantly Syrian) Arabic
talk-in-interaction to pay detailed attention to the sequential contexts of inshallah and its cognates
across a number of exemplars. It emerges that these invocations are used to secure possible
sequence and topic closure, and that they may engender reciprocal invocations. Topical talk following invocations or their responses is subsequently shown to be suspended by both parties; this
provides for a move to a new topic by either party.
0050. DArcy, A., and Tagliamonte, S. A. PRESTIGE, ACCOMMODATION, AND THE
LEGACY OF RELATIVE WHO. Language in Society. 2010, 39:383410.
This article presents a quantitative variationist analysis of the English restrictive relative pronouns. However, where previous research has largely focused on language-internal explanations
for variant choice, the focus here is the social meaning of this erstwhile syntactic variable. We
uncover rich sociolinguistic embedding of the relative pronouns in standard, urban speech. The
only productive wh- form is who, which continues to pattern as a prestige form centuries after its
linguistic specialization as a human subject relative. This legacy of prestige is reflected not only
in the social characteristics of those with whom it is associated, but also in the patterns of accommodation that are visible in its use. These findings simultaneously demonstrate the tenacious
nature of social meaning and the enduring effects of grammatical ideology, both of which influence pronoun choice in the context of face-to-face interaction.
0051. East, M. PROMOTING POSITIVE ATTITUDES TOWARDS FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING: A NEW ZEALAND INITIATIVE. Journal of Multilingual and
Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(6):493507.
This paper reports on the effectiveness of a tailored undergraduate course at a tertiary institution
in New Zealand constructed to challenge, and encourage changes to, monolingual English-only
attitudes. The course was designed to provide knowledge and promote understanding of the phenomenon of English as a global language, and the place of, and implications for, languages other
than English in that context. Working with two cohorts of students, a pre- and post-treatment design
was used whereby participants completed an attitudinal questionnaire at the start of the course and
the same questionnaire at the end. They were also asked what they thought about languages in a
globalised world. The questionnaires Were analysed to determine if there had been any shift in attitudes by the end of the course. Findings are presented and discussed in terms of the effectiveness of

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this course to promote positive attitudes towards foreign language learning in New Zealand-based
students. It raises the question of whether similar courses could be planned for use by secondary
and other tertiary students as part of initiatives to help them to recognise that speaking languages
other than English is normative in todays world.
0052. Forlot, G. CHOOSING A SCHOOL IN A DOUBLE-MINORITY CONTEXT:
LANGUAGE, MIGRATION AND IDEOLOGIES IN FRENCH ONTARIO. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(5):391403.
Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Toronto, Ontario, this article examines the
schooling behaviour of parents who have migrated from France to Canada. The population
under study, engaged in a northern kind of migration, generally benefits from an education
acquired in the pre-migration period and from the legitimacy of possessing an international language. On the other hand, these immigrants from France are faced with a reversed status within
their host society: while they used to belong to the majority in their country of origin, they have
become a minority in English Canada, as well as a minority within the Francophone minority of
the province. The central argument of this article is that for immigrant families, language
acquisition and maintenance, educational philosophy and renewed identifications are key to
the decisionmaking process of choosing a school. This is particularly true in the context of a
diverse educational market (such as this urban Canadian one) which offers programmes ranging from an ethno-centred kind of education to a non-ethnic, student-centred, multicultural
approach of learning. The study reveals that educational choices contribute to immigrants
adaptation processes, and that opting for a school may both reflect ideology and identity
choices and participate in their reproduction.
0053. Gao, F. LANGUAGE AND POWER: KOREAN-CHINESE STUDENTS LANGUAGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development. 2009, 30(6):525534.
Language is not only a method of communication, but also a mechanism of power. The
ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of Korean students, who
are participating in a bilingual Korean school in Northeast China, construct their language attitude and practice. Research findings indicate that the Korean students value both Korean and
Chinese language acquisition, and adopt the two languages for self-empowerment in the academic hierarchy of the Korean school. The positive attitude and practice of Korean students
towards Korean and Chinese language studies highlight the politically and economically functional power of Korean and Chinese languages as a means of acquiring a larger benefit from
Chinas economic marketisation, especially increasing business contacts with South Korea.
This article argues that the increasing significance of transnationalism for ethnic minorities
within globalisation emphasises bilingual proficiency, or even trilingualism in Chinas reform
period which implies the necessity of relevant policy initiations for the increasing needs of
language acquisition.
0054. Hay, J., and Drager, K. STUFFED TOYS AND SPEECH PERCEPTION. Linguistics. 2010, 48(4):865892.
Previous research has shown that speech perception can be influenced by a speakers social
characteristics, including the expected dialect area of the speaker. This article reports on an
experiment designed to test to degree to which exposure to the concept of a region can also influence perception. In order to invoke the concept, we exposed participants, who were all speakers
of New Zealand English, to either stuffed toy kangaroos and koalas (associated with Australia) or
stuffed toy kiwis (associated with New Zealand). Participants then completed a perception task in
which they matched natural vowels produced by a male New Zealander to vowels from a synthesized continuum which ranged from raised and fronted Australian-like tokens to lowered and
centralized New Zealand-like tokens. Our results indicate that perception of the vowels shifted
depending on which set of toys the participants had seen. This supports models of speech perception in which linguistic and nonlinguistic information are intricately entwined.

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0055. Ioratim-Uba, G. A. LANGUAGE ENDANGERMENT AND THE VIOLENT


ETHNIC CONFLICT LINK IN MIDDLE BELT NIGERIA. Journal of Multilingual and
Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(5):437452.
This paper highlights the fact that language endangerment in some multilingual developing
societies is causal to the violent ethnic conflicts in those societies. Endangered language identity groups shift to the dominant language groups. But, over time, a concatenation of factors
and nuanced realisation of perceived marginalisation (showing overtly at the political, economic,
social and religious realms) leads to attrition in the wake of the endangered groups clamour for
fair treatment. The cases of Benue, Plateau and Taraba States in Middle Belt Nigeria (involving
the Tiv, Jukun, Etulo, Kuteb, Berom, Afizere, Anaguta, Taroh, and Hausa ethnic groups) reveal
this fact. Highly significant calculated t-test values at an alpha level of <0.05 are found, for
example, to show the disintegration of bilingual behaviour between Tiv/Jukun and Tiv/Etulo
during the period of the violent ethnic clashes among them. Language endangerment/shift
reversal is complex. It can create conflicts but at the same time help to restore confidence and
mitigate the fear of domination felt by ethnic minorities. Linguists and small/dominated language communities can work assiduously towards the latter. Conflict management experts will
also do well to pay a great deal of attention to language as a conflict agent.
0056. Keating, E., and Sunakawa, C. PARTICIPATION CUES: COORDINATING
ACTIVITY AND COLLABORATION IN COMPLEX ONLINE GAMING WORLDS. Language in Society. 2010, 39:331356.
The development of digital communication technologies not only has an influence on human
communicative practices, but also creates new spaces for human collaborative activity. In this
article we discuss a technologically mediated context for interaction, computer games. Closely
looking at interactions among a group of gamers, we examine how players are managing complex, shifting frameworks of participation, the virtual game world and the embodied world of
talk and plans for action. Introducing the notion of PARTICIPATION CUES, we explain how
interactants are able to orient to, plan, and execute collaborative actions that span quite different environments with quite different types of agency, possible acts, and consequences. Novel
abilities to interact across diverse spaces have consequences for understanding how humans
build coordinated action through efficient, multimodal communication mechanisms.
0057. Kishimoto, H. SUBJECTS AND CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE IN JAPANESE.
Linguistics. 2010, 48(3):629670.
In this article, on the basis of a set of new data that allow us to assess the position of subjects,
it is shown that in Japanese, ordinary subjects (which are marked with either nominative or
dative case) are moved to Spec of TP, while the subjects of oblique-subject constructions do
not undergo subject raising. We argue that subject raising to TP is motivated if the clause is
constrained by the nominative-case requirement, which dictates that a clause must have at least
one nominative argument. Nevertheless, there are also cases among idioms where nominative
subjects remain in vP-internal position; that is, idiom subjects, which are interpreted noncompositionally as part of clausal idioms, do not undergo subject raising. In Japanese, subject
raising to TP motivated by the EPP requirement of T is most typically instantiated, owing to the
fairly persistent nominative-case requirement, but still, it is not unitarily implemented, since
subjects do not undergo raising to TP if they receive oblique marking, which brings out the
effect of voiding the nominative-case requirement, or constitute part of idiomatic expressions.
0058. Matiki, A. J. RE-EXAMINING LANGUAGE SHIFT CASES IN MALAWI IN THE
CONTEXT OF FISHMANS GIDS. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.
2009, 30(6):535546.
This paper explores language shift cases in three Malawian languages using Fishmans
Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS) in order to gain some insight into the extent
to which these languages should be regarded as threatened and therefore in need of reversal
support. The paper shows that Chingoni, in its current state of attrition, is a GIDS 8 language.

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While not much can be done to revive it, there is need for folklorists and linguists to document
the language and its culture before it completely disappears. With respect to Chilomwe, the
paper places this language at GIDS 7. Without any serious intergenerational transmission
taking place, Chilomwe needs a full array of reversal support if the language is to survive.
Finally, the paper shows that in spite of some studies showing that Chiyao is undergoing some
language shift, at GIDS 6 it is in fact the strongest of the three languages examined and current
reversal efforts can only strengthen its position.
0059. Mei, J. et al. ACCULTURATION IN RELATION TO THE ACQUISITION OF A
SECOND LANGUAGE. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(6):
481492.
Learners who begin to acquire a second language (L2) in a naturalistic environment after
puberty are thought to be constrained by biological age factors and to have greater difficulty
obtaining native-like L2. However, the extant literature suggests that L2 acquisition may be
positively affected by post-maturational factors, such as acculturation. This exploratory study
examined the relationship between acculturation and L2 acquisition on Chinese-English late
learners. Chinese students who arrived in the USA after puberty were examined to see whether
the acculturation process towards US society was associated with higher speaking proficiency
levels and more native-like pronunciation of English language. The results suggest that acculturation relates to speaking proficiency but not pronunciation.
0060. Paxton, M. I. J. ITS EASY TO LEARN WHEN YOU USING YOUR HOME
LANGUAGE BUT WITH ENGLISH YOU NEED TO START LEARNING, LANGUAGE
BEFORE YOU GET TO THE CONCEPT: BILINGUAL CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT IN
AN ENGLISH MEDIUM UNIVERSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA. Journal of Multilingual and
Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(4):345359.
This article describes a multilingual glossary project in the economics department at the University of Cape Town which gave multilingual students learning economics through the medium
of English, opportunities to discuss new economic concepts in their home languages in order to
broaden and enrich understanding of these new concepts. The findings from this project illustrate
how important it is that students use a range of languages and discourses to negotiate meaning of
unfamiliar terms. The article responds to Mesthries caution regarding the development of multilingual glossaries, dictionaries and textbooks at higher education level in South Africa. It argues
that translation of terminology happens inevitably both inside and outside our university classrooms as multilingual university students, in peer learning groups, codeswitch from English to
their primary languages in order to better understand new concepts and this could be used as an
important resource for building academic registers in African languages.
0061. Rannut, U. CIRCASSIAN LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE IN JORDAN. Journal of
Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(4):297310.
The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language
revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based
on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data collected through 14
videotaped interviews conducted with prominent researchers and professors and teachers of
Circassian, through observations and a survey covering 485 respondents, including 323 pupils
from the age of 10 up to 16, and 162 parents. The Circassian language status and maintenance
are analysed as a continuum of language functions and domains in a society. Classification is
based on the traditional distribution of language policy dimensions, where language status,
corpus and acquisition aspects, as well as UNESCOs nine language vitality factors and linguistic rights are considered. Different factors influencing language maintenance are useful for
characterising a languages overall sociolinguistic situation. So far there has been neither
expert evaluation of the Circassian language situation based on international legal documents,
nor has there been research which would provide basis for requesting governmental support
and plan further steps for language revitalisation.

18 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 64(1), 2012

0062. Reny, M.-E. THE POLITICAL SALIENCE OF LANGUAGE AND RELIGION:


PATTERNS OF ETHNIC MOBILIZATION AMONG UYGHURS IN XINJIANG AND
SIKHS IN PUNJAB. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2009, 32(3):490521.
This article examines the reasons why the politicization of language has not been translated
into disruptive forms of ethnic mobilization as opposed to the political salience of religion
among the Uyghurs in Xinjiang throughout the 1990s and the Sikhs before and after the creation of Punjab in 1966. The article argues, from a structural-rationalist perspective, that
language-based claims in Xinjiang and in Punjab have been accommodated by the respective
central governments to a larger extent than religious claims have. Accommodation has taken
the form of particular policies as well as greater incorporation of minority elites on the basis of
language, which have in turn significantly reduced the possibilities of anti-regime sentiments
and the incentives for disruptive forms of pressure on the basis of linguistic claims among the
minority group. Religious claims have, however, not been accommodated in a similar way.
0063. Ryan, S. AMBIVALENCE AND COMMITMENT, LIBERATION AND CHALLENGE: INVESTIGATING THE ATTITUDES OF YOUNG JAPANESE PEOPLE
TOWARDS THE LEARNING OF ENGLISH. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
Development. 2009, 30(5):405420.
This article has emerged from a large-scale, nationwide attitudinal study (n = 2397) into the
motivation of learners of English in Japan, which initially found that enjoyment of the learning
experience seemed to be the major factor in the motivation of English learners. However, subsequent examination of the data revealed several incongruities in this initial analysis, which
prompted further investigation of these issues using qualitative data. The qualitative investigation suggests that for many Japanese learners liking English is essentially nothing more than
an intentionally vague, socially conditioned response but in other cases it represents a genuine
commitment to learning. The article concludes that this sense of commitment derives not so
much from the values associated with English and an English-speaking community or a desire
to interact with that community, but rather from factors in the learners immediate social environment or personal experience that mediate these surface attractions of the language.
0064. Trenchs-Parera, M., and Newman, M. DIVERSITY OF LANGUAGE IDEOLOGIES IN SPANISH-SPEAKING YOUTH OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS IN CATALONIA.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(6):509524.
To explore language attitudes and ideologies in urban Catalonia, focus group structured interviews were conducted with two groups of adolescents of Spanish-speaking origins: the
Autochthonous group, descendents of mid-late twentieth century immigrants from other parts of
Spain, and the Immigrant group, who came from Latin America. The Autochthonous group displayed a clear spectrum of six sets of language ideologies. At one extreme was linguistic
parochialism in support for Catalan entailing rejection of compromise with Spanish or the Spanish
state. At the other was linguistic parochialism favouring Spanish, which was dismissive of Catalan
linguistic and national aspirations. In the middle were linguistic cosmopolitan attitudes favouring
accommodation, bilingualism and diversity. This spectrum was coherent and ordered in that it consisted of different responses to political and socioeconomic facts in Catalonia. By contrast, the
Immigrant group, though equally ideologically diverse, was inconsistent and betrayed little
engagement with local political or socioeconomic realities. Instead, immigrants seemed more interested in maintaining their linguistic identity by avoiding dialectal influence from Peninsular
Spanish. The findings contribute to our understanding of the development of language ideologies
and attitudes in bilingual contexts and in particular the impact of immigration on bilingual societies.
0065. Wagner, L. ILL NEVER GROW UP: CONTINUITY IN ASPECT REPRESENTATIONS. Linguistics. 2009, 47(5):10511074.
Childrens early production typically favors prototypical groupings of temporal-aspectual
features; children prefer to say telic, perfective, past combinations (e.g., broke) and atelic,
imperfective present combinations (e.g., riding). The current experiments examine the extent
to which adults also favor these prototypical groups in a comprehension task (Experiment 1)

LINGUISTICS

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and a sentence comparison task (Experiment 2). The results show that, like children, adults find
prototypical combinations easier to understand, particularly in low-information contexts.
Moreover, adults judge prototypical combinations as better sentences than nonprototypical
sentences. The results are argued to support continuity in aspectual representations. The differences between children and adults is linked to the proposed origin of the prototypes
themselves, namely, information processing demands.
0066. Willoughby, L. LANGUAGE CHOICE IN MULTILINGUAL PEER GROUPS:
INSIGHTS FROM AN AUSTRALIAN HIGH SCHOOL. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 2009, 30(5):421435.
Despite Australias strong tradition of research on language maintenance and shift, little is
known about the ways in which migrant background students continue to use their heritage languages in Australian schools. This paper presents an in-depth case study of students linguistic
practices at a multiethnic Melbourne high school, where over 95% of students speak a language
other than English (LOTE) at home. Although virtually all students are bilingual, it shows that
peer group divide sharply on linguistic lines, with recent arrivals from China and Sudan the only
students to consistently speak their first languages with friends at school. More established students use English as their lingua franca with friends, but continue to deploy their LOTEs for a
variety of purposes, including gossiping, crossing and communicating with recent migrants. The
paper argues that while established students make only incidental use of their LOTEs at school,
LOTE use performs important social functions for these students that could not be substituted by
using English alone. Local conditions at the school clearly shape the meanings ascribed to LOTE
use; and the paper thus argues that detailed analysis of students linguistic practices can be a valuable tool for examining interethnic relations in multiethnic schools.

THEORETICAL LINGUISTICS
0067. Ameka, F. K. VERB EXTENSIONS IN LIKPE (SeKPeL). Journal of West African
Languages. 2009, 36(12):139157.
The noun class systems of the Ghana-Togo-Mountain (GTM) languages have attracted a lot
of interest and have been used as a defining feature of the group as the Class languages. Verb
extensions, or verb derivational suffixes, also occur in the GTM languages yet they have not
received much attention. This paper examines the syntax and semantics of verb extensions in
Likpe (Sekpel) ISO 639-3: lip, a Na-Togo language.
0068. Amuzu, E. K. MECHANISMS OF L1 MAINTENANCE IN EWE-ENGLISH
CODESWITCHING. Journal of West African Languages. 2009, 36(12):221243.
In Ghana, the pervasive use of codeswitching (CS) involving each indigenous language and
English, the official language and sole medium of instruction in school from primary four, has
brought about intensive contact between English and each of these languages. The paper
focuses on Ewe-English CS (and occasionally Akan-English CS) and demonstrates that the
codeswitchers are using certain mother tongue (MT) maintenance mechanisms to preserve not
only the grammar but also parts of the lexicon of their MT from interference from English.
0069. Ansaldo, U. SURPASS COMPARATIVES IN SINITIC AND BEYOND:
TYPOLOGY AND GRAMMATICALIZATION. Linguistics. 2010, 48(4):919982.
The Surpass (or Exceed) comparative is a widespread feature of Sinitic languages found in
almost all dialect groups. This article investigates the nature of Surpass constructions in
Southern Chinese varieties with a focus on Cantonese, and in unrelated languages of Southeast
Asia, where Surpass comparatives are also found (Thai, Lao and Vietnamese). I offer possible
grammaticalization paths for the Surpass comparative in the history of Chinese grammar, and
argue that Surpass constructions are typical of Southern Sinitic but not of Mandarin Chinese. I
also propose that the Surpass comparative should be added to the shared features of a broadly

20 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 64(1), 2012

defined Mainland Southeast Asian region which illustrates the affinity of languages such as
Cantonese to their non-Sinitic Southeast Asian neighbors. Finally, in arguing that comparatives in Mandarin Chinese are not Surpass construction, I suggest that it is not Sinitic languages
in general that go against robust typological correlations between basic word order and
standard-adjective order; rather, it is only Mandarin that provides a counterexample and is, in
that respect, typologically rare.
0070. Becher, V. DIFFERENCES IN THE USE OF DEICTIC EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH AND GERMAN TEXTS. Linguistics. 2010, 48(6):13091342.
The article presents a contrastive analysis of the use of English and German deictic
expressions. Its focus is on the communicative role of these items, i.e., the way in which
they are used by authors to communicate effectively with their readers. The analysis tries to
combine a qualitative (discourse analytic) and a quantitative (corpus linguistic) perspective by making use of a small corpus containing the endings of 32 English and 32 German
texts from the genre popular science. All deictic expressions present in the corpus were
manually identified, counted and analyzed according to the function(s) they fulfill in their
respective context. The results suggest that deictic expressions are more frequent in
German than in English texts. Two (related) reasons seem to account for this finding: first,
deictics figure more prominently in the German system of textual cohesion. Second, they
were in many instances found to serve as an (optional) instrument for maximizing explicitness, a communicative strategy which is customary in German but not in English discourse.
0071. Bostoen, K., and Nzang-Bie, Y. ON HOW MIDDLE PLUS ASSOCIATIVE/
RECIPROCAL BECAME PASSIVE IN THE BANTU A70 LANGUAGES. Linguistics.
2010, 48(6):12551308.
In this paper we show that the Bantu A70 languages did not preserve the passive morpheme
inherited from Proto-Bantu (PB), but developed a new suffix. It is a morpheme that is compound in origin, consisting of two verbal derivation suffixes which still function independently
in todays languages as a middle marker and an associative/reciprocal marker respectively,
though with variable degrees of productivity. The genesis of a passive marker from the stacking of two pre-existing suffixes is a typologically rare evolution path, but it fits in with a wider
Bantu phenomenon of double verb extensions which develop non-compositional meanings.
Especially double extensions involving the Proto-Bantu associative/reciprocal marker *-antend to develop such idiosyncratic meanings. This suffix is also one of the constituents of the
Bantu A70 passive marker. Nevertheless, even within Bantu, the emergence of a productive
passive marker from such double extension is unique. In this paper, we argue that the notion of
co-participation may account for the rising of this passive meaning out of the stacking of the
common Bantu associative/reciprocal suffix to a common Bantu middle suffix. The semantic
development of this compound suffix (and its historical constituents) happened within the
semantic continuum that links reciprocals, reflexives, middles and passives in many languages
of the world, but did not necessarily follow the typologically common reflexive > reciprocal >
middle > passive cline.
0072. Chesley, P., and Baayen, R. H. PREDICTING NEW WORDS FROM NEWER
WORDS: LEXICAL BORROWINGS IN FRENCH. Linguistics. 2010, 48(6):13431370.
This study addresses entrenchment into the lexicon of lexical borrowings. We, search for all
new lexical borrowings in a corpus of French newspaper texts and examine the frequency with
which these borrowings reoccur in a second corpus of newspaper texts from about 10 years
later. Lexical entrenchment emerges as depending on a variety of factors, including length in
syllables, the original language of the borrowing, and also semantic and contextual factors. The
dispersion of a word in the early corpus is found to be a better predictor of its frequency in the
later corpus than its frequency, but both measures contribute to predicting the degree of
entrenchment of a lexical item. The interaction between these two variables implies that
borrowings are penalized for their burstiness.

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0073. Davis, H. CROSS-LINGUISTIC VARIATION IN ANAPHORIC DEPENDENCIES:


EVIDENCE FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory.
2009, 27:143.
Several languages of northwestern North America systematically fail to show obviation
(Condition C) effects in contexts where an R-expression is c-commanded by a covalued pronoun.
This paper examines Condition C-defying dependencies in one such language, Sttimcets
(Lillooet Salish). It is shown here that Condition C violations in Sttimcets are not confined to
coreference anaphora, since they may involve sloppy identity; however they are limited to
cases where the dependency (a) does not contain a quantificational expression and (b) crosses
a clause boundary. Employing a version of linking theory, this paper argues that Condition
C-defying dependencies are upside-downrather than involving a name unexpectedly
depending on a c-commanding pronoun, they involve a dependent pronoun c-commanding an
antecedent name. In order to account for this possibility, a parametrized version of the Independence Principle is invoked, whose domain in Sttimcets is restricted to the minimal clause. The
facts here provide a direct challenge to the Universalist Hypothesis on anaphora.
0074. Deh, N., and Samek-Lodovici, V. ON THE PROSODY AND SYNTAX OF DPS:
EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN NOUN ADJECTIVE SEQUENCES. Natural Language and
Linguistic Theory. 2009, 27:4575.
This study tests a syntactic propertynamely the availability of N- vs. NP-raising in DPs
through prosodic means. The opposition between N- and NP-raising is central to the ongoing
debate about the internal representation of DPs, yet it often eludes testing by syntactic means
alone. As we show in this study, the two syntactic hypotheses are instead neatly distinguished
by the distinct prosodic phrasing predicted by each operation. In this paper, we present the
results of an empirical experiment designed to test the prosodic phrasing of N-A and A-N
sequences in Italian and the corresponding syntactic implications. As prosodic cues, we use
syllabic and word lengthening effects induced by phonological phrase boundaries. According
to our results, A and N share the same phonological phrase in both orders. Regarding the syntactic implications of this finding, we show that under all current models of syntax-prosody
mapping the underlying syntactic structure responsible for the attested prosodic phrasing
must necessarily rely on N-raising. Finally, we propose an analysis of Italian DPs where the
N-raising operation found necessary in light of the attested prosodic phrasing is reconciled
with the evidence for DP-internal phrasal movement discussed in Cinque.
0075. Delalorm, C. VOWEL HARMONY IN SEKPELE. Journal of West African Languages. 2009, 36(12):201208.
The paper discusses vowel harmony in Sekpele (Lipke). It demonstrates that the language has
regressive assimilation controlled by the first vowel in word stems. Sekpele has both ATR harmony
and height harmony. The height harmony involves a stepwise rise in height triggered by the [+high,
+ATR] vowels or the schwa in the stem. ATR harmony precedes height in application. The paper
departs from previous studies and suggests that Sekpele has a 10 rather than an 8 vowel system.
0076. Forker, D. NONLOCAL USES OF LOCAL CASES IN THE TSEZIC LANGUAGES. Linguistics. 2010, 48(5):10831110.
The Tsezic languages form a sub-branch of the Nakh-Daghestanian language family. They
have up to eight location markers that can be combined with up to six orientation markers in
order to form complex spatial categories. Outside the spatial domain these markers indicate
temporal and metaphorical location and orientation. Their grammatical uses include among
others the marking of verbal arguments, of nonfinite verb forms in adverbial clauses and the
expression of possession or purpose. This paper is meant to provide a comprehensive description of the nonlocal functions in relation to the spatial functions and to reveal the structure in
the distribution of nonlocal functions of the cases. The nonlocal uses are not equally distributed
among the local cases. Some location and orientation markers have many nonlocal functions
while others have almost only local uses.

22 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 64(1), 2012

0077. Ganenkov, D. TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN DAGHESTANIAN LANGUAGES. Linguistics. 2010, 48(5):10111042.


One of the features that distinguishes Daghestanian languages of the Caucasus from many
other languages is the richness of the nominal paradigm, which arises due to large locative subsystems, counting up to eighty forms. This paper presents a description of major distinctions
made by Daghestanian in the topological domain. The paper reveals three basic semantic
oppositions underlying systems of nominal locative markers and describes a number of minor
points of variation. In the domain of location in Ground this is the distinction between location in
container and location in substance. In the domain of location on Ground, the primary division in
most languages of the family is between attachment and nonattachment configurations. In the
domain of location near Ground, several languages use the formal distinction between localization
marker and postposition to reflect the semantic contrast between location in a space associated with
a given Ground and location near Ground. The detailed comparison shows that the same distinction
can function quite differently even in related languages. The paper also makes a number of
crosslinguistic observations related to patterns found in Daghestanian.
0078. Klein, W. ON TIMES AND ARGUMENTS. Linguistics. 2010, 48(6):12211254.
Verbs are traditionally assumed to have an argument structure, which imposes various constraints on form and meaning of the noun phrases that go with the verb, and an event structure,
which defines certain temporal characteristics of the event to which the verb relates. In this
paper, I argue that these two structures should be brought together. The verb assigns descriptive
properties to one or more arguments at one or more temporal intervals, hence verbs have an
argument-time structure. This argument-time structure as well as the descriptive properties
connected to it can be modified by various morphological and syntactic operations. This
approach allows a relatively simple analysis of familiar but not well-defined temporal notions
such as tense, aspect and Aktionsart. This will be illustrated for English. It will be shown that a
few simple morphosyntactic operations on the argument-time structure might account for form
and meaning of the perfect, the progressive, the passive and related constructions.
0079. Koontz-Garboden, A. ANTICAUSATIVIZATION. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 2009, 27:77138.
This paper provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the facts of anticausativization,
the phenomenon whereby an inchoative verb is morphologically derived from its causative counterpart (e.g., Spanish, romper break (trans) versus romperse break (intrans)). It treats the
phenomenon as reflexivization, providing a number of new arguments for this kind of treatment,
and showing how it, as opposed to alternatives in the literature, accounts for the wide range of
data reviewed. In addition, the facts laid out show that inchoatives derived from causatives retain
the CAUSE operator present in the lexical semantic representation of the causative verb from
which they are derived, contrary to the widely held view of anticausativization as a process that
deletes a CAUSE operator. In this way, it is shown that anticausativization does not provide an
argument against the Monotonicity Hypothesis, the idea that word formation operations do not
delete operators from lexical semantic representations.
0080. Lomotey, C. F. THE VOWELS OF THE LIKPE LANGUAGE. Journal of West
African Languages. 2009, 36(12):209219.
This paper analyzes the oral vowels of Likpe, a Ghana-Togo-Mountain language. Eight (8) oral
vowels were analyzed. Sixteen speakers from the two main Lipke areas were recorded. Formant
frequency values were obtained from broadband spectrograms. Various statistical methods were
employed in order to determine any differences or similarities that might exist between the dialects.
0081. Meyer, M.-C., and Sauerland, U. A PRAGMATIC CONSTRAINT ON AMBIGUITY
DETECTION: A REJOINDER TO BRING AND HARTMANN AND TO REIS. Natural
Language and Linguistic Theory. 2009, 27:139150.
Bring and Hartmann and Reis discuss reconstruction data with focus particles in German
which they claim show that German allows adjunction of phonologically integrated focus

LINGUISTICS

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particles to the root clause. We show that the facts are better explained by independent pragmatic constraints on semantic judgments and conclude therefore that there are no arguments in
support of root clause adjunction of such focus particles in German.
0082. Pantcheva, M. THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE OF LOCATIONS, GOALS, AND
SOURCES. Linguistics. 2010, 48(5):10431082.
In this article, I argue for a decomposition of the Path head in the syntactic structure for
directional expressions. Based on crosslinguistic data showing that different types of paths are
of different complexity and, crucially, are subject to a morphological containment relationship,
I propose a more detailed structure for directionals. I adopt the orthodox view that Goal paths
are built on top of a locative Place projection. However, I suggest that Source paths are built on
top of Goal paths. This is evidenced by the morphological makeup of Source-denoting elements in a variety of languages, where the Source marker morphologically contains the Goal
marker. Further, I explore the lexicalization of the decomposed Path structure I defend and test
the predictions against the empirical domain of syncretisms between the spatial roles Source,
Goal, and Location. I show that the decomposed Path structure and the lexicalization theory I
adopt capture syncretism patterns that are widely attested among languages and ban those
syncretism patterns that are unattested.
0083. Rivero, M. L. INTENSIONALITY, HIGH APPLICATIVES, AND ASPECT:
INVOLUNTARY STATE CONSTRUCTIONS IN BULGARIAN AND SLOVENIAN.
Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 2009, 27:151196.
This paper discusses Bulgarian and Slovenian constructions with a dispositional reading and
no apparent dispositional marker, such as Bulgarian Na Ivan mu se rabotee. Such a sentence
combines a dative logical subject Ivan with an inflected verb rabotee work, and roughly corresponds to Ivan was in a working mood, so does not entail that Ivan worked. I argue that such
constructions consist of two core ingredients that account both for their syntactic properties,
and for their modal flavor as dispositions. One ingredient is an Imperfective Operator in Viewpoint Aspect as the source of modality. Such an Operator resembles in syntactic and semantic
properties both the Progressive Operator in so-called English Futurates such as For two weeks,
the Red Sox were playing the Yankees today, and the Spanish modal Imperfecto. The other
ingredient is a High Applicative Phrase with an oblique subject, which, other than determining
syntactic properties, contributes to a difference in modal flavor with English Futurates.
0084. Seifart, F. THE BORA CONNECTOR PRONOUN AND TAIL-HEAD LINKAGE: A STUDY IN LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC GRAMMATICALIZATION. Linguistics.
2010, 48(4):893918.
The Amazonian language Bora systematically uses in narratives a special, paragraph-initial
anaphoric connector pronoun. This pronoun helps to ensure referential coherence through
agreement in noun class and number with an antecedent, whose referent is thematic in the new
paragraph. Additional morphology in the connector pronoun specifies temporal, causal, and
other relations between events. The connector pronoun is syntactically tightly integrated into
the clause, where it may function as an argument of a verb or as the dependent element of a genitive phrase. Certain frequent forms of the connector pronoun are the basis for a number of
lexicalized conjunctions. This paragraph-linking strategy parallels in a number of ways tailhead linkage systems, not only in its functionality, but also with respect to its diachronic
outcome (discourse conjunctions). The fact that Bora grammaticalized nominal expressions in
a paragraph-linking system (whereas verbs are the central components of tail-head linkage) is
congruent with the general preference of Bora to use many noun phrases per clause, in contrast
to tail-head linkage languages, where noun phrases are rarely used.
0085. Zuraw, K., and Lu, Y.-A. DIVERSE REPAIRS FOR MULTIPLE LABIAL CONSONANTS. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. 2009, 27:197224.
The relationship between constraints on surface forms and operations that alter representations
is of central interest in phonological theory. This squib presents a case of diverse repairs in

24 / ABSTRACTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 64(1), 2012

response to a marked structurelabial . . . labial sequencescreated by um-infixation in stems


beginning with (or, in some cases, merely containing) labial consonants in Austronesian languages. We review several strategies, which for the most part do not cluster according to
subfamilies: tolerance, gaps, loss of stem consonant, loss of infix nasality, stem dissimilation,
infix dissimilation, prefixation, and non-realization of infix. The evidence indicates that avoidance of these sequences applies only within the root-and-infix domain, and only in derived
environments. This diversity of repairs seems unexpected if changes should be perceptually minimal; we suggest possible explanations.
0086. Zwarts, J. A HIERARCHY OF LOCATIONS: EVIDENCE FROM THE ENCODING OF DIRECTION IN ADPOSITIONS AND CASES. Linguistics. 2010, 48(5):9831010.
The encoding of direction (place, goal, source, route) in systems of adpositions and local
cases is not uniformly distributed over different locations (at, in, under), but can be shown to
follow a hierarchical pattern. This pattern is compared with similar hierarchies proposed in the
literature about the acquisition and typology of spatial language. Differences in semantic complexity and pragmatic salience between locations might explain why such a hierarchy exists.