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# FORM 4 CHEMISTRY

## CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS

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A

## RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
state the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale
state the meaning of relative molecular mass based on carbon-12 scale
state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for determining relative atomic
mass and relative molecular mass
calculate the relative molecular mass of substances

Activity 1
1. The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the . mass of one atom of the
. when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

## Relative atomic mass of an element

= the average mass of one atom of an element
1/12 x the mass of a carbon-12 atom
2. By comparing relative atomic masses, we can determine the ratio of the actual masses of atoms.
Example:
(i) Calculate how many times heavier are 3 calcium atoms compared to 5 carbon atoms.
[Relative atomic mass: C, 12; Ca, 40]

(ii) How many magnesium atoms will have the same mass as two silver atoms?
[Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; Ag, 108]

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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3. The relative molecular mass (Mr) of a substance is the average of a . of the
substance when compared with 1/12 of the mass of one carbon-12 atom.

## Relative molecular mass of a substance

= the average mass of one molecule of a substance
1/12 x the mass of a carbon-12 atom

## 4. A molecule is made up of a number of . Therefore, the relative molecular mass of a

substance is calculated by adding up the .. of all the atoms present in a
molecule of the substance.
Example:
(i) Calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia.
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; N, 14]

## (ii) Calculate the relative molecular mass of water.

[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16]

5. The term relative molecular mass can only be used for substances that are made up of ....................
For ionic compounds, the term (Fr) is used instead.

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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6. The relative formula mass of an ionic compound is calculated by adding up the
of all atoms in its formula.
Example:
(i) Calculate the relative formula mass of sodium chloride.
[Relative atomic mass: Na, 23; CI, 35.5]

## (ii) Calculate the relative formula mass of potassium oxide.

[Relative atomic mass: K, 39; O, 16]

## (iii) Calculate the relative formula mass of copper(II) chloride.

[Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; CI, 35.5]

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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B THE MOLE AND THE NUMBER OF PARTICLES
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
define a mole
state the meaning of Avogadro constant
relate the number of particles in one mole of a substance with the Avogadro
constant
solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles to the number of
particles of a given substance and vice versa

Activity 2
1. In chemistry, we use the unit to measure the amount of substance. It has the
symbol
2. One .. is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many particles as the
number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12. One mole of substance contains
particles.
3. The Avogadro constant, NA is defined as the number of.. in one mole of a substance.
The value of the Avogadro constant is ..
4. 1 mole of atomic substance contains . atoms.
5. 1 mole of molecular substance contains . molecules.
6. 1 mole of ionic substance contains formula units.
7. Relationship between number of moles and number of particles:

Number of moles

x NA

Number of particles

NA

8. Find the number of particles for the substances given the number of moles.
Number of moles

Number of particles

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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(i) 0.5 mole of carbon
(ii) 0.2 mole of hydrogen gas

## (iii) 2 mole of carbon dioxide gas

(iv) 0.3 mole of zinc bromide
(v) 0.5 mole of iodine molecule
(vi) 0.5 mole potassium bromide
9. Find the number of moles for the substances given the number of particles.
Number of particles

Number of moles

## (i) 3.01 x 1022 of water molecules

(ii) 3.01 X 1024 of hydrogen molecules
(iii) 1.806 x 1023 of oxygen molecules
(iv) 1.505 x 1024 of bromine molecules
(v) 9.03 x 1023 of carbon dioxide molecules
(vi) 1.806 x 1023 formula units of zinc bromide

## C THE MOLE AND THE MASS OF SUBSTANCES

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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## state the meaning of molar mass

relate molar mass to the Avogadro constant
relate molar mass of a substance to its relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass or
relative formula mass
solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles of a given substance to its
mass and vice versa

Activity 3
1. Molar mass is the mass of one of a substance. It has unit of .
2. The molar mass of a substance is numerically equal to its ,
or
3. The relationship between the number of moles and the mass of a substance:
x Molar mass
Number of moles

Mass (g)
Molar mass

3. Find the mass for the substances given the number of moles.
Number of moles

Mass

## (i) 0.1 mole of magnesium

(ii) 0.5 mole of copper
(iii) 1.5 moles of carbon dioxide
(iv) 0.01 mole of ammonia gas

## (v) 0.3 mole aluminium

(vi) 0.05 mole of sodium hydroxide

## 4. Find the number of moles of the substances given the mass.

Mass

Number of moles

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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(i) 49.2 g of calcium nitrate
(ii) 57.5 g of sodium
(iii) 4.04 g of potassium nitrate
(iv) 70 g of carbon monoxide gas
(v) 4 g of hydrogen gas
(vi) 11.2 g of iron

## NUMBER OF MOLES AND VOLUME OF GAS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
state the meaning of molar volume of a gas
relate molar volume of a gas to the Avogadro constant

## make generalisation on the molar volume of a gas at a given temperature and

pressure
calculate the volume of gases at STP or room conditions from the number of moles
and vice versa
solve numerical problems involving number of particles, number of moles, mass of
substances and volume of gases at STP or room conditions

Activity 4
1. The molar volume of a gas is defined as the ................................ of one ...................................
of the gas.
2. One mole of any gas always has the ........................ under the same temperature and
pressure.

## 3. The molar volume of any gas is at STP or .. at room

conditions.

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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1 mole of
hydrogen
gas, H2

22.4 dm3
at STP

22.4 dm3
at STP

1 mole of
oxygen
gas, O2

22.4 dm3
at STP

1 mole of
nitrogen
gas, N2

## 4. STP refers to standard temperature of . and pressure of . Room

conditions refer to the temperature of and pressure of ..
5. The relationship between the number of moles and volume of gas:
x Molar volume
Number of moles

x 22.4/24 dm

Molar volume

## 4. Calculate the volume of gas given the number of moles at STP.

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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Number of moles

Volume of gas

5.

## (i) 0.25 mole of oxygen gas

(ii) 2.5 moles of chlorine gas

## (iv) 4 moles of helium gas

Calculate the volume of gas given the number of moles at room conditions.

Number of moles

Volume of gas

## (i) 0.3 mole of oxygen gas

(ii) 1.2 moles of ammonia gas

## (iv) 0.4 mole of nitrogen gas

6.
The

relationships between the number of moles, number of particles, mass and volume of
gases:

Volume (dm3)

Molar
mass
Mass (g)

x Molar
volume

Molar
volume
x NA

Number of moles

Activity 5
1. What is the volume of 12.8 g of oxygen gas, O2, in cm3, at STP?

## Number of particles xMolar

NA
mass

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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[Relative atomic mass: O, 16. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

2. How many molecules of carbon dioxide, CO2 are produced when 120 cm3 of the gas is released
during a chemical reaction between an acid and a carbonate at room conditions?
[Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions. Avogadro constant: 6.02 x 1023 mol-1]

3. What is the mass of 0.6 dm3 of chlorine gas, CI2, at room conditions?
[Relative atomic mass: CI, 35.5. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions]

4. A sample of nitrogen gas, N2 has a volume of 1800 cm3 at room conditions. What is the mass of the
sample and how many molecules of nitrogen gas, N2 are in it?

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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5. 1.12 dm3 of hydrogen gas, H2 and 1.12 dm3 of oxygen gas, O2 are mixed together in a closed container
at STP. What is the total number of molecules in the container? What is the total mass of the gases in
the container?

E CHEMICAL FORMULAE
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
state the meaning of chemical formula
state the meaning of empirical formula
state the meaning of molecular formula
determine empirical and molecular formula of substances
compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula
solve numerical problems involving empirical and molecular formulae
write ionic formulae of ions
construct chemical formulae of ionic compounds
state names of chemical compounds using IUPAC nomenclature
use symbols and chemical formulae for easy and systematic communication in the field
of chemistry

Activity 6
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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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1. A chemical formula is a representation of a chemical substance using letters for
and subscript numbers to show the .. of each type of atoms that are present in the
substance.

2.

The letter H
shows the
symbol of
...
atom

H2

## The subscript 2 shows that there

are .. hydrogen atoms
in a molecule of hydrogen gas, H2

## of a compound shows all the . that are present in the

compound and the of atoms of each element.
3. There are 2 types of chemical formulae:
(i)
(ii) ...
4. Empirical formula of a compound shows the simplest whole number of atoms of each
present in the compound.

## 5. Molecular formula of a compound gives the . number of atoms of each element

present in one molecule of the compound.
6.
Compound
Water
Ethene
Benzene
Vitamin C

Molecular formula
H2O
C2H4
C6H6
C6H8O6

Simplest ratio of
atoms of elements
H:O=2:1
C:H=1:2
C:H=1:1
C:H:O=3:4:3

## 7. The steps in determining the empirical formula of a compound:

(i) ..
(ii) ..
(iii) .

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Empirical formula
H2O
CH2
CH
C3H4O3

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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8. To determine the molecular formula of a compound, we need to know the ..
and . of the compound.

Activity 7
1. 1.08 g of aluminium combines chemically with 0.96 g of oxygen to form an oxide. What is the empirical
formula of the oxide? [Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Al, 27]
Element
Mass of element(g)
Number of moles of
atoms
Ratio of moles
Simplest ratio of
moles
Empirical formula
2. Copper (II) iodide contains 20.13 % copper by mass. Find its empirical formula.
[Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; I, 127]
Element
Mass of element(g)
Number of moles of

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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atoms
Ratio of moles
Simplest ratio of
moles
Empirical formula

## H, 3.06 %; P, 31.63 %; O, 65.31 %

What is the empirical formula of the acid?
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16; P, 31]
Element
Mass of element(g)
Number of moles of
atoms
Ratio of moles
Simplest ratio of
moles
Empirical formula
4. A carbon compound has an empirical formula of CH2 and a relative molecular mass of 70. Find the
molecular formula of the compound.
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12]

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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5. 8.5 g of hydrogen peroxide contains 0.5 g of hydrogen. If the molar mass of hydrogen peroxide is 34
34 g mol-1, find its molecular formula.
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16]

6. Ethanoic acid is an important ingredient of vinegar. The empirical formula of this acid is CH2O. Given
that its molar mass is 60 g mol-1, find its molecular formula.
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; O, 16]

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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Activity 8
1. Ionic compounds consist of .. and
2. To construct the chemical formulae of ionic compounds, we need to know the formulae of cations
and anions.
3.
Cation

Formula

Anion

Sodium ion

Fluoride ion

Potassium ion

Chloride ion

Silver ion

Bromide ion

Hydrogen ion

Iodide ion

Ammonium ion

Hydroxide ion

## Copper (II) ion

Nitrate ion

Calcium ion

Ethanoate ion

Magnesium ion

Manganate(VII) ion

Aluminium ion

Oxide ion

Zinc ion

Carbonate ion

Barium ion

Sulphate ion

Iron(II) ion

Thiosulphate ion

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Formula

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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Iron(III) ion

Chromate(VI) ion

Dichromate(VI) ion

Phosphate ion

Tin(II) ion
Tin(IV) ion
Chromium(III) ion

## 4. Chemical formula of an ionic compound by exchanging the charges of the ions.

Example:
(i) Construct the chemical formula of iron(II) chloride.
Ion
Charge of ion
Number of ions
Chemical formula
(ii) Construct the chemical formula of aluminium oxide.
Ion
Charge of ion
Number of ions
Chemical formula
(iii) Construct the chemical formula of zinc sulphate.
Ion
Charge of ion
Number of ions
Simplest ratio of ions
Chemical formula

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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5. Construct the chemical formula for each of the following ionic compounds:
Ionic compound

Chemical compound

## (v) Silver iodide

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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Activity 9
1. Chemical compounds are named systematically according to the guidelines given by the International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
2. For ionic compounds, the name of the cation comes first, followed by the name of the anion.
Cation
Anion
Name of ionic compound
Sodium ion
Chloride ion
Calcium ion
Carbonate ion
Barium ion
Sulphate ion
Certain metals can form more than one type of Thus, Roman numerals are

3.

are used in their naming to distinguish the different types of ions. For example, iron can form 2
cations, namely iron(II) ion and iron(III) ion. Thus, the names of the compounds formed by these
ions with chlorine would be . and
4. For simple molecular compounds, the more element is written last and is added with
an ide. The name of the .. element is maintained. For example, a molecular compounds
consisting of hydrogen and chlorine is given the name .
5. Greek prefixed are used to show the .. of atoms of each element in a compound.
Prefix
MonoDiTriTetraPenta-

Meaning
1
2
3
4
5

Example
Carbon monoxide
Sulphur dioxide
Sulphur trioxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Phosphorus pentachloride

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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F

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:

## state the meaning of chemical equation

identify the reactants and products of a chemical equation
write and balance chemical equations
interpret chemical equations quantitatively and qualitatively
solve numerical problems using chemical equations
identify positive scientific attitudes and values practiced by scientists in doing research
justify the need to practise positive scientific attitudes and good values in doing research
use chemical equations for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry

Activity 10
1. Chemical equation is a precise . of a chemical reaction.
2. The chemical equation can be written in word, but it is more convenient and quicker to use

3. The starting substances are called .. They are shown on the left-hand side of
the equation.
4. The new substances formed are called .. They are shown on the right-hand
side of the equation.

C (s) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g)

Reactants

Product

## 5. Based in the law of conservation of mass, matter can neither be . nor

. in a chemical reaction. This means that the number of atoms before and after a
chemical reaction are the Therefore, a chemical equation must be
.

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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## 6. Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions.

(i) Carbon monoxide gas + oxygen gas
carbon dioxide gas
.
(ii) Hydrogen gas + nitrogen gas
ammonia gas
.
(iii) Aluminium + iron(III) oxide
aluminium oxide + iron

(iv) Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to yield nitrogen monoxide gas and water.

(v) Silver nitrate solution is added to calcium chloride solution. Silver chloride precipitate and calcium
nitrate solution are produced.
..
(vi) When solid zinc carbonate is heated, it decomposes into zinc oxide powder and carbon dioxide gas.
.
7. Chemical equations give us the following qualitative information:
(i) ............................
(ii)
8. Quantitatively, the .. in a balanced equation tell us the exact of
reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
2H2 (g)
+
O2 (g)
2 molecules
1 molecule
or
or
2 mol
1 mol
2Cu(NO3)2 (s)
2 formula units
or
2 mol

2H2O (l)
2 molecules
or
2 mol
2CuO (s) + 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g)
2 formula units 4 molecules 1 molecule
or
or
or
2 mol
4 mol
1 mol

## 9. is the study of quantitative composition of substances involved in the chemical

reactions. A balanced equation can be used to calculate , ,
and .. or .. of a reactant or product.
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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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Activity 11
1. Copper(II) oxide, CuO reacts with aluminium according to the following equation.
3CuO (s) + 2Al (s)

## Al2O3 (s) + 3Cu (s)

Calculate the mass of aluminium required to react completely with 12 g of copper(II) oxide, CuO.
[Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Al, 27; Cu, 64]

2. A student heats 20 g of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 strongly. It decomposes according to the equation
below.

CaCO3 (s)
CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
If the carbon dioxide produced is collected at room conditions, what is its volume?
[Relative atomic mass: C, 12; O, 16; Ca, 40. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1]

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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3. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 decomposes according to the following equation.
2H2O2 (l)

## 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)

Calculate the volume of oxygen gas, O2 measured at STP that can be obtained from the decomposition
of 34 g of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2.
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

## 4. Ethene gas burns in excess oxygen according to the following equation.

C2H4 (g) + 3O2 (g)

## 2CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

Find the volume of carbon dioxide released as STP if 42 g of ethene is burnt completely.
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
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5. 16 g of copper(II) oxide, CuO is reacted with excess methane, CH4. Using the equation below, find
the mass of copper that is produced.
[Relative atomic mass: O,16; Cu, 64]
4CuO (s) + CH4 (g)

## Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + H2 (g)

What is the mass of zinc needed to produce 2.4 dm3 of hydrogen gas at room conditions?
[Relative atomic mass: Zn, 65. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions]

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