You are on page 1of 5

MINERALS

- simple inorganic compounds that are non-caloric & remain as ash when a food or organic compounds is completely burnt. Classification:
a. Macrominerals or major minerals
b. Microminerals or trace minerals
Functions:
1. Structural they are components of essential body compounds and is essential to the growth of body structures
2. Regulatory physiological processes for normal functioning of tissues or body fluids
Maintenance of acid-base balance
Catalyst of metabolic reactions
Regulator of muscle contractility
Transmitter of nerve impulses
MACROMINERALS
Note: or in blood levels of these minerals does not occur in normal individuals after excessive ingestion, but patients with underlying conditions are greatly affected even in
small intakes.
Mineral
Sodium
RDA: min. of 500
mg/day; max. 2,400
mg/day

Chloride
AI: 750 mg/day

Role / Function
-maintain fluid balance
-involved in nerve transmission & neurological
function
-for muscle contraction
-helps in the maintenance of acid-base balance in
conjunction with chloride

-maintain F & E, acid-base balance


-help maintain gastric acidity as it is part of
HCl

Dietary source
-processed
foods
-table salt
-seafood
-canned goods

-usually found
in
foods
together with
Na

Deficiency

Excess

Hyponatremia
s/s: N/V, H/A, diarrhea,
muscle cramps
confusion
disorientation

FTT/Failure to Thrive
infants
s/s: weakness, lethargy
loss of appetite
metabolic alkalosis
causes: diarrhea, vomiting,
profuse sweating

Hypernatremia
s/s: edema
hypertension
seizures
Prolonged excessive Na
intake may contribute to
HTN
(excess levels are not
usually seen unless there is
an
underlying
disease
condition)

Potassium
RDA: 2000mg/day

-important in nerve transmission & muscle


contraction
-helps maintain acid-base balance
-for cell integrity
-affects many aspects of homeostasis, including a
steady heartbeat

-richest source
all fresh foods

Hypokalemia
causes: dehydration, diabetic
acidosis,
prolonged
vomiting, diarrhea, use of
drugs that promote K
excretion (diuretics, steroids,
laxatives)
s/s: muscular weakness
arrythmias

-acid-base balance maintenance and liver function


-maintains protein structure
-activates enzymes to maintain their activity
-participates in detoxification

-protein-rich
foods
-fish,
poultry, meats

hereditary defect in tubular


reabsorption of cysteine
excessive excretion in the
urine cystinuria

-a constituent of bones & teeth


-necessary for nerve conduction & muscle
contraction
-involved in coagulation
-activation of some enzyme reactions
-activates the protein calmodulin (messenger that
tells other proteins what to do)
-has a role in disease prevention

- of RDA
kuhol, saluyot,
dilis, carabaos
milk, hipon,
talangka,
sardines

Hypocalcemia
s/s: Calcium tetany
dx -(+)Chvostek sign
(+)Trousseau sign

-assists in energy metabolism


-many enzymes & B vitamins become active only
when a phosphate is attached

-foods rich in
calcium and
protein are the

Hyperkalemia
s/s: muscle twitching
cramps
motility of GI
arrhythmia

Sulfur

Calcium
RDA:
Adults(19-50y/o)
-1000mg/day
(51y/o & over)
-1500 mg/day
Pregnant/Lactating
-(+) 600mg/day

Phosphorus
RDA: 700mg/day

- of RDA
cheese,
seaweeds,
dried fish,
malunggay

- S repeated producn of
cysteine in kidney
cysteine kidney stone

Hypercalcemia
s/s: calcium rigor
formation of kidney
stones
constipation

Osteoporosis
Retarded
growth
and
development
among
children

Hypophosphatemia
Causes: osteomalacia or
rickets, chronic use of

excess levels is associated


with low calcium & the
client may exhibit tetany

Magnesium
RDA:
Males(19-31y/o)
-400-420mg/day
Females(19-31y/o)
-310-320mg/day

Minerals
Iron
RDA:Adult male:8
mg / day
Adultfemale:18mg/
day(19-50y/o);
8mg/day(50y/o &)
Pregnant: 30mg/day

-help transport other lipids in the blood


ex. phospholipid
-as part of structures example is phosphoproteins
-for pH regulation
-also involved in conduction of nerve impulses,
muscle contraction & blood clotting
-helps prevent dental caries by holding calcium in
tooth enamel
-coenzyme in energy metabolism
-supports the normal functioning of the immune
system
-it influences the secretion of thyroxin and the
maintenance of normal BMR

Role / Functions
- carrier of oxygen
- for haemoglobin formation
- an active component of tissue enzymes
involved in the conversion of betacarotene to vitamin A
- for antibody production
- for collagen synthesis

best sources of
phosphorus
-processed
foods
-green
leafy
vegetables
-nuts
-legumes

MICROMINERALS
Dietary source
- meat, fish,
poultry
- whole grains, green
leafy vegetables,
legumes

aluminium, hydroxide gels

Hypomagnesemia
Causes: alcohol abuse,
protein malnutrition
kidney disorder
prolonged vomiting
& diarrhea
use of diuretics
In
severe
magnesium
deficiency
s/s: tetany similar to the
calcium tetany
impairment of the
CNS
Hypertension

symptoms

Hypermagnesemia
s/s: hypotension,
decreased tendon
reflexes
arrhythmia

Deficiency
Iron Deficiency caused by
insufficient
intake,
malabsorption, lack of HCl &
excessive blood loss
Iron Deficiency Anemia
-microcytic hypochromic
s/s: H/A, weakness, fatigue,
apathy, pallor, spoonshaped nails
poor resistance to cold
temperature

Excess
Hemochromatosis
-iron overload
Hemosiderosis
-large deposits of the
Fe storage protein
hemosiderin in the
liver and other tissues
Fe poisoning
s/s: N/V, diarrhea,
rapid heart beat
dizziness
confusion
Heart disease, cancer

Iodine
RDA: 150g
adults

-important component of the thyroid hormone


that regulates body temperature, metabolic
rate, reproduction, growth, blood cell
production, nerve and muscle function and
more

-seafoods oysters,
shrimps, seaweeds,
salt water fishes
-iodized salt

Copper
RDA: 1.5 3mg

-cofactor in Hgb formation


-aids in the transport of iron to bone marrow
for the formation of red blood cells
-participates in energy production
-serves as constituent of several enzymes

-organ meats
-seeds, nuts, legumes,
whole grains
-human milk is a good
source but cows
milk is not

Zinc
RDA:
Male -15mg/day
Female -12mg/day

-supports the work of numerous enzymes


-it is needed to produce the active form of
vit.A in visual pigments & the retinolbinding protein that transports vit.A
-it is essential to normal taste perception,
wound healing
-helps make parts of the genetic materials
DNA & RNA
-stabilizes cell membranes, helping to
strengthen their defense against free
radicals
-also assists in immune function and in
growth & development
-participates in the synthesis, storage and
release of the hormone insulin in the
pancreas
-for the development of male reproductive
functions and spermatogenesis,
specifically the formation of testosterone

for

-lean meat, fish, eggs


and dairy products
-wheat germ and
legumes

Cretinism
s/s:mental & physical
retardation
Simple Goiter
s/s: slowing down of
metabolism
weight gain, cold
intolerance
hypotension, bradycardia,
constipation
Menkes disease intestinal
cells absorbs Cu but can not
release it into the circulation
s/s: anemia, impairs bone &
nervous tissue devt

-delayed growth, hypogonadism,


decreased appetite & taste
acuity, delayed immune
function, delayed wound
healing, night blindness,
keratinisation problems, acnelike rash

Thyrotoxicosis
-upper level 1000g
Congenital Goiter

Wilsons disease Cu
accumulate in the liver
kidneys, brain
s/s: N/V, diarrhea
abdominal cramps

-N/V, abdominal cramps,


diarrhea, fever
-renal failure with toxic
levels

Selenium
RDA: 55 g/day

Manganese
RDA:
Male -2-3mg/day
Female -1.8mg/day

Fluoride
RDA:
Male -3.8mg/day
Female -3.1mg/day
Chromium
RDA:
Male -35g/day
Female -25g/day

Molybdenum
RDA:
75 - 250g/day

Keshan disease condition


causing abnormalities in the
heart muscles

Selenium toxicity
s/s: fatigue, N/V
diarrhea, loss of
hair & nails
skin lesion

-part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase


-sparer of vitamin E
-constituent of the enzyme that converts the
thyroid hormone to its active form

-vegetables & grains


-meats & other animal
products

cofactor in several enzymes involved in:


-glucose, protein & fat metabolism
-assist in urea synthesis
-prevention of damage by free radicals

-wheat bran, legumes


nuts, cereals,
green leafy
vegetables
-coffee & tea

-makes bones stronger and the teeth more


resistant to decay

-flouridated water
-tea, seafood

Osteoporosis
Tooth decay, dental caries

Dental Fluorosis
-mottled teeth, H/A
Skeletal Fluorosis

-glucose and lipid metabolism


-helps maintain glucose homeostasis by
enhancing the activity of the hormone
insulin

-legumes, cereals,
organ meats,
vegetable oils,
whole grains

Diabetes-like condition

-metallic taste in the


mouth

-a constituent of enzymes and is thought to


play a role in metabolism

-legumes, grains, milk


liver, cereals

-no documented deficiency nor


s/s of a deficiency

-no known deficiency

-CNS damage
(apathy, H/A, speech
disturbance)
-muscle cramps, anorexia

Hyperurecemia
gout-like symptoms

References:
Understanding Nutrition by Whitney and Rolfes
Foundations and Clinical Applications of Nutrition by Grodner, Long and De Young
Nutrition and Diet Therapy by Ruth Roth
Prepared by: M Bubbles