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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

Department of Mechanical Engineering


ME2135 Fluid Mechanics II
Part 2 External Incompressible Viscous Flow
Solution to Tutorial 2
1. The Blasius solution for laminar boundary layer flow on a flat plate is given as numerical
results in Table 3.1 of Prof Winotos Lecture Notes p. 45:
a) Evaluate the distribution of shear stress by plotting dimensionless /w versus y/.
b) Evaluate the vertical component of velocity by plotting v/U versus y/ for Rex = 105.
c) Obtain an algebraic expression for the x component of the acceleration (ax) of a fluid
particle in the laminar boundary layer. Plot ax versus to determine the maximum x
component of acceleration at a given x.
1

U 2
a ) Similarity variable defined as: = y
n x
'
From Eq. (12): u = Uf ( )
1

u
U 2
=
=
shear stress
Uf "( )
n
x

1
1

2
2
U
U

=
Uf "( )
wall shear stress w =
0.332 U

n x
n x

=0

f "( )
=
w 0.332
where f "( ) is given for various in Blasius solution
From Blasius solution, u/U = 0.99 when = 5; that is: y = at = 5
y
=
Or
5

y/
Plot of /w
versus y/

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.0000

0.2000

0.4000

0.6000

0.8000

1.0000

1.2000

/w

nU 2
b) From
=
Eq.(13) : v
[ f ( ) f( ) ]
4x
v
1
=
[ f ( ) f( )]
U 2 Re x

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.0000000.0005000.0010000.0015000.0020000.0025000.003000

y/

v/U
u
u
+v
x
y
u u
from p. 47:
Subst. u, v from Eqns (12) & (13) and
,
x y
c) From Eq. (9), acceleration a x = u

U
nU 2
U 2
a x = Uf ( )
f '' ( ) +
[ f ( ) f( ) ] U f '' ( )
2 x
4x
n x
U 2
=
f( ) f '' ( )
2x
'

From graph max f( ) f '' ( ) =


0.23 at 3; and [ a x ]max = 0.115

f f

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

X
2

10

U2
x

Numerical result of shear stress, vertical velocity, and particle acceleration

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8

f
0
0.0415
0.1656
0.3701
0.65
0.9963
1.3968
1.8377
2.3057
2.7901
3.2833
3.7806
4.2796
4.7793
5.2792
5.7792
6.2792

f'
0
0.1659
0.3298
0.4868
0.6298
0.7513
0.846
0.913
0.9555
0.9795
0.9915
0.9969
0.999
0.9997
0.9999
1
1

y/
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

f''
0.3321
0.3309
0.323
0.3026
0.2668
0.2174
0.1614
0.1078
0.0642
0.034
0.0159
0.0066
0.0024
0.0008
0.0002
0.0001
0

/w
1.0003
0.9967
0.9729
0.9114
0.8036
0.6548
0.4861
0.3247
0.1934
0.1024
0.0479
0.0199
0.0072
0.0024
0.0006
0.0003
0.0000

v/U
0.000000
0.000066
0.000260
0.000569
0.000964
0.001394
0.001804
0.002147
0.002397
0.002558
0.002647
0.002692
0.002711
0.002718
0.002720
0.002721
0.002721

f f ''
0.0000
0.0137
0.0535
0.1120
0.1734
0.2166
0.2254
0.1981
0.1480
0.0949
0.0522
0.0250
0.0103
0.0038
0.0011
0.0006
0.0000

2. A thin flat plate, L = 0.25 m long and b = 1 m wide, is installed in a water tunnel as a splitter.
The freestream speed is U = 1.75 m/s, and the velocity profile in the boundary layer is given
by the Blasius solution. The kinematic viscosity of water is 10-6 m2/s. Evaluate the momentum
thickness L and the total drag on both sides.

UL 1.75 0.25
=
= 4.38 105
6
n
10
which justify assumption that the boundary layer is laminar for the entire length

Renolds number Re
=
L

Momentum thickness, from Eq. (17):

From Eq. (23): drag

0.664 0.25

0.664
Re x
= 0.251x103

4.38 10
D= r bU q = 103 11.752 0.251x103= 0.766 N
5

Total drag on both sides is 1.53 N

3. Assume laminar boundary-layer flow to estimate the drag on the


plate shown when it is placed parallel to a 7.5m/s air flow, with
kinematic viscosity n = 1.5 x 10-5 m2/s. The shape of the plate is
given by x = y2/25, where x and y are in cm.

shape of plate is x = y 2 / 25

( 25 / 2 )
length is L=

25

cm=6.25 cm =0.0625 m

UL 7.5 0.0625
=
= 3.125 x104
5
1.5 x 10
n
which justify assumption of laminar

Reynolds number Re
=
L

From Eq. (18), wall shear stress: w = 0.332U 3/ 2

r
x

Drag D = w w( x)dx

area

where plate width is found fron plate shape: w(x)= W


L

Drag D =

0.332U
0

3/2

r
x

x
L

x
dx
L

=0.332 U 3/2 r n W

1
L
0.332 r W n LU 3
[ x ]0 =
L

= 0.332 1.2 0.25 1.5 x 105 0.0625 7.53= 1.98 x103 N


Total drag for both sides = 3.96 x103 N

4. Assume laminar boundary-layer flow to estimate the drag (both sides) on four square plates
(each 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm) placed parallel to a 1 m/s
water flow, for the two configurations shown. Before
calculating, which configuration do you expect to
experience the lower drag? Assume that the plates
attached with string are far enough apart for wake
effects to be negligible and that the kinematic
viscosity of water is 10-6 m2/s.
Drag is much lower on composite plates compared to separate plates. This is because w is
largest near leading edges and falls off rapidly. In this problem, the separate plates experience
leading edges four times!

UL 1 0.075
=
= 0.75 105
6
n
10
which justify assumption that the boundary layer is laminar for the entire length

For separate plates, Reynolds number Re


=
L

For composite plates, Reynolds number R=


eL

UL 1 ( 4 x0.075 )
=
= 3 105
n
106

which is still laminar on all 4 plates


From Eq. (23) drag is related momentum thickness:
where from Eq. (17):

q
x

D = r bU 2q

0.664
Re x

For separate plates, q L on each plate is

qL =

0.664
0.664
0.075=0.182x10-3 m
L=
5
Re L
0.75 10

Drag
on each plate (one side) is: D r=
bU 2q = 1030.075 x12 0.182x10-3 13.65 x103 N
=
Total drag for 4 plates and both sides is: 8 13.65 x103 N =
0.109 N
For composite plates, q L on each plate is

qL =

0.664
0.664
L=
( 4 0.075)
Re L
4 0.75 105

= 2 0.182x10-3 m
Drag on composite plate (one side) is: D =
r bU 2q = 1030.075 x12 ( 2 0.182x10-3 ) =
2 13.65 x103 N
Total drag (both sides) is: 2 ( 2 13.65 x103 ) N =
0.054 N