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ME2135 Fluid Mechanics II

Part 2 External Incompressible Viscous Flow

Solution to Tutorial 2

1. The Blasius solution for laminar boundary layer flow on a flat plate is given as numerical

results in Table 3.1 of Prof Winotos Lecture Notes p. 45:

a) Evaluate the distribution of shear stress by plotting dimensionless /w versus y/.

b) Evaluate the vertical component of velocity by plotting v/U versus y/ for Rex = 105.

c) Obtain an algebraic expression for the x component of the acceleration (ax) of a fluid

particle in the laminar boundary layer. Plot ax versus to determine the maximum x

component of acceleration at a given x.

1

U 2

a ) Similarity variable defined as: = y

n x

'

From Eq. (12): u = Uf ( )

1

u

U 2

=

=

shear stress

Uf "( )

n

x

1

1

2

2

U

U

=

Uf "( )

wall shear stress w =

0.332 U

n x

n x

=0

f "( )

=

w 0.332

where f "( ) is given for various in Blasius solution

From Blasius solution, u/U = 0.99 when = 5; that is: y = at = 5

y

=

Or

5

y/

Plot of /w

versus y/

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.0000

0.2000

0.4000

0.6000

0.8000

1.0000

1.2000

/w

nU 2

b) From

=

Eq.(13) : v

[ f ( ) f( ) ]

4x

v

1

=

[ f ( ) f( )]

U 2 Re x

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.0000000.0005000.0010000.0015000.0020000.0025000.003000

y/

v/U

u

u

+v

x

y

u u

from p. 47:

Subst. u, v from Eqns (12) & (13) and

,

x y

c) From Eq. (9), acceleration a x = u

U

nU 2

U 2

a x = Uf ( )

f '' ( ) +

[ f ( ) f( ) ] U f '' ( )

2 x

4x

n x

U 2

=

f( ) f '' ( )

2x

'

0.23 at 3; and [ a x ]max = 0.115

f f

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0

X

2

10

U2

x

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

7

7.5

8

f

0

0.0415

0.1656

0.3701

0.65

0.9963

1.3968

1.8377

2.3057

2.7901

3.2833

3.7806

4.2796

4.7793

5.2792

5.7792

6.2792

f'

0

0.1659

0.3298

0.4868

0.6298

0.7513

0.846

0.913

0.9555

0.9795

0.9915

0.9969

0.999

0.9997

0.9999

1

1

y/

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

f''

0.3321

0.3309

0.323

0.3026

0.2668

0.2174

0.1614

0.1078

0.0642

0.034

0.0159

0.0066

0.0024

0.0008

0.0002

0.0001

0

/w

1.0003

0.9967

0.9729

0.9114

0.8036

0.6548

0.4861

0.3247

0.1934

0.1024

0.0479

0.0199

0.0072

0.0024

0.0006

0.0003

0.0000

v/U

0.000000

0.000066

0.000260

0.000569

0.000964

0.001394

0.001804

0.002147

0.002397

0.002558

0.002647

0.002692

0.002711

0.002718

0.002720

0.002721

0.002721

f f ''

0.0000

0.0137

0.0535

0.1120

0.1734

0.2166

0.2254

0.1981

0.1480

0.0949

0.0522

0.0250

0.0103

0.0038

0.0011

0.0006

0.0000

2. A thin flat plate, L = 0.25 m long and b = 1 m wide, is installed in a water tunnel as a splitter.

The freestream speed is U = 1.75 m/s, and the velocity profile in the boundary layer is given

by the Blasius solution. The kinematic viscosity of water is 10-6 m2/s. Evaluate the momentum

thickness L and the total drag on both sides.

UL 1.75 0.25

=

= 4.38 105

6

n

10

which justify assumption that the boundary layer is laminar for the entire length

Renolds number Re

=

L

0.664 0.25

0.664

Re x

= 0.251x103

4.38 10

D= r bU q = 103 11.752 0.251x103= 0.766 N

5

plate shown when it is placed parallel to a 7.5m/s air flow, with

kinematic viscosity n = 1.5 x 10-5 m2/s. The shape of the plate is

given by x = y2/25, where x and y are in cm.

shape of plate is x = y 2 / 25

( 25 / 2 )

length is L=

25

cm=6.25 cm =0.0625 m

UL 7.5 0.0625

=

= 3.125 x104

5

1.5 x 10

n

which justify assumption of laminar

Reynolds number Re

=

L

r

x

Drag D = w w( x)dx

area

L

Drag D =

0.332U

0

3/2

r

x

x

L

x

dx

L

=0.332 U 3/2 r n W

1

L

0.332 r W n LU 3

[ x ]0 =

L

Total drag for both sides = 3.96 x103 N

4. Assume laminar boundary-layer flow to estimate the drag (both sides) on four square plates

(each 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm) placed parallel to a 1 m/s

water flow, for the two configurations shown. Before

calculating, which configuration do you expect to

experience the lower drag? Assume that the plates

attached with string are far enough apart for wake

effects to be negligible and that the kinematic

viscosity of water is 10-6 m2/s.

Drag is much lower on composite plates compared to separate plates. This is because w is

largest near leading edges and falls off rapidly. In this problem, the separate plates experience

leading edges four times!

UL 1 0.075

=

= 0.75 105

6

n

10

which justify assumption that the boundary layer is laminar for the entire length

=

L

eL

UL 1 ( 4 x0.075 )

=

= 3 105

n

106

From Eq. (23) drag is related momentum thickness:

where from Eq. (17):

q

x

D = r bU 2q

0.664

Re x

qL =

0.664

0.664

0.075=0.182x10-3 m

L=

5

Re L

0.75 10

Drag

on each plate (one side) is: D r=

bU 2q = 1030.075 x12 0.182x10-3 13.65 x103 N

=

Total drag for 4 plates and both sides is: 8 13.65 x103 N =

0.109 N

For composite plates, q L on each plate is

qL =

0.664

0.664

L=

( 4 0.075)

Re L

4 0.75 105

= 2 0.182x10-3 m

Drag on composite plate (one side) is: D =

r bU 2q = 1030.075 x12 ( 2 0.182x10-3 ) =

2 13.65 x103 N

Total drag (both sides) is: 2 ( 2 13.65 x103 ) N =

0.054 N

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