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R. Khabibullin, M. Khasanov, A. Brusilovsky, A. Odegov, and D. Serebryakova, Gazpromneft NTC; V. Krasnov,

Rosneft

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Moscow, Russia,

14 16 October 2014.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents

of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect

any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written

consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may

not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract

This paper attempts to provide engineer with GOR PVT correlation selection rules. Rules based on

comparison of standard PVT correlations with calculations based on Equation of State, which believed to

have wider applicability range and be more general from physical point of view.

To make that comparison synthetic oils data bank where generated. Ranges for synthetic oils properties

were chosen to cover all the real oils of interest (mainly from Western Siberia). All synthetic oils where

analyzed using Peng Robinson equation of state with shift parameter and widely spread PVT correlations.

Results provided as GOR PVT correlation Applicably Maps and New Procedure calculation GOR by

selected PVT correlation. Result was checked during PVT study of few Western Siberia oil fields.

Introduction

Correct PVT properties have critical importance for engineering calculations and decision-making on all

stages of oil field life. However, often comprehensive PVT data unavailable or inconsistent for specific

conditions.

Common practice in a lack or unavailability of PVT measurements for the entire range of pressure and

temperature has been the use of PVT correlations. Correlations provide qualitatively correct description

of the basic properties of oil, but require adjustment to specific fields.

There are a number of PVT correlations. They build for different oil fields and regions. Nevertheless,

often ranges of initial parameters for different correlation intersecting and correlations shows similar

results for similar input data. This lead to situation for ordinary oil fields then PVT correlation selection

do not influence on calculation results much. As a result, engineers often do not pay attention to

correlation selection and use default software options. This approach, applied to more complex fields, for

example with high GOR, can lead to sufficiently incorrect results. At the same time, there is no wide

spread rules for PVT correlation selection for wide range of conditions.

This paper attempts to provide engineer with GOR PVT correlation selection rules.

The paper is organized as follows. The section 2 describes the basic methods for PVT-properties

estimation by using Black oil (correlations) and composition model (Equations of State). The section

3 focuses upon solution gas-oil ratio at the pressure below bubble-point. There is review of correlation for

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 1Relations: Pressure - Gas-Oil Ratio and Pressure - Oil Formation Volume Factor

Figure 2Bubble-point pressure (a) and oil formation volume factor at the bubble-point pressure (b), calculated by by EoS without adaption,

compare favorably with measured data (69 data points).

GOR and real oil tends in 3 section. In the section 4 GOR PVT correlation Applicable Maps are derived.

The section 5 gives New Procedure calculation GOR by selected PVT correlation using Applicable Maps.

There are examples of calculating GOR by given New Approach in the 5 section.

Oil PVT properties are:

Pb bubble-point pressure

Rsb, Rs (P) solution gas-oil ratio at the bubble-point pressure and below

Bob, Bo (P) oil formation volume factor at the bubble-point pressure and below

1. Black oil (two pseudocomponents: gas, liquid; calculation by PVT correlations)

2. Composition model (the oil composition is specified; calculation by Equations of State, EoS)

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 3Relations Pressure - Gas-Oil Ratio from different correlations in in the coordinates: Pressure, MPa - Gas-Oil Ratio, Sm3/m3 (fig. a) and

Pressure/Bubble-Point Pressure - Gas-Oil Ratio/Gas-Oil Ratio at the bubble-point pressure (fig. b).

1. PVT correlations are required minimum data

2. The calculation by correlations takes less time then the calculation by EoS

For bubble-point pressure Pb and oil formation volume factor Bob correlations initial data usually is

following:

T - temperature

g - gas specific gravity (air1)

o - oil specific gravity

Rsb solution gas-oil ratio at the bubble-point pressure

Rearranged bubble-point pressure correlation Pb f(o,g, T, Rsb) usually is used for calculation

Gas-Oil Ratio below bubble-point pressure Rs(P)i.e.:

And oil formation volume factor at the pressure below bubble-point:

SPE-171241-MS

pressure and oil formation volume factor at the

bubble-point pressure were calculated with the varT r, K

300-390

ious correlations. Ranges of data and calculation

0

0.76-0.91

g

0.55-1.13

results are in Appendix A.

Pb, MPa

1 60

Creating adequate PVT-model of natural hydroRsb, Sm3/m3

8-400

carbon system is requied adaptation to the laboratory results, among which bubble-point pressure

and oil formation volume factor (Brusilovsky,

2004). The equation of state (EoS) has a lot of configurable parameters (critical pressure and critical

temperature, acentric factor of fractions C7, binary interaction coefficients, etc.). Without adaption

deviations of bubble-point pressure and oil formation volume factor may be recieved. For example see

figures 2 and Apendix A as results calculation bubble-point pressure and oil formation volume factor (for

69 real data set) without adaption by EoS Three-parameter Peng-Robinson at the following parameters:

Kesler-Lee correlations for critical pressure, critical temperature and acentric factor of fractions C7,

binary interaction coefficients by Katz-Firoozabadi.

Thus calculation bubble-point pressure and oil formation volume factor by EoS for synthetic oils data

bank have no practical value. However trend of solution gas-oil ratio at the pressure below bubble-point

may be analyzed by using EoS. Solution gas-oil ratio is required for calculation by correlation oil

formation volume factor at the pressure below bubble-point. The gas-oil ratio at the pressure below

bubble-point is very important parameter in oil production. For example, it is limiting factor for oil

extraction by ESP. For these reasons Solution gas-oil ratio is considered in the following.

Table 1Ranges PVT-properties of oils from Synthetic oils data bank

Parameter

A review PVT correlation for GOR

Widely spread approache for calculation Gas-Oil Ratio Rs(P) is derived from rearranging a bubble-point

pressure correlation Pb f(o,g, T, Rsb).

A lot of correlations for bubble-point pressure have the following form:

where

For the first time this form was proposed by Standing (1947).

But other bubble-point pressure correlation forms exist. For example correlation of Lasater (1958),

Glaso (1980), Al-Marhoun (1992) and other.

Cardinally other approache for calculation Gas-Oil Ratio Rs(P) was proposed Velarde, Blasingame &

McCain (1997):

where

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 5Applicable Maps for GOR PVT-correlation. Various cases of oil type: a paraffinic oils, b-d naphtenic, e aromatic (division by criterion

Kw). Tr360 K, C2<C3

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 6 Applicable Maps for GOR PVT-correlation. Various cases of reservoir temperature and relationship C2-C3. Kw11.75

SPE-171241-MS

Parameter

Ex. 1

Ex. 2

Ex. 3

Ex. 4

Ex. 5

Ex. 6

Ex. 7

Tr , K

0

g

Pb, MPa

Rsb, Sm3/m3

Selected correlation(s)

312

0.87

0.58

8.1

30

Gl, V, St

323

0.88

0.57

12.4

41

Gl, V, St

329

0.88

0.71

10.5

42

Gl

371

0.80

0.98

14.7

165

V

357

0.83

0.91

21.5

238

V

363

0.84

0.81

30

244

V, Gl, St

366

0.82

0.79

30.5

356

Gl, St, V

Rs at the P13.5 MPa. From EoS: Rs 152.0 Sm3/m3

Before

Standing

Glaso

Velarde, Blasingame & McCain

After

Rs, Sm3/m3

Eror, %

Rs, Sm3/m3

Error, %

137.2

116.3

145.0

-10

-23

-5

149.0

149.1

152.6

-2

-2

0

So for one given composition o, g, T, Rsb may be received difference GOR-curved using different

correlations (see fig. 3a).

Types of Solution Gas-Oil Ratio curves for real oils

Different reservoir oils below the bubble-point differ character of relative gas evolution. This fact was

observed by Cronquist (1972), Namiot (1976). Types of Solution Gas-Oil Ratio curves for real oils are on

the figure 4.

Comparison of Solution Gas-Oil Ratio curves

Analize of Solution Gas-Oil Ratio curves is not clearly because real bubble point of reservoir oil and

calculated by any correlation often differ (fig. 3a). For this reason conversion curves to relative

coordinates (P/Pb,Rs/Rsb) is possible way for further omparison of curves. Examples see fig. 3b.

Comparison of curves in relative coordinates led to the conclusion to review only corelations of

Standing, Glaso and Velarde, Blasingame & McCain in this work.

Area of the figures W between curves is calculated for accurate comparison of curves in relative

coordinates. Area of the figures W is calculated by trapezium method. Thus the different correlations may

be compared with other data, for example real data from the labs. In this work, correlations were compared

with calculations based on Equation of State.

Creating Maps

For creating Applicable Maps for GOR PVT-correlation the following work was done:

1. Synthetic oils data bank was created by generation different molar compositions Zi, C7 properties

and reservoir temperature. Ranges for synthetic oils properties were chosen to cover all the real

oils of interest (mainly oil fields from Western Siberia).

2. All synthetic oils were analyzed using Peng Robinson equation of state (EoS) with shift parameter.

As a result o, g, Rsb, Rs(P) were received. Ranges of received PVT-properties see table 1.

3. Then for all synthetic oils solution GOR curves Rs(P) were formed using widely spread PVT

correlations: Standing(1947), Glaso(1980), Velarde, Blasingame & McCain (1997)

4. Solution GOR curves Rs(P) from EoS (Constant Composition Expansion at reservoir temperature

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 7Estimate solution gas-oil ratios by correlations before and after using New Approach.

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 8 Estimate solution gas-oil ratios by correlations before and after using New Approach.

10

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 9 Estimate solution gas-oil ratios by correlations before and after using New Approach.

were calculated) and from correlations were transformerd to relative coordinates (P/Pb, Rs/Rsb).

Area of the figures W was calculated for each pair EoS-correlation curves.

5. In different ranges of g and Rsb best correlations were choosen by relying W calculation results

(correlation is considerd as the best then its W is the lowest among others. Correlation is

considered as applicable in case its W less then 0.045. If all correlations have W more then 0.045

select correlation with the lowest among others. In case of other correlation doesnt exceed 20%

W of the best correlation it is considerd as applicable too). Examples of calculation results W see

figure 11.

Results

Results calculation for synthetic oils data bank can be provided as Applicable Maps for GOR PVTcorrelation. See fig. 5-6.

New Approach for GOR estimation by using Applicable Maps for PVT

correlation

Procedure calculation

We recommend next algorithm for estimate solution gas-oil ratio Rs(P) of reservoir oil at the pressure P

below bubble point pressure Pb:

Step 1. In accordance with T, g and Rsb (Kw and C2-C3-ratio in some case) select PVT correlation

using Applicably Maps (fig. 5-6).

Step 2. By selected correlation calculate Pbcorrf(o,g,T,Rsb)

Step 3. Calculate

Step 4. By selected correlation calculate Rs(P)f(o,g,T,P=)

Examples of Use

New Approach were cheked during 77 data set from real data bank (Western Siberia oil fields) and brief

information are in Appendix B. Results confirmed adequacy of New Approach.

See examples.

Consider Example 4 in detail.

Calculate Rs at the P 13.5 MPa

1. At The Applicably Maps for T 360 K find point Rsb 165 Sm3/m3 and g 0.98. Select

SPE-171241-MS

11

2. For this selected GOR correlation calculate Pbcorr using Valko and McCain(2003) correlation:

Pbcorr 15.5 MPa

3. Calculate

4. By Velarde, Blasingame & McCain (1997) correlation at the P= 14.3 MPa: Rs 152.6 Sm3/m3

Results calculation for this example 4 with using introduced New Approach see table 3 and figure 8b.

Results calculation for other examples see figures 7-9.

Conclusion

The paper proposes the New Approach for GOR estimation by using widely spread PVT correlations.

Applicable Maps for GOR PVT-correlations were provided. The applicability of correlation depends on

gas specific gravity, solution gas-oil ratio at bubble-point pressure, temperature, oil type (paraffinic,

naphtenic, aromatic), C2-C3-ratio.

New Approach was checked during PVT study of 77 Western Siberia oil fields. 7 examples of usage

the New Approach are described.

Nomenclature

Bob, Bo(P) oil formation volume factor at bubble-point pressure and below

GOR

gas-oil ratio

P

pressure

bubble-point pressure

Pb

Rsb, Rs(P) solution gas-oil ratio at bubble-point pressure and below

T

temperature

g

gas specific gravity (air1)

o

oil specific gravity

Whatson factor

Kw

C2

molar fraction of C2H6 in reservoir oil composition

C3

molar fraction of C3H8 in reservoir oil composition

EoS

Equation of State

References

Al-Marhoun, M.A.: New Correlations For Formation Volume Factors of Oil And Gas Mixtures, J.

Cdn. Pet. Tech. (March 1992) 22.

Al-Shammasi, A.A.: A Review of Bubblepoint Pressure and Oil Formation Volume Factor Correlations, SPEREE (April 2001) 146.

Brusilovsky A.I. 2004. Methodology of equation of state application for modeling of gas condensate

mixtures. Gazovaya promyshlennost, 4: 16 19

Chapman Cronquist Dimensionless PVT Behavior of Gulf Coast Reservoir Oils, J.Pet. (May 1973)

De Ghetto, G., Paone, F., and Villa, M.: Pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlations for Heavy and

Extra Heavy Oils, paper SPE 30316 presented at the 1995 SPE International Heavy Oil Symposium,

Calgary, 19 21 June.

Glaso O. Generalized pressure-volume-temperature correlations, J.Pet. Tech., pp 785795 (May

1980)

Kartoatmodjo, R.S.T. and Schmidt Z.: Large Data Bank Improves Crude Physical Property Correlations, Oil and Gas J. (4 July 1994) 51.

Khairy, M., El-Tayeb, S., and Hamdallah, M.: PVT Correlations Developed for Egyptian Crudes,

Oil and Gas J. (4 May 1998) 114

12

SPE-171241-MS

Labedi, R.M.: Use of Production Data To Estimate The Saturation Pressure, Solution GOR and

Chemical Composition of Reservoir Fluids, paper SPE 21164 presented at the 1990 SPE Latin American

Petroleum Engineering Conference, Rio De Janeiro

Larry W. Lake Petroleum Engineering Handbook.L John R. Fanchi. General Engineering. Richardson, Texas: SPE, 2006

Lasater, J.A.: Bubble Point Pressure Correlation, Trans., AIME (1958) 213, 379.

Levitan, L.L. and Murtha, M.: New Correlations Estimate Pb, FVF, Oil and Gas J. (March 1999)

Macary, S.M. and El-Batanoney, M.H.: Derivation of PVT Correlations for the Gulf of Suez Crude

Oils, Proc., 1992 EGPC Petroleum Exploration and Production Conference (1992) 374.

W.D. McCain, Jr. The Properties of Petroleum Fluids. 2-nd Edition. - Tulsa, Oklahoma: PennWell

Publishing Company, 1990, 551 .

Standing, M.B.: Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Hydrocarbon Systems, ninth edition, SPE,

Dallas (1981).

Namiot A.Y. Phase conversions in the development of oil and gas fields, M. Nedra. 1976

Petrosky, G.E. Jr. and Farshad, F.F.: Pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlations For Gulf of Mexico

Crude Oils, SPEREE (October 1998) 416.

Standing, M.B.: A Pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlation For Mixtures of California Oils and

Gases, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API (1947) 275.

Valko P.P. and McCain W.D., Reservoir Oil Bubblepoint Pressures revisited; solution gas/oil ratios

and surface gas specific gravities, J. Pet. Sc. Eng., 37 pp 153169 (2003)

Vazquez, M.E. and Beggs, H.D.: Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Prediction, JPT (June

1980)

Velarde, J., Blasingame, T.A., and McCain, W.D. Jr.: Correlation of Black Oil Properties At

Pressures Below Bubble Point PressureA New Approach, paper 97-93 presented at 1997 Annual CIM

Petroleum Soc. Technical Meeting, Calgary, 8 11 June

C.H. Whitson and M.R. Brul;. Phase Behavior, first edition, - Richardson, Texas: SPE, 2000

SPE-171241-MS

13

Appendix A

Results calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure and Oil Formation Volume Factor for real oils data bank

Pb, Mba

T, K

0

Rsb, Sm3/m3

g

Bob

Min

Avr

Max

3,0

289

0,772

16

0,56

1,03

15,8

354

0,841

127

0,78

1,41

34,2

393

0,945

401

1,10

2,64

Figure 10 Oil formation volume factor at the bubble-point pressure (a) and bubble-point pressure (b), calculated by correlations, compare favorably

with measured data (389 data points).

14

SPE-171241-MS

data set

ARE, %

STD, %

AARE, %

3,56

-6,56

11,71

18,70

-5,39

-2,70

13,34

20,45

13,82

6,35

12,29

17,10

19,25

10,59

15,28

1,89

25,91

5,42

11,05

16,43

8,39

4,07

8,41

5,15

17,61

17,32

20,32

25,73

16,25

20,45

25,04

31,88

36,35

16,19

22,58

24,22

27,30

22,65

25,74

17,50

33,33

22,30

21,95

25,55

20,34

22,06

22,24

19,62

11,82

13,24

15,35

20,31

13,29

15,25

17,43

25,69

26,20

12,39

17,38

20,23

21,01

14,98

19,15

12,94

27,17

17,78

17,43

21,47

13,95

16,87

16,60

13,46

ARE, %

STD, %

AARE, %

1,27

-0,98

0,34

0,13

0,38

0,06

-2,69

0,91

0,61

10,62

1,06

3,28

0,44

0,46

-2,56

3,60

3,27

3,36

3,48

3,16

4,49

7,52

3,20

3,26

11,81

4,02

6,44

4,17

3,80

5,59

2,14

2,22

2,32

2,44

2,14

3,28

5,46

2,10

2,28

10,62

2,97

4,56

2,35

2,49

3,91

Standing (1947)

De Ghetto & Villa (1994) -1

De Ghetto & Villa (1994) -2

GlasO (1980) -1

GlasO (1980) -2

Kartoatmojo and Schmidt (1991) -1

Kartoatmojo and Schmidt (1991) -2

Al-Marhoun (1992)

De Ghetto & Villa (1994) -3

Valko and McCain (2003)

Velarde, Blasingame & McCain (1997)

Lasater (1958)

Vasquez & Beggs (1980) -1

Vasquez & Beggs (1980) -2

Petrosky & Farshad (1993)

Al-Shammasi (1999)

Labedi (1990) (mod. Standing)

Labedi (1990)

Dindoruk and Christman (2001)

Hanafy and Macary (1997)

Levitan and Murtha (1999)

Khairy, El-Tayeb and Hamdallah (1998)

Dokla and Osman (1990)

Three-parameter Peng-Robinson, Kesler-Lee correlations for

critical pressure, critical temperature and acentric factor

of fractions C7, binary interaction coefficients by

Katz-Firoozabadi

data set

Standing (1947)

GlasO (1980)

Kartoatmojo and Schmidt (1991)

Al-Marhoun (1988)

Al-Marhoun (1992)

Vasquez & Beggs (1980) -1

Vasquez & Beggs (1980) -2

Petrosky & Farshad (1993)

Al-Shammasi (1999)

Hanafy and Macary (1997)

Levitan and Murtha (1999)

Khairy, El-Tayeb and Hamdallah (1998)

Dindoruk and Christman (2001)

Dokla and Osman(1990)

Three-parameter Peng-Robinson, Kesler-Lee correlations for

critical pressure, critical temperature and acentric factor

of fractions C7, binary interaction coefficients by

Katz-Firoozabadi

SPE-171241-MS

15

Appendix B

Some results received during creating Applicable Maps for GOR PVT-correlation

Figure 11Example calculation results W for case 360 K, C2 < C3, Kw 11.75 (fig.6 c).

16

SPE-171241-MS

Figure 12Results of check-up calculation for 77 oils from real data bank by New Approach

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