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POLYTECHNIC OF NAMIBIA

Department of Mechanical Engineering


School of Engineering

Department
Subject
Subject code
Level
Date
Duration

Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
MOM410S
Bachelor of Technology
4th June 2010
120 Mins.

Marks: 60

Exams-Two (2) Memorandum

First Examiner:

Mr. Samuel John

Moderator:

Mr. E. Ruhunga

Note:

This Memorandum consists of five (5) pages excluding this cover page.

Solution to Q1
a) Beams of small initial radius of curvature are beams whose depth of the cross-section
is of the same order as the radius of curvature, and whose stress distribution is nonlinear during bending.
[2]
Examples are: crane hook, u-shape machine components split rings, etc
(Give any two= 2marks)
b)
Using the diagram below

R1

NA

[4]
CA d

dy

A b d and
Considering the shaded area we have
dA b dy
Therefore R1

[1]
bd

d 2

[1]

b
R y

[1]
dy

d 2

R1

db
d

b log e R y d2

[2]

R1

log e

R d 2
R d 2

[2]

Total Marks [15]

Solution to Q2
r2 90mm

r1 50mm

[2]

Cross-sectional area A 0.042 1.6 103 m 2

[1]

The average moment generated at section AB M 103 0.27 270 N

[1]

The centroidal radius R 0.07 m

[1]

The centre to the neutral axis is given as


R1

dA
r

A
1.6 103

b ln rr12 40 103 ln 90
50

[2]

R1 0.68m

[1]

Therefore the distance between the centrodal radius and the neutral axis radius is given by
[1]
n R R1 70 68 2mm

R1 68mm
R 70mm

yt 18mm

[2]

yc 22mm

Using the following equation we can calculate the stresses at A and B as follows: values for
yt yield the tensile stress as

My
nA R1 y

At A yt 18mm (negative direction from neutral axis) and


At B yc 22mm (positive direction from neutral axis)

[1]
[1]
[1]

Therefore bending stress at A is


A

Myt
270 20 103

nA R1 yt 2 103 1.6 103 68 20 103

A 35.16 MPa

[1]

[2]

The bending stress at B is


B

Myc
270 22 103

nA R1 yc 2 103 1.6 103 68 22 103

B 20.63 MPa

[1]

[2]

However the direct stress at section A-B is given by;

P
1 103

0.63 MPa
A 1.6 103

[1]

The resultant stresses at A and B are therefore;


A 35.16 0.63 35.79 MPa

[2]

B 20.63 0.63 20 MPa

[2]

Total Marks [25]

Solution to Q3
I. Fatigue is a failure in materials, which occur as a result of fluctuating stresses at fairly
high frequencies. The fluctuating stresses are usually below the ultimate stress value of
the material under static loading.
[1]
II. Fatigue limit is the limiting stress value below which fatigue failure will not occur,
regardless of the number of fluctuating cycles, as illustrated in figure below
[1]

S
[ MPa ]
[2]

Fatigue limit

III. The three major stress cycles are shown below:

[3]

These are:
(a)Reverse cycle is when there is a positive and negative stresses per cycle
(b) Fluctuating cycles where the mean stress is half the value of the maximum stress
(c) Symmetrical reverse cycle where the mean stress is zero due to equal magnitude
of the tensile and compressive stresses induced.
[3]
IV. The mean stress is given by the equation below:

max min

[1]

Bending stress

32PL
d3

[2]

B A

32 PL 32 PL

d B3
d A3

160 3 160
3
dA
15
150
150
d B 15.33mm
Similarly:
Section Length
Diameter
(mm)
(mm)
A
150
15
B
160
15.33
C
170
15.64
D
180
15.94
E
190
16.23
F
200
16.51

[2]

d B3

Marks

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

Total Marks [20]